Get Our Extension

RAND Corporation

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
RAND Corporation
PredecessorIndividuals of Douglas Aircraft Company
FormationMay 14, 1948; 74 years ago (1948-05-14)
FoundersHenry H. "Hap" Arnold
Donald Douglas
Curtis LeMay
TypeGlobal policy think tank[1]
95-1958142
Legal statusNon-profit corporation
PurposePolicy analysis
HeadquartersSanta Monica, California, U.S.
Coordinates34°00′35″N 118°29′26″W / 34.009599°N 118.490670°W / 34.009599; -118.490670Coordinates: 34°00′35″N 118°29′26″W / 34.009599°N 118.490670°W / 34.009599; -118.490670
Region
Worldwide
President and CEO
Jason Gaverick Matheny[2]
RAND Leadership
Jennifer Gould
Andrew R. Hoehn
Winfield A. Boerckel
Allison Elder
Mike Januzik
Susan L. Marquis
Eric Peltz
Brandon Baker
Melissa Rowe
Robert M. Case[2]
President, RAND Europe
Hans Pung[2]
Bonnie G. Hill
Joel Z. Hyatt
Paul G. Kaminski
Ann McLaughlin Korologos
Philip Lader
Peter Lowy
Michael Lynton
Ronald L. Olson
Mary E. Peters
David L. Porges
Donald B. Rice
Michael D. Rich
Hector Ruiz
Leonard D. Schaeffer[3]
SubsidiariesRAND Europe
Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School
AffiliationsIndependent
Revenue (2014)
Increase$351.7 million[4]
DisbursementsNumerous
ExpensesIncrease$340.4 million[4]
Endowment$267.7 million (2020)[5]
Staff (2015)
1,700[6]
Websitewww.rand.org

The RAND Corporation (from the phrase "research and development")[7] is an American nonprofit global policy think tank[1] created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces. It is financed by the U.S. government and private endowment,[6] corporations,[8] universities[8] and private individuals.[8]

The company assists other governments, international organizations, private companies and foundations with a host of defense and non-defense issues, including healthcare. RAND aims for interdisciplinary and quantitative problem solving by translating theoretical concepts from formal economics and the physical sciences into novel applications in other areas, using applied science and operations research.

Discover more about RAND Corporation related topics

Think tank

Think tank

A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture. Most think tanks are non-governmental organizations, but some are semi-autonomous agencies within government or are associated with particular political parties, businesses or the military. Think-tank funding often includes a combination of donations from very wealthy people and those not so wealthy, with many also accepting government grants.

Douglas Aircraft Company

Douglas Aircraft Company

The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer based in Southern California. It was founded in 1921 by Donald Wills Douglas Sr. and later merged with McDonnell Aircraft in 1967 to form McDonnell Douglas; it then operated as a division of McDonnell Douglas. McDonnell Douglas later merged with Boeing in 1997.

United States Armed Forces

United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. The armed forces consists of six service branches: the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Space Force, and Coast Guard. The president of the United States is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All six armed services are among the eight uniformed services of the United States.

Federal government of the United States

Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a federal republic located primarily in North America, composed of 50 states, a city within a federal district, five major self-governing territories and several island possessions. The federal government, sometimes simply referred to as Washington, is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the president and the federal courts, respectively. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts of Congress, including the creation of executive departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court.

Financial endowment

Financial endowment

A financial endowment is a legal structure for managing, and in many cases indefinitely perpetuating, a pool of financial, real estate, or other investments for a specific purpose according to the will of its founders and donors. Endowments are often structured so that the inflation-adjusted principal or "corpus" value is kept intact, while a portion of the fund can be spent each year, utilizing a prudent spending policy.

University

University

A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in several academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. In the United States, the designation is reserved for colleges that have a graduate school.

Theory

Theory

A theory is a rational type of abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observational study or research. Theories may be scientific, belong to a non-scientific discipline, or no discipline at all. Depending on the context, a theory's assertions might, for example, include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern use it has taken on several related meanings.

Economics

Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Outline of physical science

Outline of physical science

Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences".

Applied science

Applied science

Applied science is the use of the scientific method and knowledge obtained via conclusions from the method to attain practical goals. It includes a broad range of disciplines such as engineering and medicine. Applied science is often contrasted with basic science, which is focused on advancing scientific theories and laws that explain and predict events in the natural world.

