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Porto Alegre

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Porto Alegre
Município de Porto Alegre
Municipality of Porto Alegre
From top to bottom and left to right: downtown view at night; Statue of the Laçador; Mário Quintana House of Culture; Monument to the Azoreans in front of the Administrative Center of the State; Monument to the Expeditionary in Farroupilha Park; Gasometer Plant; panorama of the city from the Lake Guaíba.
Flag of Porto Alegre
Official seal of Porto Alegre
Motto(s): 
Leal e Valorosa Cidade de Porto Alegre
Loyal and Valiant city of Porto Alegre
Location of Porto Alegre
Porto Alegre is located in Brazil
Porto Alegre
Porto Alegre
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 30°01′59″S 51°13′48″W / 30.03306°S 51.23000°W / -30.03306; -51.23000Coordinates: 30°01′59″S 51°13′48″W / 30.03306°S 51.23000°W / -30.03306; -51.23000
Country Brazil
RegionSouth
State Rio Grande do Sul
MesoregionMetropolitan Porto Alegre
MicroregionMicroregion of Porto Alegre
Founded26 March 1772
Government
 • MayorSebastião Melo (MDB)
Area
 • Municipality496.827 km2 (191.826 sq mi)
Elevation
10 m (30 ft)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Municipality1,488,252 (12th)
 • Density2,837.5/km2 (7,349/sq mi)
 • Metro
4,405,769 (4th)
DemonymPorto-alegrenses
Time zoneUTC-3 (UTC−3)
Postal Code
90000-000
Area code+55 51
HDI (2010)0.805 – very high[2]
Websitewww.portoalegre.rs.gov.br

Porto Alegre (UK: /ˌpɔːrt əˈlɛɡr/, US: /- ɑːˈlɡri, ˌpɔːrt əˈlɛɡrə/,[3][4] Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈpoɾtu aˈlɛɡɾi] (listen);[a] lit.'"Joyful Harbor"') is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Its population of 1,488,252 inhabitants (2020) makes it the twelfth most populous city in the country and the center of Brazil's fifth largest metropolitan area, with 4,405,760 inhabitants (2010). The city is the southernmost capital city of a Brazilian state.[5]

Porto Alegre was founded in 1769 by Manuel Jorge Gomes de Sepúlveda, who used the pseudonym José Marcelino de Figueiredo to hide his identity; but the official date is 1772 with the act signed by immigrants from the Azores, Portugal.

The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaíba Lake, where five rivers converge to form the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This five-river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial center of Brazil.

In recent years, Porto Alegre hosted the World Social Forum, an initiative of several non-government organizations. The city became famous for being the first city that implemented participatory budgeting.[6] The 9th Assembly of the World Council of Churches was held in Porto Alegre in 2006. Since 2000, Porto Alegre also hosts one of the world's largest free software events, called FISL.

The city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, having previously been a venue for the 1950 FIFA World Cup.

In the middle of 2010s, Porto Alegre had a growing wave of violence,[7] being ranked as 39th among the world's 50 most violent cities in 2017.[8] Nevertheless, the number of violent crimes has been dropping steadily since 2018.[9][10]

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British English

British English

British English (BrE) is, according to Oxford Dictionaries, "English as used in Great Britain, as distinct from that used elsewhere". More narrowly, it can refer specifically to the English language in England, or, more broadly, to the collective dialects of English throughout the British Isles taken as a single umbrella variety, for instance additionally incorporating Scottish English, Welsh English, and Northern Irish English. Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English acknowledges that British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions [with] the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English

American English

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and in most circumstances is the de facto common language used in government, education, and commerce. Since the 20th century, American English has become the most influential form of English worldwide.

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3,300,000 sq mi) and with over 217 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the seventh most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world; and the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.

List of metropolitan areas in Brazil

List of metropolitan areas in Brazil

This is a list of the metropolitan areas in Brazil, containing the legally defined metropolitan areas with more than one million inhabitants in Brazil, according to estimates published by IBGE.

Immigration to Brazil

Immigration to Brazil

Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign peoples to reside permanently. It should not be confused with the colonization of the country by the Portuguese, or with the forcible bringing of people from Africa as slaves. Latin Europe accounted for four-fifths of the arrivals. This engendered a strikingly multicultural society. Yet over a few generations, Brazil absorbed these new populations in a manner that resembles the experience of the rest of the New World.

Azores

Azores

The Azores, officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago composed of nine volcanic islands in the Macaronesia region of the North Atlantic Ocean, about 1,400 km (870 mi) west of Lisbon, about 1,500 km (930 mi) northwest of Morocco, and about 1,930 km (1,200 mi) southeast of Newfoundland, Canada.

Lagoa dos Patos

Lagoa dos Patos

Lagoa dos Patos is the largest lagoon in Brazil and the largest coastal lagoon in South America. It is located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. It covers an area of 10,100 km2 (3,900 sq mi), is 180 miles (290 km) long and has a maximum width of 44 miles (71 km).

Lagoon

Lagoon

A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by a narrow landform, such as reefs, barrier islands, barrier peninsulas, or isthmuses. Lagoons are commonly divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons. They have also been identified as occurring on mixed-sand and gravel coastlines. There is an overlap between bodies of water classified as coastal lagoons and bodies of water classified as estuaries. Lagoons are common coastal features around many parts of the world.

Participatory budgeting

Participatory budgeting

Participatory budgeting (PB) is a type of citizen sourcing in which ordinary people decide how to allocate part of a municipal or public budget through a process of democratic deliberation and decision-making. Participatory budgeting allows citizens or residents of a locality to identify, discuss, and prioritize public spending projects, and gives them the power to make real decisions about how money is spent.

Free software

Free software

Free software or libre software, infrequently known as freedom-respecting software, is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty, not price; all users are legally free to do what they want with their copies of a free software regardless of how much is paid to obtain the program. Computer programs are deemed "free" if they give end-users ultimate control over the software and, subsequently, over their devices.

2014 FIFA World Cup

2014 FIFA World Cup

The 2014 FIFA World Cup was the 20th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organised by FIFA. It took place in Brazil from 12 June to 13 July 2014, after the country was awarded the hosting rights in 2007. It was the second time that Brazil staged the competition, the first being in 1950, and the fifth time that it was held in South America. Fans and pundits alike consider this edition of the World Cup to be one of the greatest ever held.

1950 FIFA World Cup

1950 FIFA World Cup

The 1950 FIFA World Cup was the fourth edition of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for senior men's national teams and held in Brazil from 24 June to 16 July 1950. The planned 1942 and 1946 World Cups were cancelled due to World War II. This tournament ended the hiatus. Uruguay, who had won the inaugural competition in 1930, defeated the host nation, Brazil, in the deciding match of the four-team group of the final round. This was the only tournament not decided by a one-match final. It was also the inaugural tournament where the trophy was referred to as the Jules Rimet Cup, to mark the 25th anniversary of Jules Rimet's presidency of FIFA.

History

Porto Alegre in 1852.
Porto Alegre in 1852.
Otávio Rocha Square in 1930.
Otávio Rocha Square in 1930.

The official date of the foundation of the city of Porto Alegre is 26 March 1772 by Manuel Sepúlveda, when Freguesia de São Francisco do Porto dos Casais was created and changed a year later to Nossa Senhora da Madre de Deus de Porto Alegre. However, the village started in 1752, when 60 Azorean couples were brought over by the Treaty of Madrid in order to set up Missions at the Northeast Region of Rio Grande do Sul that was handed over to the Portuguese Crown in exchange for the Sacramento Colony located on the margin of the Plata River. Land demarcation took a long time and the Azoreans settled permanently at Porto de Viamão, which was the first name by which Porto Alegre went by.[11]

On 24 July 1773, Porto Alegre became the capital city of the province, when the administration of Manuel Sepúlveda, who used the fictitious name or pseudonym José Marcelino de Figueiredo, to hide their identity, officially started. In 1824, immigrants from all over the world started arriving, especially German, Italian, Spanish, Polish, Jewish, and Lebanese.[12]

Porto Alegre in 1961.
Porto Alegre in 1961.

The capital city of Rio Grande do Sul is also the capital city of the Pampas region, the name given to the region of fauna and flora typical of the vast plains that dominate the landscape of the southern tip of Brazil, part of Argentina and Uruguay. This is where the Gaúcho comes from, the historical figure of a brave warrior that fought legendary battles and wars in the quest to conquer the borders of the Kingdoms of Portugal and Spain in the 16th century.[11]

There were many wars, but it was the nineteenth century that marked its people, after they fought a long war for their independence from the Brazilian Empire. The Farrapos War started with the confrontation in Porto Alegre, near the Azenha bridge on 20 September 1835. This conflict etched in the pages of history the myth of the gaucho that is still praised in songs and celebrated in annual pageants and honored as names of streets and parks.[11]

When the Farrapos War ended, the city continued to develop and underwent strong urban restructuring during the last decades of the 18th century, driven by the accelerated growth of port-related activities and shipyards. Its development continued over time and the city kept abreast with cultural, political and social events that were taking place within Brazil. Porto Alegre is the birthplace of great writers, intellectuals, artists, politicians, and episodes that marked the history of Brazil.[11]

The city became known worldwide in 1963 through hosting the World University Games.[13] In 1985, the people of Porto Alegre joined the movement for free elections and one of the largest demonstrations took place in the city.[14]

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Timeline of Porto Alegre

Timeline of Porto Alegre

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Porto Alegre, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Treaty of Madrid (13 January 1750)

Treaty of Madrid (13 January 1750)

The Spanish–Portuguese treaty of 1750 or Treaty of Madrid was a document signed in the Spanish capital by Ferdinand VI of Spain and John V of Portugal on 13 January 1750.

Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande do Sul is a state in the southern region of Brazil. It is the fifth-most-populous state and the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo, Rivera and Artigas to the south and southwest, and the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest. The capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, and the crime rate is relatively low compared to the Brazilian national average. Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high in the state, as of 2017. The state has 5.4% of the Brazilian population and it is responsible for 6.6% of the Brazilian GDP.

Poles

Poles

Poles, or Polish people, are a West Slavic nation and ethnic group, who share a common history, culture, the Polish language and are identified with the country of Poland in Central Europe. The preamble to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland defines the Polish nation as comprising all the citizens of Poland, regardless of heritage or ethnicity. The majority of Poles adhere to Roman Catholicism.

Lebanese people

Lebanese people

The Lebanese people are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon. The term may also include those who had inhabited Mount Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon mountains prior to the creation of the modern Lebanese state. The major religious groups among the Lebanese people within Lebanon are Shia Muslims (27%), Sunni Muslims (27%), Maronite Christians (21%), Greek Orthodox Christians (8%), Melkite Christians (5%), Druze (5.2%), Protestant Christians (1%). The largest contingent of Lebanese, however, comprise a diaspora in North America, South America, Europe, Australia and Africa, which is predominantly Maronite Christian.

Pampas

Pampas

The Pampas are fertile South American low grasslands that cover more than 1,200,000 square kilometres (460,000 sq mi) and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, and Córdoba; all of Uruguay; and Brazil's southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul. The vast plains are a natural region, interrupted only by the low Ventana and Tandil hills, near Bahía Blanca and Tandil (Argentina), with a height of 1,300 m (4,265 ft) and 500 m (1,640 ft), respectively.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Uruguay

Uruguay

Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; while bordering the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. It is part of the Southern Cone region of South America. Uruguay covers an area of approximately 181,034 square kilometers (69,898 sq mi) and has a population of an estimated 3.4 million, of whom around 2 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo.

The city

View of Porto Alegre bay at sunset.
View of Porto Alegre bay at sunset.

The city is on a delta resulting from the junction of five rivers, officially called Guaíba Lake (popularly mentioned as a river, too). The city dates from the mid-18th century, when immigrants from the Azores, islands in the Atlantic Ocean that are part of Portugal, settled in the area, encouraged by the Portuguese government.[15] The city was officially established in 1742.[16] Porto Alegre is one of the wealthiest cities in Latin America[17] and one of the most diverse. Its residents includes immigrants from Portugal, Russia, Germany, Italy, Spain, Ukraine and Poland. There are also significant Arab and Jewish contingents among its population.[18] The Afro-Brazilian population of the state is concentrated in the city.

