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President's House (College of William & Mary)

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President's House
President's House at William & Mary, 2021.jpg
President's House, 2021.
General information
LocationWilliamsburg, Virginia
CountryUnited States
Coordinates37°16′16.4″N 76°42′30″W / 37.271222°N 76.70833°W / 37.271222; -76.70833Coordinates: 37°16′16.4″N 76°42′30″W / 37.271222°N 76.70833°W / 37.271222; -76.70833
Construction started1732
OwnerCollege of William and Mary in Virginia
Technical details
Floor count2 (original)
3 (renovation of attic)[1]
Floor area5,763 feet[2]

The President's House is the residence of the President of the College of William and Mary in Virginia in Williamsburg, Virginia. Constructed in 1732, the building still serves its original purpose and is among the oldest buildings in Virginia. Since its construction only one of the college's presidents, Robert Saunders, Jr., has not moved into the building, which is let for free to the president.[3] The President's House is the College’s third-oldest building and the oldest official college presidential residence in the United States.[2]

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List of presidents of the College of William & Mary

List of presidents of the College of William & Mary

This is a list of the presidents of the College of William & Mary in Virginia, a public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia.

Williamsburg, Virginia

Williamsburg, Virginia

Williamsburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States. As of the 2020 census, it had a population of 15,425. Located on the Virginia Peninsula, Williamsburg is in the northern part of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area. It is bordered by James City County on the west and south and York County on the east.

List of the oldest buildings in Virginia

List of the oldest buildings in Virginia

This article attempts to list the oldest extant buildings in the state of Virginia.

United States

United States

The United States of America, commonly known as the United States or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, nine Minor Outlying Islands, and 326 Indian reservations. The United States is also in free association with three Pacific Island sovereign states: the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. It is the world's third-largest country by both land and total area. It shares land borders with Canada to its north and with Mexico to its south. The U.S. has maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, Russia, and other nations. With a population of over 333 million, it is the most populous country in the Americas and the third most populous in the world. The national capital is Washington, D.C. and the most populous city and financial center is New York City.

Location

The President's House is located on the College's Ancient Campus (also known as "Historic Campus"). Situated northeast of the Wren Building and facing the Brafferton to the building's south, the President's House is considered to be a component of the Wren Building's forecourt. Together, these seventeenth-century structures form the centerpiece of the Virginia Landmarks Register's Williamsburg Historic District.[4]

The three buildings occupy the wedge formed by the confluence of Richmond Road and Jamestown Road. These two roads originate at Richmond (the current capital of Virginia) and Jamestown (the first capital of the Colony of Virginia), intersecting at the western terminus of Duke of Gloucester Street and forming an intersection referred to by locals as "Confusion Corner" or "College Corner".[5] President's House is visible looking west from Duke of Gloucester Street in present-day Merchant's Square of Colonial Williamsburg.[6]

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Wren Building

Wren Building

The Wren Building is the signature building of the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. Along with the Brafferton and President's House, these buildings form the College's Ancient Campus. With a construction history dating to 1695, it is the oldest academic building in continuous use in the United States and among the oldest buildings in Virginia. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960.

Brafferton (building)

Brafferton (building)

The Brafferton, built in 1723, is located southeast of the Sir Christopher Wren Building, facing the President's House on the campus of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia.

Virginia Landmarks Register

Virginia Landmarks Register

The Virginia Landmarks Register (VLR) is a list of historic properties in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The state's official list of important historic sites, it was created in 1966. The Register serves the same purpose as the National Register of Historic Places. The nomination form for any Virginia site listed on the VLR is sent forward to the National Park Service for consideration for listing on the National Register.

Richmond, Virginia

Richmond, Virginia

Richmond is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond Region. Richmond was incorporated in 1742 and has been an independent city since 1871. At the 2010 census, the city's population was 204,214; in 2020, the population had grown to 226,610, making Richmond the fourth-most populous city in Virginia. The Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state.

Jamestown, Virginia

Jamestown, Virginia

The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the northeast bank of the James (Powhatan) River about 2.5 mi (4 km) southwest of the center of modern Williamsburg. It was established by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 4, 1607 O.S., and was considered permanent after a brief abandonment in 1610. It followed several failed attempts, including the Lost Colony of Roanoke, established in 1585 on Roanoke Island, later part of North Carolina. Jamestown served as the colonial capital from 1616 until 1699. Despite the dispatch of more settlers and supplies, including the 1608 arrival of eight Polish and German colonists and the first two European women, more than 80 percent of the colonists died in 1609–10, mostly from starvation and disease. In mid-1610, the survivors abandoned Jamestown, though they returned after meeting a resupply convoy in the James River.