Operations research

Operations research

Operations research, often shortened to the initialism OR, is a discipline that deals with the development and application of analytical methods to improve decision-making. It is considered to be a subfield of mathematical sciences. The term management science is occasionally used as a synonym.

Overview

RAND has approximately 1,850 employees. Its American locations include: Santa Monica, California (headquarters); Arlington, Virginia; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Boston, Massachusetts.[9] The RAND Gulf States Policy Institute has an office in New Orleans, Louisiana. RAND Europe is located in Cambridge, United Kingdom, and Brussels, Belgium.[10] RAND Australia is located in Canberra, Australia.[11]

RAND is home to the Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School, one of eight original graduate programs in public policy and the first to offer a PhD. The program aims to provide practical experience for its students, who work with RAND analysts on real-world problems. The campus is at RAND's Santa Monica research facility. The Pardee RAND School is the world's largest PhD-granting program in policy analysis.[12]

Unlike many other universities, all Pardee RAND Graduate School students receive fellowships to cover their education costs. This allows them to dedicate their time to engage in research projects and provides them on-the-job training.[12] RAND also offers a number of internship and fellowship programs allowing students and outsiders to assist in conducting research for RAND projects. Most of these projects are short-term and are worked on independently with the mentoring of a RAND staff member.[13]

RAND publishes the RAND Journal of Economics, a peer-reviewed journal of economics.

Thirty-two recipients of the Nobel Prize, primarily in the fields of economics and physics, have been associated with RAND at some point in their career.[14][15]

Discover more about Overview related topics

Boston

Boston

Boston, officially the City of Boston, is the state capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the cultural and financial center of the New England region of the United States. It is the 24th-most populous city in the country. The city boundaries encompass an area of about 48.4 sq mi (125 km2) and a population of 675,647 as of 2020. It is the seat of Suffolk County. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest MSA in the country. A broader combined statistical area (CSA), generally corresponding to the commuting area and including Providence, Rhode Island, is home to approximately 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts

Massachusetts, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the Northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Maine to the east, Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state's capital and most populous city, as well as its cultural and financial center, is Boston. Massachusetts is also home to the urban core of Greater Boston, the largest metropolitan area in New England and a region profoundly influential upon American history, academia, and the research economy, Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing, and trade. Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.

New Orleans

New Orleans

New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U.S. state of Louisiana. With a population of 383,997 according to the 2020 U.S. census, it is the most populous city in Louisiana and the twelfth-most populous city in the Southeastern United States. Serving as a major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States.

Louisiana

Louisiana

Louisiana is a state in the Deep South and South Central regions of the United States. It is the 20th-smallest by area and the 25th most populous of the 50 U.S. states. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U.S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are equivalent to counties, making it one of only two U.S. states not subdivided into counties. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, and its largest city is New Orleans, with a population of roughly 383,000 people.

Cambridge

Cambridge

Cambridge is a university city and the county town in Cambridgeshire, England. It is located on the River Cam approximately 55 miles (89 km) north of London. As of the 2021 United Kingdom census, the population of Cambridge was 145,700. Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, and there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although modern city status was not officially conferred until 1951.

Brussels

Brussels

Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated region in Belgium, and although it has the highest GDP per capita, it has the lowest available income per household. It covers 162 km2 (63 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of over 1.2 million. The five times larger metropolitan area of Brussels comprises over 2.5 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.

Belgium

Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Northwestern Europe. The country is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest. It covers an area of 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi) and has a population of more than 11.5 million, making it the 22nd most densely populated country in the world and the 6th most densely populated country in Europe, with a density of 376 per square kilometre (970/sq mi). The capital and largest city is Brussels; other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi, Liège, Bruges, Namur, and Leuven.

Canberra

Canberra

Canberra is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory at the northern tip of the Australian Alps, the country's highest mountain range. As of June 2021, Canberra's estimated population was 453,558.

Australia

Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi), Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School

Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School

The Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School is a private graduate school associated with the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California. The school offers doctoral studies in policy analysis and practical experience working on RAND research projects to solve current public policy problems. Its campus is co-located with the RAND Corporation and most of the faculty is drawn from the 950 researchers at RAND. The 2018–19 student body includes 116 men and women from 26 countries around the world.

Doctor of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a dissertation, and defend their work before a panel of other experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.

Nobel Prize

Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prizes are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind." Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist most famously known for the invention of dynamite. He died in 1896. In his will, he bequeathed all of his "remaining realisable assets" to be used to establish five prizes which became known as "Nobel Prizes." Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901.