Before this, Porto Alegre was the port of Viamão on the shore of Guaíba Lake. Its previous name was Porto dos Casais (Port of the Couples). and it was initially settled by Azoreans. Many families of settlers came from the city of Rio Grande in the littoral Lagunar region, to the south, a military fortress at that time. Today Rio Grande is the most important port of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The city is also known as "Porto do Sol" (Port of the Sun) and "Cidade Sorriso" (Smile City).[19] More than 70 neighborhoods (see below) are part of the city and two-thirds of the population are concentrated in the Zona Norte (Northern Zone), where most of the economic activity, including the city center, takes place.

Porto Alegre was the seat of the World Social Forum in 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2010. As the second largest city in southern Brazil, it is an important industrial center in the area. It is also a center for gaúcho (the popular name for natives of the state) history and culture, famous for its churrasco (barbecue) and chimarrão (a strong and hot tea prepared from erva mate). Important Brazilian universities, such as Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA) and Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) are there. In 2000, the literacy rate was 97%.[20] The high quality of life is one of the city's main features.

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River delta

River delta

A river delta is a landform shaped like a triangle, created by deposition of sediment that is carried by a river and enters slower-moving or stagnant water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, or another river that cannot carry away the supplied sediment. It is so named because its triangle shape, resembles the Greek letter Delta. The size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between watershed processes that supply sediment, and receiving basin processes that redistribute, sequester, and export that sediment. The size, geometry, and location of the receiving basin also plays an important role in delta evolution.

Azores

Azores

The Azores, officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago composed of nine volcanic islands in the Macaronesia region of the North Atlantic Ocean, about 1,400 km (870 mi) west of Lisbon, about 1,500 km (930 mi) northwest of Morocco, and about 1,930 km (1,200 mi) southeast of Newfoundland, Canada.

Spanish immigration to Brazil

Spanish immigration to Brazil

Spanish emigration peaked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was concentrated to Argentina, Uruguay and Cuba. Between 1882 and 1930, 3,297,312 Spaniards emigrated, of whom 1,594,622 went to Argentina and 1,118,960 went to Cuba. Brazil only started to be an important destination for immigrants from Spain in the 1880s, but the country received the third largest number of Spanish emigrants, behind only the two aforementioned countries. Spaniards also made up the third largest national group to immigrate to Brazil, after the Italians and Portuguese.

History of the Jews in Brazil

History of the Jews in Brazil

The history of the Jews in Brazil begins during the settlement of Europeans in the new world. Although only baptized Christians were subject to the Inquisition, Jews started settling in Brazil when the Inquisition reached Portugal, in the 16th century. They arrived in Brazil during the period of Dutch rule, setting up in Recife the first synagogue in the Americas, the Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue, as early as 1636. Most of those Jews were Sephardic Jews who had fled the Inquisition in Spain and Portugal to the religious freedom of the Netherlands.

Viamão

Viamão

Viamão is a city in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In size it is the largest municipality in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre and the seventh most populous in the state.

Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande is a municipality (município) and one of the oldest cities in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. It was the state capital from 1835 to 1845. It is the most important port city in the state and has one of the most important maritime ports in Brazil.

World Social Forum

World Social Forum

The World Social Forum is an annual meeting of civil society organizations, first held in Brazil, which offers a self-conscious effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemonic globalization.

Gaucho

Gaucho

A gaucho or gaúcho is a skilled horseman, reputed to be brave and unruly. The figure of the gaucho is a folk symbol of Argentina, Uruguay, Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, and the south of Chilean Patagonia. Gauchos became greatly admired and renowned in legend, folklore, and literature and became an important part of their regional cultural tradition. Beginning late in the 19th century, after the heyday of the gauchos, they were celebrated by South American writers.

Geography

Historic Center of Porto Alegre.
Historic Center of Porto Alegre.
Porto Alegre seen from Santa Tereza Hill.
Porto Alegre seen from Santa Tereza Hill.

The city of Porto Alegre is located at the northern end of the large coastal lagoon, Lagoa dos Patos in southeastern Brazil. The city lies on the east bank of the mouth of the Rio Guaiba, the estuary of which forms the enormous freshwater lagoon, Lagoa dos Patos. It additionally serves as the state capital of Brazil's southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul.

Porto Alegre has a long coastline on the Guaíba Lake, and its topography is punctuated by 40 hills. In the lake, a vast body of water, a maze of islands facing the city creates an archipelago where a unique ecosystem gives shelter to abundant wildlife. The city area concentrates 28% of the native flora of Rio Grande do Sul, with 9,288 species.[21] Among these, there are many trees which are vestiges of the Atlantic Forest. Fauna are also diversified, especially in the islands and hills. The Portoalegrense environs include many parks, squares and wooded streets.

Climate

According to the Köppen climate classification, Porto Alegre has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) characterized by its high variability, but with well-defined seasons and evenly distributed rain throughout the year. The presence of Lake Guaíba contributes to increase the humidity of the air.[22] The city experiences the most prominent difference among seasons and between temperature extremes among all Brazilian capitals. One reason for that is the highest latitude, which also contributes for the occurrence of 14 hours of daylight in December and 10 hours in June.[23] Due to a large depletion in the ozone layer over the south of Brazil, a result of the Antarctic ozone hole,[24] the population is occasionally dangerously exposed to extremely high UV radiation.[25]

The winter is mild to cool, windy, rainy and quite changeable, which is also a feature of this time of the year. Usual winter temperatures range from 10 °C (50 °F) to 19 °C (66 °F). In the coldest days of the year the temperature may fall slightly below zero, like in 2012, when it recorded −0.7 °C (31 °F).[26] The summers are very hot, with temperatures that go up to 30 °C (86 °F), sometimes reaching 40 °C (104 °F).[27] Sometimes, summer usually has irregular rains and periods of drought.[28] Fall tends to be as changeable as winter, but is typically warmer. Spring is usually very rainy, with thunderstorms, strong winds and hailstorms.[29][30][31] The climate of Porto Alegre is very affected by El Niño phenomenon, with flooding in some neighborhoods of the city, especially in the islands in the Lake Guaiba.[32][33][34] However, a drainage system and a wall along the Historic District were built after a major flood in 1941 that devastated the city, preventing further damage.[35][36]

Snow is very rare, sometimes confused with sleet.[37] The only snowfall events in Porto Alegre were in 1879, 1910, 1984, 1994, 2000 and 2006, and few of them featured accumulation.[38] However, frost sometimes occurs in the city.[39] Occurrence of radiation fog is common, causing several delays in early flights. Unlike other large Brazilian cities much farther north, notably Brasília, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro who observe a pronounced summer maximum in precipitation amounts, the city of Porto Alegre experiences a prominent winter maximum in precipitation values and cloud cover, for the summer season is primarily hot and dry; though evidently high humidity levels often give a distinct mugginess to the air and negatively impacts air quality. Annually Porto Alegre receives an average-total precipitation amount of 1,425 millimetres (56.1 in). This average makes the city slightly wetter than Rio at 1,172 millimetres (46.1 in) yet, to a very small extent, drier than both São Paulo at 1,457 millimetres (57.4 in) and Brasilia at 1,557 millimetres (61.3 in).[40]

The highest recorded temperature was 42.6 °C (108.7 °F)[41] while the lowest recorded temperature was −3.0 °C (26.6 °F).[42]

Climate data for Porto Alegre (1981–2010, extremes 1949–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39.2
(102.6)
39.0
(102.2)
38.1
(100.6)
36.0
(96.8)
32.7
(90.9)
31.6
(88.9)
32.2
(90.0)
34.9
(94.8)
38.0
(100.4)
38.2
(100.8)
39.0
(102.2)
40.3
(104.5)
40.3
(104.5)
Average high °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
30.2
(86.4)
29.1
(84.4)
25.9
(78.6)
22.2
(72.0)
19.8
(67.6)
19.3
(66.7)
21.3
(70.3)
22.1
(71.8)
25.0
(77.0)
27.4
(81.3)
29.5
(85.1)
25.2
(77.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.7
(76.5)
24.5
(76.1)
23.5
(74.3)
20.3
(68.5)
16.9
(62.4)
14.4
(57.9)
13.8
(56.8)
15.3
(59.5)
16.7
(62.1)
19.4
(66.9)
21.5
(70.7)
23.6
(74.5)
19.6
(67.3)
Average low °C (°F) 20.6
(69.1)
20.5
(68.9)
19.5
(67.1)
16.5
(61.7)
13.3
(55.9)
10.8
(51.4)
10.1
(50.2)
11.1
(52.0)
12.8
(55.0)
15.3
(59.5)
17.1
(62.8)
19.0
(66.2)
15.6
(60.1)
Record low °C (°F) 10.1
(50.2)
11.9
(53.4)
9.6
(49.3)
4.5
(40.1)
2.3
(36.1)
−1.9
(28.6)
−1.1
(30.0)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.2
(36.0)
4.9
(40.8)
6.7
(44.1)
10.0
(50.0)
−1.9
(28.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 110.1
(4.33)
106.5
(4.19)
92.2
(3.63)
107.3
(4.22)
118.8
(4.68)
141.3
(5.56)
141.3
(5.56)
117.4
(4.62)
141.5
(5.57)
138.3
(5.44)
110.9
(4.37)
99.6
(3.92)
1,425.2
(56.11)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 8 8 107
Average relative humidity (%) 72.9 74.8 75.3 77.6 81.0 82.7 80.7 77.8 77.0 75.0 72.1 70.9 76.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 227.2 195.2 202.4 166.0 146.9 115.6 131.4 145.3 145.8 178.0 215.2 232.4 2,101.4
Source: Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia[43][44]

Vegetation

Moinhos de Vento Park.
Moinhos de Vento Park.

Porto Alegre lies in a transitional area between the subtropical forest and the Southern Brazilian grasslands (pampa). A number of conservation programmes have been established to protect native trees. Many of the city's avenues have been planted with different tree species. One striking example of this is Teresópolis Avenue, where bottle trees have been planted. The city is covered in green vegetation and Lapacho and Jacaranda are the main species that can be found locally. The trees from the hills are protected. Two environmental conservation areas can be found in this city: "Delta do Jacuí" (Jacuí Delta) State Park and Lami Biological Reserve.[46]

The urban area has many parks and plazas, making Porto Alegre one of the greenest provincial capitals in Brazil. The first city squares date from the second half of the 18th century and were originally large public spaces used as food markets. The city has 39 km2 (9,600 acres) of green space, occupying 31 percent of the city's area. This is an average of 17.6 m2 per person. More than one million trees line the public streets and SMAM plants an average of 30,000 seedlings each year. The four main parks are: Parque Farroupilha, a 37-hectare (91-acre) park; Jardim Botânico (The Botanical Garden of Porto Alegre), with some 725 species of vegetation on about 43 hectares (110 acres) of land; and Parque Marinha do Brasil (The Brazilian Navy's Park), a vast park of more than 70 hectares (170 acres) which offers a wide variety of sports fields and tracks. The city's cycleway is called the Caminho dos Parques, which at over 5 km (3 miles) long links the Moinhos do Vento, Farroupilha and Guaíba shore parks.[47]

The Lami José Lutzenberger Biological Reserve was established in 1975 in the Lami neighborhood of Porto Alegre, named after the local agronomist and environmentalist José Lutzenberger. It was the first municipal reserve in Brazil. The reserve covers 179 hectares (440 acres). It reopened in April 2002 after being closed for more than ten years to allow its ecosystems to recover.[48] The reserve conserves nature and supports research and environmental education.[49]

Water

Cais Mauá seen from Guaíba Lake.
Cais Mauá seen from Guaíba Lake.