Colony of Virginia

Colony of Virginia

The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583 and the colony of Roanoke by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s.

Colonial Williamsburg

Colonial Williamsburg

Colonial Williamsburg is a living-history museum and private foundation presenting a part of the historic district in the city of Williamsburg, Virginia. Its 301-acre (122 ha) historic area includes several hundred restored or recreated buildings from the 18th century, when the city was the capital of the Colony of Virginia; 17th-century, 19th-century, and Colonial Revival structures; and more recent reconstructions. The historic area includes three main thoroughfares and their connecting side streets that attempt to suggest the atmosphere and the circumstances of 18th-century Americans. Costumed employees work and dress as people did in the era, sometimes using colonial grammar and diction.

Design

Copying much of the Brafferton design, Henry Cary, Jr. built the President's House to sit directly across from the Brafferton on the campus. Each dimension of the President's House is four feet (1.2 m) larger than the Brafferton.[3] A central passage on the ground floor was built with two rooms on each side with a dining room and parlor in the front, austerely mirroring contemporaneous Georgian gentry residences in the Tidewater region.[7] The exterior features a hip roof, five-bay design on Flemish bond brickwork with glazed headers.[8][3]

During its 1928-1931 renovations as part of John D. Rockefeller, Jr.'s efforts to restore Williamsburg to its colonial appearance, several of the outbuildings were rebuilt or altered. Among them was a garage built during Benjamin Ewell's 1854-1888 presidency, which was converted into a firehouse.[9] The grounds of the President's House also include a flower garden and an unpaved driveway.

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Georgian architecture

Georgian architecture

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is named after the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The so-called great Georgian cities of the British Isles were Edinburgh, Bath, pre-independence Dublin, and London, and to a lesser extent York and Bristol. The style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture; in both it is also called Georgian Revival architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is generally used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; in Britain it is generally restricted to buildings that are "architectural in intention", and have stylistic characteristics that are typical of the period, though that covers a wide range.

Tidewater (region)

Tidewater (region)

Tidewater refers to the north Atlantic coastal plain region of the United States of America.

Hip roof

Hip roof

A hip roof, hip-roof or hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope. Thus, a hipped roof has no gables or other vertical sides to the roof.

Bay (architecture)

Bay (architecture)

In architecture, a bay is the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment. The term bay comes from Old French baie, meaning an opening or hole.

Brickwork

Brickwork

Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks called courses are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall.

Ceramic glaze

Ceramic glaze

Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a pottery body through firing. Glaze can serve to color, decorate or waterproof an item. Glazing renders earthenware vessels suitable for holding liquids, sealing the inherent porosity of unglazed biscuit earthenware. It also gives a tougher surface. Glaze is also used on stoneware and porcelain. In addition to their functionality, glazes can form a variety of surface finishes, including degrees of glossy or matte finish and color. Glazes may also enhance the underlying design or texture either unmodified or inscribed, carved or painted.

Shed

Shed

A shed is typically a simple, single-story roofed structure that is used for hobbies, or as a workshop in a back garden or on an allotment. Sheds vary considerably in their size and complexity of construction, from simple open-sided ones designed to cover bicycles or garden items to large wood-framed structures with shingled roofs, windows, and electrical outlets. Sheds used on farms or in the industry can be large structures. The main types of shed construction are metal sheathing over a metal frame, plastic sheathing and frame, all-wood construction, and vinyl-sided sheds built over a wooden frame. Small sheds may include a wooden or plastic floor, while more permanent ones may be built on a concrete pad or foundation. Sheds may be lockable to deter theft or entry by children, domestic animals, wildlife, etc.

Benjamin Stoddert Ewell

Benjamin Stoddert Ewell

Benjamin Stoddert Ewell was a United States and Confederate army officer, civil engineer, and educator from James City County, Virginia. He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York in 1832 and served as an officer and educator.