History

Project RAND

RAND was created after individuals in the War Department, the Office of Scientific Research and Development, and industry began to discuss the need for a private organization to connect operational research with research and development decisions.[13] The immediate impetus for the creation of RAND was a fateful conversation in September 1945 between General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold and Douglas executive Franklin R. Collbohm.[16] Both men were deeply worried that ongoing demobilization meant the federal government was about to lose direct control of the vast amount of American scientific brainpower assembled to fight World War II.[16]

As soon as Arnold realized Collbohm had been thinking along similar lines, he said, "I know just what you're going to tell me. It's the most important thing we can do."[17] With Arnold's blessing, Collbohm quickly pulled in additional people from Douglas to help, and together with Donald Douglas, they convened with Arnold two days later at Hamilton Army Airfield to sketch out a general outline for Collbohm's proposed project.[17]

Douglas engineer Arthur Emmons Raymond came up with the name Project RAND, from "research and development".[7] Collbohm suggested that he himself should serve as the project's first director, which he thought would be a temporary position while he searched for a permanent replacement for himself.[7] He later became RAND's first president and served in that capacity until his retirement in 1967.[18]

On 1 October 1945, Project RAND was set up under special contract to the Douglas Aircraft Company and began operations in December 1945.[13][19] In May 1946, the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship was released.

RAND Corporation

By late 1947, Douglas had expressed their concerns that their close relationship with RAND might create conflict of interest problems on future hardware contracts. In February 1948, the chief of staff of the newly created United States Air Force approved the evolution of Project RAND into a nonprofit corporation, independent of Douglas.[13]

On 14 May 1948, RAND was incorporated as a nonprofit corporation under the laws of the State of California and on 1 November 1948, the Project RAND contract was formally transferred from the Douglas Aircraft Company to the RAND Corporation.[13] Initial capital for the spin-off was provided by the Ford Foundation.

Since the 1950s, RAND research has helped inform United States policy decisions on a wide variety of issues, including the space race, the U.S.-Soviet nuclear arms confrontation, the creation of the Great Society social welfare programs, the digital revolution, and national health care.[20]

Its most visible contribution may be the doctrine of nuclear deterrence by mutually assured destruction (MAD), developed under the guidance of then-Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and based upon their work with game theory.[21] Chief strategist Herman Kahn also posited the idea of a "winnable" nuclear exchange in his 1960 book On Thermonuclear War. This led to Kahn being one of the models for the titular character of the film Dr. Strangelove, in which RAND is spoofed as the "BLAND Corporation".[22][23]

Even in the late 1940s and early 1950s, long before Sputnik, the RAND project was secretly recommending to the US government a major effort to design a man-made satellite that would take photographs from space—and the rockets to put such a satellite in orbit.[24]

Discover more about History related topics

Office of Scientific Research and Development

Office of Scientific Research and Development

The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II. Arrangements were made for its creation during May 1941, and it was created formally by Executive Order 8807 on June 28, 1941. It superseded the work of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), was given almost unlimited access to funding and resources, and was directed by Vannevar Bush, who reported only to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

Henry H. Arnold

Henry H. Arnold

Henry Harley Arnold was an American general officer holding the ranks of General of the Army and later, General of the Air Force. Arnold was an aviation pioneer, Chief of the Air Corps (1938–1941), commanding general of the United States Army Air Forces, the only United States Air Force general to hold five-star rank, and the only officer to hold a five-star rank in two different U.S. military services. Arnold was also the founder of Project RAND, which evolved into one of the world's largest non-profit global policy think tanks, the RAND Corporation, and was one of the founders of Pan American World Airways.

Demobilization of United States armed forces after World War II

Demobilization of United States armed forces after World War II

The Demobilization of United States armed forces after the Second World War began with the defeat of Germany in May 1945 and continued through 1946. The United States had more than 12 million men and women in the armed forces at the end of World War II, of whom 7.6 million were stationed abroad. The American public demanded a rapid demobilization and soldiers protested the slowness of the process. Military personnel were returned to the United States in Operation Magic Carpet. By June 30, 1947, the number of active duty soldiers, sailors, Marines, and airmen in the armed forces had been reduced to 1,566,000.

Donald Wills Douglas Sr.

Donald Wills Douglas Sr.

Donald Wills Douglas Sr. was an American aircraft industrialist and engineer.

