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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
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Rishi Sunak's first speech as Prime Minister Front (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Rishi Sunak

since 25 October 2022
Government of the United Kingdom
Prime Minister's Office
Cabinet Office
Style
TypeHead of government
Member of
Residence
AppointerThe Monarch
Term lengthAt His Majesty's pleasure
DeputyNo fixed position, however it is sometimes held by:
Salary£157,372 per annum[1]
(including £81,932 MP salary)[2]
Website10 Downing Street

The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The prime minister advises the sovereign on the exercise of much of the royal prerogative, chairs the Cabinet and selects its ministers. As modern prime ministers hold office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the House of Commons, they sit as members of Parliament.

The office of prime minister is not established by any statute or constitutional document, but exists only by long-established convention, whereby the reigning monarch appoints as prime minister the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons;[3] this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber.

The prime minister is ex officio also First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service and the minister responsible for national security.[4]: p.22  Indeed, certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to prime ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. In 2019, the office of Minister for the Union was established; Boris Johnson became the first prime minister to hold this title.[5]

Rishi Sunak has been the incumbent prime minister since 25 October 2022.[6]

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Head of government

Head of government

The head of government is either the highest or the second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. In diplomacy, "head of government" is differentiated from "head of state" although in some countries, for example the United States, they are the same person.

Advice (constitutional law)

Advice (constitutional law)

In constitutional law, advice is a formal and usually binding instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another. Particularly in parliamentary systems of government, heads of state often act on the basis of advice issued by prime ministers or other government ministers. For example, in constitutional monarchies, the monarch usually appoints ministers of the Crown on the advice of their prime minister.

Cabinet of the United Kingdom

Cabinet of the United Kingdom

The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the senior decision-making body of His Majesty's Government. A committee of the Privy Council, it is chaired by the prime minister and its members include secretaries of state and other senior ministers.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster in London, England.

Member of Parliament (United Kingdom)

Member of Parliament (United Kingdom)

In the United Kingdom, a member of Parliament (MP) is an individual elected to serve in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Coalition government

Coalition government

A coalition government is a form of government in which political parties cooperate to form a government. The usual reason for such an arrangement is that no single party has achieved an absolute majority after an election, an atypical outcome in nations with majoritarian electoral systems, but common under proportional representation. A coalition government might also be created in a time of national difficulty or crisis to give a government the high degree of perceived political legitimacy or collective identity, it can also play a role in diminishing internal political strife. In such times, parties have formed all-party coalitions. If a coalition collapses, the Prime Minister and cabinet may be ousted by a vote of no confidence, call snap elections, form a new majority coalition, or continue as a minority government.

First Lord of the Treasury

First Lord of the Treasury

The first lord of the Treasury is the head of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is by convention also the prime minister. This office is not equivalent to the usual position of the "treasurer" in other governments; the closer equivalent of a treasurer in the United Kingdom is Chancellor of the Exchequer, who is the second lord of the Treasury.

Minister for the Civil Service

Minister for the Civil Service

In the Government of the United Kingdom, the minister for the Civil Service is responsible for regulations regarding His Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the United Kingdom in formulating and implementing policies. The position is invariably held by the prime minister of the United Kingdom.

List of residents of 10 Downing Street

List of residents of 10 Downing Street

Number 10 Downing Street is the residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The headquarters of His Majesty's Government, it is situated on Downing Street in the City of Westminster in London, England.

10 Downing Street

10 Downing Street

10 Downing Street in London, also known colloquially in the United Kingdom as Number 10, is the official residence and executive office of the first lord of the treasury, usually, by convention, the prime minister of the United Kingdom. Along with the adjoining Cabinet Office at 70 Whitehall, it is the headquarters of the Government of the United Kingdom.

Minister for the Union

Minister for the Union

Minister for the Union is a position created by the former prime minister of the United Kingdom Boris Johnson during his first ministry, to be held concurrently with the duties of prime minister. Johnson proposed the position during the 2019 Conservative Party leadership campaign. He was the first prime minister to adopt the title, and the post was retained by Johnson in his second ministry. The title was retained under Liz Truss and Rishi Sunak.

Boris Johnson

Boris Johnson

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson is a British politician, writer, and journalist who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2019 to 2022. He previously served as Foreign Secretary from 2016 to 2018 and as Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016. Johnson has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015, having previously been MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008. His political positions have sometimes been described as following one-nation conservatism, and commentators have characterised his political style as opportunistic, populist, or pragmatic.

History

The position of prime minister was not created; it evolved slowly and organically over three hundred years due to numerous Acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective. The origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement (1688–1720) and the resulting shift of political power from the sovereign to Parliament.[7] Although the sovereign was not stripped of their ancient prerogative powers and legally remained the head of government, politically it gradually became necessary for him or her to govern through a prime minister who could command a majority in Parliament.

By the 1830s, the Westminster system of government (or cabinet government) had emerged; the prime minister had become primus inter pares or the first among equals in the Cabinet and the head of government in the United Kingdom. The political position of prime minister was enhanced by the development of modern political parties, the introduction of mass communication and photography. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged; the office had become the pre-eminent position in the constitutional hierarchy in relation to the sovereign, Parliament and Cabinet.

Before 1902, the prime minister sometimes sat in the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons. However, as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the prime minister should always sit as a Member of Parliament in the lower house, making them answerable only to the Commons in Parliament. The prime minister's authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act 1911, which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process.

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History of the prime minister of the United Kingdom

History of the prime minister of the United Kingdom

The position of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom was not created as a result of a single action; it evolved slowly and organically over three hundred years due to numerous Acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history.

Act of Parliament (UK)

Act of Parliament (UK)

In the United Kingdom an act of Parliament is primary legislation passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Westminster system

Westminster system

The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature. This concept was first developed in England.

Primus inter pares

Primus inter pares

Primus inter pares is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals. It is typically used as an honorary title for someone who is formally equal to other members of their group but is accorded unofficial respect, traditionally owing to their seniority in office.

House of Lords

House of Lords

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster in London, England.