History

Print depicting Ancient Campus as it would have appeared before an 1859 gutted the Wren Building;[10] the President's House is located to the right
Print depicting Ancient Campus as it would have appeared before an 1859 gutted the Wren Building;[10] the President's House is located to the right

The College of William and Mary in Virginia was chartered on 8 February 1693 by King William III and Queen Mary II, the King and Queen of England, as a seminary for the Church of England in Virginia.[11] Middle Plantation, a halfway point between Jamestown along the James River and the small settlement of Chiskiack along the York River, was selected as the site of this new school. On the site of what is now the President's House ran a wooden palisade built in 1633 that cut through Middle Plantation to prevent Powhatan incursions in the aftermath of the massacre of English settlers in 1622 and the ensuing Second Anglo-Powhatan War.[12] The palisade survived less than a decade but figured largely in the societal memory of the first students at the College over 60 years later.[13]

Construction began on the Sir Christopher Wren Building–named for its potential architect, Christopher Wren–on 8 August 1695 as the College's first building.[14] The construction on the Wren Building was completed in 1699, the year the City of Williamsburg was both established and became the second capital of Virginia, but rebuilding was required following a fire in 1705.[15][16] In 1717, Governor Alexander Spotswood established a school for Indians. In 1723, the Brafferton was constructed to house this school.[17]

Williamsburg resident Henry Cary Jr. is thought to have been contracted to construct the Brafferton and did extensive work on the Governor's Palace and Capitol.[18] On 31 July 1732, several weeks after completing the Wren Building's chapel wing in 1732, Cary is recorded as having laid the foundation for the President's House.[3] Construction was completed the next year, with the College's first president and founder James Blair moving in.[19] Both the Brafferton and the President's House were built by enslaved laborers hired out to the College.[20]

Among the earliest depictions of the President's House can be found in the Bodleian Plate, a copperplate dating to circa 1735-1740 of indeterminate origin–though perhaps meant to illustrate a book by William Byrd II–and rediscovered in the Bodleian Library archives in 1929 by historian Mary F. Goodwin.[7][21][22] The Frenchman's Map, thought to be the product of a French Army officer's survey of Williamsburg near the end of the Revolutionary War, notes the location of the President's House. This map was used extensively by Episcopalian minister W. A. R. Goodwin—the longtime rector of Bruton Parish—and later the Rockefeller-funded restoration effort to chart the site of Williamsburg buildings circa 1782.[23]

In 1781, during the American Revolutionary War, General Charles Cornwallis of the British Army established his headquarters in the President's House. The British troops were evicted shortly thereafter, with French and Continental Army wounded receiving treatment both in the House and the Governor's Palace. Lafayette would eventually take the President's House as his temporary housing and headquarters.[24] Both the President's House and Governor's Palace would burn during the Franco-Continental occupation, with the President's House burning before the Battle of Yorktown and Governor's Palace burning on 22 December.[9][25] The Kingdom of France donated the necessary funds to restore the President's House in 1786, though the Governor's Palace was not rebuilt until 1934. Minor fires would again damage the building in 1879 (destroying much of the second and third floors), 1916, and 1922 (destroying the roof).[3][26] The first fire is cited as the basis of most ghost stories relating to the President's House, despite no records of any fatalities associated with the inferno.[27]

Print of the Bodleian Plate, with President's House in the upper right
Print of the Bodleian Plate, with President's House in the upper right

Union Army troops used the House as a headquarters during the 5 May 1862 Battle of Williamsburg in the Peninsular Campaign of the American Civil War. The President's House went unscathed despite a fire reportedly set by the 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment burning the Wren Building.[28] Through until the end of the war and for a period after, the President's House was used as a fortified Union regimental headquarters.[29]: 333 

John D. Rockefeller, Jr. publicly announced his intentions to include the Ancient Campus of the College in his restoration of Williamsburg to its colonial appearance in January 1928.[30]: 558  On 15 January 1931, the College handed over the President's House to Rockefeller's Williamsburg Holding Corporation for restoration, with work completed by the end of the summer.[30]: 559 

Every President of the United States from Woodrow Wilson to Dwight D. Eisenhower visited the President’s House, as did Winston Churchill.[3] Queen Elizabeth II was a guest at the President’s House twice: in 1957 and May 2007, as part of celebrations for the 350th and 400th anniversaries respectively of the establishment of the Jamestown Colony.[31]

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Mary II of England

Mary II of England

Mary II was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband, William III & II, from 1689 until her death in 1694.

Church of England

Church of England

The Church of England is the established Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the 3rd century and to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury. Its adherents are called Anglicans.