Hamilton Army Airfield

Hamilton Army Airfield

Hamilton Field was a United States Air Force base, which was inactivated in 1973, decommissioned in 1974, and put into a caretaker status with the Air Force Reserves until 1976. It was transferred to the United States Army in 1983 and was designated an Army Airfield until its BRAC closure in 1988. It is located along the western shore of San Pablo Bay in the southern portion of Novato, in Marin County, California.

Arthur Emmons Raymond

Arthur Emmons Raymond

Arthur Emmons Raymond was an aeronautical engineer who led the team that designed the DC-3.

Conflict of interest

Conflict of interest

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another. Typically, this relates to situations in which the personal interest of an individual or organization might adversely affect a duty owed to make decisions for the benefit of a third party.

Ford Foundation

Ford Foundation

The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation with the stated goal of advancing human welfare. Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford and his father Henry Ford, it was originally funded by a US$25,000 gift from Edsel Ford. By 1947, after the death of the two founders, the foundation owned 90% of the non-voting shares of the Ford Motor Company. Between 1955 and 1974, the foundation sold its Ford Motor Company holdings and now plays no role in the automobile company.

Great Society

Great Society

The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65. The term was first coined during a 1964 commencement address by President Lyndon B. Johnson at the University of Michigan and came to represent his domestic agenda. The main goal was the total elimination of poverty and racial injustice.

Game theory

Game theory

Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interactions among rational agents. It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in logic, systems science and computer science. Originally, it addressed two-person zero-sum games, in which each participant's gains or losses are exactly balanced by those of other participants. In the 21st century, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations; it is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, as well as computers.

Herman Kahn

Herman Kahn

Herman Kahn was a founder of the Hudson Institute and one of the preeminent futurists of the latter part of the twentieth century. He originally came to prominence as a military strategist and systems theorist while employed at the RAND Corporation. He became known for analyzing the likely consequences of nuclear war and recommending ways to improve survivability, making him one of the historical inspirations for the title character of Stanley Kubrick's classic black comedy film satire Dr. Strangelove. In his commentary for Fail Safe, director Sidney Lumet remarked that the Professor Groeteschele character is also based on Herman Kahn. Kahn's theories contributed heavily to the development of the nuclear strategy of the United States.

On Thermonuclear War

On Thermonuclear War

On Thermonuclear War is a book by Herman Kahn, a military strategist at the RAND Corporation, although it was written only a year before he left RAND to form the Hudson Institute. It is a controversial treatise on the nature and theory of war in the thermonuclear weapon age. In it, Kahn addresses the strategic doctrines of nuclear war and its effect on the international balance of power.

Mission

RAND was incorporated as a non-profit organization to "further promote scientific, educational, and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare and security of the United States of America". Its self-declared mission is "to help improve policy and decision making through research and analysis", using its "core values of quality and objectivity".[25]

Achievements

RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

The achievements of RAND stem from its development of systems analysis. Important contributions are claimed in space systems and the United States' space program,[26] in computing and in artificial intelligence. RAND researchers developed many of the principles that were used to build the Internet.[27] RAND also contributed to the development and use of wargaming.[28][29]

Current areas of expertise include: child policy, civil and criminal justice, education, health, international policy, labor markets, national security, infrastructure, energy, environment, corporate governance, economic development, intelligence policy, long-range planning, crisis management and disaster preparation, population and regional studies, science and technology, social welfare, terrorism, arts policy, and transportation.[30]

RAND designed and conducted one of the largest and most important studies of health insurance between 1974 and 1982. The RAND Health Insurance Experiment, funded by the then–U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, established an insurance corporation to compare demand for health services with their cost to the patient.[31][32]

In 2018, RAND began began its Gun Policy in America initiative,[33] which resulted in comprehensive reviews of the evidence of the effects of gun policies in the United States. The second expanded review in 2020[34] analyzed almost 13,000 relevant studies on guns and gun violence since 1995 and selected 123 as having sufficient methodological rigor for inclusion. These were used to determine the level of scientific support for eighteen classes of gun policy.

Discover more about Achievements related topics

Systems analysis

Systems analysis

Systems analysis is "the process of studying a procedure or business to identify its goal and purposes and create systems and procedures that will efficiently achieve them". Another view sees system analysis as a problem-solving technique that breaks down a system into its component pieces, and how well those parts work and interact to accomplish their purpose.

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence—perceiving, synthesizing, and infering information—demonstrated by machines, as opposed to intelligence displayed by animals and humans. Example tasks in which this is done include speech recognition, computer vision, translation between (natural) languages, as well as other mappings of inputs. The Oxford English Dictionary of Oxford University Press defines artificial intelligence as: the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.