Parliament Act 1911

Parliament Act 1911

The Parliament Act 1911 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It is constitutionally important and partly governs the relationship between the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two Houses of Parliament. The Parliament Act 1949 provides that the Parliament Act 1911 and the Parliament Act 1949 are to be construed together "as one" in their effects and that the two Acts may be cited together as the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949.

Authority, powers and constraints

The prime minister is the head of the United Kingdom government.[8] As such, the modern prime minister leads the Cabinet (the Executive). In addition, the prime minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons (the lower chamber of Parliament). The incumbent wields both significant legislative and executive powers. Under the British system, there is a unity of powers rather than separation.[9]

In the House of Commons, the prime minister guides the law-making process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party. In an executive capacity, the prime minister appoints (and may dismiss) all other Cabinet members and ministers, and co-ordinates the policies and activities of all government departments, and the staff of the Civil Service. The prime minister also acts as the public "face" and "voice" of His Majesty's Government, both at home and abroad. Solely upon the advice of the prime minister, the sovereign exercises many statutory and prerogative powers, including high judicial, political, official and Church of England ecclesiastical appointments; the conferral of peerages and some knighthoods, decorations and other important honours.[10]

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Powers of the prime minister of the United Kingdom

Powers of the prime minister of the United Kingdom

The powers of the prime minister of the United Kingdom come from several sources of the UK constitution, including both statute and constitutional convention, but not one single authoritative document. They have been described as "...problematic to outline definitively."

Fusion of powers

Fusion of powers

Fusion of powers is a feature of some parliamentary forms of government where different branches of government are intermingled, typically the executive and legislative branches. It is contrasted with the separation of powers found in presidential, semi-presidential and dualistic parliamentary forms of government, where the membership of the legislative and executive powers cannot overlap. Fusion of powers exists in many, if not a majority of, parliamentary democracies, and does so by design. However, in all modern democratic polities the judiciary does not possess legislative or executive powers.

Separation of powers

Separation of powers

Separation of powers refers to the division of a state's government into branches, each with separate, independent powers and responsibilities, so that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with those of the other branches. The typical division is into three branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary, which is sometimes called the trias politica model. It can be contrasted with the fusion of powers in parliamentary and semi-presidential systems where there can be overlap in membership and functions between different branches, especially the executive and legislative, although in most non-authoritarian jurisdictions, the judiciary almost never overlaps with the other branches, whether powers in the jurisdiction are separated or fused.

Minister (government)

Minister (government)

A minister is a politician who heads a ministry, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers. In some jurisdictions the head of government is also a minister and is designated the ‘prime minister’, ‘premier’, ‘chief minister’, ‘chancellor’ or other title.

Church of England

Church of England

The Church of England is the established Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the 3rd century and to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury.

Constitutional background

The British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, meaning that it is not set out in any single document.[11] The British constitution consists of many documents and most importantly for the evolution of the office of the prime minister, it is based on customs known as constitutional conventions that became accepted practice. In 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs:

In this country we live ... under an unwritten Constitution. It is true that we have on the Statute-book great instruments like Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the Bill of Rights which define and secure many of our rights and privileges; but the great bulk of our constitutional liberties and ... our constitutional practices do not derive their validity and sanction from any Bill which has received the formal assent of the King, Lords and Commons. They rest on usage, custom, convention, often of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, but which in the course of time received universal observance and respect.[12]

The relationships between the prime minister and the sovereign, Parliament and Cabinet are defined largely by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the prime minister's executive and legislative powers are actually royal prerogatives which are still formally vested in the sovereign, who remains the head of state.[13] Despite its growing dominance in the constitutional hierarchy, the premiership was given little formal recognition until the 20th century; the legal fiction was maintained that the sovereign still governed directly. The position was first mentioned in statute only in 1917, in the schedule of the Chequers Estate Act. Increasingly during the 20th century, the office and role of prime minister featured in statute law and official documents; however, the prime minister's powers and relationships with other institutions still largely continue to derive from ancient royal prerogatives and historic and modern constitutional conventions. Prime ministers continue to hold the position of First Lord of the Treasury and, since November 1968, that of Minister for the Civil Service, the latter giving them authority over the civil service.

Under this arrangement, Britain might appear to have two executives: the prime minister and the sovereign. The concept of "the Crown" resolves this paradox.[14] The Crown symbolises the state's authority to govern: to make laws and execute them, impose taxes and collect them, declare war and make peace. Before the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688, the sovereign exclusively wielded the powers of the Crown; afterwards, Parliament gradually forced monarchs to assume a neutral political position. Parliament has effectively dispersed the powers of the Crown, entrusting its authority to responsible ministers (the prime minister and Cabinet), accountable for their policies and actions to Parliament, in particular the elected House of Commons.

Although many of the sovereign's prerogative powers are still legally intact,[n 1] constitutional conventions have removed the monarch from day-to-day governance, with ministers exercising the royal prerogatives, leaving the monarch in practice with three constitutional rights: to be kept informed, to advise and to warn.[15][16]

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Constitution of the United Kingdom

Constitution of the United Kingdom

The Constitution of the United Kingdom or British constitution comprises the written and unwritten arrangements that establish the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as a political body. Unlike in most countries, no attempt has been made to codify such arrangements into a single document, thus it is known as an uncodified constitution. This enables the constitution to be easily changed as no provisions are formally entrenched; the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom recognises that there are constitutional principles, including parliamentary sovereignty, the rule of law, democracy, and upholding international law.

Constitutional convention (political custom)

Constitutional convention (political custom)

A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified tradition that is followed by the institutions of a state. In some states, notably those Commonwealth of Nations states that follow the Westminster system and whose political systems derive from British constitutional law, most government functions are guided by constitutional convention rather than by a formal written constitution. In these states, actual distribution of power may be markedly different from those the formal constitutional documents describe. In particular, the formal constitution often confers wide discretionary powers on the head of state that, in practice, are used only on the advice of the head of government, and in some cases not at all.

H. H. Asquith

H. H. Asquith

Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith,, generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman and Liberal Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. He was the last Liberal prime minister to command a majority government, and the most recent Liberal to have served as Leader of the Opposition. He played a major role in the design and passage of major liberal legislation and a reduction of the power of the House of Lords. In August 1914, Asquith took Great Britain and the British Empire into the First World War. During 1915, his government was vigorously attacked for a shortage of munitions and the failure of the Gallipoli Campaign. He formed a coalition government with other parties but failed to satisfy critics, was forced to resign in December 1916 and never regained power.