Sewer service is available to 87.7 percent of the city, and 100 percent of the population is serviced by treated water.[50] While in most Brazilian cities the water is supplied by large state companies, in Porto Alegre the Municipal Department of Water and Sanitation Services, (DMAE) is the provider. It is the largest municipal water supplier in the country and enjoys operational autonomy and financial independence. As a separate entity from the municipal government it can make its own decisions on how to invest revenues it has collected, and such decisions are not directly subject to interference from the municipality. It receives no subsidies and makes no payments to the municipality itself. As a municipal undertaking, DMAE enjoys tax-exempt status, which allows it to keep water prices lower.[51]

Water Mirror at Redenção Park.Redenção Park garden.
Water Mirror at Redenção Park.
Water Mirror at Redenção Park.Redenção Park garden.
Redenção Park garden.

In 2010, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) approved a US$83.2 million to support the Integrated Socioenvironmental Program of Porto Alegre. The program will be carried out by the Municipal Department of Management and Strategic Support and will focus on improving water quality in Guaíba Lake and the Cavalhada River, developing urban infrastructure to reduce flood risk along the Cavalhada River, improving the environmental management in the Municipality of Porto Alegre, and promoting efficient municipal water, sanitation and storm drainage services. This program will improve the quality of life of the population of Porto Alegre by restoring water quality along the west side of Lake Guaíba and directly benefitting more than 700,000 residents through expanded public sanitation services and urban environmental improvement.[52]

The Jacuí estuary contains the Jacuí Delta State Park, which in turn contains the Banhados do Delta Biological Reserve, a fully protected area which covers the islands of Pólvora and Pombas.[53]

Air quality

Motor vehicles are responsible for the main atmospheric pollutant emissions. The city has the second worst air quality in Brazil, after only São Paulo.[54] The use of new buses along dedicated busways has decreased pollutants as there is less idling time. SMAM (the Municipal Council of the Environment) has encouraged the use of the cleanest fuels and has played a role in monitoring pollution levels.

A partnership between SMAM, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, the State Environmental Protection Foundation (FEPAM) and Petrobrás has created a network of five air monitoring stations in Porto Alegre. By utilizing a Petrobrás product called city diesel, sulphur levels in the air have dropped from 1.2 percent in 1989 to 0.5 percent. Hybrid buses which run on both diesel and electricity are also being considered for the future. Because Porto Alegre has a ready supply of natural gas, the city's taxi fleet is gradually being converted to it from gasoline.[55]

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Lagoa dos Patos

Lagoa dos Patos

Lagoa dos Patos is the largest lagoon in Brazil and the largest coastal lagoon in South America. It is located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. It covers an area of 10,100 km2 (3,900 sq mi), is 180 miles (290 km) long and has a maximum width of 44 miles (71 km).

Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande do Sul is a state in the southern region of Brazil. It is the fifth-most-populous state and the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo, Rivera and Artigas to the south and southwest, and the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest. The capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, and the crime rate is relatively low compared to the Brazilian national average. Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high in the state, as of 2017. The state has 5.4% of the Brazilian population and it is responsible for 6.6% of the Brazilian GDP.

Ecosystem

Ecosystem

An ecosystem consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact.These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the system through photosynthesis and is incorporated into plant tissue. By feeding on plants and on one another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. By breaking down dead organic matter, decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be readily used by plants and microbes.

Atlantic Forest

Atlantic Forest

The Atlantic Forest is a South American forest that extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the northeast to Rio Grande do Sul state in the south and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina, where the region is known as Selva Misionera.

Köppen climate classification

Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1894–1981) introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

Humid subtropical climate

Humid subtropical climate

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. It is also known as warm temperate climate in some climate classifications.

Lake Guaíba

Lake Guaíba

Lake Guaíba is a waterway in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. It is famous for its beautiful reflection at sunset. The Guaíba is an extension of the Lagoa dos Patos, the largest lagoon in South America. It is commonly referred to as a "river" besides "lake". The Jacuí River, the Sinos River, the Gravataí River and the Caí River empties into the Guaíba from the north.

El Niño

El Niño

El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific, including the area off the Pacific coast of South America. The ENSO is the cycle of warm and cold sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean. El Niño is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific. El Niño phases are known to last close to four years; however, records demonstrate that the cycles have lasted between two and seven years. During the development of El Niño, rainfall develops between September–November. The cool phase of ENSO is Spanish: La Niña, lit. 'The Girl', with SSTs in the eastern Pacific below average, and air pressure high in the eastern Pacific and low in the western Pacific. The ENSO cycle, including both El Niño and La Niña, causes global changes in temperature and rainfall.

Snow

Snow

Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while suspended in the atmosphere—usually within clouds—and then fall, accumulating on the ground where they undergo further changes. It consists of frozen crystalline water throughout its life cycle, starting when, under suitable conditions, the ice crystals form in the atmosphere, increase to millimeter size, precipitate and accumulate on surfaces, then metamorphose in place, and ultimately melt, slide or sublimate away.

Ice pellets

Ice pellets

Ice pellets are a form of precipitation consisting of small, hard, translucent balls of ice. Ice pellets are different from graupel which is made of frosty white opaque rime, and from a mixture of rain and snow which is a slushy liquid or semisolid. Ice pellets often bounce when they hit the ground or other solid objects, and make a higher-pitched "tap" when striking objects like jackets, windshields, and dried leaves, compared to the dull splat of liquid raindrops. Pellets generally do not freeze into other solid masses unless mixed with freezing rain. The METAR code for ice pellets is PL.

Brasília

Brasília

Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District. The city is located at the top of the Brazilian highlands in the country's Central-West region. It was founded by President Juscelino Kubitschek on 21 April 1960, to serve as the new national capital. Brasília is estimated to be Brazil's third-most populous city. Among major Latin American cities, it has the highest GDP per capita.

São Paulo

São Paulo

São Paulo is the most populous city in Brazil, and is the capital of the state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest Brazilian state, located in the country's Southeast Region. Listed by the GaWC as an alpha global city, São Paulo is the most populous city proper in the Americas, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, as well as the world's 4th largest city proper by population. Additionally, São Paulo is the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world. It exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance, arts and entertainment. The city's name honors the Apostle, Saint Paul of Tarsus. The city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

Demographics

Arc de Triomphe in Porto Alegre.
Arc de Triomphe in Porto Alegre.

Ethnic groups

Race and ethnicity in Porto Alegre
Ethnicity Percentage
White
79.2%
Black
10.2%
Pardo (Multiracial)
10.0%
Asian
0.3%
Amerindian
0.2%

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 1,365,039 people residing in the city of Porto Alegre.[56] The census revealed the following numbers: 1,116,659 White people (79.2%), 143,890 Black people (10.2%), 141,411 Pardo (Multiracial) people (10%), 4,062 Asian people (0.3%), 3,308 Amerindian people (0.2%).[57] In 2010, the city of Porto Alegre was the 10th most populous city in Brazil.[58] In 2010, the city had 269,519 opposite-sex couples and 1,401 same-sex couples. The population of Porto Alegre was 53.6% female and 46.4% male.[57]

Porto Alegre is mostly composed of Brazilians of European descent. Its colonization started in the mid-18th century, mostly with the arrival of Portuguese colonists from the Azores Islands. From 1748 to 1756, 2,300 Azoreans were sent to the region by the King of Portugal to protect Southern Brazil from neighboring invaders.[59] These colonists, mostly composed of married couples, established the city of Porto dos Casais (literally translated "harbor of the couples"), nowadays Porto Alegre. In 1775, 55% of Rio Grande do Sul's population was of Azorean Portuguese origin.[60] Porto Alegre was composed mainly of Azoreans and their African slaves until the first half of the 19th century.

Residents of Porto Alegre.
Residents of Porto Alegre.

Religion in Porto Alegre (2010)

  Catholic Church (63.85%)
  Protestantism (11.65%)
  Spiritism (7.03%)
  Umbanda and Candomblé (3.35%)
  Other religions (3.64%)
  Irreligious (10.38%)

The first non-Portuguese people to settle Rio Grande do Sul were German immigrants. In 1824, the first immigrants from Germany arrived in Porto Alegre, but they were sent to what is now the city of São Leopoldo (28 km (17 mi) away). From 1824 to 1914, 50,000 Germans arrived in Rio Grande do Sul.[61] Most of these colonists had rural communities in the countryside of the State as their first destination. The large rural exodus in Brazil in the early 20th century brought many German-descendants to Porto Alegre and, nowadays, they compose a large percentage of the population.[62]

The second largest group of immigrants who arrived in Porto Alegre were the Italians. They started immigrating to Brazil in 1875, mainly from the Northern Italian Veneto region.[63] As the Germans, Italians were also first sent to rural communities, mainly in the Serra Gaúcha region. After some decades, many of them started to migrate to other parts of Rio Grande do Sul, including Porto Alegre. Minority communities of immigrants, such as Central Europeans from Poland[64] and Eastern Europeans from Ukraine and Jews; Arabs from Palestine, Lebanon and Syria; Asians from Japan; as well as Spaniards arriving after the Civil War also made Porto Alegre their home.[65][66] According to an autosomal DNA genetic study from 2011, the ancestral composition of the population of Porto Alegre is: 77.70% European, 12.70% African and 9.60% Native American.[67]

Panoramic view of Centro Histórico, Cidade Baixa, Santana and Bom Fim neighbourhoods in Central Zone of Porto Alegre.
Panoramic view of Centro Histórico, Cidade Baixa, Santana and Bom Fim neighbourhoods in Central Zone of Porto Alegre.

Population growth

Changing demographics of the city of Porto Alegre

Source: Planet Barsa Ltda.[68]

Religion

According to the 2010 population census, the population of Porto Alegre is made up of Roman Catholics (63.85%); Protestants or evangelicals (11.65%); spiritists (7.03%); Umbanda and Candomblé (3.35%); the unreligious (10.38%) and people of other religions (3.64%).[69]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a temple in Porto Alegre.[70]

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Brazilians

Brazilians

Brazilians are the citizens of Brazil. A Brazilian can also be a person born abroad to a Brazilian parent or legal guardian as well as a person who acquired Brazilian citizenship. Brazil is a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many ethnic origins, and there is no correlation between one's stock and their Brazilian identity.

Demographics of Brazil

Demographics of Brazil

Brazil had an official resident population of 214,000,000 in 2022, according to IBGE. Brazil is the seventh most populous country in the world, and the second most populous in the Americas and Western Hemisphere.

Immigration to Brazil

Immigration to Brazil

Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign peoples to reside permanently. It should not be confused with the colonization of the country by the Portuguese, or with the forcible bringing of people from Africa as slaves. Latin Europe accounted for four-fifths of the arrivals. This engendered a strikingly multicultural society. Yet over a few generations, Brazil absorbed these new populations in a manner that resembles the experience of the rest of the New World.

Pardo

Pardo

Pardos is a term used in the former Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the triracial descendants of Southern Europeans, Amerindians and West Africans. In some places they were defined as neither exclusively mestizo, nor mulatto, nor zambo. In colonial Mexico, pardo "became virtually synonymous with mulatto, thereby losing much of its Indigenous referencing". In the eighteenth century, pardo might have been the preferred label for blackness. Unlike negro, pardo had no association with slavery. Casta paintings from eighteenth-century Mexico use the label negro never pardo to identify Africans paired with Spaniards.

Indigenous peoples in Brazil

Indigenous peoples in Brazil

Indigenous peoples in Brazil or Indigenous Brazilians once comprised an estimated 2000 tribes and nations inhabiting what is now the country of Brazil, before European contact around 1500. Christopher Columbus thought he had reached the East Indies, but Portuguese Vasco da Gama had already reached India via the Indian Ocean route, when Brazil was colonized by Portugal.

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics

The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics is the agency responsible for official collection of statistical, geographic, cartographic, geodetic and environmental information in Brazil. IBGE performs a decennial national census; questionnaires account for information such as age, household income, literacy, education, occupation and hygiene levels.

Colonization

Colonization

Colonization, or colonisation, constitutes large-scale population movements wherein migrants maintain strong links with their, or their ancestors', former country – by such links, gaining substantial privileges over other inhabitants of the territory. When colonization takes place under the protection of colonial structures, it may be termed settler colonialism. This often involves the settlers dispossessing indigenous inhabitants, or instituting legal and other structures which systematically disadvantage them.