Internet

Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

Criminal justice

Criminal justice

Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have been accused of committing crimes. The criminal justice system is a series of government agencies and institutions. Goals include the rehabilitation of offenders, preventing other crimes, and moral support for victims. The primary institutions of the criminal justice system are the police, prosecution and defense lawyers, the courts and the prisons system.

World population

World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living. It was estimated by the United Nations to have exceeded 8 billion in November 2022. It took over 200,000 years of human prehistory and history for the human population to reach one billion and only 219 years more to reach 8 billion.

RAND Health Insurance Experiment

RAND Health Insurance Experiment

The RAND Health Insurance Experiment was an experimental study from 1974 to 1982 of health care costs, utilization and outcomes in the United States, which assigned people randomly to different kinds of plans and followed their behavior. Because it was a randomized controlled trial, it provided stronger evidence than the more common observational studies and concluded that cost sharing reduced "inappropriate or unnecessary" medical care (overutilization) but also reduced "appropriate or needed" medical care.

Controversy

Almost since its inception, the RAND Corporation has been involved in controversial issues -- and its reports, recommendations and influence have been the subject of extensive public debate and controversy. Among these have been:

Discover more about Controversy related topics

Cold War

Cold War

The Cold War is a term commonly used to refer to a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on its starting and ending points, but the period is generally considered to span from the announcement of the Truman Doctrine on 12 March 1947 to the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 26 December 1991. The term cold war is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in 1945. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

Vietnam War

Vietnam War

The Vietnam War was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The north was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist states, while the south was supported by the United States and other anti-communist allies. The war is widely considered to be a Cold War-era proxy war. It lasted almost 20 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973. The conflict also spilled over into neighboring states, exacerbating the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, which ended with all three countries becoming communist states by 1975.

National health insurance

National health insurance

National health insurance (NHI), sometimes called statutory health insurance (SHI), is a system of health insurance that insures a national population against the costs of health care. It may be administered by the public sector, the private sector, or a combination of both. Funding mechanisms vary with the particular program and country. National or statutory health insurance does not equate to government-run or government-financed health care, but is usually established by national legislation. In some countries, such as Australia's Medicare system, the UK's National Health Service and South Korea’s National Health Insurance Service, contributions to the system are made via general taxation and therefore are not optional even though use of the health system it finances is. In practice, most people paying for NHI will join it. Where an NHI involves a choice of multiple insurance funds, the rates of contributions may vary and the person has to choose which insurance fund to belong to.

Alcoholism

Alcoholism

Alcoholism is, broadly, any drinking of alcohol that results in significant mental or physical health problems. Because there is disagreement on the definition of the word alcoholism, it is not a recognized diagnostic entity. Predominant diagnostic classifications are alcohol use disorder (DSM-5) or alcohol dependence (ICD-11); these are defined in their respective sources.

Iraq War

Iraq War

The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict in Iraq from 2003 to 2011 that began with the invasion of Iraq by the United States–led coalition that overthrew the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the coalition forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. US troops were officially withdrawn in 2011. The United States became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition, and the insurgency and many dimensions of the armed conflict continue today. The invasion occurred as part of the George W. Bush administration's War on terror following the September 11 attacks, despite no connection between Iraq and the attacks.

Gun control

Gun control

Gun control, or firearms regulation, is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms by civilians.

Notable participants

John von Neumann, consultant to the RAND Corporation.[55]
John von Neumann, consultant to the RAND Corporation.[55]

Discover more about Notable participants related topics

John von Neumann

John von Neumann

John von Neumann was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, engineer and polymath. He was regarded as having perhaps the widest coverage of any mathematician of his time and was said to have been "the last representative of the great mathematicians who were equally at home in both pure and applied mathematics". He integrated pure and applied sciences.

Henry H. Arnold

Henry H. Arnold

Henry Harley Arnold was an American general officer holding the ranks of General of the Army and later, General of the Air Force. Arnold was an aviation pioneer, Chief of the Air Corps (1938–1941), commanding general of the United States Army Air Forces, the only United States Air Force general to hold five-star rank, and the only officer to hold a five-star rank in two different U.S. military services. Arnold was also the founder of Project RAND, which evolved into one of the world's largest non-profit global policy think tanks, the RAND Corporation, and was one of the founders of Pan American World Airways.