Monarchy of the United Kingdom

Monarchy of the United Kingdom

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional form of government by which a hereditary sovereign reigns as the head of state of the United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. The current monarch is King Charles III, who ascended the throne on 8 September 2022, upon the death of his mother, Queen Elizabeth II.

Head of state

Head of state

A head of state is the public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government and more.

Legal fiction

Legal fiction

A legal fiction is a fact assumed or created by courts, which is then used in order to help reach a decision or to apply a legal rule. The concept is used almost exclusively in common law jurisdictions, particularly in England and Wales.

Chequers Estate Act 1917

Chequers Estate Act 1917

The Chequers Estate Act 1917 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that designates Chequers as the official country residence of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. It was given Royal Assent on 20 December 1917.

First Lord of the Treasury

First Lord of the Treasury

The first lord of the Treasury is the head of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is by convention also the prime minister. This office is not equivalent to the usual position of the "treasurer" in other governments; the closer equivalent of a treasurer in the United Kingdom is Chancellor of the Exchequer, who is the second lord of the Treasury.

Minister for the Civil Service

Minister for the Civil Service

In the Government of the United Kingdom, the minister for the Civil Service is responsible for regulations regarding His Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the United Kingdom in formulating and implementing policies. The position is invariably held by the prime minister of the United Kingdom.

Civil Service (United Kingdom)

Civil Service (United Kingdom)

His Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as His Majesty's Civil Service, the Home Civil Service, or colloquially as the Civil Service is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports His Majesty's Government, which is led by a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive.

Glorious Revolution

Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also known as the Glorieuze Overtocht or Glorious Crossing in the Netherlands, is the sequence of events leading to the deposition of King James II and VII of England and Scotland in November 1688, and his replacement by his daughter Mary II and her husband and James's nephew William III of Orange, de facto ruler of the Dutch Republic. A term first used by John Hampden in late 1689, it has been notable in the years since for having been described as the last successful invasion of England as well as an internal coup, with differing interpretations from the Dutch and English perspectives respectively.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster in London, England.

Modern premiership

Appointment

In modern times, much of the process involving prime ministerial appointments is informally governed by constitutional conventions and authoritative sources, like The Cabinet Manual, paragraphs 2.7 to 2.20 and 3.1 to 3.2.

The prime minister is appointed by the monarch, through the exercise of the royal prerogative.[17] In the past, the monarch has used personal choice to dismiss or appoint a prime minister (the last time being in 1834), but it is now the case that they should not be drawn into party politics.[4]: 2.9. 

The prime minister "...holds that position by virtue of his or her ability to command the confidence of the House of Commons, which in turn commands the confidence of the electorate, as expressed through a general election."[4]: 3.1  By convention, the prime minister is also an MP and is normally the leader of the political party that commands a majority in the House of Commons.[4]: 3.1 

Prime Minister's Office

The Prime Minister's Office helps the prime minister to 'establish and deliver the government's overall strategy and policy priorities, and to communicate the government's policies to Parliament, the public and international audiences'.[18] The Prime Minister's Office is formally part of the Cabinet Office, but the boundary between its work and that of the wider Cabinet Office can be unclear;[19] the wider Cabinet Office might carry out very similar work. Peter Hennessy has claimed that this overall arrangement means there is in fact effectively a Prime Minister's Department, though it is not called this.[20]

Prime Minister's Questions

Prime Minister's Questions is a constitutional convention, currently held as a single session every Wednesday at noon when the House of Commons is sitting, in which the prime minister answers questions from members of Parliament (MPs). The leader of the opposition usually asks the prime minister six questions, and the leader of the third-largest parliamentary party can ask two questions. It is an occasion when the prime minister appears regularly on live television and radio.

The prime minister also appears before the Liaison Committee to answer questions about public policy.[21]

Security and transport

The personal protection of the prime minister[22] and former prime ministers[23] is the responsibility of Protection Command within the Metropolitan Police Service. The fleet of Prime Ministerial Cars provides the prime minister with a number of security features as well as transport. The vehicles are driven by officers from this unit.[24] Air transport for the prime minister is provided by a variety of military and civilian operators.

International role

One of the roles of the prime minister is to represent the UK at home and abroad,[25] for example at the annual G7 Summit. The prime minister makes many international trips. According to Gus O'Donnell, the number of overseas visits for the prime minister has gone up.[26]

Deputy

Dominic Raab was the First Secretary of State from 2019 to 2021. He deputised for Boris Johnson when he was ill with COVID-19 in April 2020.
Dominic Raab was the First Secretary of State from 2019 to 2021. He deputised for Boris Johnson when he was ill with COVID-19 in April 2020.

The prime minister's second-in-command has variably served as deputy prime minister, first secretary of state and de facto deputy and at other times prime ministers have chosen not to select a permanent deputy at all, preferring ad hoc arrangements.[27]

Succession

Nobody has the right of automatic succession to the prime ministership.[28] However, it is generally considered by those with an interest in the matter that in the event of the death of the prime minister, it would be appropriate to appoint an interim prime minister, though there is some debate as to how to decide who this should be.[29]

According to Rodney Brazier, there are no procedures within government to cope with the sudden death of the prime minister.[30] There is also no such title as acting prime minister of the United Kingdom.[31] Despite refusing "...to discuss a hypothetical situation" with BBC News in 2011,[32] the Cabinet Office said the following in 2006:[33]

There is no single protocol setting out all of the possible implications. However, the general constitutional position is as set out below. There can be no automatic assumption about who The Queen would ask to act as caretaker Prime Minister in the event of the death of the Prime Minister. The decision is for her under the Royal Prerogative. However, there are some key guiding principles. The Queen would probably be looking for a very senior member of the Government (not necessarily a Commons Minister since this would be a short-term appointment). If there was a recognised deputy to the Prime Minister, used to acting on his behalf in his absences, this could be an important factor. Also important would be the question of who was likely to be in contention to take over long-term as Prime Minister. If the most senior member of the Government was him or herself a contender for the role of Prime Minister, it might be that The Queen would invite a slightly less senior non-contender. In these circumstances, her private secretary would probably take soundings, via the Cabinet Secretary, of members of the Cabinet, to ensure that The Queen invited someone who would be acceptable to the Cabinet to act as their chair during the caretaker period. Once the Party had elected a new leader, that person would, of course, be invited to take over as Prime Minister.