Portuguese people

Portuguese people

The Portuguese people are a Romance nation and ethnic group indigenous to Portugal who share a common culture, ancestry and language. The Portuguese people's heritage largely derives from the pre-Celts, Proto-Celts and Celts, who were Romanized after the conquest of the region by the ancient Romans. A small number of male lineages descend from Germanic tribes who arrived after the Roman period as ruling elites, including the Suebi, Buri, Hasdingi Vandals, Visigoths with the highest incidence occurring in northern and central Portugal. The pastoral Caucasus' Alans left small traces in a few central-southern areas. Finally, the Umayyad conquest of Iberia also left Jewish, Moorish and Saqaliba genetic contributions, particularly in the south of the country.

Politics, government and citizenship

Porto Alegre City Hall.
Porto Alegre City Hall.

The executive branch is headed by the mayor of the municipality, which includes departments and other public administration bodies directly and indirectly. The legislature is represented by the City Council.

It hosted the first three editions of the World Social Forum in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The third edition attracted 20,763 delegates from 130 countries, with a total audience of 100,000 people from all parts of the world.

Participatory budgeting

Legislative Assembly of Rio Grande do Sul.Piratini Palace.Justice Court of Rio Grande do Sul.
Piratini Palace.
Legislative Assembly of Rio Grande do Sul.Piratini Palace.Justice Court of Rio Grande do Sul.
Justice Court of Rio Grande do Sul.

A feature of public administration in Porto Alegre is the adoption of a system of popular participation in the definition of public investment, called the Participatory Budget. The first full participatory budgeting process was developed in the city starting in 1989. Participatory budgeting in its most meaningful form took place in the city from 1991 to 2004.[71] Participatory budgeting was part of a number of innovative reform programs to overcome severe inequality in living standards amongst city residents. One third of the city's residents lived in isolated slums at the city outskirts, lacking access to public amenities (water, sanitation, health care facilities, and schools).[72]

Participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre has occurred annually, starting with a series of neighborhood, regional, and citywide assemblies, where residents and elected budget delegates identify spending priorities and vote on which priorities to implement. Porto Alegre spent about 200 million dollars per year on construction and services, This money is subject to participatory budgeting, unlike the annual spending on fixed expenses such as debt service and pensions, which is not subject to public participation. Around fifty thousand residents of Porto Alegre took part at the peak of the participatory budgeting process (compared to 1.5 million city inhabitants), with the number of participants having grown year on year since 1989. Participants are from diverse economic and political backgrounds.[73][74] Although participatory budgeting appears to continue in the city today, two prominent scholars on the process have stated that "after the defeat of the Workers' Party in late 2004, a politically conservative coalition maintained the surface features of PB while returning the actual functioning of the administration to more traditional modes of favor-trading and the favoring of local elites."[71]

The participatory budgeting cycle starts in January and runs throughout the year in many assemblies in each of the city's 16 districts, dealing with many areas of interest to urban life. The meetings elect delegates to represent specific neighborhoods. The mayor and staff attend, in order to respond to citizens' concerns. In the following months, delegates meet to review technical project criteria and district needs.[73]

Administrative Center of Rio Grande do Sul.
Administrative Center of Rio Grande do Sul.

City department staff may participate according to their area of expertise. At a second regional plenary, regional delegates prioritize the district's demands and elect 42 councillors representing all districts and thematic areas to serve on the Municipal Council of the Budget. The main function of the Municipal Council of the Budget is to reconcile the demands of each district with available resources, and to propose and approve an overall municipal budget. The resulting budget is binding, though the city council can suggest, but not require, changes. Only the Mayor may veto the budget, or remand it back to the Municipal Council of the Budget (this has never happened).[73]

A World Bank paper suggests that participatory budgeting has led to direct improvements in facilities in Porto Alegre. For example, sewer and water connections increased from 75% of households in 1988 to 98% in 1997. The number of schools quadrupled since 1986.[72] According to Fedozzi and Costa, this system has been recognized as a successful experience of interaction between people and the official administrative spheres in public administration and, as such, has gained a broad impact on the political scene nationally and internationally, being interpreted as a strategy for the establishment of an active citizenship in Brazil. The distribution of investment resources planning that follows a part of the statement of priorities for regional or thematic meetings, culminating with the approval of an investment plan that works and activities program broken down by investment sector, by region and around the city. Also according to Fedozzi, this favors:[75][76]

The high number of participants, after more than a decade, suggests that participatory budgeting encourages increasing citizen involvement, according to the paper. Also, Porto Alegre's health and education budget increased from 13% (1985) to almost 40% (1996), and the share of the participatory budget in the total budget increased from 17% (1992) to 21% (1999).[72]

Despite being the pioneering experiment of participatory budgeting, Porto Alegre like many other examples does not have guaranteed sustainability. The positive impact has dwindled since 2004 due to funding changes and decreasing government commitment. Participatory budgeting has been suspended in Porto Alegre since 2017 [77]

Discover more about Politics, government and citizenship related topics

Town Hall of Porto Alegre

Town Hall of Porto Alegre

The Town Hall of Porto Alegre, also known as Old City Hall or Paço dos Açorianos, is a historic building in Porto Alegre, capital of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, being one of the most characteristic and important architectural landmarks of the city. It was inaugurated in 1901, with a project by Giovanni Colfosco, hosting the mayor's office and administrative bodies for a long time. It was listed by the municipality in 1979 and, after extensive renovations in 2003, it began to lend some of its rooms for art exhibitions, also having the offices and technical reserve of the Artistic Collection of the City Hall of Porto Alegre there. In 2022, during the celebrations week of the city's 250th anniversary, the mayor handed over the building to the administration of the Municipal Secretariat of Culture, which intends to transform it into a museum, the Museum of Art of Porto Alegre.

World Social Forum

World Social Forum

The World Social Forum is an annual meeting of civil society organizations, first held in Brazil, which offers a self-conscious effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemonic globalization.

Legislative Assembly of Rio Grande do Sul

Legislative Assembly of Rio Grande do Sul

The Legislative Assembly of Rio Grande do Sul is the unicameral legislature of Rio Grande do Sul state in Brazil. It has 55 state deputies elected by proportional representation.

Participatory budgeting

Participatory budgeting

Participatory budgeting (PB) is a type of citizen sourcing in which ordinary people decide how to allocate part of a municipal or public budget through a process of democratic deliberation and decision-making. Participatory budgeting allows citizens or residents of a locality to identify, discuss, and prioritize public spending projects, and gives them the power to make real decisions about how money is spent.

Service (economics)

Service (economics)

A service is an "(intangible) act or use for which a consumer, firm, or government is willing to pay." Examples include work done by barbers, doctors, lawyers, mechanics, banks, insurance companies, and so on. Public services are those that society as a whole pays for. Using resources, skill, ingenuity, and experience, service providers benefit service consumers. Services may be defined as intangible acts or performances whereby the service provider provides value to the customer.

World Bank

World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects. The World Bank is the collective name for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA), two of five international organizations owned by the World Bank Group. It was established along with the International Monetary Fund at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference. After a slow start, its first loan was to France in 1947. In the 1970s, it focused on loans to developing world countries, shifting away from that mission in the 1980s. For the last 30 years, it has included NGOs and environmental groups in its loan portfolio. Its loan strategy is influenced by the Millennium Development Goals as well as environmental and social safeguards.

Sanitary sewer

Sanitary sewer

A sanitary sewer is an underground pipe or tunnel system for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings to a sewage treatment plant or disposal. Sanitary sewers are a type of gravity sewer and are part of an overall system called a "sewage system" or sewerage. Sanitary sewers serving industrial areas may also carry industrial wastewater. In municipalities served by sanitary sewers, separate storm drains may convey surface runoff directly to surface waters. An advantage of sanitary sewer systems is that they avoid combined sewer overflows. Sanitary sewers are typically much smaller in diameter than combined sewers which also transport urban runoff. Backups of raw sewage can occur if excessive stormwater inflow or groundwater infiltration occurs due to leaking joints, defective pipes etc. in aging infrastructure.

Economy

A mall in Porto Alegre.
A mall in Porto Alegre.
Convention hall of the Federation of Industries of Rio Grande do Sul (FIERGS).
Convention hall of the Federation of Industries of Rio Grande do Sul (FIERGS).
Ipiranga headquarters in Porto Alegre.
Ipiranga headquarters in Porto Alegre.

Located at the junction of five rivers, it has become an important alluvial port as well as one of the chief industrial and commercial centers in Brazil. Products of the rich agricultural and pastoral hinterland, such as soybeans, leather, canned beef, and rice, are exported from Porto Alegre to destinations as far away as Africa and Japan.[78]

Among the main businesses located in Porto Alegre are Gerdau, Petroleo Ipiranga, Zaffari and RBS. Since 2000, General Motors (GM) is operating in Gravataí, located in the Metropolitan Region. Also in this Region but in Triunfo, there is a Petrochemical Pool,[79] and in Eldorado do Sul Dell Computers has established a plant. In the health sector, the three hospitals: Hospital Moinhos de Vento, which is a private, JCAH-accredited hospital, Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital and Clinicas Hospital, public, are considered among the best in Latin America. The latter are university-affiliated, referral hospitals for the South of Brazil. Commerce is a very important economic activity, with many malls (like Praia de Belas Shopping, Shopping Iguatemi and the smaller though posh Shopping Moinhos). The Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre, directed to the production of shoes (around Novo Hamburgo) and to petrochemical industries, as well as services.[80]

In the city is located the Electronics Technology Center (CEITEC), focused on the development and production of application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), today announced the opening of Latin America's first IC design center. To create state-of-the-art semiconductor products for high-volume markets that will be consumed in Latin America as well as exported to global markets. CEITEC S.A will accelerate the growth of Latin America's electronics industry by leveraging Brazil's regional influence, leadership and economic strength. The company will add 60 engineers to its ranks who will design RFID, digital media and wireless communication chips for its fabrication facility now ramping up for production. The total investment by the Brazilian government is almost US$210 million. The company is implementing a fab-lite strategy with the ability to manufacture analog/digital chips at its facility in Porto Alegre. The in-house design center with more than 100 engineers.[81]

The GDP for the city was R$30,116,002,000 (2006).[82] The per capita income for the city was R$20,900 (2006).[83]

Discover more about Economy related topics

Economy of Brazil

Economy of Brazil

The economy of Brazil is historically the largest in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere in nominal terms. The Brazilian economy is the third largest in the Americas. The economy is a middle income developing mixed economy. In 2022, according to International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brazil has the largest gross domestic product expenditure (GDP) and has the largest purchasing power parity.

Economy of Porto Alegre

Economy of Porto Alegre

The Economy of Porto Alegre is the fastest growing economy in Brazil and is currently the country's 7th largest regional economy. The city of Porto Alegre has a population of approximately 1.4 million people. The history of Porto Alegre, particularly during the industrial revolution established its economy and the basis of the current industrial sector in the city.

Ipiranga (company)

Ipiranga (company)

Ipiranga is a Brazilian fuel company and is a subsidiary of Ultra. It is the second-largest Brazilian fuel distribution company, and the largest in the private sector.

Leather

Leather

Leather is a strong, flexible and durable material obtained from the tanning, or chemical treatment, of animal skins and hides to prevent decay. The most common leathers come from cattle, sheep, goats, equine animals, buffalo, pigs and hogs, and aquatic animals such as seals and alligators.

Beef

Beef

Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle.

Rice

Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or less commonly Oryza glaberrima. The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may also be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza.

Gerdau

Gerdau

Gerdau is the largest producer of long steel in the Americas, with steel mills in Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Peru, United States, Uruguay and Venezuela. Currently, Gerdau has an installed capacity of 26 million metric tons of steel per year and offers steel for the civil construction, automobile, industrial, agricultural and various sectors.

Grupo RBS

Grupo RBS

Grupo RBS is a Brazilian media conglomerate founded on August 31, 1957 by Maurício Sirotsky Sobrinho. One of Brazil’s largest communication groups, it is also the largest one affiliated with Rede Globo. The media group is made up by radio and television stations as well as newspapers and online news portals, which deliver journalistic and entertainment content. Along with its more than 6,000 employees, Grupo RBS constitutes the second largest company in Brazil when it comes to the number of journalists employed.