General of the Air Force

General of the Air Force

General of the Air Force (GAF) is a five-star general officer rank and is the highest possible rank in the United States Air Force. General of the Air Force ranks immediately above a general and is equivalent to General of the Army in the United States Army and fleet admiral in the United States Navy. The rank has been held only once, by General Henry H. Arnold, who had served as head of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II.

Kenneth Arrow

Kenneth Arrow

Kenneth Joseph Arrow was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist. He was the joint winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with John Hicks in 1972.

Arrow's impossibility theorem

Arrow's impossibility theorem

Arrow's impossibility theorem, the general possibility theorem or Arrow's paradox is an impossibility theorem in social choice theory that states that when voters have three or more distinct alternatives (options), no ranked voting electoral system can convert the ranked preferences of individuals into a community-wide ranking while also meeting the specified set of criteria: unrestricted domain, non-dictatorship, Pareto efficiency, and independence of irrelevant alternatives. The theorem is often cited in discussions of voting theory as it is further interpreted by the Gibbard–Satterthwaite theorem. The theorem is named after economist and Nobel laureate Kenneth Arrow, who demonstrated the theorem in his doctoral thesis and popularized it in his 1951 book Social Choice and Individual Values. The original paper was titled "A Difficulty in the Concept of Social Welfare".

Bruno Augenstein

Bruno Augenstein

Bruno Wilhelm Augenstein was a German-born American mathematician and physicist who made important contributions in space technology, ballistic missile research, satellites, antimatter, and many other areas.

Mathematician

Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in their work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematicians are concerned with numbers, data, quantity, structure, space, models, and change.

Game theory

Game theory

Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interactions among rational agents. It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in logic, systems science and computer science. Originally, it addressed two-person zero-sum games, in which each participant's gains or losses are exactly balanced by those of other participants. In the 21st century, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations; it is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, as well as computers.

J. Paul Austin

J. Paul Austin

John Paul Austin was Chairman, President and CEO of The Coca-Cola Company. From 1962 to 1981 Austin oversaw the growth of the company from $567 million in sales to a $5.9 billion global force.

ARPANET

ARPANET

The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first wide-area packet-switched network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet. The ARPANET was established by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense.

Computer network

Computer network

A computer network is a set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes. The computers use common communication protocols over digital interconnections to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of telecommunication network technologies, based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies.

Internet

Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

Source: "RAND Corporation", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAND_Corporation.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

