Get Our Extension

Polyamory

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
The earliest polyamory pride flag design, created by Jim Evans in 1995. The blue in the flag represents openness and honesty among all partners, the red represents passion and love, and the black represents solidarity with people who hide their polyamorous relationships due to pressure from society. The gold in the Greek letter pi (pi standing for the first letter of polyamory) represents how polyamorous people value emotional attachment in their relationships.[1][2][3]
The earliest polyamory pride flag design, created by Jim Evans in 1995. The blue in the flag represents openness and honesty among all partners, the red represents passion and love, and the black represents solidarity with people who hide their polyamorous relationships due to pressure from society. The gold in the Greek letter pi (pi standing for the first letter of polyamory) represents how polyamorous people value emotional attachment in their relationships.[1][2][3]

Polyamory (from Ancient Greek πολλοί (polloí) 'many', and Latin amor 'love') is the practice of, or desire for, romantic relationships with more than one partner at the same time, with the informed consent of all partners involved.[4][5] People who identify as polyamorous may believe in open relationships with a conscious management of jealousy and reject the view that sexual and relational exclusivity are prerequisite for deep, committed, long-term, loving relationships.[6][7] Others prefer to restrict their sexual activity to only members of the group, a closed polyamorous relationship that is usually referred to as polyfidelity.[8][9]

Polyamory has come to be an umbrella term for various forms of non-monogamous, multi-partner relationships, or non-exclusive sexual or romantic relationships.[10][11][12] Its usage reflects the choices and philosophies of the individuals involved, but with recurring themes or values, such as love, intimacy, honesty, integrity, equality, communication, and commitment.[13][5] It can sometimes be distinguished from some other forms of ethical non-monogamy in that the relationships involved are loving intimate relationships, as opposed to purely sexual relationships.[14]

Discover more about Polyamory related topics

Love

Love

Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotional and mental states, from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection, to the simplest pleasure. An example of this range of meanings is that the love of a mother differs from the love of a spouse, which differs from the love for food. Most commonly, love refers to a feeling of a strong attraction and emotional attachment.

Sexual consent

Sexual consent

Sexual consent is consent to engage in sexual activity. In many jurisdictions, sexual activity without consent is considered rape or other sexual assault.

Jealousy

Jealousy

Jealousy generally refers to the thoughts or feelings of insecurity, fear, and concern over a relative lack of possessions or safety.

Polyfidelity

Polyfidelity

Polyfidelity is a form of non-monogamy, a romantic relationship structure in which all members are considered equal partners and agree to restrict sexual and/or romantic activity only to other members of the group.

Romance (love)

Romance (love)

Romance or romantic love is a feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards another person, and the courtship behaviors undertaken by an individual to express those overall feelings and resultant emotions.

Philosophy of life

Philosophy of life

A philosophy of life is any general attitude towards, or philosophical view of, the meaning of life or of the way life should be lived. The term is generally used in an informal sense, meaning a personal philosophy whose focus is resolving basic existential questions about the human condition rather than an academic philosophical endeavour.

Theme (narrative)

Theme (narrative)

In contemporary literary studies, a theme is a central topic, subject, or message within a narrative. Themes can be divided into two categories: a work's thematic concept is what readers "think the work is about" and its thematic statement being "what the work says about the subject". Themes are often distinguished from premises.

Honesty

Honesty

Honesty or truthfulness is a facet of moral character that connotes positive and virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, straightforwardness, including straightforwardness of conduct, along with the absence of lying, cheating, theft, etc. Honesty also involves being trustworthy, loyal, fair, and sincere.

Integrity

Integrity

Integrity is the practice of being honest and showing a consistent and uncompromising adherence to strong moral and ethical principles and values. In ethics, integrity is regarded as the honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of one's actions. Integrity can stand in opposition to hypocrisy, in that judging with the standards of integrity involves regarding internal consistency as a virtue, and suggests that parties holding within themselves apparently conflicting values should account for the discrepancy or alter their beliefs. The word integrity evolved from the Latin adjective integer, meaning whole or complete. In this context, integrity is the inner sense of "wholeness" deriving from qualities such as honesty and consistency of character.

Egalitarianism

Egalitarianism

Egalitarianism, or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equality, prioritizing it for all people. Egalitarian doctrines are generally characterized by the idea that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or moral status. Egalitarianism is the doctrine that all citizens of a state should be accorded exactly equal rights. Egalitarian doctrines have motivated many modern social movements and ideas, including the Enlightenment, feminism, civil rights, and international human rights.

Interpersonal communication

Interpersonal communication

Interpersonal communication is an exchange of information between two or more people. It is also an area of research that seeks to understand how humans use verbal and nonverbal cues to accomplish a number of personal and relational goals.

Promise

Promise

A promise is a commitment by someone to do or not do something. As a noun promise means a declaration assuring that one will or will not do something. As a verb it means to commit oneself by a promise to do or give. It can also mean a capacity for good, similar to a value that is to be realized in the near future.

Terminology

The word polyamorous first appeared in an article by Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart, "A Bouquet of Lovers", published in May 1990 in Green Egg Magazine, as "poly-amorous".[15] In May 1992, Jennifer L. Wesp created the Usenet newsgroup alt.polyamory, and the Oxford English Dictionary cites the proposal to create that group as the first verified appearance of the word.[15] In 1999, Zell-Ravenheart was asked by the editor of the OED to provide a definition of the term, and she provided it for the UK version as "the practice, state or ability of having more than one sexual loving relationship at the same time, with the full knowledge and consent of all partners involved."[16] The words polyamory, polyamorous, and polyamorist were added to the OED in 2006.[17]

Some reference works define "polyamory" as a relational form (whether interpersonal or romantic or sexual) that involves multiple people with the consent of all the people involved, like Oxford Living Dictionaries, Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus, and Dictionary.com.[18][19][20][21] Some criticized the Merriam-Webster definition of polyamory, which defines the term as "the state or practice of having more than one open romantic relationship at a time,"[22] as missing a "vital component": consent.[23]

The word polyamory combines the Greek word for many (poly) and the Latin word for love (amor).[24]

Discover more about Terminology related topics

Terminology within polyamory

Terminology within polyamory

Terminology within polyamory looks at the evolution and meaning of the word "polyamory" itself, as well as alternative definitions and concepts which closely relate to it.

Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart

Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart

Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart, born as Diana Moore, subsequently known as Morning Glory Ferns, Morning Glory Zell and briefly Morning G'Zell, was an American community leader, author, and lecturer in Neopaganism, as well as a priestess of the Church of All Worlds. An advocate of polyamory, she is credited with coining the word. With her husband Oberon Zell-Ravenheart, she designed deity images.

Green Egg

Green Egg

Green Egg is a Neopagan magazine published by the Church of All Worlds intermittently since 1968. The Encyclopedia of American Religions described it as a significant periodical.

Oxford English Dictionary

Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world.

Sexual consent

Sexual consent

Sexual consent is consent to engage in sexual activity. In many jurisdictions, sexual activity without consent is considered rape or other sexual assault.

Interpersonal relationship

Interpersonal relationship

The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. Interpersonal relationships vary in their degree of intimacy or self-disclosure, but also in their duration, in their reciprocity and in their power distribution, to name only a few dimensions. The context can vary from family or kinship relations, friendship, marriage, relations with associates, work, clubs, neighborhoods, and places of worship. Relationships may be regulated by law, custom, or mutual agreement, and form the basis of social groups and of society as a whole. Interpersonal relationships are created by people's interactions with one another in social situations.

Romance (love)

Romance (love)

Romance or romantic love is a feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards another person, and the courtship behaviors undertaken by an individual to express those overall feelings and resultant emotions.