Additionally, when the prime minister is travelling, it is standard practice for a senior duty minister to be appointed who can attend to urgent business and meetings if required, though the prime minister remains in charge and updated throughout.[34]

On 6 April 2020, when Prime Minister Boris Johnson was admitted into ICU, he asked First Secretary of State Dominic Raab "to deputise for him where necessary".[35]

Resignation

Prime Minister Liz Truss announces her resignation outside 10 Downing Street, 20 October 2022
Prime Minister Liz Truss announces her resignation outside 10 Downing Street, 20 October 2022

A prime minister ends their tenure by offering their resignation to the British monarch.[36] This can happen after their party has suffered a general election defeat, so that they no longer command the confidence of the House of Commons. It can also happen mid-term, if they are forced to resign for political reasons,[37] or for other reasons such as ill-health.[38] If the prime minister resigns mid-term, and their party has a majority in the Commons, the party selects a new leader according to its rules, and this new leader is invited by the monarch to become the new prime minister. The outgoing prime minister is likely to remain in post until the new leader has been chosen by the party. After resigning, the outgoing prime minister remains a Member of Parliament. An outgoing prime minister can ask the monarch to bestow honours on any number of people of their choosing, known as the Prime Minister's Resignation Honours. No incumbent prime minister has ever lost their own seat at a general election.[39] Only one prime minister has been assassinated: Spencer Perceval, in 1812.

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Constitutional conventions of the United Kingdom

Constitutional conventions of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has an uncodified constitution. The constitution consists of legislation, common law, Crown prerogative and constitutional conventions. Conventions may be written or unwritten. They are principles of behaviour which are not legally enforceable, but form part of the constitution by being enforced on a political, professional or personal level. Written conventions can be found in the Ministerial Code, Cabinet Manual, Guide to Judicial Conduct, Erskine May and even legislation. Unwritten conventions exist by virtue of long-practice or may be referenced in other documents such as the Lascelles Principles.

Cabinet Manual (United Kingdom)

Cabinet Manual (United Kingdom)

The Cabinet Manual is a government document in the United Kingdom which sets out the main laws, rules and conventions affecting the conduct and operation of the Government of the United Kingdom. It was written by the Civil Service, led by Cabinet Secretary Sir Gus O'Donnell, and was first published by the Cabinet Office on 14 December 2010. The manual gives an overview of the UK's system of government, reflecting the importance of Parliament, Cabinet government and the democratic nature of the UK's constitutional arrangements by explaining the powers of the Executive, Sovereign, Parliament, international institutions, the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories and the devolved administrations in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The Manual was written as a guide for members of Cabinet, other ministers and civil servants in the execution of government business, but also serves to consolidate many of the previously unwritten constitutional conventions through which the British government operates.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster in London, England.

List of United Kingdom general elections

List of United Kingdom general elections

This is a list of United Kingdom general elections since the first in 1802. The members of the 1801–1802 Parliament had been elected to the former Parliament of Great Britain and Parliament of Ireland, before being co-opted to serve in the first Parliament of the United Kingdom, so that Parliament is not included in the table below. There have been 57 general elections held in the UK up to and including the December 2019 election.

List of United Kingdom Parliament constituencies represented by sitting prime ministers

List of United Kingdom Parliament constituencies represented by sitting prime ministers

This is a chronological list of parliamentary constituencies in the Kingdom of Great Britain and its successor state the United Kingdom which were represented by sitting prime ministers.

List of political parties in the United Kingdom

List of political parties in the United Kingdom

The Electoral Commission's Register of Political Parties lists the details of political parties registered to fight elections in the United Kingdom, including their registered name. Under current electoral law, including the Registration of Political Parties Act 1998, the Electoral Administration Act 2006, and the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000, only registered party names can be used on ballot papers by those wishing to fight elections. Candidates who do not belong to a registered party can use "independent" or no label at all. As of 2 August 2019, the Electoral Commission showed the number of registered political parties in Great Britain and Northern Ireland as 408.

Majority government

Majority government

A majority government is a government by one or more governing parties that hold an absolute majority of seats in a legislature. This is as opposed to a minority government, where the largest party in a legislature only has a plurality of seats. A government majority determines the balance of power.

10 Downing Street

10 Downing Street

10 Downing Street in London, also known colloquially in the United Kingdom as Number 10, is the official residence and executive office of the first lord of the treasury, usually, by convention, the prime minister of the United Kingdom. Along with the adjoining Cabinet Office at 70 Whitehall, it is the headquarters of the Government of the United Kingdom.

Constitutional convention (political custom)

Constitutional convention (political custom)

A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified tradition that is followed by the institutions of a state. In some states, notably those Commonwealth of Nations states that follow the Westminster system and whose political systems derive from British constitutional law, most government functions are guided by constitutional convention rather than by a formal written constitution. In these states, actual distribution of power may be markedly different from those the formal constitutional documents describe. In particular, the formal constitution often confers wide discretionary powers on the head of state that, in practice, are used only on the advice of the head of government, and in some cases not at all.

Liaison Committee (House of Commons of the United Kingdom)

Liaison Committee (House of Commons of the United Kingdom)

The Liaison Committee is a committee of the British House of Commons, the lower house of the United Kingdom Parliament. The committee consists of the chairs of the 32 Commons select committees and the chair of the Joint Committee on Human Rights.

Air transport of the British royal family and government

Air transport of the British royal family and government

Air transport of the British royal family and government is provided, depending on the circumstances and availability, by a variety of military and civilian operators. This includes an Airbus Voyager of the Royal Air Force, No. 10 Squadron and the King's Helicopter Flight, which forms part of the royal household. Civil aircraft and scheduled commercial flights are also utilised.