Middle Plantation (Virginia)

Middle Plantation (Virginia)

Middle Plantation in the Virginia Colony was the unincorporated town established in 1632 that became Williamsburg in 1699. It was located on high ground about halfway across the Virginia Peninsula between the James River and York River. Middle Plantation represented the first major inland settlement for the colony. It was established by an Act of Assembly to provide a link between Jamestown and Chiskiack, a settlement located across the Peninsula on the York River.

James River

James River

The James River is a river in the U.S. state of Virginia that begins in the Appalachian Mountains and flows 348 miles (560 km) to the Chesapeake Bay. The river length extends to 444 miles (715 km) if one includes the Jackson River, the longer of its two source tributaries. It is the longest river in Virginia. Jamestown and Williamsburg, Virginia's first colonial capitals, and Richmond, Virginia's current capital, lie on the James River.

Palisade

Palisade

A palisade, sometimes called a stakewall or a paling, is typically a fence or defensive wall made from iron or wooden stakes, or tree trunks, and used as a defensive structure or enclosure. Palisades can form a stockade.

Powhatan

Powhatan

The Powhatan people may refer to any of the indigenous Algonquian people that are traditionally from eastern Virginia. All of the Powhatan groups descend from the Powhatan Confederacy. In some instances, The Powhatan may refer to one of the leaders of the people. This is most commonly the case in historical records from English colonial accounts. The Powhatans have also been known as Virginia Algonquians, as the Powhatan language is an eastern-Algonquian language, also known as Virginia Algonquian. It is estimated that there were about 14,000–21,000 Powhatan people in eastern Virginia, when English colonists established Jamestown in 1607.

Indian massacre of 1622

Indian massacre of 1622

The Indian massacre of 1622, popularly known as the Jamestown massacre, took place in the English Colony of Virginia, in what is now the United States, on 22 March 1622. John Smith, though he had not been in Virginia since 1609 and was not an eyewitness, related in his History of Virginia that warriors of the Powhatan "came unarmed into our houses with deer, turkeys, fish, fruits, and other provisions to sell us". The Powhatan then grabbed any tools or weapons available and killed all the English settlers they found, including men, women, children of all ages. Chief Opechancanough led the Powhatan Confederacy in a coordinated series of surprise attacks, and they killed a total of 347 people, a quarter of the population of the Virginia colony.

Christopher Wren

Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS was one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history, as well as an anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist. Known for his work in the English Baroque style, he was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including what is regarded as his masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral, on Ludgate Hill, completed in 1710.

List of colonial governors of Virginia

List of colonial governors of Virginia

This is a list of colonial governors of Virginia.

Alexander Spotswood

Alexander Spotswood

Alexander Spotswood was a British Army officer, explorer and lieutenant governor of Colonial Virginia; he is regarded as one of the most significant historical figures in British North American colonial history.

Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Americans, and other terms, are the Indigenous peoples of the mainland United States. There are 574 federally recognized tribes living within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. As defined by the United States Census, "Native Americans" are Indigenous tribes that are originally from the contiguous United States, along with Alaska Natives. Indigenous peoples of the United States who are not listed as American Indian or Alaska Native include Native Hawaiians, Samoan Americans, and Chamorros. The US Census groups these peoples as "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders".

Governor's Palace (Williamsburg, Virginia)

Governor's Palace (Williamsburg, Virginia)

The Governor's Palace in Williamsburg, Virginia, was the official residence of the royal governors of the Colony of Virginia. It was also a home for two of Virginia's post-colonial governors, Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson, until the capital was moved to Richmond in 1780, and with it the governor's residence. The main house burned down in 1781, though the outbuildings survived for some time after.

Source: "President's House (College of William & Mary)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President's_House_(College_of_William_&_Mary).