Intimate relationship

Intimate relationship

An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves physical or emotional intimacy. Although an intimate relationship is commonly a sexual relationship, it may also be a non-sexual relationship involving family, friends, or acquaintances.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

The Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press. The dictionary has over 140,000 words, phrases, and meanings. It is suitable for learners at CEF levels B2-C2. To get results for a specific area, include a location in your search

Thesaurus

Thesaurus

A thesaurus or synonym dictionary is a reference work for finding synonyms and sometimes antonyms of words. They are often used by writers to help find the best word to express an idea:...to find the word, or words, by which [an] idea may be most fitly and aptly expressed

Dictionary.com

Dictionary.com

Dictionary.com is an online dictionary whose domain was first registered on May 14, 1995. The primary content on Dictionary.com is a proprietary dictionary based on Random House Unabridged Dictionary, with editors for the site providing new and updated definitions. Supplementary content comes from the Collins English Dictionary, American Heritage Dictionary and others.

Merriam-Webster

Merriam-Webster

Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books and is especially known for its dictionaries. It is the oldest dictionary publisher in the United States.

As a practice

Polyamorous people parading under their banner with two furries in front of them at Pride in London 2016
Polyamorous people parading under their banner with two furries in front of them at Pride in London 2016

Consensual non-monogamy, which polyamory falls under,[25] can take many different forms, depending on the needs and preferences of the individual(s) involved in any specific relationship(s). As of 2019, over one fifth of the United States population has, at some point in their lives, engaged in some sort of consensual non-monogamy.[26]

Separate from polyamory as a philosophical basis for relationships are the practical ways in which people who live polyamorously arrange their lives and handle certain issues, as compared to those of a more conventional monogamous arrangement.[6] People of different sexual orientations are a part of the community and form networks of relationships, with consent and agreement of their partners.[27][28][29] Many things differentiate polyamory from other types of non-monogamous relationships. It is common for swinging and open couples to maintain emotional monogamy while engaging in extra-dyadic sexual relations.[30]

The friend or partner boundary in monogamous relationships and other forms of non-monogamy is typically fairly clear. Unlike other forms of non-monogamy, though, "polyamory is notable for privileging emotional intimacy with others."[14] Benefits of a polyamorous relationship might include:[31] the ability of individuals to discuss issues with multiple partners, potentially mediating and thus stabilizing a relationship, and reducing polarization of viewpoints, and emotional support and structure from other committed adults within the familial unit. Other benefits include a wider range of adult experience, skills, resources, and perspective and support for companionate marriages, which can be satisfying even if no longer sexually vital, since romantic needs are met elsewhere. This acts to preserve existing relationships.[32] A final benefit is more emotional, intellectual and sexual needs met as part of the understanding that one person cannot be expected to provide them all. Conversely, polyamory offers release from the monogamist expectation that one person must meet all of an individual's needs (sex, emotional support, primary friendship, intellectual stimulation, companionship, social presentation).

Polyamorous communities are present in countries within Europe, North America, Oceania, South America, Asia, and Africa. The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction estimating that there were half-a-million "openly polyamorous families" in the United States in July 2009.[33][34] Additionally, 15–28% of heterosexual couples and about half of gay and bisexual people have a "non-traditional" arrangement of some kind as reported in The Guardian in August 2013.[35] Polyamorous communities have been said to be outwardly feminist as women were central to the creation of such communities and gender equality is a central tenet.[33] For those who are polyamorous, social distancing, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, created ripples in existing relationships, leading some to split apart and others to struggle to maintain their connections with one another.[36][37][38]

Values

Fidelity and loyalty

The picture shows three people in a polyamorous relationship.
The picture shows three people in a polyamorous relationship.

A large percentage of polyamorists define fidelity not as sexual exclusivity, but as faithfulness to the promises and agreements made about a relationship.[39][40][41] As a relational practice, polyamory sustains a vast variety of open relationship or multi-partner constellations, which can differ in definition and grades of intensity, closeness and commitment.[42] Specifically, polyamory can take the forms of a triad of three people in an intimate relationship, a poly family of more than three people, one person as the pivot point of a relationship (a "vee"), a couple in a two-person relationship which portrays other relationships on their own, and various other intimate networks of individuals.[43][28][33] There are also those who are swingers and engage in polyamory, or engage in poly-dating.[43] A poly family is sometimes called "kitchen table polyamory",[44] a style of polyamory in which all members of a particular polycule are comfortable and connected enough with each other that it is not uncommon for them to literally gather around the kitchen table, as they may spend holidays, birthdays, or other important times together as a large group. This style places an emphasis on family-style connections, and not all members are necessarily sexually or romantically involved with every other person in the group.[45][46] Other styles of polyamory include parallel polyamory, where members of individual relationships prefer not to meet or know details of their partners' other relationships,[45][46] and solo polyamory, in which the individual has or is comfortable with having multiple intimate (romantic or sexual) relationships without wanting to cohabit or "nest" with any one partner, eschewing the "relationship escalator" which holds that relationships must follow a progression, or "escalator" from dating, to being exclusive, to becoming engaged, getting married, and having children.[47][48] For some, polyamory functions as an umbrella term for the multiple approaches of 'responsible non-monogamy'.[42] A secret sexual relationship that violates those accords would be seen as a breach of fidelity. Polyamorists generally base definitions of commitment on considerations other than sexual exclusivity, e.g. "trust and honesty" or "growing old together".[49] In an article in Men's Health, Zachary Zane states that commitment in a polyamorous relationship means that "you will be there for that person", supporting them, taking care of them, and loving them.[50]

Communication and negotiation

Because there is no "standard model" for polyamorous relationships, and reliance upon common expectations may not be realistic, polyamorists advocate explicitly negotiating with all involved to establish the terms of their relationships, and often emphasize that this should be an ongoing process of honest communication and respect. Polyamorists typically take a pragmatic approach to their relationships; many accept that sometimes they and their partners will make mistakes and fail to live up to these ideals, and that communication is important for repairing any breaches.[51][52] They also argue that polyamory is a response to challenges of relationships of a monogamous nature.[33]

Trust, honesty, dignity, and respect

Polyamory has been defined as loving more than one person at once, with respect, trust, and honesty for all partners involved.[51][52][53] Ideally, a partner's partners are accepted as part of that person's life rather than merely tolerated, and usually a relationship that requires deception or a "don't ask don't tell" policy is seen as a less than ideal model. Out additionally described polyamory as "not a sexuality" but as actually "having multiple intimate relationships".[54]

Non-possessiveness

Some polyamorists view excessive restrictions on other deep relationships as less than desirable, as such restrictions can be used to replace trust with a framework of ownership and control. It is usually preferred or encouraged that a polyamorist strive to view their partners' other significant others, often referred to as metamours or OSOs,[55] in terms of the gain to their partners' lives rather than a threat to their own (see compersion). Therefore, jealousy and possessiveness are generally viewed not so much as something to avoid or structure the relationships around, but as responses that should be explored, understood, and resolved within each individual, with compersion as a goal.[56] This is related to one of the types of polyamory, which is non-hierarchical, where "no one relationship is prioritized above the rest"[28] and the fact that polyamorists insist on working through problems in their relationships "through open communication, patience, and honesty."[33]

Compersion

Compersion is an empathetic state of happiness and joy experienced when another individual experiences happiness and joy. In the context of polyamorous relationships, it describes positive feelings experienced by an individual when their intimate partner is enjoying another relationship.[57][53][58] Some have called it "the opposite or flip side of jealousy,"[59] said it is analogous to the "joy parents feel when their children get married,"[60] and a "positive emotional reaction to a lover's other relationship."[46] The concept of compersion was originally coined by the Kerista Commune in San Francisco.[58][61][62]

Difficulties

Morin (1999) and Fleckenstein (2014) noted that certain conditions are favorable to good experiences with polyamory, but that these differ from the general population.[63][64] Heavy public promotion of polyamory can have the unintended effect of attracting people to it for whom it is not well-suited. Unequal power-dynamics, such as financial dependence, can also inappropriately influence a person to agree to a polyamorous relationship against their true desires. Even in more equal power-dynamic relationships, the reluctant partner may feel coerced into a proposed non-monogamous arrangement due to the implication that if they refuse, the proposer will pursue other partners anyway, will break off the relationship, or that the one refusing will be accused of intolerance.[65]

Polyamorous relationships present practical pitfalls. One common complaint from participants is time management, as more partners means one must divide one's time and attention up between them, leaving less for each.[66] Related is that the complexity of the arrangement can lead to so much effort being spent on the relationship that personal, individual needs can be overlooked.[14] The strong emphasis on communication can unintentionally marginalize partners who are less articulate.[14] Finally, negotiating the sometimes complex rules and boundaries of these relationships can be emotionally taxing, as can reconciling situations where one partner goes outside those boundaries.[14][66] Some therapists argue that polyamory is not good for relationships, saying it is a "recipe for hurt, disappointment, jealousy, and breakups".[67]

Discover more about As a practice related topics

Consensual non-monogamy

Consensual non-monogamy

Consensual non-monogamy (CNM), and its subset ethical non-monogamy (ENM), are the practice of non-monogamous intimate or sexual relations that are distinguished from infidelity by the knowledge and consent of those involved, and from polygamy by the various partners not being in a single marriage. Forms of consensual non-monogamy include swinging, polyamory, open relationships, cuckquean fetishism and cuckolding fetishism.