Jaguar XJ (X351)

Jaguar XJ (X351)

The Jaguar XJ (X351) is the fourth and final generation of the Jaguar XJ saloon manufactured by British automobile manufacturer Jaguar, and later Jaguar Land Rover. Announced in 2009, and going on sale from 2010, the X351 combines revised styling with underpinnings of the previous X350 generation. The model was discontinued in 2019.

Precedence, privileges and form of address

Prime ministerial residences
Prime ministerial residences10 Downing Street, the official place of residence of the prime ministerChequers, used by the prime minister as a country retreat.
10 Downing Street, the official place of residence of the prime minister
Prime ministerial residences10 Downing Street, the official place of residence of the prime ministerChequers, used by the prime minister as a country retreat.
Chequers, used by the prime minister as a country retreat.

On taking office a new prime minister usually makes a public statement to announce to the country that they have been appointed by the reigning monarch (called "kissing hands"). This is usually done by saying words to the effect of:

His Majesty the King [Her Majesty the Queen] has asked me to form a government and I have accepted.[40]

Throughout the United Kingdom, the prime minister outranks all other dignitaries except members of the royal family, the lord chancellor, and senior ecclesiastical figures.[n 2]

In 2010, the prime minister received £142,500 including a salary of £65,737 as a member of parliament.[41] Until 2006, the lord chancellor was the highest-paid member of the government, ahead of the prime minister. This reflected the lord chancellor's position at the head of the judicial pay scale. The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 eliminated the lord chancellor's judicial functions and also reduced the office's salary to below that of the prime minister.

The prime minister is customarily a member of the Privy Council and thus entitled to the appellation "The Right Honourable". Membership of the council is retained for life. It is a constitutional convention that only a privy counsellor can be appointed prime minister. Most potential candidates have already attained this status. The only case when a non-privy counsellor was the natural appointment was Ramsay MacDonald in 1924. The issue was resolved by appointing him to the Council immediately prior to his appointment as prime minister.

According to the now-defunct Department for Constitutional Affairs, the prime minister is made a privy counsellor as a result of taking office and should be addressed by the official title prefixed by "The Right Honourable" and not by a personal name. Although this form of address is employed on formal occasions, it is rarely used by the media. As "prime minister" is a position, not a title, the incumbent should be referred to as "the prime minister". The title "Prime Minister" (e.g. "Prime Minister Rishi Sunak") is technically incorrect but is sometimes used erroneously outside the United Kingdom and has more recently become acceptable within it. Within the UK, the expression "Prime Minister Sunak" is never used, although it, too, is sometimes used by foreign dignitaries and news sources.

10 Downing Street, in London, has been the official place of residence of the prime minister since 1732; they are entitled to use its staff and facilities, including extensive offices. Chequers, a country house in Buckinghamshire, gifted to the government in 1917, may be used as a country retreat for the prime minister.

Discover more about Precedence, privileges and form of address related topics

List of peerages held by prime ministers of the United Kingdom

List of peerages held by prime ministers of the United Kingdom

This article lists all peerages held by prime ministers of the United Kingdom, whether created or inherited before or after their premiership. Extant titles are in bold.

Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom

Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom

The order of precedence in the United Kingdom is the sequential hierarchy for Peers of the Realm, officers of state, senior members of the clergy, holders of the various Orders of Chivalry and other persons in the three legal jurisdictions within the United Kingdom:England and Wales Scotland Northern Ireland

10 Downing Street

10 Downing Street

10 Downing Street in London, also known colloquially in the United Kingdom as Number 10, is the official residence and executive office of the first lord of the treasury, usually, by convention, the prime minister of the United Kingdom. Along with the adjoining Cabinet Office at 70 Whitehall, it is the headquarters of the Government of the United Kingdom.

Chequers

Chequers

Chequers, or Chequers Court, is the country house of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. A 16th-century manor house in origin, it is located near the village of Ellesborough, halfway between Princes Risborough and Wendover in Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom, at the foot of the Chiltern Hills. It is about 40 miles (64 km) north-west of central London. Coombe Hill, once part of the estate, is located two-thirds of a mile (1.1 km) northeast. Chequers has been the country home of the serving Prime Minister since 1921 after the estate was given to the nation by Sir Arthur Lee by a Deed of Settlement, given full effect in the Chequers Estate Act 1917. The house is listed Grade I on the National Heritage List for England.

Kissing hands

Kissing hands

To kiss hands is a constitutional term used in the United Kingdom to refer to the formal installation of the prime minister or other Crown-appointed government ministers to their office.

Constitutional Reform Act 2005

Constitutional Reform Act 2005

The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, relevant to UK constitutional law. It provides for a Supreme Court of the United Kingdom to take over the previous appellate jurisdiction of the Law Lords as well as some powers of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, and removed the functions of Speaker of the House of Lords and Head of the Judiciary of England and Wales from the office of Lord Chancellor.

The Right Honourable

The Right Honourable

The Right Honourable is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and collective bodies in the United Kingdom, the former British Empire and the Commonwealth of Nations. The term is predominantly used today as a style associated with the holding of certain senior public offices in the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, and to a lesser extent, Australia.

Ramsay MacDonald

Ramsay MacDonald

James Ramsay MacDonald was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the first who belonged to the Labour Party, leading minority Labour governments for nine months in 1924 and again between 1929 and 1931. From 1931 to 1935, he headed a National Government dominated by the Conservative Party and supported by only a few Labour members. MacDonald was expelled from the Labour Party as a result.

Department for Constitutional Affairs

Department for Constitutional Affairs

The Department for Constitutional Affairs (DCA) was a United Kingdom government department. Its creation was announced on 12 June 2003; it took over the functions of the Lord Chancellor's Department. On 28 March 2007 it was announced that the Department for Constitutional Affairs would take control of probation, prisons and prevention of re-offending from the Home Office and be renamed the Ministry of Justice. This took place on 9 May 2007.

London

London

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a 50-mile (80 km) estuary down to the North Sea, and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The City of London, its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the Romans as Londinium and retains its medieval boundaries. The City of Westminster, to the west of the City of London, has for centuries hosted the national government and parliament. Since the 19th century, the name "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between the counties of Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire, which largely comprises Greater London, governed by the Greater London Authority.