General Motors

General Motors

The General Motors Company (GM) is an American multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, United States. It is the largest automaker in the United States and was the largest in the world for 77 years before losing the top spot to Toyota in 2008.

Commerce

Commerce

Commerce is the large-scale organized system of activities, functions, procedures and institutions directly and indirectly related to the exchange of goods and services among two or more parties within local, regional, national or international economies. More specifically, commerce is not business, but rather the part of business which facilitates the movement and distribution of finished or unfinished but valuable goods and services from the producers to the end consumers on a large scale, as opposed to the sourcing of raw materials and manufacturing of those goods. Commerce is subtly different from trade as well, which is the final transaction, exchange or transfer of finished goods and services between a seller and an end consumer. Commerce not only includes trade as defined above, but also a series of transactions that happen between the producer and the seller with the help of the auxiliary services and means which facilitate such trade. These auxiliary services include transportation, communication, warehousing, insurance, banking, financial markets, advertising, packaging, the services of commercial agents and agencies, etc. In other words, commerce encompasses a wide array of political, economical, technological, logistical, legal, regulatory, social and cultural aspects of trade on a large scale. From a marketing perspective, commerce creates time and place utility by making goods and services available to the customers at the right place and at the right time by changing their location or placement. Described in this manner, trade is a part of commerce and commerce is a part of business.

Petrochemical

Petrochemical

Petrochemicals are the chemical products obtained from petroleum by refining. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as maize, palm fruit or sugar cane.

PUCRS Museum of Science and Technology

PUCRS Museum of Science and Technology

The PUCRS Museum of Science and Technology is a Brazilian museum run by the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), located in the city of Porto Alegre in Rio Grande do Sul, at Ipiranga Av. 6681, Building 40, Parthenon. Visiting hours are from Tuesdays to Sundays, from 9am to 5pm. However, due to the current pandemic, it is necessary to book it beforehand.

Sustainability programs

Energy

View of Porto Alegre from Bela Vista neighborhood.
View of Porto Alegre from Bela Vista neighborhood.

In Brazil, there are also a few coal-fired plants, fuel-oil fired plants and one nuclear facility. Increased utilization of natural gas and other sources is planned in order to reduce Brazil's overdependence on hydroelectric power. In 1999, a natural gas pipeline from Bolivia to Brazil was completed, with its terminus in Porto Alegre. Brazilian investment group Central Termoeletrica Sul (CTSul) has plans to invest US$698 million in a 650MW coal-fired power generation plant in Cachoeira do Sul, located in Rio Grande do Sul.[84]

The largest wind energy park in Brazil, which is being built east of Porto Alegre in Osório, will add 150 megawatts (MW) to the Brazilian energy matrix. The production represents 5 percent of the energy consumed in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and would be sufficient to meet two-thirds of Porto Alegre's energy demands. The Farm opened in 2008 with 75 2MW turbines and has been approved for a 300MW expansion which would make it the largest wind farm in the region. The project is part of the Alternative Energy Sources Program (Proinfa) from state-owned Eletrobrás, which will purchase the energy produced for the next 20 years.[85]

Recycling

Porto Alegre was one of the first cities in Brazil to develop a recycling program and has been acknowledged as having the best management practices in the country.[86] The city produces about 1,600 tonnes of household waste per day.[87] Since 1997, all non-recyclable waste has been disposed of in landfill sites. Infiltration into the soil is prevented by the double-walled construction of a clay layer and a high-density polythene geo-membrane, the lowering of the water table and the draining off and treatment of any effluent.[88]

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Bela Vista, Rio Grande do Sul

Bela Vista, Rio Grande do Sul

Bela Vista is a neighborhood of the city of Porto Alegre, the state capital of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It was created by Law 2022 of December 7, 1959. Bela Vista is characterized by its apartment buildings, some of which are very sophisticated, embracing people from the upper middle class to the upper class.

Natural gas

Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons consisting primarily of methane in addition to various smaller amounts of other higher alkanes. Usually low levels of trace gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and helium are also present. Natural gas is colorless and odorless, so odorizers such as mercaptan, which smells like sulfur or rotten eggs, are commonly added to natural gas supplies for safety so that leaks can be readily detected.

Bolivia

Bolivia

Bolivia, officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay to the southeast, Argentina to the south, Chile to the southwest and Peru to the west. The seat of government and executive capital is La Paz, while the constitutional capital is Sucre. The largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales, a mostly flat region in the east of the country.

Cachoeira do Sul

Cachoeira do Sul

Cachoeira do Sul is a municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southernmost Brazil.

Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande do Sul is a state in the southern region of Brazil. It is the fifth-most-populous state and the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo, Rivera and Artigas to the south and southwest, and the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest. The capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, and the crime rate is relatively low compared to the Brazilian national average. Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high in the state, as of 2017. The state has 5.4% of the Brazilian population and it is responsible for 6.6% of the Brazilian GDP.

Park

Park

A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are green spaces set aside for recreation inside towns and cities. National parks and country parks are green spaces used for recreation in the countryside. State parks and provincial parks are administered by sub-national government states and agencies. Parks may consist of grassy areas, rocks, soil and trees, but may also contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments, fountains or playground structures. Many parks have fields for playing sports such as baseball and football, and paved areas for games such as basketball. Many parks have trails for walking, biking and other activities. Some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Urban parks often have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills.

Energy

Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that is transferred to a body or to a physical system, recognizable in the performance of work and in the form of heat and light. Energy is a conserved quantity—the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The unit of measurement for energy in the International System of Units (SI) is the joule (J).

Tonne

Tonne

The tonne is a unit of mass equal to 1000 kilograms. It is a non-SI unit accepted for use with SI. It is also referred to as a metric ton to distinguish it from the non-metric units of the short ton, and the long ton. It is equivalent to approximately 2204.6 pounds, 1.102 short tons, and 0.984 long tons. The official SI unit is the megagram, a less common way to express the same mass.

Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment is a type of wastewater treatment which aims to remove contaminants from sewage to produce an effluent that is suitable for discharge to the surrounding environment or an intended reuse application, thereby preventing water pollution from raw sewage discharges. Sewage contains wastewater from households and businesses and possibly pre-treated industrial wastewater. There are a high number of sewage treatment processes to choose from. These can range from decentralized systems to large centralized systems involving a network of pipes and pump stations which convey the sewage to a treatment plant. For cities that have a combined sewer, the sewers will also carry urban runoff (stormwater) to the sewage treatment plant. Sewage treatment often involves two main stages, called primary and secondary treatment, while advanced treatment also incorporates a tertiary treatment stage with polishing processes and nutrient removal. Secondary treatment can reduce organic matter from sewage,  using aerobic or anaerobic biological processes.

Effluent

Effluent

Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas to a natural body of water, from a structure such as a sewage treatment plant, sewer pipe, industrial wastewater treatment plant or industrial outfall. Effluent, in engineering, is the stream exiting a chemical reactor.

Tourism and recreation

Redenção Park Lake.
Redenção Park Lake.

The area includes attractions such as the Piratini Palace, the seat of the state Government,[89] Porto Alegre Botanical Garden, Moinhos de Vento Park the Public Market[90] and Farroupilha Park

Nightlife

Pubs on Calçada da Fama during the day.
Pubs on Calçada da Fama during the day.

Porto Alegre is well known in Brazil for its diverse nightlife. The city's clubs, pubs, bars and restaurants provide entertainment for a wide range of tastes and budgets, going from the cheap, traditional beer-'n-bite in a corner bar to all-night raves, and nightclubs. In the "SoHo" area of Porto Alegre, there is a block full of bars, restaurants and clubs.[91]

Moinhos de Vento neighborhood has a large number of cafes, pubs and nightclubs.
Moinhos de Vento neighborhood has a large number of cafes, pubs and nightclubs.
The city at night.
The city at night.

In Cidade Baixa (translates as "Downtown") neighborhood, the historical street João Alfredo has many options. Discotheques include Dado Bier, Beco, Opinião and Nega Frida. The corner between Gal Lima e Silva Street and República Street is the center of the neighborhood's nightlife. Cavanhas, Pingüim, Copão, Cotiporã and Panorama are some of the bars. To dance MPB (Brazilian popular music), historical street João Alfredo has many options. [92]

In Calçada da Fama, Padre Chagas Street is full of more fashionable bars, like Lilliput and Dado Pub. Goethe Avenue has a concentration of bars (Tri Bar, Arsenal, Dolphin's) and dance clubs. There is also a vibrant more alternative scene with clubs such as Ocidente, Beco, Anexo B and Cucko. Rua Fernando Gomes has a concentration of pubs, cafes, bars. Avenida Osvaldo Aranha, alongside the Parque Farroupilha and near the Federal University has bars with a predominantly young and trendy clientele.[93] Moinhos de Vento is one of the richest neighborhoods in the city. Its bars and clubs are more likely to be fashionable, including upscale Pink Elephant Club, Faro and Box 21, which feature mostly house music. Along Padre Chagas Street people can find typical Irish pubs and cafes.[94] A fictionalized view of the Porto Alegre nightlife could be seen in the Érico Verissimo's novel Noite.

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Tourism in Brazil

Tourism in Brazil

Tourism in Brazil is a growing sector and key to the economy of several regions of Brazil. The country had 6.589 million visitors in 2018, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the second main destination in South America after Argentina and third in Latin America after Mexico and Argentina. Revenues from international tourists reached US$5.8 billion in 2015, continuing a recovery trend from the 2008–2009 economic crisis.

Porto Alegre Botanical Garden

Porto Alegre Botanical Garden

The Porto Alegre Botanical Garden is a Foundation of Rio Grande do Sul located on the street Salvador França, in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Porto Alegre Public Market

Porto Alegre Public Market

The Porto Alegre Public Market, in downtown Porto Alegre, Brazil, is the city's oldest public market. It also is an important historic landmark and a well-known meeting point, with many coffee shops and restaurants.

Farroupilha Park

Farroupilha Park

Farroupilha Park, also known as Parque da Redenção, is a major urban park in the city of Porto Alegre, the state capital of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil.

Nightlife

Nightlife

Nightlife is a collective term for entertainment that is available and generally more popular from the late evening into the early hours of the morning. It includes pubs, bars, nightclubs, parties, live music, concerts, cabarets, theatre, cinemas, and shows. These venues often require a cover charge for admission. Nightlife entertainment is often more adult-oriented than daytime entertainment. People who prefer to be active during the night-time are called night owls.

Nightclub

Nightclub

A nightclub is an entertainment venue during nighttime comprising a dance floor, lightshow, and a stage for live music or a disc jockey (DJ) who plays recorded music.

Pub

Pub

A pub is a kind of drinking establishment which is licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises. The term public house first appeared in the United Kingdom in late 17th century, and was used to differentiate private houses from those which were, quite literally, open to the public as "alehouses", "taverns" and "inns". By Georgian times, the term had become common parlance, although taverns, as a distinct establishment, had largely ceased to exist by the beginning of the 19th century. Today, there is no strict definition, but CAMRA states a pub has four characteristics:is open to the public without membership or residency serves draught beer or cider without requiring food be consumed has at least one indoor area not laid out for meals allows drinks to be bought at a bar

Coffeehouse

Coffeehouse

A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café is an establishment that primarily serves coffee of various types, notably espresso, latte, and cappuccino. Some coffeehouses may serve cold drinks, such as iced coffee and iced tea, as well as other non-caffeinated beverages. In continental Europe, cafés serve alcoholic drinks. A coffeehouse may also serve food, such as light snacks, sandwiches, muffins, fruit, or pastries. Coffeehouses range from owner-operated small businesses to large multinational corporations. Some coffeehouse chains operate on a franchise business model, with numerous branches across various countries around the world.

Street

Street

A street is a public thoroughfare in a built environment. It is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. A street can be as simple as a level patch of dirt, but is more often paved with a hard, durable surface such as tarmac, concrete, cobblestone or brick. Portions may also be smoothed with asphalt, embedded with rails, or otherwise prepared to accommodate non-pedestrian traffic.

Ireland

Ireland

Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, in north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth.