Swinging (sexual practice)

Swinging (sexual practice)

Swinging, sometimes called wife-swapping, husband-swapping, or partner-swapping, is a sexual activity in which both singles and partners in a committed relationship sexually engage with others for recreational purposes. Swinging is a form of non-monogamy and is an open relationship. People may choose a swinging lifestyle for a variety of reasons. Practitioners cite an increased quality and quantity of sex. Some people may engage in swinging to add variety into their otherwise conventional sex-lives or due to their curiosity. Some couples see swinging as a healthy outlet and means to strengthen their relationship.

Open relationship

Open relationship

An open relationship is an intimate relationship that is sexually non-monogamous. The term is distinct from polyamory, in that it generally indicates a relationship where there is a primary emotional and intimate relationship between two partners, who agree to at least the possibility of sexual or emotional intimacy with other people.

The Guardian

The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian; it changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust. The trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of The Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of The Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to owners or shareholders. It is considered a newspaper of record in the UK.

Gender equality

Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

Social distancing

Social distancing

In public health, social distancing, also called physical distancing, is a set of non-pharmaceutical interventions or measures intended to prevent the spread of a contagious disease by maintaining a physical distance between people and reducing the number of times people come into close contact with each other. It usually involves keeping a certain distance from others and avoiding gathering together in large groups.

COVID-19 pandemic

COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Attempts to contain failed, allowing the virus to spread to other areas of Asia and later worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 24 November 2022, the pandemic had caused more than 639 million cases and 6.62 million confirmed deaths, making it one of the deadliest in history.

Ménage à trois

Ménage à trois

A ménage à trois is a domestic arrangement and committed relationship with three people in polyamorous romantic or sexual relations with each other, and often dwelling together; typically a traditional marriage between a man and woman along with another individual. The phrase is a loan from French meaning "household of three". Some contemporary arrangements are sometimes identified as a throuple, thruple, or triad.

Men's Health

Men's Health

Men's Health (MH), published by Hearst, is the world's largest men's magazine brand, with 35 editions in 59 countries. It is also the best-selling men's magazine on U.S. newsstands.

Out (magazine)

Out (magazine)

Out is an American LGBTQ news, fashion, entertainment, and lifestyle magazine, with the highest circulation of any LGBTQ monthly publication in the United States. It presents itself in an editorial manner similar to Details, Esquire, and GQ. Out was owned by Robert Hardman of Boston, its original investor, until 2000, when he sold it to LPI Media, which was later acquired by PlanetOut Inc. In 2008, PlanetOut Inc. sold LPI Media to Regent Entertainment Media, Inc., a division of Here Media, which also owns Here TV. In 2017, Here Media sold its magazine operations to a group led by Oreva Capital, who renamed the parent company Pride Media. On June 9th, 2022 Pride Media was required by Equal Entertainment LLC known as equalpride putting the famous magazine back under queer ownership.

Mudita

Mudita

Muditā means joy; especially sympathetic or vicarious joy, or the pleasure that comes from delighting in other people's well-being.

San Francisco

San Francisco

San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Northern California. The city proper is the fourth most populous in California and 17th most populous in the United States, with 815,201 residents as of 2021. It covers a land area of 46.9 square miles, at the end of the San Francisco Peninsula, making it the second most densely populated large U.S. city after New York City, and the fifth most densely populated U.S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. Among the 331 U.S. cities proper with more than 100,000 residents, San Francisco was ranked first by per capita income and fifth by aggregate income as of 2019. Colloquial nicknames for San Francisco include SF, San Fran, The City, Frisco, and Baghdad by the Bay.

Legal issues and legal recognition

People with polyamory flags in Malmö, Sweden, in August 2017
People with polyamory flags in Malmö, Sweden, in August 2017

In 1998, a Tennessee court granted guardianship of a child to her grandmother and step-grandfather, after the child's mother April Divilbiss and partners outed themselves as polyamorous on MTV. After contesting the decision for two years, Divilbiss eventually agreed to relinquish her daughter, acknowledging that she was unable to adequately care for her child and that this, rather than her polyamory, had been the grandparents' real motivation in seeking custody.[68]

In 2010, Ann Tweedy, a legal scholar, argued that polyamory could be considered a sexual orientation under existing United States law.[69] This argument was opposed by Christian Keese, who wrote in 2016 that advocating a "sexual orientation model of polyamory is likely to reduce the complexity and transformative potential of poly intimacies," while also limiting the reach and scope of possible litigation, obstructing the ability of poly activists to form alliances with other groups, and increasing the possibility that poly activists will have to settle for legal solutions which are "exclusive and reproductive of a culture of privilege".[70]

In 2016, writer Rebecca Ruth Gould called for non-monogamy, including polyamory, to receive "the legal recognition it deserves", saying that polyamory remains a "negative identity".[71]

In 2017, three men became the first family in the state of California to have names of three fathers on their child's birth certificate.[72] In later years, they had legal challenges and in 2020 published a book about their experiences titled Three Dads and a Baby.

In June 2018, a court in Newfoundland and Labrador recognized three unmarried adults as legal parents of a child who was born within the polyamorous family they had formed; this was believed to be a first for Canadian law. The three adults included the child's mother and two men; the child's biological father was unknown.[73]

In June 2020, the city council of Somerville, Massachusetts, voted to recognize polyamorous domestic partnerships in the city, becoming the first American city to do so. This measure was passed so that those in a polyamorous relationship would have access to their partners' health insurance amid the COVID-19 pandemic.[74][75][76][77]

In November 2020, the issue of polyamory came to the Supreme Court of Vermont in the form of a dispute between two men and a woman in a polyamorous relationship.[78]

In March 2021, the Cambridge, Massachusetts City Council approved an ordinance amending the city's laws, stipulating that "a domestic partnership needn't only include two partners."[79][80][81] The measure was supported by the Polyamory Legal Advocacy Coalition, also known as PLAC, composed of the Chosen Family Law Center, Harvard Law School LGBTQ+ Advocacy Clinic, and some members on the American Psychological Association's Committee on Consensual Non-Monogamy. This ordinance was originally proposed in July 2020.[82][83] In April 2021, the adjacent town of Arlington, Massachusetts, also approved domestic partnerships of more than two people, which is now subject to the review of the state Attorney General's office.[84]

In April 2021, a British Columbia Supreme Court justice declared a woman was the third legal parent in polyamorous "triad".[85]

Marriage implications

Most western countries do not recognize polygamous marriages, and consider bigamy a crime. Several countries also prohibit people from living a polygamous lifestyle. This is the case in some states of the United States where the criminalization of a polygamous lifestyle originated as anti-Mormon laws, although they are rarely enforced.[86] Having multiple non-marital partners, even if married to one, is legal in most U.S. jurisdictions; at most it constitutes grounds for divorce if the spouse is non-consenting, or feels that the interest in a further partner has destabilized the marriage. In some jurisdictions, like North Carolina, a spouse can sue a third party for causing "loss of affection" in or "criminal conversation" (adultery) with their spouse,[87] while more than twenty states in the US have laws against adultery, although they are infrequently enforced[88] after the Supreme Court's ruling in Lawrence v. Texas (which did not explicitly hold such laws to be unconstitutional but whose reasoning clearly implies that conclusion).