Official residence

Official residence

An official residence is the residence of a head of state, head of government, governor, religious leader, leaders of international organizations, or other senior figure. It may be the same place where they conduct their work-related functions.

English country house

English country house

An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a town house. This allowed them to spend time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people, the term distinguished between town and country. However, the term also encompasses houses that were, and often still are, the full-time residence for the landed gentry who ruled rural Britain until the Reform Act 1832. Frequently, the formal business of the counties was transacted in these country houses, having functional antecedents in manor houses.

Retirement honours

Upon retirement, it is customary for the sovereign to grant a prime minister some honour or dignity. The honour bestowed is commonly, but not invariably, membership of the UK's most senior order of chivalry, the Order of the Garter. The practice of creating a retired prime minister a Knight of the Garter (KG) has been fairly prevalent since the mid-nineteenth century. Upon the retirement of a prime minister who is Scottish, it is likely that the primarily Scottish honour of Knight of the Thistle (KT) will be used instead of the Order of the Garter, which is generally regarded as an English honour.[n 3]

Historically it has also been common to grant prime ministers a peerage upon retirement from the Commons, elevating the individual to the Lords. Formerly, the peerage bestowed was usually an earldom.[n 4] The last such creation was for Harold Macmillan, who resigned in 1963. Unusually, he became Earl of Stockton only in 1984, over twenty years after leaving office.

Macmillan's successors, Alec Douglas-Home, Harold Wilson, James Callaghan and Margaret Thatcher, all accepted life peerages (although Douglas-Home had previously disclaimed his hereditary title as Earl of Home). Edward Heath did not accept a peerage of any kind and nor have any of the prime ministers to retire since 1990, although Heath in 1992, John Major in 2005 and Tony Blair in 2022 were later appointed as Knights of the Garter, the latter had previously disclosed that he did not want honours bestowed for himself or future prime ministers.

The most recent former prime minister to die was Margaret Thatcher (1979–1990) on 8 April 2013. Her death meant that for the first time since 1955 (the year in which the Earldom of Attlee was created, subsequent to the death of Earl Baldwin in 1947) the membership of the House of Lords included no former prime minister, a situation which remains the case as of 2022.

Discover more about Retirement honours related topics

Earl

Earl

Earl is a rank of the nobility in the United Kingdom. The title originates in the Old English word eorl, meaning "a man of noble birth or rank". The word is cognate with the Scandinavian form jarl, and meant "chieftain", particularly a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. After the Norman Conquest, it became the equivalent of the continental count. Alternative names for the rank equivalent to "earl" or "count" in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as the hakushaku (伯爵) of the post-restoration Japanese Imperial era.

Harold Macmillan

Harold Macmillan

Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, was a British Conservative statesman and politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. Caricatured as "Supermac", he was known for his pragmatism, wit and unflappability.

Earl of Stockton

Earl of Stockton

Earl of Stockton is a title in the peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 24 February 1984 for Harold Macmillan, the former Conservative prime minister, less than three years before his death in 1986. At the same time a courtesy title was conferred for the earl's heir apparent: Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden, of Chelwood Gate in the County of East Sussex and of Stockton-on-Tees in the County of Cleveland.

Alec Douglas-Home

Alec Douglas-Home

Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, styled as Lord Dunglass between 1918 and 1951 and being The 14th Earl of Home from 1951 till 1963, was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister from October 1963 to October 1964. He is notable for being the last Prime Minister to hold office while being a member of the House of Lords, before renouncing his peerage and taking up a seat in the House of Commons for the remainder of his premiership. His reputation, however, rests more on his two spells as the UK's foreign secretary than on his brief premiership.

Harold Wilson

Harold Wilson

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom twice, from October 1964 to June 1970, and again from March 1974 to April 1976. He was the Leader of the Labour Party from 1963 to 1976, and was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1945 to 1983. Wilson is the only Labour leader to have formed administrations following four general elections.

James Callaghan

James Callaghan

Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff,, commonly known as Jim Callaghan, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980. Callaghan is the only person to have held all four Great Offices of State, having served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1964 to 1967, Home Secretary from 1967 to 1970 and Foreign Secretary from 1974 to 1976. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1945 to 1987.

Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher , was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the first female British prime minister and the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century. As prime minister, she implemented economic policies that became known as Thatcherism. A Soviet journalist dubbed her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style.

Life peer

Life peer

In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers. In modern times, life peerages, always created at the rank of baron, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and entitle the holders to seats in the House of Lords, presuming they meet qualifications such as age and citizenship. The legitimate children of a life peer are entitled to style themselves with the prefix "The Honourable", although they cannot inherit the peerage itself.

Earl of Home

Earl of Home

Earl of Home is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1605 for Alexander Home of that Ilk, 6th Lord Home. The Earl of Home holds, among others, the subsidiary titles of Lord Home, and Lord Dunglass (1605), in the Peerage of Scotland; and Baron Douglas, of Douglas in the County of Lanark (1875) in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Various Earls of Home have also claimed the title of Lord Hume of Berwick. The Earl is also Chief of the Name and Arms of Home and heir general to the House of Douglas. The title Lord Dunglass is the courtesy title of the eldest son of the Earl.

Edward Heath

Edward Heath

Sir Edward Richard George Heath was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. Heath also served for 51 years as a Member of Parliament from 1950 to 2001. Outside politics, Heath was a yachtsman, a musician, and an author.

John Major

John Major

Sir John Major is a British former politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997, and as Member of Parliament (MP) for Huntingdon, formerly Huntingdonshire, from 1979 to 2001. Prior to becoming prime minister, he served as Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer in the third Thatcher government.

Earl Baldwin of Bewdley

Earl Baldwin of Bewdley

Earl Baldwin of Bewdley is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1937 for the Conservative politician Stanley Baldwin, who had served as MP for Bewdley from 1908 to 1937 and was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom three times. He was made Viscount Corvedale, of Corvedale in the County of Salop, at the same time he was given the earldom.