References
  1. ^ a b Medvetz, Thomas (2012). Think Tanks in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 26. ISBN 9780226517292. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  2. ^ a b c "RAND Leadership". RAND Corp. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  3. ^ "RAND Corporation Board of Trustees". RAND Corp. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  4. ^ a b "Financial Statements, FY 2016". RAND Corp. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  5. ^ As of June 30, 2020. U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 (Report). National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  6. ^ a b "2013 RAND Annual Report". RAND Corp. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  7. ^ a b c Abella, Alex (2009). Soldiers of Reason: The RAND Corporation and the Rise of the American Empire. Boston and New York: Mariner Books. p. 13. ISBN 9780156033442. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  8. ^ a b c "How We're Funded". RAND Corp. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  9. ^ "RAND Locations". RAND Corp. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  10. ^ "RAND Europe Contact Information". RAND Corp. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  11. ^ "RAND Locations: Canberra Office". RAND Corp. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  12. ^ a b "Pardee RAND History". Pardee RAND Graduate School. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  13. ^ a b c d e "RAND at a Glance". RAND Corp. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  14. ^ Sarabi, Brigette (1 January 2005). "Oregon: The Rand Report on Measure 11 is Finally Available". Partnership for Safety and Justice (PSJ). Retrieved 15 April 2008.
  15. ^ Harvard University Institute of Politics. "Guide for Political Internships". Harvard University. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  16. ^ a b Abella, Alex (2009). Soldiers of Reason: The RAND Corporation and the Rise of the American Empire. Boston and New York: Mariner Books. p. 11. ISBN 9780156033442. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  17. ^ a b Abella, Alex (2009). Soldiers of Reason: The RAND Corporation and the Rise of the American Empire. Boston and New York: Mariner Books. p. 12. ISBN 9780156033442. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
  18. ^ Oliver, Myrna (14 February 1990). "Franklin Collbohm Dies; Founder of RAND Corp". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  19. ^ Johnson, Stephen B (2002). The United States Air Force and the Culture of Innovation 1945-1965 (PDF). Diane Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 9781428990272. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  20. ^ Jardini, David R. (2013). Thinking Through the Cold War: RAND, National Security and Domestic Policy, 1945-1975. p. 10.
  21. ^ Twing, Steven W. (1998). Myths, models & U.S. foreign policy. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 1-55587-766-4.
  22. ^ Hanks, Robert (19 December 2007). "The Week In Radio: The think tank for unthinkable thoughts". The Independent. London. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
  23. ^ Kaplan, Fred (10 October 2004). "Truth Stranger Than 'Strangelove'". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
  24. ^ "The Space Review: LBJ's Space Race: What we didn't know then (Part 1)".
  25. ^ "About RAND - Vision". RAND. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  26. ^ Davies, Merton E.; Hams, William R. (September 1988). RAND's Role in the Evolution of Balloon and Satellite Observation Systems and Related U.S. Space Technology (PDF). RAND Corp. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  27. ^ "Paul Baran - Posthumous Recipient". Internet Hall of Fame. Internet Society. 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  28. ^ Perla, Peter P. (1990). The Art of Wargaming: A Guide for Professionals and Hobbyists. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. pp. 114–118. ISBN 0870210505. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  29. ^ Perry, Walter L.; Pirnie, Bruce R.; Gordon, John (1999). Issues Raised During the 1998 Army After Next Spring Wargame. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. ISBN 0-8330-2688-7. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  30. ^ "Policy Experts". RAND Corp. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  31. ^ "RAND's Health Insurance Experiment (HIE)". RAND Corp. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  32. ^ Herdman, Roger C.; Behney, Clyde J. (September 1993). "Chapter 3: The Lessons and Limitations of the Rand Health Insurance Experiment" (PDF). Benefit Design in Health Care Reform: Patient Cost-Sharing (Princeton University): 23–38. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  33. ^ "Gun Policy".
  34. ^ The Science of Gun Policy A Critical Synthesis of Research Evidence on the Effects of Gun Policies in the United States, Second Edition
  35. ^ Saul Friedman (Houston Chronicle, Nieman Fellow): "The Rand Corporation and Our Policy Makers," September 1963, The Atlantic, retrieved November 25, 2022
  36. ^ "Albert Wohlstetter, 83, Expert On U.S. Nuclear Strategy, Dies", January 14, 1997, New York Times, retrieved November 24, 2022
  37. ^ a b c Heilbrunn, Jacob: "Real Men of Genius" (book review of Soldiers of Reason: The RAND Corp and Rise of the American Empire by Alex Abella, 2008, Harcourt), September 21, 2008, Washington Post, retrieved November 24, 2022
  38. ^ Rej, Abhijnan: Commentary: The Other Legacy of Robert McNamara," June 10, 2016, War on the Rocks, -- reviewed by Matthew Fay in "Rationalizing McNamara’s Legacy," August 5, 2016, Niskanen Center; Fay rebutted by RAND representatives John Speed Meyers and Jonathan P. Wong, at "In Defense of Defense Analysis," September 2, 2016, The RAND Blog, RAND Corporation; retrieved November 24, 2022