Polyamory, however, is on a continuum of family-bonds that includes group marriage[89] and it does not refer to bigamy as long as no claim to being married in formal legal terms is made.[90][91] The Social History of the American Family: An Encyclopedia (2014, edited by Marilyn J. Coleman and Lawrence H. Ganong) stated that under existing U.S. federal law, a polyamorous relationship is legal in all 50 states while polygamy is not.[92] On November 23, 2011, the Supreme Court of British Columbia ruled that the anti-polygamy law of Canada does not affect unformalized polyamorous households; this is why Polyamory Day is celebrated every year on November 23.[93] Even so, those in polyamorous relationships often face legal challenges when it comes to custody, morality clauses, adultery and bigamy laws, housing, and where they live.[94]

In 2012, legal scholar Deborah Anapol called for the revision of existing U.S. laws against bigamy to permit married persons to enter into additional marriages, provided that they have first given legal notice to their existing marital partner or partners, with a "dyadic networks" model.[95] In 2015, another legal scholar, Ronald C. Den Otter, wrote in the Emory Law Journal (in the article "Three May Not Be a Crowd: The Case for a Constitutional Right to Plural Marriage") that in the United States the constitutional rights of due process and equal protection fully support marriage rights for polyamorous families.[96]

During a PinkNews question-and-answer session in May 2015, Redfern Jon Barrett questioned Natalie Bennett, leader of the Green Party of England and Wales, about her party's stance toward polyamorous marriage rights. Bennett responded by saying that her party is "open" to discussion on the idea of civil partnership or marriages between three people.[97] Bennett's announcement aroused media controversy on the topic and led to major international news outlets covering her answer.[98][99] A follow-up article written by Barrett was published by PinkNews on May 4, 2015, further exploring the topic.[100] In most countries, it is legal for three or more people to form and share a sexual relationship (subject sometimes to laws against homosexuality or adultery if two of the three are married). With only minor exceptions no developed countries permit marriage among more than two people, nor do the majority of countries give legal protection (e.g., of rights relating to children) to non-married partners. Individuals involved in polyamorous relationships are generally considered by the law to be no different from people who live together, or "date", under other circumstances. In 2017, John Alejandro Rodriguez, Victor Hugo Prada, and Manuel Jose Bermudez became Colombia's first polyamorous family to have a legally recognized relationship,[101] though not a marriage, as by Colombian law, marriage is between two people, so they instead called it a "special patrimonial union".[102][103] Some have called for domestic partnership laws to be expanded to include polyamorous couples[104] and have said that marriage-like entitlements should apply to such couples.[105]

In later years, in the debate over same-sex marriage, neither those for nor those against it favored polygamy itself, with agreement that multiparty marriage should remain impossible. In the case of polyamory, which is different from polygyny, there was little public debate about its existence.[106] This is because some advocates of same-sex marriage became leery of associating with polyamory because they thought it would "give their enemies ammunition".[33] If marriage is intended, some countries provide for both a religious marriage and a civil ceremony (sometimes combined). These recognize and formalize the relationship. Few countries outside of Africa or Asia give legal recognition to marriages with three or more partners.

Discover more about Legal issues and legal recognition related topics

MTV

MTV

MTV is an American cable channel that launched on August 1, 1981. Based in New York City, it serves as the flagship property of the MTV Entertainment Group, part of Paramount Media Networks, a division of Paramount Global.

Law of the United States

Law of the United States

The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the nation's Constitution, which prescribes the foundation of the federal government of the United States, as well as various civil liberties. The Constitution sets out the boundaries of federal law, which consists of Acts of Congress, treaties ratified by the Senate, regulations promulgated by the executive branch, and case law originating from the federal judiciary. The United States Code is the official compilation and codification of general and permanent federal statutory law.

Non-monogamy

Non-monogamy

Non-monogamy is an umbrella term for every practice or philosophy of non-dyadic intimate relationship that does not strictly hew to the standards of monogamy, particularly that of having only one person with whom to exchange sex, love, and/or affection. In that sense, "nonmonogamy" may be accurately applied to extramarital sex, group marriage, or polyamory. It is not synonymous with infidelity, since all parties are consenting to the relationship structure, partners are often committed to each other as well as to their other partners and cheating is still considered problematic behavior with many non-monogamous relationships.

California

California

California is a state in the Western United States, located along the Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous U.S. state and the 3rd largest by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million. Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic region. The province comprises the island of Newfoundland and the continental region of Labrador, having a total size of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2021, the population of Newfoundland and Labrador was estimated to be 521,758. The island of Newfoundland is home to around 94 per cent of the province's population, with more than half residing in the Avalon Peninsula.

COVID-19 pandemic

COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified from an outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Attempts to contain failed, allowing the virus to spread to other areas of Asia and later worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020 and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 24 November 2022, the pandemic had caused more than 639 million cases and 6.62 million confirmed deaths, making it one of the deadliest in history.

Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. Part of the Boston metropolitan area, at the 2020 U.S. Census the city's population was 118,403, making it the fourth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester, and Springfield. It is one of two de jure county seats of Middlesex County, although the county's executive government was abolished in 1997. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, once also an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders.

American Psychological Association

American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with over 133,000 members, including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students. It has 54 divisions—interest groups for different subspecialties of psychology or topical areas. The APA has an annual budget of around $115 million.

Arlington, Massachusetts

Arlington, Massachusetts

Arlington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts. The town is six miles (10 km) northwest of Boston, and its population was 46,308 at the 2020 census.

Group marriage

Group marriage

Group marriage or conjoint marriage is a marital arrangement where three or more adults enter into sexual, affective, romantic, or otherwise intimate short- or long-term partnerships, and share in any combination of finances, residences, care or kin work. Group marriage is considered a form of polygamy. While academic usage has traditionally treated group marriage as a marital arrangement, more recent usage has expanded the concept to allow for the inclusion of non-conjugal unions. Colloquial usage of group marriage has also been associated with polyamory and polyamorous families.

Legality of polygamy

Legality of polygamy

The legal status of polygamy varies widely around the world. Polygyny is legal in 58 out of nearly 200 sovereign states, the vast majority of them being Muslim-majority countries. Polyandry is illegal in virtually every country and strictly prohibited in Islam. In several non-Muslim countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, including India, Philippines, and Singapore, polygyny is only permitted among the Muslim population. Some countries that permit polygamy have restrictions, such as requiring the first wife to give her consent.

List of polygamy court cases

List of polygamy court cases

Polygamy is the state of being married to more than one person at the same time. It is illegal in many countries. The following is a list of polygamy court cases:

Prevalence

Preparations for Polyamory Pride at CSD Parade in Graz, Austria, in June 2017
Preparations for Polyamory Pride at CSD Parade in Graz, Austria, in June 2017

Research into the prevalence of polyamory has been limited. A comprehensive government study of sexual attitudes, behaviors and relationships in Finland in 1992 (age 18–75, around 50% female and male) found that around 200 out of 2250 (8.9%) respondents "agreed or strongly agreed" with the statement "I could maintain several sexual relationships at the same time" and 8.2% indicated a relationship type "that best suits" at the present stage of life would involve multiple partners. By contrast, when asked about other relationships at the same time as a steady relationship, around 17% stated they had had other partners while in a steady relationship (50% no, 17% yes, 33% refused to answer).[107] Additionally, dating apps like #Open, Feeld, and OkCupid are polyamorous-friendly.[108]

The article What Psychology Professionals Should Know About Polyamory (by Geri Weitzman) based on a paper presented at the 8th Annual Diversity Conference in March 1999 in Albany, New York, states that while openly polyamorous relationships are relatively rare there are "indications that private polyamorous arrangements within relationships are actually quite common."[109] They also note, citing 1983 study of 3,574 married couples in their sample that "15–28% had an understanding that allows nonmonogamy under some circumstances," with percentages are higher among "cohabitating couples (28%), lesbian couples (29%) and gay male couples (65%)." According to Jessica Fern, a psychologist and the author of Polysecure: Attachment, Trauma and Consensual Nonmonogamy, as of September 2020, about 4% of Americans, nearly 16 million people, are "practising a non-monogamous style of relationship".[110] A study by Amy C. Moors, Amanda N. Gesselman and Justin R. Garcia published on 23 March 2021 and using a sample of 3,438 individuals has shown that 10.7% of the sample were engaged in a polyamorous relationship at some point in their life, and 16.8% reported a desire to try or be in one. The study also revelated a correlation between educational background and polyamory, showing lesser-educated male individuals were more likely to engage or having been engaged in polyamorous relationships. These findings indicate that the number of Americans who have engaged in polyamorous relationships is significantly higher than previously thought.[111]

In March 2021, Google's Play Store suspended #open, a polyamorous dating app, saying that the app was violating Google's rules against "sexual content" and profanity, a decision appealed by the app's co-founders, Amanda Wilson and David Epstein.[112] The app was reportedly used by thousands of users. The app, according to Hannah Szafranski, social media manager for #open, has also been banned from advertising on Instagram and Facebook.