Public Duty Costs Allowance (PDCA)

All former prime ministers are entitled to claim for salary or office expenses incurred in fulfilling public duties in that role. The allowance may not be used to pay for private or parliamentary duties. It is administered by the Cabinet Office Finance Team.

The maximum amount which may be claimed per year is £115,000, plus 10% towards any staff pension costs. This limit is reviewed annually, and at the start of each Parliament, by the Prime Minister. The maximum level may be adjusted downwards if the former prime minister receives any public funds for fulfilling other public appointments.[44]

Source: "Prime Minister of the United Kingdom", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 27th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_the_United_Kingdom.

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See also

Lists of prime ministers by different criteria

All lists: Category:Lists of prime ministers of the United Kingdom

Other related pages

More related pages: Category:Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

Notes
  1. ^ The Sovereign's prerogative powers are sometimes called reserve powers. They include the sole authority to dismiss a prime minister and government of the day in extremely rare and exceptional circumstances, and other essential powers (such as withholding Royal Assent, and summoning and proroguing Parliament) to preserve the stability of the nation. These reserve powers can be exercised without the consent of Parliament. Reserve powers, in practice, are the court of absolute last resort in resolving situations that fundamentally threaten the security and stability of the nation as a whole and are almost never used.
  2. ^ These include: in England and Wales, the Anglican archbishops of Canterbury and York; in Scotland, the lord high commissioner and the moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland; in Northern Ireland, the Anglican and Roman Catholic archbishops of Armagh and Dublin and the moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church.
  3. ^ This circumstance is somewhat confused, however, as since the Great Reform Act 1832, only seven Scots have served as prime minister. Of these, two – Bonar Law and Ramsay MacDonald – died while still sitting in the Commons, not yet having retired; MacDonald was offered the KT in 1935, but declined it as acceptance would have conflicted with his principles as a Labour Party member.[42] The Earl of Aberdeen was appointed to both the Order of the Garter and the Order of the Thistle, while Alec Douglas-Home became a KT while Foreign Secretary. Yet another, Arthur Balfour, was appointed to the Order of the Garter, but represented an English constituency and may not have considered himself entirely Scottish; of the remaining two, the Earl of Rosebery became a KG, and Gordon Brown remained in the House of Commons as a backbencher until 2015.
  4. ^ Churchill was offered a dukedom but declined.[43]
References
  1. ^ "Salaries of Members of His Majesty's Government – Financial Year 2021–22" (PDF). Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  2. ^ "Pay and expenses for MPs". parliament.uk. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  3. ^ "The principles of government formation (Section 2.8)". The Cabinet Manual (1st ed.). Cabinet Office. October 2011. p. 14. Retrieved 24 July 2016. Prime Ministers hold office unless and until they resign. If the prime minister resigns on behalf of the Government, the sovereign will invite the person who appears most likely to be able to command the confidence of the House to serve as prime minister and to form a government.
  4. ^ a b c d "The Cabinet Manual" (PDF) (1st ed.). Cabinet Office. October 2011.
  5. ^ "Minister for the Union". GOV.UK. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
  6. ^ "Penny Mordaunt pulls out of Tory leadership race, paving way for Rishi Sunak to become next PM". Sky News. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  7. ^ "George I". Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  8. ^ "Prime Minister". Gov.UK. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  9. ^ Le May, 98–99. Walter Bagehot, an authority on 19th-century British government, said this unity is "the efficient secret" of its constitution. Bagehot's description of the "efficient part" of the British constitution is quoted by Le May and many other standard texts: "The efficient secret of the English Constitution may be described as the close union, the nearly complete fusion, of the executive and legislative powers. No doubt, by the traditional theory, as it exists in all the books, the goodness of our constitution consists in the entire separation of the legislative and executive authorities, but in truth, its merit consists in their singular approximation. The connecting link is the Cabinet ... A Cabinet is a combing committee—a hyphen which joins a buckle which fastens the legislative part of the State to the executive part of the State. In its origin, it belongs to the one, in its functions it belongs to the other."
  10. ^ Barnett, pp. 245–246
  11. ^ King, pp. 3–8. King makes the point that much of the British constitution is in fact written and that no constitution is written down in its entirety. The distinctive feature of the British constitution, he says, is that it is not codified.
  12. ^ Quoted in Hanchant, p. 209
  13. ^ Low, p.155. In 1902, for example, Arthur Balfour said, "The prime minister has no salary as prime minister. He has no statutory duties as prime minister, his name occurs in no Acts of Parliament, and though holding the most important place in the constitutional hierarchy, he has no place which is recognized by the laws of his country. This is a strange paradox"
  14. ^ Low, p. 255 "There is no distinction," said Gladstone, "more vital to the practice of the British constitution or to the right judgement upon it than the distinction between the Sovereign and the Crown."
  15. ^ Bagehot, p. 67
  16. ^ Low, pp 255–258
  17. ^ Public Administration Select Committee. "Taming the Prerogative: Strengthening Ministerial Accountability to Parliament. Fourth Report of Session 2003–04" (PDF). Parliament of the United Kingdom. p. 4.
  18. ^ "What the Prime Minister's Office, 10 Downing Street does". gov.uk. Retrieved 20 February 2021. The office helps the Prime Minister to establish and deliver the government's overall strategy and policy priorities, and to communicate the government's policies to Parliament, the public and international audiences.
  19. ^ "The Role and Status of the Prime Minister's Office inquiry launched". parliament.uk. Retrieved 20 February 2021. Nominally, it is a part of the Cabinet Office, yet it is largely operationally distinct. Its functional relationship with the Cabinet Office is unclear.; Constitution Committee (29 January 2010). "The Cabinet Office and the Centre of Government" (PDF). p. 9. Retrieved 20 February 2021. Evidence conflicted about the relationship between the Cabinet Office and the Prime Minister's Office. In the view of some witnesses, the boundary between the two was blurred... Dr Richard Heffernan, Reader in Government, Open University, claimed that "we do not know where the Prime Minister's Department begins and where the Cabinet Office ends".