Education

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Hospital is a national reference.
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Hospital is a national reference.
Catholic University of Porto Alegre (PUCRS).
Catholic University of Porto Alegre (PUCRS).

Educational institutions in the area include Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (a.k.a. UFCSPA), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (a.k.a. UFRGS), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (a.k.a. PUC), Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (a.k.a. Unisinos) and Centro Universitário Ritter dos Reis.

Educational system

There are three important universities in Porto Alegre: the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) and the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) all of which ranked among the top universities in Brazil and Latin America. UFRGS is also one of the 3 main universities in the country for post-graduation work. The PUCRS technological park – TECNOPUC – is one of the largest scientific and technological parks in Latin America with interaction of graduate courses, research and innovation. PUCRS is also one of the best universities for air transport and pilot formation in the world. Other very important universities are the Lutheran University of Brazil - (Universidade Luterana do Brasil) - ULBRA and UNISINOS, among other university centers.[95]

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Culture

Museums

Mário Quintana Culture House.
Mário Quintana Culture House.
Memorial of Rio Grande do Sul.
Memorial of Rio Grande do Sul.
Instituto Ling Cultural Center
Instituto Ling Cultural Center

Rio Grande do Sul Museum of Art – MARGS

With an eclectic style, the building was designed by German architect Theo Wiederspahn. Originally it was the headquarters of the Fiscal Surveillance Agency of the Federal Revenue Office. Nowadays, it hosts the largest public collection of art works in Rio Grande do Sul.[96]

Júlio de Castilhos Museum

Created in 1903, this is the oldest museum in the state. Its collection comprises thousands of pieces related to the local history, from Indian relics to objects and iconography about the Ragamuffin War and the Paraguayan War, including an important section showing fine sculptures from the Jesuitic Reductions.[97]

A restaurant on the banks of Lake Guaíba.
A restaurant on the banks of Lake Guaíba.

Joaquim José Felizardo Museum This is an important museum with a large collection of archaeological artifacts and photographs of Porto Alegre's old times. Its historical building, dating from 1845 to 1855, is one of the few intact relics of colonial architecture inside the modern urban environment.[98]

Rio Grande do Sul Memorial

This museum displays a huge collection of documents, maps, objects, prints and other items related to the state's history. Its building, designed by Theodor Wiederspahn, is one of the finest examples of eclectic architecture in the city.[99]

Iberê Camargo Foundation

An iconic landmark in the southern part of Porto Alegre, the Iberê Camargo Foundation houses the permanent installation of gaucho artist Iberê Camargo. It also hosts traveling exhibitions which change several times a year. The building, designed by Portuguese architect Álvaro Siza was opened in 2008 and offers views of the Guaiba river as well as downtown Porto Alegre.[100]

Luiz Carlos Prestes' Memorial

Projected by Oscar Niemeyer, the Luiz Carlos Prestes' Memorial is a recent addition to the city' cultural landscape. Besides the wall presentation of Prestes' life, a hall for cultural, social and political events is placed to the citizens of Porto Alegre.[101]

Carnival/Carnaval

The Porto Alegre Carnival began in the 18th century with the entrudo, a prank brought over by the Portuguese from the Azores, whereby people threw flour, water, and "limão de cheiro" missiles at each other. At the end of the 19th century, two important Carnival associations were born. Rivalry between the two long dominated the city's Carnival. The corso, a parade of floats down Porto Alegre's streets, was a celebration enjoyed by the more well-to-do of the city's inhabitants.[102]

One of the most important Carnival personalities is King Momo. At the beginning of Carnival, usually in February, he receives the keys to the city from the Mayor of Porto Alegre, symbolically governing the Carnival during the four days of revelry. Vincente Rao was the most popular King Momo.[103]

Cuisine

The traditional beverage is chimarrao, a South-American caffeine-rich infused drink. The Chalet of the XV de Novembro Plaza is located along the Glênio Peres Square, it is one of the most traditional bar-draught beer-restaurants in the city, where the last "lambe-lambe" photographs of the region work. "Lambe-lambes" are photographers who develop pictures outdoor using the oldest method known. In the Bavarian style, with art nouveau traits, the centenary Chalet was built up on a demountable steel structure, keeping its original chandeliers and tiles even nowadays.[104][105]

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Culture of Brazil

Culture of Brazil

The culture of Brazil is primarily Western, being derived from Portuguese culture, as well as the cultural and ethnic mixing that occurred between the Indigenous peoples, Portuguese colonizers and Africans. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Italians, Spaniards, Germans, Austrians, Arabs, Armenians, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, Greeks, Poles, Swiss, Ukrainians and Russians settled in Brazil, playing an important role in its culture as it started to shape a multicultural and multiethnic society.

Mário Quintana

Mário Quintana

Mário de Miranda Quintana was a Brazilian writer and translator.

Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande do Sul

Rio Grande do Sul is a state in the southern region of Brazil. It is the fifth-most-populous state and the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo, Rivera and Artigas to the south and southwest, and the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest. The capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, and the crime rate is relatively low compared to the Brazilian national average. Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high in the state, as of 2017. The state has 5.4% of the Brazilian population and it is responsible for 6.6% of the Brazilian GDP.

Iberê Camargo Foundation

Iberê Camargo Foundation

The Iberê Camargo Foundation is a cultural institution and museum located in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The Foundation is dedicated to preserving and promoting the work of Brazilian painter Iberê Camargo (1914–1994).

Júlio de Castilhos Museum

Júlio de Castilhos Museum

Júlio de Castilhos Museum is a museum located in the city of Porto Alegre. It is the oldest museum in Rio Grande do Sul state.

Ragamuffin War

Ragamuffin War

The Ragamuffin War was a Republican uprising that began in southern Brazil, in the province of Rio Grande do Sul in 1835. The rebels were led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Sousa Neto with the support of the Italian fighter Giuseppe Garibaldi. The war ended with an agreement between the two sides known as Green Poncho Treaty in 1845.

Paraguayan War

Paraguayan War

The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance, was a South American war that lasted from 1864 to 1870. It was fought between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay. It was the deadliest and bloodiest inter-state war in Latin American history. Paraguay sustained large casualties, but the approximate numbers are disputed. Paraguay was forced to cede disputed territory to Argentina and Brazil. The war began in late 1864, as a result of a conflict between Paraguay and Brazil caused by the Uruguayan War. Argentina and Uruguay entered the war against Paraguay in 1865, and it then became known as the "War of the Triple Alliance".

Reductions

Reductions

Reductions were settlements created by Spanish rulers and Roman Catholic missionaries in Spanish America and the Spanish East Indies. In Portuguese-speaking Latin America, such reductions were also called aldeias. The Spanish and Portuguese relocated, forcibly in many cases, indigenous inhabitants of their colonies into urban settlements modeled on those in Spain and Portugal.

Iberê Camargo

Iberê Camargo

Iberê Bassani Camargo was a Brazilian painter, one of the greatest expressionist artists from his country.

Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho, known as Oscar Niemeyer, was a Brazilian architect considered to be one of the key figures in the development of modern architecture. Niemeyer was best known for his design of civic buildings for Brasília, a planned city that became Brazil's capital in 1960, as well as his collaboration with other architects on the headquarters of the United Nations in New York. His exploration of the aesthetic possibilities of reinforced concrete was highly influential in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

Brazilian Carnival

Brazilian Carnival

The Carnival of Brazil is an annual Brazilian festival held the Friday afternoon before Ash Wednesday at noon, which marks the beginning of Lent, the forty-day period before Easter. During Lent, Roman Catholics and some other Christians traditionally abstained from the consumption of meat and poultry, hence the term "carnival", from carnelevare, "to remove meat."

Carnival

Carnival

Carnival is a Catholic festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent. The main events typically occur during February or early March, during the period historically known as Shrovetide. Carnival typically involves public celebrations, including events such as parades, public street parties and other entertainments, combining some elements of a circus. Elaborate costumes and masks allow people to set aside their everyday individuality and experience a heightened sense of social unity. Participants often indulge in excessive consumption of alcohol, meat, and other foods that will be forgone during upcoming Lent. Traditionally, butter, milk, and other animal products were not consumed "excessively", rather, their stock was fully consumed as to reduce waste. This festival is known for being a time of great indulgence before Lent, with drinking, overeating, and various other activities of indulgence being performed. For example, Pancakes, donuts, and other desserts are prepared and eaten for a final time. During Lent, animal products are eaten less, and individuals have the ability to make a Lenten sacrifice, thus giving up a certain object or activity of desire.

Events

Brazilian gaúcho with typical clothing in the Farroupilha Parade
Brazilian gaúcho with typical clothing in the Farroupilha Parade
Yoga practitioners at Farroupilha Park.
Yoga practitioners at Farroupilha Park.

A wide range of cultural events are held in Porto Alegre. In addition to the traditional celebrations, a wide variety of activities are organized at Porto Alegre during the different seasons.

  • World Social Forum: On several occasions (2001, 2002, 2003, 2005) the World Social Forum has been hosted in Porto Alegre. This event gathered more than 100,000 people from more than 100 countries each year. The main aim of these meetings is to discuss and deal with social issues.[106]
  • Porto Verão Alegre: during the summer, for example, the "Porto Verão Alegre" or (Porto Summer Alegre) takes place in this city. This celebration consists of a number of performances and exhibitions. In 2005 about seventy plays could be enjoyed.[107]
  • International Free Software Forum: the Fórum Internacional de Software Livre (International Free Software Forum or simply FISL) is an event sponsored by Associação Software Livre (Free Software Association), a Brazilian NGO that, among other objectives, seeks the promotion and adoption of free software.
  • Farroupilha Week: this cultural celebration takes place in mid September with parades, food and musical exhibitions. The "Acampamento Farroupilha" takes place in Harmonia Park, where thousands of people set up their tents and eat typical food to commemorate the Farroupilha Revolution.[108]
  • Bookfair: Held each November at Alfândega Square. In October Porto Alegre holds the greatest Book Fair in the Americas, an event that has been taking place since 1955. Each year about 2,000,000 people attend this fair.[109]
  • Worldwide Pinhole Photography: this is an international event created to promote and celebrate the art of pinhole photography. The event is held each year on the last Sunday in April.[110]
  • Mercosur Biennial Exhibition: is held in Porto Alegre every two years between October and December. This is an important art and cultural event that attracts a large number of people as well.[111]
  • Carnival: As do other Brazilian cities, Porto Alegre holds extensive festivities during the period immediately preceding Lent. Among them, there is an Escola de Samba contest, featuring Academia de Samba Puro, Acadêmicos da Orgia, Bambas da Orgia, Estado Maior da Restinga, Fidalgos e Aristocratas, Império da Zona Norte, and Impeadores do Samba, among others.[112]

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Farroupilha

Farroupilha

Farroupilha is a city in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in the Serra Gaúcha between the cities of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul. The city's total area is 359.3 km2. Farroupilha has 73,061 residents.

World Social Forum

World Social Forum

The World Social Forum is an annual meeting of civil society organizations, first held in Brazil, which offers a self-conscious effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemonic globalization.

Social issue

Social issue

A social issue is a problem that affects many people within a society. It is a group of common problems in present-day society and ones that many people strive to solve. It is often the consequence of factors extending beyond an individual's control. Social issues are the source of conflicting opinions on the grounds of what is perceived as morally correct or incorrect personal life or interpersonal social life decisions. Social issues are distinguished from economic issues; however, some issues have both social and economic aspects. Some issues do not fall into either category, such as warfare.

Festival

Festival

A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect or aspects of that community and its religion or cultures. It is often marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or eid. A festival constitutes typical cases of glocalization, as well as the high culture-low culture interrelationship. Next to religion and folklore, a significant origin is agricultural. Food is such a vital resource that many festivals are associated with harvest time. Religious commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events that take place in autumn, such as Halloween in the northern hemisphere and Easter in the southern.

Revolution

Revolution

In political science, a revolution is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolts against the government, typically due to perceived oppression or political incompetence.

Americas

Americas

The Americas, which are sometimes collectively called America, are a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World.

Transportation

International airport

Salgado Filho International Airport.
Salgado Filho International Airport.
Monorail connecting the airport metro station with the metro system of the city.
Monorail connecting the airport metro station with the metro system of the city.
Port of Porto Alegre.
Port of Porto Alegre.