Discover more about Prevalence related topics

Finland

Finland

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south. Finland covers an area of 338,455 square kilometres (130,678 sq mi) with a population of 5.6 million. Helsinki is the capital and largest city, forming a larger metropolitan area with the neighbouring cities of Espoo, Kauniainen, and Vantaa. The vast majority of the population are ethnic Finns. Finnish, alongside Swedish, are the official languages. Swedish is the native language of 5.2% of the population. Finland's climate varies from humid continental in the south to the boreal in the north. The land cover is primarily a boreal forest biome, with more than 180,000 recorded lakes.

Feeld

Feeld

Feeld is a location-based online dating application for iOS and Android that facilitates communication between people interested in casual sex, polyamory, kink, swinging, and other alternative sexual preferences such as more than one partner at once. According to a review from The New York Times, over a third of users are on the app with a partner, and 45 percent identify as something other than heterosexual.

OkCupid

OkCupid

OkCupid is a U.S.-based, internationally operating online dating, friendship, and formerly also a social networking website and application. It features multiple-choice questions to match members. Registration is free. OKCupid is owned by Match Group, which also owns Tinder, Hinge, Plenty of Fish, and many other popular dating apps and sites.

Albany, New York

Albany, New York

Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York, also the seat and largest city of Albany County. Albany is on the west bank of the Hudson River, about 10 miles (16 km) south of its confluence with the Mohawk River, and about 135 miles (220 km) north of New York City.

Non-monogamy

Non-monogamy

Non-monogamy is an umbrella term for every practice or philosophy of non-dyadic intimate relationship that does not strictly hew to the standards of monogamy, particularly that of having only one person with whom to exchange sex, love, and/or affection. In that sense, "nonmonogamy" may be accurately applied to extramarital sex, group marriage, or polyamory. It is not synonymous with infidelity, since all parties are consenting to the relationship structure, partners are often committed to each other as well as to their other partners and cheating is still considered problematic behavior with many non-monogamous relationships.

Profanity

Profanity

Profanity, also known as cursing, cussing, swearing, bad language, foul language, obscenities, expletives or vulgarism, is a socially offensive use of language. Accordingly, profanity is language use that is sometimes deemed impolite, rude, indecent, or culturally offensive; in certain religions, it constitutes sin. It can show a debasement of someone or something, or be considered an expression of strong feeling towards something. Some words may also be used as intensifiers.

Instagram

Instagram

Instagram is a photo and video sharing social networking service owned by American company Meta Platforms. The app allows users to upload media that can be edited with filters and organized by hashtags and geographical tagging. Posts can be shared publicly or with preapproved followers. Users can browse other users' content by tag and location, view trending content, like photos, and follow other users to add their content to a personal feed.

Facebook

Facebook

Facebook is an online social media and social networking service owned by American company Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes, its name comes from the face book directories often given to American university students. Membership was initially limited to Harvard students, gradually expanding to other North American universities and, since 2006, anyone over 13 years old. As of July 2022, Facebook claimed 2.93 billion monthly active users, and ranked third worldwide among the most visited websites as of July 2022. It was the most downloaded mobile app of the 2010s.

Notable practitioners of polyamory

Discover more about Notable practitioners of polyamory related topics

List of polyamorists

List of polyamorists

This is a list of notable and historic figures who have been or are polyamorous. Polyamory is the practice of, or desire for, romantic relationships with more than one partner at the same time, with the informed consent of all partners involved.

Dossie Easton

Dossie Easton

Dorothy "Dossie" Easton, who has also written under the name Scarlet Woman, is an American author and family therapist based in San Francisco, California. She is polyamorous and lives in West Marin, California.

The Ethical Slut

The Ethical Slut

The Ethical Slut: A Guide to Infinite Sexual Possibilities is an English language non-fiction book by Dossie Easton and Janet Hardy.

Terisa Greenan

Terisa Greenan

Terisa Greenan is an American film producer, film director, writer and stage and film actress.

Family: the web series

Family: the web series

Family: the web series is an episodic 2008 web series created by actress and filmmaker Terisa Greenan, based loosely on her own life of polyamory with her two male partners. Greenan wrote and directed the show, and acted in a small supporting role. Some episodes were co-written by Matt Bullen.

Laurell K. Hamilton

Laurell K. Hamilton

Laurell Kaye Hamilton is an American fantasy and romance writer. She is best known as the author of two series of stories.

Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter

Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter

Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter is a series of urban fantasy novels, short stories, and comic books by Laurell K. Hamilton. The books have sold more than six million copies; many have made The New York Times Best Seller list.

Janet Hardy

Janet Hardy

Janet W. Hardy is an American writer and sex educator, and founder of Greenery Press. She has also been published as Catherine A. Liszt and Lady Green. She is the author or co-author of eleven books, and frequently collaborates with Dossie Easton.

Greenery Press

Greenery Press

Greenery Press is a publishing house based in Emeryville, California, specializing in books on BDSM and polyamory, with over 50 titles in print. Most titles are non-fiction, but a smaller number of fiction titles and memoirs are published under the Grass Stain Press name. Greenery's sales top 100,000 books per year.

Brenda Howard

Brenda Howard

Brenda Howard was an American bisexual rights activist and sex-positive feminist. The Brenda Howard Memorial Award is named for her.

Willow Smith

Willow Smith

Willow Camille Reign Smith, known mononymously as Willow, is an American singer and actress. The daughter of actors Will Smith and Jada Pinkett Smith, she has received various accolades, including a Young Artist Award, an NAACP Image Award, a BET Award, and nominations for two Daytime Emmy Awards and a MTV Video Music Award.

Acceptance by religions

Land of Oneida Community between 1865 and 1875
Land of Oneida Community between 1865 and 1875

The Oneida Community in the 1800s in New York (a Christian religious commune) believed strongly in a system of free love known as a complex marriage,[120] where any member was free to have sex with any other who consented.[121] In 1993, the archives of the community were made available to scholars for the first time. Contained within the archives was the journal of Tirzah Miller,[122] Noyes' niece, who wrote extensively about her romantic and sexual relations with other members of Oneida.[123]

Some Christians are polyamorous, but mainstream Christianity does not accept polyamory.[124] In 2017, the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, an evangelical Christian organization, released a manifesto on human sexuality known as the "Nashville Statement". The statement was signed by 150 evangelical leaders, and includes 14 points of belief.[125] Among other things, it states, "We deny that God has designed marriage to be a homosexual, polygamous, or polyamorous relationship."[126]

Some Jews are polyamorous, but mainstream Judaism does not accept polyamory. However, in 2000, Rabbi Jacob Levin came out as polyamorous to his synagogue's board in California without losing his job as rabbi.[127] As well, in his book A Guide to Jewish Practice: Volume 1 – Everyday Living (2011), Rabbi David Teutsch wrote, "It is not obvious that monogamy is automatically a morally higher form of relationship than polygamy," and that if practiced with honesty, flexibility, egalitarian rules, and trust, practitioners may "live enriched lives as a result".[128] In 2013, Sharon Kleinbaum, the senior rabbi at Congregation Beit Simchat Torah in New York, said that polyamory is a choice that does not preclude a Jewishly observant and socially conscious life.[129] Some polyamorous Jews point to biblical patriarchs having multiple wives and concubines as evidence that polyamorous relationships can be sacred in Judaism.[130] An email list is dedicated to polyamorous Jews; it is called AhavaRaba, which roughly translates to "big love" in Hebrew,[131] and which echoes God's "great" or "abounding" love mentioned in the Ahava rabbah prayer.[132]

LaVeyan Satanism is critical of Abrahamic sexual mores, considering them narrow, restrictive and hypocritical. Satanists are pluralists, accepting polyamorists, bisexuals, lesbians, gays, BDSM, transgender people, and asexuals. Sex is viewed as an indulgence, but one that should only be freely entered into with consent. The Eleven Satanic Rules of the Earth only give two instructions regarding sex: "Do not make sexual advances unless you are given the mating signal" and "Do not harm little children", though the latter is much broader and encompasses physical and other abuse. This has always been a consistent part of CoS policy since its inception in 1966. Magister Peter H. Gillmore wrote in an essay supporting same-sex marriage that some people try to suggest that their attitude on sexuality is "anything goes" even though they have a principle of "responsibility to the responsible".[133] He also stated that the Church of Satan's philosophy "strictly forbids sexual activity with children as well as with non-human animals."