  20. ^ House of Commons Political and Constitutional Reform Committee (19 June 2014). "Role and powers of the Prime Minister" (PDF). p. 34. Retrieved 20 February 2021. One way forward would be to create a Prime Minister's Department—either as a separate entity or as a formal department combined with the Cabinet Office. Lord Hennessy believed that, in practice, there was already a Prime Minister's Department, but it was simply not referred to in those terms: "I am reluctant for a Prime Minister's Department to exist, being a traditionalist, but it does. It is there. It is the department that dare not speak its name."{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. ^ "Standing Orders of the House of Commons". Parliament.UK. Retrieved 7 July 2021. Standing Order 145(2)The committee may also hear evidence from the Prime Minister on matters of public policy.
  22. ^ Stacey, Kiran (27 October 2014). "Police to review security after man runs into David Cameron". Financial Times. Retrieved 26 February 2021. The force said: "The MPS Specialist Protection Command is responsible for the personal protection of the prime minister"
  23. ^ "Tony Blair's bodyguard left gun in Starbuck's toilet". Daily Telegraph. 4 September 2008. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2021. The SO1 unit – full name Specialist Protection Command – is responsible for the personal safety of Prime Minister Gordon Brown and former Prime Ministers Mr Blair and Margaret Thatcher.; "Cottage next to David Cameron's Dean home destroyed in suspected arson". Oxford Mail. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2021. The fire will raise questions about security for Mr Cameron, 53, who as a former Prime Minister has lifelong personal protection from the Specialist Protection Branch of the Metropolitan Police Service Protection Command.
  24. ^ "SO1 Specialist Protection". www.eliteukforces.info. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  25. ^ "Power and decision-making in the UK". BBC Bitesize. Retrieved 13 March 2021. The PM has several roles including:... representing the UK at home and abroad
  26. ^ Blick, Andrew; Jones, George. "The power of the Prime Minister". health-equity.pitt.edu/. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  27. ^ Norton, Philip (2020). Governing Britain: Parliament, Ministers and Our Ambiguous Constitution. Manchester University Press. p. 142. ISBN 9-781526-145451.
  28. ^ Brazier, Rodney (2020). Choosing a Prime Minister: The Transfer of Power in Britain. Oxford University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-885929-1.
  29. ^ Norton, Philip (2016). "A temporary occupant of No.10? Prime Ministerial succession in the event of the death of the incumbent". Public Law: 34.
  30. ^ Brazier 2020, p. 84
  31. ^ Brazier 2020, p. 68
  32. ^ "MP urges 'line of succession' rules for prime minister". BBC News. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  33. ^ Vennard, Andrew (2008). "Prime Ministerial succession". Public Law: 304.
  34. ^ Mason, Chris (15 August 2016). "Is Boris Johnson running the country?". BBC News. Retrieved 19 March 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. ^ "Statement from Downing Street: 6 April 2020". gov.uk. 6 April 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  36. ^ "The appointment of prime ministers and the role of the Queen". Institute for Government. Retrieved 23 February 2021. The incumbent prime minister informs Buckingham Palace that they will be resigning. There is then a well-rehearsed sequence of events in which the outgoing prime minister travels to see the Queen and formally tenders his or her resignation.
  37. ^ Mikhailova, Anna; Yorke, Harry (16 May 2019). "Tearful Theresa May forced to agree to stand down: PM out by June 30 at the latest". Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2021. During an emotionally-charged meeting with senior members of the 1922 Committee of Tory MPs, Mrs May was forced to agree to stand down within weeks so the Conservatives can elect a new leader before Parliament's summer recess.
  38. ^ "1957: Sir Anthony Eden resigns". BBC ON THIS DAY. 9 January 1957. Retrieved 22 February 2021. Sir Anthony Eden has resigned as prime minister of Britain due to ill health.; "Sir Anthony Eden resigns". The Guardian. 10 January 1957. Retrieved 22 February 2021. Sir Anthony Eden resigned the office of Prime Minister yesterday because, in the opinion of four doctors, "his health will no longer enable him to sustain the heavy burdens inseparable from the office of Prime Minister."
  39. ^ "What happens if a prime minister loses their seat in a general election?". Institute for Government. Retrieved 22 February 2021. Has a prime minister ever lost their seat? No incumbent prime minister has ever lost his or her seat at a general election.
  40. ^ Cameron, David (11 May 2010). "David Cameron becomes PM: Full Downing Street statement". BBC News. Retrieved 11 May 2010.; Prime Minister Gordon Brown arrives at Downing Street on YouTube; Transfer of Power from James Callaghan to Margaret Thatcher on YouTube; May, Theresa (13 July 2016). "Prime Minister Theresa May promises 'a better Britain' – the full speech". Total Politics. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  41. ^ A new politics: cutting Ministerial pay, Number10.gov.uk, 13 May 2010, archived from the original on 18 June 2010, retrieved 19 June 2010
  42. ^ Vickers, Hugo (1994). Royal Orders. Great Britain: Boxtree Limited. p. 55. ISBN 1852835109.
  43. ^ Rasor, Eugene L. (2000). Winston S. Churchill, 1874–1965: a comprehensive historiography and annotated bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-313-30546-7.
  44. ^ "Public Duty Costs Allowance guidance". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2 November 2022.

Works cited

  • Bagehot, Walter (1963) [1867]. The English Constitution. Wm. Collins & Sons. ISBN 978-0-521-46535-9.
  • Chrimes, S. B. (1947). English Constitutional History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-404-14653-5.
  • Barnett, Hilaire (2009). Constitutional & Administrative Law (7th ed.). Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge-Cavendish.
  • Farnborough, Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron (1896). Constitutional History of England since the Accession of George the Third (11th ed.). London: Longmans, Green and Co.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Hanchant, W.L. (1943). England Is Here—Speeches and Writings of the Prime Ministers of England. Bodley Head.
  • King, Anthony (2007). The British Constitution. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 978-0-9691436-3-5.
  • Le May, G. H. L. (1979). The Victorian Constitution, Conventions, Usages and Contingencies. Duckworth.
  • Leonard, Dick (2014). A History of British Prime Ministers, Walpole to Cameron. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-33804-4.
  • Van Thal, Herbert, ed. (1974). The Prime Ministers, From Sir Robert Walpole to Edward Heath. Stein and Day. ISBN 978-0-8128-1738-6.
Further reading
External links

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