Salgado Filho International Airport serves commercial flights to most major cities all over Brazil and to smaller cities in the South of the country. There are also international flights to other South American countries, Panama, and Portugal.[113]

Air Force Base

Canoas Air Force Base - ALA3, one of their most important bases of the Brazilian Air Force, is located in the nearby city of Canoas.

Port

The Port of Porto Alegre is situated in the Eastern margin of Guaíba Lake. The port lying on the eastern bank of the Guaíba lake at the point where its waters empty into the huge Lagoa dos Patos is one of Brazil's largest ports. Located near the main access roads to Porto Alegre, it is 4 km (2 mi) away from the Salgado Filho International Airport and has access to the light railway station, through the docks of Mauá and Navegantes. Its geographical position enables a permanent traffic between Porto Alegre and Buenos Aires, transporting steel-industry products and mainly agricultural produce.[114][115]

Metro

Porto Alegre has a rapid transit system operated by Trensurb, which links downtown Porto Alegre to its northern neighborhoods and to cities to the north of the metropolitan area, as Canoas, Esteio, Sapucaia do Sul, São Leopoldo and Novo Hamburgo. The line has stations at strategic spots, such as: the Public Market, the bus station, the airport and many other important and urban spots throughout Porto Alegre and the other cities the metro covers. The line is built at surface level (30 km, totally segregated) and elevated (12 km).

Trensurb is operated jointly by the federal government, the state government of Rio Grande do Sul and the city of Porto Alegre through the company Trensurb S.A. (Company of Urban Trains of Porto Alegre S.A.) and has 22 working stations, with a total extension of nearly 43 kilometres (27 mi),[116] carrying about 130,000 users a day. Building of the (sole) Line 1 of the metro started in 1980. The choice of path was made to relieve the heavy traffic of highway BR-116, which already presented serious problems with the transit at the time. The line was inaugurated on March 2, 1985, between the Central Public Market and Sapucaia do Sul. In December 1997, it was extended to Unisinos. An extension of 2.4 miles (3.9 km) São LeopoldoMuseum was added in November 2000, after two months of trial service.[117] As of 2013, an extension to Novo Hamburgo is being completed, with the first station already fully functional.[118]

A metro system inside Porto Alegre only is currently planned and it is already subject of much publicity and speculation.[119] However, no project has been approved so far and the beginning of the constructions is yet undefined.

Highways

There are two federal highways in the city, BR-290 and BR-116, both running close to its northern and northwestern border. The small number is due to the inexistence of many destinations southeast or south of Porto Alegre (considering the landmass east of Lagoa dos Patos),[120] if not for the cities of Pelotas (the third-biggest in population in the State) and Rio Grande (which hosts the State biggest port). Nonetheless, when coming from west, both highways bond in the neighbor municipality of Eldorado do Sul, running mostly jointly within the borders of Porto Alegre, only coming to separate at the very interchange to Canoas. This way, BR-116 has virtually no sole run within Porto Alegre.

BR-290 highway runs east–west across the state, linking the northeast coast of the state to the UruguayArgentina–Brazil border. It runs close to the northern border of the municipality. Coming from west, as it reaches the urban area of Porto Alegre, BR-290 highway becomes a high-standard 100 km (62 mi) long freeway that connects to the coast and to the BR-101 highway. The latter is an important way to get to Porto Alegre from the north of the country, by the city Osório. BR-101 connects to Curitiba, Florianópolis and northern Santa Catarina state, and has been recently upgraded to highway standards, with multiple lanes. By entering the BR-290 freeway/BR-101 system, and the other highways it connects to, it is possible to drive from Porto Alegre to as far as Rio de Janeiro or Belo Horizonte almost entirely through 4-lane (or more) highways.

The other road, BR-116, is a longitudinal highway, running northeast–south across the state, linking Porto Alegre to several satellite cities and other Brazilian capitals to the north, and Pelotas and Uruguay to the south. Within the municipality, it only touches the northwest side of the city, close to the end of Rio Gravataí (Gravataí River), sharing its entire run with BR-290, only separating when heading north onto Canoas.

A third road, BR-448, is currently under construction.[121] BR-448 is planned to connect the northeast of Porto Alegre to Sapucaia do Sul, as an alternative to BR-116, notably jam-packed on its Canoas-Novo Hamburgo stretch during traffic rush hours.

The connection between downtown Porto Alegre and the highways is made by Avenida Presidente Castelo Branco (President Castelo Branco Avenue), which is a short - 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) - avenue also bordering the northwest side of the city, Avenida dos Estados (States' Avenue), which is the access way to the Salgado Filho International Airport, and Avenida Assis Brasil (Assis Brasil Avenue), the main Avenue in the northern Porto Alegre.

Bus

Bus Station in Porto Alegre.
Bus Station in Porto Alegre.
Porto Alegre bus service.
Porto Alegre bus service.

The city has a functioning transportation system, especially the autobuses. Porto Alegre has also mini-buses from and to all the main neighborhoods in the city, with sitting-only transport and the possibility to hop on and off at any point but also higher fares. Linha Turística (Tourist Line) is a bus that leaves from Usina do Gasômetro tourist terminal around six times per day. During 90 minutes, it traverses the various districts of Porto Alegre, for a modest price.[122] Exclusive bus lanes in the median of seven radial corridors that converge on the city center are used by both urban and regional lines. The bus fleet totals 1,600, with 150 minibuses. About 325 million people use the system annually.[123]

Those lines have no prefix. It is quite common to switch buses at downtown but since there is a myriad of lines there, it can be challenging to find the right terminal for the next bus. Transversal lines prefix "T" (T1, T2, ..., T11), connect different neighborhoods without going through the downtown area, which effectively eliminates the need of changing buses for the most common trips. Circular lines prefix "C" (C1, C2, C3), as the name indicates, run in a circular manner, usually connecting parts of the downtown area to the nearest neighborhoods.[124]

Mayor José Fogaça renewed his agreement with EMBARQ and the Center for Sustainable Transport Brazil (CTS-Brasil) to improve accessibility and mobility in downtown Porto Alegre. The agreement, signed on March 11, includes a new partnership with the Andean Development Corporation, a Latin American multilateral financial institution that is expected to provide $1 million in non-reimbursable technical assistance to help Porto Alegre complete the preparation phase of the "Portais da Cidade" bus rapid transit project, a groundbreaking transport system designed to reduce pollution and congestion downtown. The system will include a southern extension to accommodate activities for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. CAF's technical assistance will be administered through CTS-Brasil, which has been working to expand sustainable transport in Porto Alegre since 2005.[125]

The bus station downtown and is served by several national and international lines. It is also connected to a Trensurb station (Porto Alegre Metro) and several municipal bus lines. Northbound passengers can rely on good bus connections throughout Brazil. However, an express bus might be recommended to travel to Uruguay or Argentina to avoid several stops en route.[126]

Taxi

Porto Alegre has a total of 3,922 authorized taxicabs, with 317 taxi stops.[127] Regular taxis are colored red, whereas airport taxicabs are colored white, both with blue strips on the sides containing white lettering.

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Monorail

Monorail

A monorail is a railway in which the track consists of a single rail or a beam.

Porto Alegre Metro

Porto Alegre Metro

The Porto Alegre Metro is a transit system operated jointly by the federal government, the state government of Rio Grande do Sul and the city of Porto Alegre through the company Trensurb in Brasil. It has 22 stations, totaling 43.4 kilometers (27.0 mi) of route, and carries about 175,000 users a day.

Panama

Panama

Panama, officially the Republic of Panama, is a transcontinental country spanning the central part of North America and the northern part of South America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south. Its capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half the country's 4 million people.

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira. It features the westernmost point in continental Europe, and its Iberian portion is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, the sole country to have a land border with Portugal. Its two archipelagos form two autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Lisbon is the capital and largest city by population.

Canoas Air Force Base

Canoas Air Force Base

Canoas Air Force Base – ALA3 is a base of the Brazilian Air Force, located in Canoas, near Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Brazilian Air Force

Brazilian Air Force

The Brazilian Air Force is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. The FAB was formed when the Army and Navy air branches were merged into a single military force initially called "National Air Forces" in 1941. Both air branches transferred their equipments, installations and personnel to the new force.

Canoas

Canoas

Canoas, which earned city status in 1939, is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. With more than 340,000 inhabitants, it is part of the Porto Alegre conurbation and has the second highest GDP in the state. It is also the fourth largest city in the state by population. Canoas boasts a strong manufacturing-based economy and is the home to Canoas Air Force Base - ALA3, one of the most important bases of the Brazilian Air Force.

Port of Porto Alegre

Port of Porto Alegre

The Port of Porto Alegre is an inland port located in Guaíba Lake in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is connected to Downtown Porto Alegre. Superintendência de Portos e Hidrovias (SPH) was established to manage and distribute cargoes throughout the State of Rio Grande do Sul. To assure effective operations, SPH seeks to provide modern infrastructure and technological support to the Port of Porto Alegre.

Metro station

Metro station

A metro station or subway station is a station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is usually called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, and evacuate the system in the case of an emergency. In the United Kingdom, they are known as underground stations, most commonly used in reference to the London Underground.

Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires, officially the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital and primate city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata, on South America's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre", named after the Madonna of Bonaria in Sardinia, Italy. Buenos Aires is classified as an alpha global city, according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) 2020 ranking.

Metropolitan area

Metropolitan area

A metropolitan area or metro is a region that consists of a densely populated urban agglomeration and its surrounding territories sharing industries, commercial areas, transport network, infrastructures and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple principal cities, jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, as well as even states and nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions.

Sapucaia do Sul

Sapucaia do Sul

Sapucaia do Sul is a municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is located in the south of Brazil, in the region of "Vale dos Sinos".

Sports

Football is a passion of the people from Porto Alegre. There is a big rivalry between two football clubs, Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense, founded in 1903, and Sport Club Internacional, founded in 1909. Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense and Sport Club Internacional currently play in the top league in Brazil, the Serie A. Both have successful histories, having won national and international titles, including the South American top honour, the Copa Libertadores, and the highest global trophy for football clubs, the Intercontinental Cup, now known as the Club World Cup.[128]

Porto Alegre was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup held in Brazil. The modernization of the Beira-Rio Stadium, home of SC Internacional and the city's 2014 FIFA World Cup venue, left the venue with a capacity for 56,000 spectators. Internacional's former home, the Estádio dos Eucaliptos, was a venue for the 1950 FIFA World Cup. Local rivals Grêmio play in their own stadium in the Humaitá district. The Arena do Grêmio stadium replaced the Estádio Olímpico Monumental in 2012 and meets CONMEBOL/FIFA standards. The Arena do Grêmio stadium has a capacity for 60,540 spectators.

American football is also played in the city, with two teams: Porto Alegre Pumpkins, the oldest in the state, and Porto Alegre Bulls, who play with the Esporte Clube São José, a club with multiple sports.

On January 22, 2015, Porto Alegre hosted its first Ultimate Fighting Championship event at the Gigantinho. UFC Fight Night: Bigfoot vs. Mir was headlined by former heavyweight champion Frank Mir making his Brazilian debut, knocking out Brasilia native Antônio Silva.

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2014 FIFA World Cup

2014 FIFA World Cup

The 2014 FIFA World Cup was the 20th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organised by FIFA. It took place in Brazil from 12 June to 13 July 2014, after the country was awarded the hosting rights in 2007. It was the second time that Brazil staged the competition, the first being in 1950, and the fifth time that it was held in South America. Fans and pundits alike consider this edition of the World Cup to be one of the greatest ever held.

Arena do Grêmio

Arena do Grêmio

Arena do Grêmio is a multi-use stadium in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. It was inaugurated on December 8, 2012.

Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense

Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense

Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense, commonly known as Grêmio, is a Brazilian professional football club based in Porto Alegre, capital city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The club plays in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, the second division of the Brazilian football league system, and the Campeonato Gaúcho, Rio Grande do Sul's top state league. The club was founded in 1903 by European immigrants Englishman Andy Fairbank and German Paul Cochlin. The club's home ground is the Arena do Grêmio, to which it moved in 2013, having previously played at Estádio Olímpico Monumental since 1954.