Unitarian Universalists for Polyamory Awareness, founded in 2001, has engaged in ongoing education and advocacy for greater understanding and acceptance of polyamory within the Unitarian Universalist Association.[134] At the 2014 General Assembly, two UUPA members moved to include the category of "family and relationship structures" in the UUA's nondiscrimination rule, along with other amendments; the package of proposed amendments was ratified by the GA delegates.[135]

Discover more about Acceptance by religions related topics

Fornication

Fornication

Fornication is generally consensual sexual intercourse between two people not married to each other. When one or more of the partners having consensual sexual intercourse is married to another person, it is called adultery. Nonetheless, John Calvin viewed adultery to be any sexual act that is outside the divine model for sexual intercourse, which includes fornication.

Oneida Community

Oneida Community

The Oneida Community was a perfectionist religious communal society founded by John Humphrey Noyes and his followers in 1848 near Oneida, New York. The community believed that Jesus had already returned in AD 70, making it possible for them to bring about Jesus's millennial kingdom themselves, and be free of sin and perfect in this world, not just in Heaven. The Oneida Community practiced communalism, group marriage, male sexual continence, and mutual criticism.

Free love

Free love

Free love is a social movement that accepts all forms of love. The movement's initial goal was to separate the state from sexual and romantic matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It stated that such issues were the concern of the people involved and no one else. The movement began around the 19th century, and was advanced by hippies during the Sixties.

Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood

Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood

The Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood (CBMW) is an evangelical Christian organization promoting a complementarian view of gender issues. According to its website, the "mission of The Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood is to set forth the teachings of the Bible about the complementary differences between men and women, created equally in the image of God, because these teachings are essential for obedience to Scripture and for the health of the family and the church." CBMW's current president is Dr. Denny Burk, a professor of biblical studies at Boyce College and director for The Center for Gospel and Culture at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Its 2017 "Nashville Statement" was criticized by egalitarian Christians and LGBT campaigners, as well as by several conservative religious figures.

Nashville Statement

Nashville Statement

The Nashville Statement is an evangelical Christian statement of faith relating to human sexuality and gender roles authored by the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood (CBMW) in Nashville, Tennessee. The Statement expresses support for an opposite-sex definition of marriage, for faithfulness within marriage, for chastity outside marriage, and for a link between biological sex and "self-conception as male and female". The Statement sets forth the signatories' opposition to LGBT sexuality, same-sex marriage, polygamy, polyamory, adultery, and fornication. It was criticized by egalitarian Christians and LGBT campaigners, as well as by several conservative religious figures.

Congregation Beit Simchat Torah

Congregation Beit Simchat Torah

Congregation Beit Simchat Torah ("CBST") is a synagogue located in Manhattan, New York City. It was founded in 1973, and is the world's largest LGBT synagogue. CBST serves Jews of all sexual orientations and gender identities, their families, and their friends. Members commute from as far away as the Bronx and New Jersey. The congregation is led by Senior Rabbi Sharon Kleinbaum and Assistant Rabbi Yael Rapport. It is not affiliated with any denomination or branch of Judaism.

Ahava rabbah

Ahava rabbah

Ahava rabbah is a prayer and blessing that is recited by followers of Ashkenazi Judaism during Shacharit immediately prior to the Shema, the "Hear O Israel..." prayer. Sephardi Jews, as well as many of those whose follow Nusach Sefard, begin this blessing with the words "Ahavat Olam" instead of Ahava rabbah; which is not to be confused with the shorter blessing of Ahavat Olam recited by both Sefardim and Ashkenazim during Maariv.

LaVeyan Satanism

LaVeyan Satanism

LaVeyan Satanism is a nontheistic religion founded in 1966 by the American occultist and author Anton Szandor LaVey. Scholars of religion have classified it as a new religious movement and a form of Western esotericism.

BDSM

BDSM

BDSM is a variety of often erotic practices or roleplaying involving bondage, discipline, dominance and submission, sadomasochism, and other related interpersonal dynamics. Given the wide range of practices, some of which may be engaged in by people who do not consider themselves to be practising BDSM, inclusion in the BDSM community or subculture often is said to depend on self-identification and shared experience.

Asexuality

Asexuality

Asexuality is the lack of sexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual activity. It may be considered a sexual orientation or the lack thereof. It may also be categorized more widely, to include a broad spectrum of asexual sub-identities.

Same-sex marriage

Same-sex marriage

Same-sex marriage, also known as gay marriage, is the marriage of two people of the same sex or gender. As of 2022, marriage between same-sex couples is legally performed and recognized in 33 countries, with the most recent being Mexico, constituting some 1.35 billion people. In Andorra, a law allowing same-sex marriage will come into force on 17 February 2023.

General Assembly (Unitarian Universalist Association)

General Assembly (Unitarian Universalist Association)

General Assembly (GA) is an annual gathering of Unitarian Universalists of the Unitarian Universalist Association. It is held in June, in a different city in the United States every year. The last GA held outside the United States was in Quebec in 2002, after which congregations belonging to the Canadian Unitarian Council separated from the UUA. Member congregations send delegates and conventioneers to participate in the plenary sessions, workshops, regional gatherings, public witness events, and worship services. In recent years, attendance at each General Assembly has reached over 5,500.

Acceptance by non-religious organizations

In 2018, the Association of Humanistic Rabbis issued "A Statement on Sexual Ethics for the 21st Century", which states in part, "We commit to the freedom and empowerment of all adults to full consensual sexual expression, be it monogamous or polyamorous."[136]

In a clinical setting

In 2002, a paper titled Working with polyamorous clients in the clinical setting (by Joy Davidson)[43] addressed various areas of inquiry. This included the importance of talking about alternatives to monogamy, how therapists can work with those who are exploring polyamory, basic understandings of polyamory, and key issues that therapists need to watch for in the course of working with polyamorous clients.

Its conclusions were that "Sweeping changes are occurring in the sexual and relational landscape" (including "dissatisfaction with limitations of serial monogamy, i.e. exchanging one partner for another in the hope of a better outcome"); that clinicians need to start by "recognizing the array of possibilities that 'polyamory' encompasses" and "examine our culturally-based assumption that 'only monogamy is acceptable'" and how this bias impacts on the practice of therapy; the need for self-education about polyamory, basic understandings about the "rewards of the poly lifestyle" and the common social and relationship challenges faced by those involved, and the "shadow side" of polyamory, the potential existing for coercion, strong emotions in opposition, and jealousy. The paper also states that the configurations a therapist would be "most likely to see in practice" are individuals involved in primary-plus arrangements, monogamous couples wishing to explore non-monogamy for the first time, and "poly singles".