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References
  1. ^ "W&M president's house receives top ranking for looks and history". Inside Business. Norfolk, VA: The Virginian-Pilot. 16 August 2016. Archived from the original on 14 May 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  2. ^ a b Frieswick, Kris (4 October 2018). "The Multimillion-Dollar Homes on Campus Where Rent is Free". The Wall Street Journal. New York City: Dow Jones & Company. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "The President's House". wm.edu. Williamsburg, Virginia: The College of William and Mary in Virginia. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021.
  4. ^ "137-0013 Wren Building (Old College Yard, College of William and Mary)". Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Historic Resources. 19 March 2019. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  5. ^ Kale, Wilford (29 April 2021). "Confusion Corner or College Corner? Williamsburg intersection is source of debate–and bafflement for drivers". The Virginia Gazette. Williamsburg, VA. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  6. ^ ""Confusion Corner" or "College Corner"". williamsburg.kspot.org. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  7. ^ a b Lounsbury, Carl (2000). "Ornaments of Civic Aspiration: The Public Buildings of Williamsburg". In Robert P. Maccubbin (ed.). Williamsburg, Virginia: A City Before the State, 1699–1999. Williamsburg, VA. p. 30.
  8. ^ "College of William and Mary, President's House, Colonial Williamsburg". Andrew Dickson White Architectural Photographs Collection. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Library, Cornell University. c. 1930. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  9. ^ a b Special Collections Research Center, William & Mary Libraries. "President's House, Constructed 1732". tribetrek.wm.edu. Williamsburg, VA. Retrieved 14 May 2021 – via TribeTrek.
  10. ^ Brannock, Phoebe M. (31 October 2017). "Truth stretched and legend upheld". Williamsburg, VA: College of William & Mary. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  11. ^ William III of England; Mary II of England. "Royal Charter of the College of William and Mary". Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021 – via Encyclopedia Virginia.
  12. ^ "Frontier Forts in Virginia". Virginia Places. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  13. ^ Levy, Philip (2004). "A New Look at an Old Wall. Indians, Englishmen, Landscape, and the 1634 Palisade at Middle Plantation". The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Virginia Historical Society. 112 (3): 226–265. JSTOR 4250194. Retrieved 17 May 2021 – via JSTOR.
  14. ^ "Wren Building". Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  15. ^ "History of the Wren Building". wm.edu. Williamsburg, VA: The College of William and Mary in Virginia. Archived from the original on 14 May 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  16. ^ "History". williamsburgva.gov. Williamsburg, VA: City of Williamsburg. Archived from the original on 14 May 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  17. ^ "American Indian Education in Virginia: The Brafferton School". Virginia Indian Archive. Virginia Indian Heritage Program, Virginia Humanities and University of Virginia. Archived from the original on 14 May 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  18. ^ Lounsbury, Carl (12 February 2021). "Cary, Henry (d. by 1750)". Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Humanities and University of Virginia. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  19. ^ Walls, John (26 January 2017). "Where We Live: The President's House". Williamsburg Yorktown Daily. Williamsburg, VA. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  20. ^ Meyers, Terry (14 December 2020). "Slavery at the College of William and Mary". Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Humanities. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  21. ^ "The Bodleian Print". wm.edu. Williamsburg, VA: The College of William and Mary in Virginia. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  22. ^ "Engraved Copperplate of Colonial-Era Williamsburg". Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Humanities. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  23. ^ Lombardi, Michael J. (Autumn 2007). "In Search of the Frenchman's Map". Colonial Williamsburg Journal. Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Retrieved 14 May 2021 – via research.colonialwilliamsburg.org.
  24. ^ Kale, Wilford (2017). From Student to Warrior: A Military History of The College of William and Mary. Williamsburg, VA: Botetourt Press.
  25. ^ Martin, Marianne; Cooke, Donna (22 January 2020). "Celebrate the Governor's Palace 85th Anniversary". Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  26. ^ "Fires". Special Collections Research Center Wiki. Williamsburg, VA: Special Collections Research Center, William & Mary Libraries. Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  27. ^ "Living on a haunted campus". The Flat Hat. Williamsburg, VA. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  28. ^ Erickson, Mark St. John (14 August 2013). "The Civil War at the College of William and Mary". Daily Press. Williamsburg, VA. Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  29. ^ Walker, Henry C. (1993). "Part III: Chapter 1". The College of William & Mary: A History: Volume I. Williamsburg, VA: King and Queen Press, Society of the Alumni, The College of William and Mary in Virginia.
  30. ^ a b Sherman, Richard B. (1993). "Part V: Chapter 1". The College of William & Mary: A History: Volume II. Williamsburg, VA: King and Queen Press, Society of the Alumni, The College of William and Mary in Virginia.
  31. ^ Gene Nichol (24 April 2007). "Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II returns to William & Mary May 4, 2007". wm.edu. Williamsburg, VA: The College of William and Mary in Virginia. Retrieved 19 May 2021.

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