Campeonato Brasileiro Série A

Campeonato Brasileiro Série A

The Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, commonly referred to as the Brasileirão, and also known as Brasileirão Assaí due to sponsorship with Assaí Atacadista, is a Brazilian professional league for men's football clubs. At the top of the Brazilian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B. In 2021 the competition was chosen by the IFFHS as the strongest national league in South America as well as the strongest in the world.

Copa Libertadores

Copa Libertadores

The CONMEBOL Libertadores, also known as the Copa Libertadores de América, is an annual international club football competition organized by CONMEBOL since 1960. It is the highest level of competition in South American club football. The tournament is named after the Libertadores, the leaders of the Latin American wars of independence, so a literal translation of its former name into English is "America's Liberators Cup".

Intercontinental Cup (football)

Intercontinental Cup (football)

The European/South American Cup, more commonly known as the Intercontinental Cup and from 1980 to 2004 as the Toyota European/South American Cup for sponsorship reasons, was an international football competition endorsed by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and the Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL), contested between representative clubs from these confederations, usually the winners of the UEFA Champions League and the South American Copa Libertadores. It ran from 1960 to 2004, when it was succeeded by the FIFA Club World Championship, although they both ran concurrently in 1999–2000.

FIFA Club World Cup

FIFA Club World Cup

The FIFA Club World Cup is an international men's association football competition organised by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The competition was first contested in 2000 as the FIFA Club World Championship. It was not held from 2001 to 2004 due to a combination of factors in the cancelled 2001 tournament, most importantly the collapse of FIFA's marketing partner International Sport and Leisure (ISL), but since 2005 it has been held every year, and has been hosted by Brazil, Japan, the United Arab Emirates, Morocco and Qatar. Views differ as to the cup's prestige: it struggles to attract interest in most of Europe, and is the object of heated debate in South America.

Estádio dos Eucaliptos

Estádio dos Eucaliptos

The Estádio Ildo Meneghetti, familiarly known as Estádio dos Eucaliptos, was a football stadium located in the neighborhood of Menino Deus, in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The stadium was built in 1931 had a maximum seating capacity of 20,000 people.

1950 FIFA World Cup

1950 FIFA World Cup

The 1950 FIFA World Cup was the fourth edition of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for senior men's national teams and held in Brazil from 24 June to 16 July 1950. The planned 1942 and 1946 World Cups were cancelled due to World War II. This tournament ended the hiatus. Uruguay, who had won the inaugural competition in 1930, defeated the host nation, Brazil, in the deciding match of the four-team group of the final round. This was the only tournament not decided by a one-match final. It was also the inaugural tournament where the trophy was referred to as the Jules Rimet Cup, to mark the 25th anniversary of Jules Rimet's presidency of FIFA.

Estádio Olímpico Monumental

Estádio Olímpico Monumental

Estádio Olímpico Monumental, also known as Estádio Olímpico de Porto Alegre and Estádio Olímpico until 1980, is a football stadium in the city of Porto Alegre, in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, with a maximum capacity of 45,000 people. The stadium is owned by Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense. Inaugurated on September 19, 1954, the stadium was the home field of the Grêmio football club before being the team moved to Arena do Grêmio in December 2012. Currently, the venue is not in use by the club and suffers from lack of maintenance.

CONMEBOL

CONMEBOL

The South American Football Confederation is the continental governing body of football in South America and it is one of FIFA's six continental confederations. The oldest continental confederation in the world, its headquarters are located in Luque, Paraguay, near Asunción. CONMEBOL is responsible for the organization and governance of South American football's major international tournaments. With 10 member football associations, it has the fewest members of all the confederations in FIFA.

FIFA

FIFA

FIFA, which stands for Fédération Internationale de Football Association, is an international governing body of association football, beach football and futsal. It was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, Switzerland, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. These national associations must each also be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: CAF (Africa), AFC, UEFA (Europe), CONCACAF, OFC (Oceania) and CONMEBOL.

Neighborhoods

President Goulart Avenue seen from Guaíba Park
President Goulart Avenue seen from Guaíba Park
Cais Embarcadero complex and Gasômetro plant
Cais Embarcadero complex and Gasômetro plant

Neighborhoods of Porto Alegre are geographical divisions of the city. There is no devolution of administrative powers to neighborhoods, although there are several neighborhoods associations devoted to improve their own standards of living. Porto Alegre has nowadays 81 official distinguished neighborhoods.[129]

Notable people

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Adriana Calcanhotto

Adriana Calcanhotto

Adriana Calcanhotto is a Brazilian singer-songwriter. Her melancholic songs are often categorized in the MPB genre. She began her professional career in 1984 and released her first studio album in 1990.

Humberto Gessinger

Humberto Gessinger

Humberto Gessinger is best known as the musician, guitarist, and bassist from the Brazilian band Engenheiros do Hawaii.

Engenheiros do Hawaii

Engenheiros do Hawaii

Engenheiros do Hawaii was a Brazilian rock band formed in Porto Alegre in 1983 that achieved great popularity with their ironic, critically charged songs with heavily semantic lyrics often relying on wordplays. The vocalist and bassist Humberto Gessinger was the only member present since the original lineup.

Carla Körbes

Carla Körbes

Carla Körbes is a Brazilian ballet dancer who performed as a principal dancer with the Pacific Northwest Ballet, then became the associate artistic director of L.A Dance Project. She is now an associate professor at Indiana University Jacobs School of Music's ballet faculty.

José Lutzenberger

José Lutzenberger

José Antônio Kroeff Lutzenberger was a Brazilian agronomist and environmentalist. In 1988, he was awarded the Right Livelihood Award for his "contribution to protecting the natural environment in Brazil and worldwide".

Environmentalist

Environmentalist

An environmentalist is a person who is concerned with and/or advocates for the protection of the environment. An environmentalist can be considered a supporter of the goals of the environmental movement, "a political and ethical movement that seeks to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment through changes to environmentally harmful human activities". An environmentalist is engaged in or believes in the philosophy of environmentalism or one of the related philosophies.

Less Than Jake

Less Than Jake

Less Than Jake is an American ska punk band from Gainesville, Florida, formed in 1992. The band consists of Chris DeMakes, Roger Lima, Matt Yonker (drums), Buddy Schaub (trombone), and Peter "JR" Wasilewski (saxophone).

Elis Regina

Elis Regina

Elis Regina Carvalho Costa, known professionally as Elis Regina, was a Brazilian singer of popular and jazz music. She is also the mother of the singers Maria Rita and Pedro Mariano.

Lily Safra

Lily Safra

Lily Safra was a Brazilian-Monegasque billionaire and socialite who amassed considerable wealth through her four marriages. She had a significant art collection and owned the historic Villa Leopolda on the French Riviera. Her net worth was estimated at $1.3 billion. She became strongly engaged with philanthropy when she married the banker Edmond Safra, and this continued through their Foundation after his death in 1999.

Cármelo de los Santos

Cármelo de los Santos

Cármelo de los Santos is a violinist from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. He plays a 1929 Carl Fredrick Becker violin.

Jucinara

Jucinara

Jucinara Thaís Soares Paz, simply known as Jucinara, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as a left back for Spanish Primera División club Levante UD.

Daiane dos Santos

Daiane dos Santos

Daiane Garcia dos Santos is a retired artistic gymnast. She is the 2003 world champion on the floor apparatus. On doing so, she became the first black gymnast to ever win an event at the World Championships as well as the first Brazilian and South American to win the competition. She represented Brazil at the 2004, 2008, and 2012 Summer Olympics. Widely regarded as the most powerful tumbler of her generation by critics and fellow competitors alike, the gymnast had two eponymous skills added on the FIG code of points after being the first woman to compete them at international championships. Dos Santos I, an F rated element, and Dos Santos II, an H rated element on the 2017–2020 COP.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Porto Alegre is twinned with:[130]

Partner cities

Porto Alegre also has the following partner city:

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List of twin towns and sister cities in Brazil

List of twin towns and sister cities in Brazil

This is a list of municipalities in Brazil which have standing links to local communities in other countries. In most cases, the association, especially when formalised by local government, is known as "town twinning" or "sister cities".

Horta, Azores

Horta, Azores

Horta is a municipality and city in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores encompassing the island of Faial. The population in 2011 was 15,038 in an area of 173.06 square kilometres (66.82 sq mi) The city of Horta itself has a population of about 7,000.

Japan

Japan

Japan is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, and Taiwan in the south. Japan is a part of the Ring of Fire, and spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers (145,937 sq mi); the five main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.

Kanazawa

Kanazawa

Kanazawa is the capital city of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 January 2018, the city had an estimated population of 466,029 in 203,271 households, and a population density of 990 persons per km2. The total area of the city was 468.64 square kilometres (180.94 sq mi).

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

La Plata

La Plata

La Plata is the capital city of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. According to the 2010 census [INDEC], it has a population of 654,324 and its metropolitan area, the Greater La Plata, has 787,294 inhabitants. It is located 6 miles (9 km) inland from the southern shore of the Río de la Plata estuary.

Italy

Italy

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a country located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, in Southern Europe; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region. Italy is also considered part of Western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital and largest city, the country covers a total area of 301,230 km2 (116,310 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland, Campione. With over 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union.

Morano Calabro

Morano Calabro

Morano Calabro is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. It was the birthplace of mathematician Gaetano Scorza.

Brazil

Brazil

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3,300,000 sq mi) and with over 217 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the seventh most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas; one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world; and the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.

Natal, Rio Grande do Norte

Natal, Rio Grande do Norte

Natal is the capital and largest city of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, located in northeastern Brazil. According to IBGE's 2021 estimate, the city had a total population of 896,708, making it the 19th largest city in the country. Natal is a major tourist destination and an exporting hub of crustaceans, carnauba wax and fruits, mostly melon, sugar apple, cashew and papaya. It is the country's closest city to Africa and Europe, with its Greater Natal International Airport connecting Natal with many Brazilian cities and also operating some international flights. The city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

Newark, New Jersey

Newark, New Jersey

Newark is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County and part of the New York metropolitan area. The city had a population of 311,549 as of the 2020 United States census, making it the nation's 62nd-most populous municipality, after being ranked 73rd in the nation in 2010. It is one of the nation's major air, shipping, and rail hubs.

Portalegre, Portugal

Portalegre, Portugal

Portalegre is a municipality in Portugal. The population as of 2011 was 22,368, in an area of 447.14 square kilometres (172.64 sq mi). The municipality is located by the Serra de São Mamede in the Portalegre District.

Source: "Porto Alegre", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porto_Alegre.

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Notes
  1. ^ In other Brazilian dialects, such as that of Rio de Janeiro, it is pronounced [ˈpoʁtu aˈlɛɡɾi], and also colloquially [ˌpoʁtwɐˈlɛɡɾi] or [ˌpoʁtaˈlɛɡɾi]. The European Portuguese pronunciation is [ˈpoɾtu ɐˈlɛɣɾ(ɨ)].
References
  1. ^ IBGE 2020
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 8, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Pôrto Alegre" (US) and "Pôrto Alegre". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2020-08-18.
  4. ^ "Porto Alegre". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  5. ^ "Location of Porto Alegre". Iguide.travel. Retrieved 2010-10-21.
  6. ^ Eva-Maria Verfürth (February 2013). "More generous than you might think". dandc.eu. Archived from the original on 2013-05-21. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
  7. ^ "Violence rises in Porto Alegre, affecting already battered economy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2017-11-22.
  8. ^ Woody, Christopher (2018-03-06). "These were the 50 most violent cities in the world in 2017". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 2019-04-01. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  9. ^ "Brazil 2019 Crime & Safety Report: Porto Alegre". www.osac.gov. Retrieved 2019-11-04.
  10. ^ "Porto Alegre registra queda de 61,9% nos homicídios no mês de agosto". Portal do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (in Portuguese). 2019-09-12. Retrieved 2019-11-04.
  11. ^ a b c d "PortoAlegre.travel". Portoalegre.travel. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
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