In 2002, the rights of polyamorous people were added to the mission of the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom, an American sex-positive advocacy and educational organization;[137] a manual for psychotherapists who deal with polyamorous clients was published by them in September 2009, called What Psychotherapists Should Know About Polyamory (written by Geri Weitzman and others).[138][139]

The National Coalition for Sexual Freedom manages the Kink And Poly Aware Professionals Directory, which consists of an Internet directory of psychotherapeutic, medical, and other professionals who have volunteered to be contacted by people who are involved in polyamory (and/or BDSM, etc).[140][141][142]

The Polyamory-Friendly Professionals Directory is a directory on the Internet “of professionals who are sensitive to the unique needs of polyamorous clientele”; it includes psychologists, therapists, medical professionals, and other professionals.[143]

Media representation

1980s to 2000s

Cosplay of the superhero Starfire at FanimeCon 2015
Cosplay of the superhero Starfire at FanimeCon 2015

Starfire, also known as Princess Koriand'r, is a fictional superhero appearing in books published by DC Comics, who debuted in a preview story inserted within DC Comics Presents #26 (October 1980) and was created by Marv Wolfman and George Pérez;[144] she was shown to be a polyamorous character. Starfire was raised on the world of Tamaran where it was acceptable to have an open marriage, and she remained, as argued by some critics, sex-positive and free-thinking, remaining open to polygamous relationships, open sex, and pansexual "free-love" with anyone, often leading to conflict with the more reserved culture and customs on Earth.[145][146] For Starfire, polyamory was a personal and cultural preference.[145]

In 1989, the anime series Ranma ½ included a polyamorous character, Tatewaki, who is in love with both Akane and the "Pigtail Girl" (Ranma's female form) and proposes to date both, but they do not return his feelings.[147]

In 2002, the Futurama episode "A Taste of Freedom" showed Old Man Waterfall, who is Zoidberg's defense attorney until killed by a giant crab warship, having seven wives and one husband.[148] While Waterfall's case for Zoidberg is unsuccessful, the Supreme Court holds polygamy as legal, though this leads to jeers from spectators. The made-for-TV Futurama film, The Beast with a Billion Backs (published 2008), featured two polyamorous characters: Colleen O'Hallahan and Yivo. Colleen had five boyfriends, Fry, Chu, Ndulu, Schlomo and Bolt Rolands,[149][a] while Yivo is a planet-sized alien with no determinable gender, dating, then marrying all people of the universe at once.[150] Fry and Colleen eventually break up. Afterwards, Yivo remains in a relationship with Colleen.[151]

The 21st century brought various new forms of representation of polyamory. In 2007, Daniel Help Justice's book Dreyd featured Tarsa, a priestess, warrior, and bisexual woman, as part of a polyamorous love triad.[152] In 2009, Graham Nicholls founded www.polyamory.org.uk, the United Kingdom's first website about polyamory[153] and the Mom of Pina in Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's novel, Love You Two was shown to be polyamorous and bisexual, leading Pina on a journey to explore the "complex spectrum of sex and love" in humanity itself.[152] In 2010, the series Lost Girl began. It included Bo Dennis, a bisexual succubus which must sustain herself by feeding from the life force of male and female Fae and humans, via oral intake or the energy created through sex. In the first two seasons she was involved romantically with Dyson (a heterosexual shapeshifter) and Lauren (a lesbian human). Later on, Bo tried to have a monogamous relationship with Lauren, with Bo and Lauren remaining in love with each other through ups and downs, and later accepting each other as a couple by the end of the series.[154][155]

Increased representation in the 2010s

Polyamorous characters appeared in various media in the 2010s. In the 2010 television show Caprica, several main characters are portrayed as being in a polyfidelitous-style marriage consisting of multiple men and women, with each member being equal socially and legally.[156] From 2012 to 2013, the American reality television series on the American pay television network Showtime, Polyamory: Married & Dating, was broadcast. It followed polyamorous families as they navigated the challenges presented by polyamory.[157][158][159] Around the same time, the webcomic Kimchi Cuddles began, which portrayed polyamorous people like other characters, "only with more partners to steal their blankets."[160] The following years featured a polyamorous captain in Jacqueline Koyanagi's novel, Ascension,[152] and three characters (Reese, David, and Amber) in a relationship in Malinda Lo's novel, Inheritance.[152] In 2011, American Horror Story: Hotel began, with Countess Elizabeth Johnson, played by Lady Gaga, beginning a relationship with famed film actor Rudolph Valentino and his wife, Natacha Rambova, as seen in episode seven.[161] The following year, the YouTube show The Gay and Wondrous Life of Caleb Gallo would show a couple working through their decision to convert from monogamy to polyamory,[162] like Brian Jordan Alvarez, who considers himself polyamorous.[163]

From 2015 to 2017, in the webcomic Always Human by Ari North, the parents of Sunati (Nisa and Prav) were shown to be in a polyamorous relationship with a man named Vish, who Nisa calls "our boyfriend".[164] In another webcomic, Unknown Lands, which began in 2015, Vard is shown to be polyamorous,[165] along with most of the cast having a queer sexual identity. The webcomic itself has environmental, feminist, and LGBTQ+ themes.[166] A few years later, the 2017 film Professor Marston and the Wonder Women focuses on a polyamorous relationship between a professor, his wife, and their student, Olive, as they share a "workplace, a bed, a home and eventually a family."[167] Furthermore, fiction writer Cassandra Clare stated that Mark Blackthorn in The Dark Artifices book series would "definitely be open to a polyamorous relationship",[168] but would not cheat or lie, while noting that another such relationship between other characters would not be possible.[169] Eventually, he ends up in a polyamorous triangle, with a girlfriend and a boyfriend who are dating each other. Additionally, writer K. Ancrum confirmed that polyamorous characters were in two of her books (The Wicker King and The Weight of the Stars), but did not name any specific characters.[170] At the same time, Em, best friend of the protagonist in two books by Leigh Matthews (Don't Bang the Barista and Go Deep) is a bisexual woman dating a man in the first book, but by the second book she has "happily settled into a poly triad", wondering how she will get married.[152]

On May 29, 2017, in the last season of Steven Universe, Fluorite, a member of the Off Colors, a fusion of six different gems into one being, with fusion as the physical manifestation of a relationship, was introduced. This character reappeared in various episodes in the show's fifth season ("Lars Head", "Lars of the Stars", "Your Mother and Mine"), the season 5 finale, "Change Your Mind", along with one in Steven Universe Future ("Little Graduation") and in Steven Universe: The Movie,[171] with the latter two as non-speaking appearances. The series creator, Rebecca Sugar, confirmed that Fluorite is a representation of a polyamorous relationship at the show's Comic Con panel in San Diego.[172][173] Sugar said at the panel, and at another conference, that she was inspired after talking with children at an LGBTQ+ center in Long Beach, California, who wanted a polyamorous character in the show.[172][174][173] Steven Universe was not alone in this regard. The fourth season of BoJack Horseman, a mature animated series, featured a character named Hollyhock, the sister of the protagonist, who has eight adoptive fathers[b] in a polyamorous gay relationship.[175] The same year, Unicornland premiered, with eight-episode web series focusing on Annie's exploration into polyamory after her divorce.[176]

2018–present

Polyamory was the subject of the 2018 Louis Theroux documentary Love Without Limits, where Theroux travels to Portland, Oregon, to meet a number of people engaged in polyamorous relationships.[177] Also in 2018, 195 Lewis, a web series about a black lesbian couple dealing with their relationship being newly polyamorous,[178] received the Breakthrough Series – Short Form award from the Gotham Awards.[179] The series premiered in 2017 and ran for five episodes.[180] The same year, the comic Open Earth premiered. The comic is set in the future and monogamous relationships are seen as outdated to all the young people on board the space station, all who are polyamorous. Author Sarah Mirk said that she wanted to write a story where "open relationships can be really positive and wonderful" and said that its realistic to believe that people would "explore multiple relationships".[181] She also said she wanted to write a story where it was "totally normal to be queer and genderqueer."