  39. ^ Wyne, Ali (RAND Corporation) opinion essay: "A new world order will likely arise only from calamity," July 24, 2018, Washington Post, retrieved November 24, 2022
  40. ^ Clines, Francis X.: "The Men Who Tell City How to Run the City," July 8, 1970, New York Times, retrieved November 24, 2022
  41. ^ Szanton, Peter L. (RAND Corporation): "Analysis and Urban Government: Experience of the New York City-Rand Institute," July, 1972, Policy Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 153-161, Springer, at Jstor.org, retrieved November 24, 2022
  42. ^ "Data in the Fire Service," 2015, NFPA 2015 Responder Forum, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), retrieved November 24, 2022
  43. ^ Flood, Joe: The Fires: How a Computer Formula Burned Down New York City—and Determined the Future of American Cities, 2011, Riverhead Books, -- summarized at: GoodReads.com, and reviewed at: GoodReads.com (by Rob Kitchin), and at Accounts, (newsletter of the Economics section of the American Sociological Association), Vol. XV, Issue 2, Spring 2016, page 32, retrieved November 24, 2022
  44. ^ a b Naughton, James M.: "Federal Warrant Is Issued For the Arrest of Ellsberg," June 26, 1971, New York Times, retrieved November 24, 2022
  45. ^ a b "The Insider" (book review of Wild Man -- biography of Daniel Ellsberg -- by Tom Wells, 2001, Palgrave), July 22, 2001, Washington Post,; also reviewed by Michael Young at "The Devil and Daniel Ellsberg," June 2000, Reason, retrieved November 24, 2022
  46. ^ a b Kazin, Michael, reviewer: "Inside Job" (book review of Secrets -- autobiography of Daniel Ellsberg, 2002, Viking), November 3, 2002, Washington Post, retrieved November 24, 2022
  47. ^ Elliot, Mai (Foreword by James A. Thomson, RAND president): RAND in Southeast Asia: A History of the Vietnam War Era, 2010, RAND Corporation / Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-8330-4754-0; reviewed by James M. Carter at [1] August 2011, Journal of American Studies, Volume 45 , Issue 3 , pp. 631 - 633, reproduced at Cambridge University. Retrieved November 24, 2022
  48. ^ "The Real Health Issue," June 25, 1974, Page 36, New York Times, retrieved November 24, 2022
  49. ^ "Alcoholism Controversy," August 4, 1976, New York Times, retrieved November 24, 2022
  50. ^ "An Analysis and Critique of the RAND Corporation's Studies in Support of No Fault Laws," 2000, Consumer Watchdog, retrieved November 24, 2022
  51. ^ Gordon, Michael R.: "Occupation Plan for Iraq Faulted in Army History," June 29, 2008, New York Times, retrieved November 24, 2022
  52. ^ Ingraham, Christopher: "The best available evidence suggests NRA-backed gun policies are making crime worse," March 2, 2018, Washington Post, retrieved November 24, 2022
  53. ^ Brown, Aaron and Justin Monticello: "Do Studies Show Gun Control Works? No.", March 31, 2022, Reason, retrieved November 24, 2022 -- reviewed at "Video Obliterates Anti-Gun Junk Science," April 11, 2022, National Rifle Association, retrieved November 24, 2022
  54. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay: "Can New Gun Violence Research Find a Path Around the Political Stalemate?," March 27, 2021, updated April 2, 2021, New York Times, retrieved November 24, 2022
  55. ^ Life Magazine, 25 February 1957, "Passing of a Great Mind", by Clay Bair JR. pages 89–104
  56. ^ Alex Roland and Philip Shiman, Strategic Computing: DARPA and the Quest for Machine Intelligence, 1983–1993, The MIT Press, 2002, p. 302
  57. ^ Nina Tannenwald, The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons Since 1945, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK), 2007, p. 138-139
  58. ^ "F. R. Collbohm, 83, Ex-Head of Rand, Dies". The New York Times. Associated Press. 14 February 1990. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  59. ^ "Michael H. Decker - Profile".
  60. ^ WILLIAM J. BROADPublished: 21 January 1991 (21 January 1991). "WAR IN THE GULF: HIGH TECH; War Hero Status Possible for the Computer Chip". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  61. ^ Dole, Stephen H. (2007). Habitable Planets for Man (New RAND ed.). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp. ISBN 9780833042279. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  62. ^ Dole, Stephen H. (8 October 2007). "Habitable Planets for man (6.4 MB PDF)". RAND Corporation (free PDFs). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  63. ^ "Stephen H. Dole; Retired Head of Rand Corp.'s Human Engineering Group". Los Angeles Times. 30 April 2000. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  64. ^ "Obituary: Paul Y. Hammond". University of Pittsburgh. 5 April 2012.
  65. ^ "Computer Science History". School of Computing. University of Utah. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  66. ^ "Andrew R. Hoehn - Profile".
  67. ^ Noland, Claire (12 April 2007). "Konrad Kellen, 93; Rand researcher studied Vietnam War and urged withdrawal of troops". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  68. ^ Monica, 1776 Main Street Santa; California 90401-3208. "Jason Matheny Named President and CEO of RAND Corporation". www.rand.org. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  69. ^ Kaplan, Fred (August 1991). The Wizards of Armageddon - Fred M. Kaplan - Google Boeken. ISBN 9780804718844. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  70. ^ Seymour M. Hersh (12 May 2003). "Selective Intelligence — Donald Rumsfeld has his own special sources. Are they reliable?". The New Yorker.
  71. ^ Times, Economic (15 February 2022). "Same person cannot head both Tata Sons and Tata Trusts". Economic Times.
Further reading

Books

Articles

Documentary films and broadcast programs

External links

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.