Trigonometry is an eight-part BBC TV drama series which started on March 25, 2020, and is about an existing couple being joined by a third person and forming a polyamorous relationship. The BBC said that Trigonometry is "A love story about three people who are made for each other."[182][183] In July 2021, Australian soap opera Neighbours explored polyamory with three of its main characters. Actress Jacinta Stapleton was proud to be involved in the story arc, stating: "I think we should always try to reflect real intimate relationships in our society. Polyamory certainly is a part of that. The more we represent the beautifully diverse nature and uniqueness of humans, the more people will feel accepted and seen."[184]

In the 3rd season of the Netflix TV show You, a sub-plot concerning polyamory is included, depicting two secondary characters who are self-proclaimed polyamorists, and attempting to engage with the show's main protagonists, Joe and Love. However, leaders in the polyamory community have pointed out that the characters in the show are actually swingers, and the show misrepresents the polyamory culture significantly, as well as presenting a very negative image of those who practice it.[185]

Discover more about Media representation related topics

List of fictional polyamorous characters

List of fictional polyamorous characters

This is a list of polyamorous characters in fiction, including those in animation and graphic art works. It is organized alphabetically by last name of the main character involved in the polyamorous relationship, or first name if there is no last name known.

DC Comics

DC Comics

DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher and the flagship unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Discovery.

DC Comics insert previews

DC Comics insert previews

DC Comics insert previews were 16-page comic book stories inserted into issues of existing DC Comics series to promote new series usually debuting the next month. Running from 1980 to 1985, they consisted of a front cover, 14 pages of story, and a back cover that depicted the cover of the actual first issue. The addition of the insert did not entail an increase in the price of the comic book, and the cover copy called the insert "a special free 16-page comic!"

DC Comics Presents

DC Comics Presents

DC Comics Presents is a comic book series published by DC Comics from 1978 to 1986 which ran for 97 issues and four Annuals. It featured team-ups between Superman and a wide variety of other characters in the DC Universe. A recurring back-up feature "Whatever Happened to...?" had stories revealing the status of various minor and little-used characters.

Marv Wolfman

Marv Wolfman

Marvin Arthur Wolfman is an American comic book and novelization writer. He worked on Marvel Comics's The Tomb of Dracula, for which he and artist Gene Colan created the vampire-slayer Blade, and DC Comics's The New Teen Titans and the Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series with George Pérez. Among the many characters Wolfman created or co-created are Cyborg, Raven, Starfire, Deathstroke, Tim Drake, Rose Wilson, Nova, Black Cat, Bullseye, Vigilante and the Omega Men.

George Pérez

George Pérez

George Pérez was an American comic book artist and writer, who worked primarily as a penciller. He came to prominence in the 1970s penciling Fantastic Four and The Avengers for Marvel Comics. In the 1980s he penciled The New Teen Titans, which became one of DC Comics' top-selling series. He penciled DC's landmark limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, followed by relaunching Wonder Woman as both writer and penciller for the rebooted series. In the meantime, he worked on other comics published by Marvel, DC, and other companies into the 2010s. He was known for his detailed and realistic rendering, and his facility with complex crowd scenes.

Futurama

Futurama

Futurama is an American animated science fiction sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series follows the adventures of the professional slacker Philip J. Fry, who is cryogenically preserved for 1000 years and revived on December 31, 2999. Fry finds work at an interplanetary delivery company, working alongside the one-eyed Leela and robot Bender. The series was envisioned by Groening in the mid-1990s while working on The Simpsons; he brought David X. Cohen aboard to develop storylines and characters to pitch the show to Fox.

A Taste of Freedom

A Taste of Freedom

"A Taste of Freedom" is the fifth episode in the fourth season of the American animated television series Futurama. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on December 22, 2002. The episode was directed by James Purdum and written by Eric Horsted. The plot centers on Zoidberg's experience with the concept of freedom on Earth.

Futurama: The Beast with a Billion Backs

Futurama: The Beast with a Billion Backs

Futurama: The Beast with a Billion Backs is a 2008 American direct-to-video adult animated science-fiction comedy-adventure film based on the animated series Futurama, and the second of four straight-to-DVD films that make up the show's fifth season. The film was released in the United States and Canada on June 24, 2008, followed by a UK release on June 30, 2008 and an Australian release on August 6, 2008. The title refers to a euphemism for sexual intercourse—"the beast with two backs". Comedy Central aired the film as a "four-part epic" on October 19, 2008. The movie won an Annie Award for "Best Animated Home Entertainment Production".

Graham Nicholls

Graham Nicholls

Graham Nicholls is a British author, installation artist and specialist on out of body experiences. He speaks widely on parapsychology, ethics and art at institutions ranging from the London Science Museum, The Society for Psychical Research to the Cambridge Union Society.

Lost Girl

Lost Girl

Lost Girl is a Canadian supernatural drama television series that premiered on Showcase on September 12, 2010, and ran for five seasons. It follows the life of a bisexual succubus named Bo, played by Anna Silk, as she learns to control her superhuman abilities, help those in need, and discover the truth about her origins. The series was created by Michelle Lovretta and produced by Jay Firestone and Prodigy Pictures Inc., with the participation of the Canadian Television Fund, and in association with Shaw Media.

Bo (Lost Girl)

Bo (Lost Girl)

Bo is the protagonist of Lost Girl, the Canadian supernatural drama television series that premiered on Showcase on September 12, 2010, and ran for five seasons. Bo is a superhuman bisexual succubus. The character is portrayed by Anna Silk.

Polyamory-related observances

Start of polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004
Start of polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004

Metamour Day is celebrated every year on February 28. It celebrates the relationships people have with their metamours (partners' other significant others, often referred to as metamours or OSOs.[55])[186]

Polyamory Pride Day is celebrated every year on a day in Pride Month.[93]

Polyamory groups sometimes participate in pride parades.[187][188]

International Solo Polyamory Day is celebrated every year on September 24.[93] Solo polyamory is a type of polyamory in which an individual has or is comfortable with having multiple intimate (romantic or sexual) relationships without wanting to cohabit or "nest" with any one partner, eschewing the "relationship escalator" which holds that relationships must follow a progression, or "escalator" from dating, to being exclusive, to becoming engaged, getting married and having children.[47][48]

Polyamory Day is celebrated every year on November 23; that day was chosen because on November 23, 2011, the Supreme Court of British Columbia ruled that the anti-polygamy law of Canada does not affect unformalized polyamorous households.[93]

Polyamory rights organizations

Bridgette Garozzo, spokesperson for the Polyamory Action Lobby, in May 2013
Bridgette Garozzo, spokesperson for the Polyamory Action Lobby, in May 2013

The Canadian Polyamory Advocacy Association (CPAA) was founded in 2009. It "advocates on behalf of Canadians who practice polyamory. It [also] promotes legal, social, government, and institutional acceptance and support of polyamory, and advances the interests of the Canadian polyamorous community generally."[189][190]

The Organization for Polyamory and Ethical Non-monogamy (OPEN) was founded in the United States in 2022 as “a nonprofit organization dedicated to normalizing and empowering non-monogamous individuals and communities.”[191][192]

The Polyamory Action Lobby (PAL) was founded in 2013 in Australia to fight cultural misconceptions about polyamorous people and to fight for their legal rights.[193]

The Polyamory Legal Advocacy Coalition (PLAC), based in the United States, "seeks to advance the civil and human rights of polyamorous individuals, communities, and families through legislative advocacy, public policy, and public education."[194][195]

Unitarian Universalists for Polyamory Awareness (UUPA) was founded in 2001. It "has as its mission to serve the Unitarian Universalist Association and the community of polyamorous people within and outside the UUA by providing support, promoting education, and encouraging spiritual wholeness regarding polyamory."[134]

Criticism

Yasmin Nair, a co-founder of Against Equality, an anti-capitalist collective of radical queer and trans writers, thinkers, and artists, criticized polyamory. She argued that polyamory does not make someone radical,[196] said that the discourse around polyamory is tiring and not liberating, only fetishizing a "peculiar form of monogamy...and long-term relationships"[197] and said that she does not care "whether or not the state recognizes polyamory or polygamy".[198] Elsewhere she called current interest in polyamory and polygamy a discourse which "retains power within a very particular set of social orderings",[199] stated that recognizing polygamous and polyamorous relationships will not "fix all our problems"[200] and said that she does not understand polyamory because she is an "old-fashioned slut who sometimes has sex with friends", using sex as an "ice-breaker with strangers".[201] In February 2019, she offered other critique, saying that polyamory "fills the void left by gay marriage" and called it "effectively gay marriage for straight people" because it is similar in its "gloss of alterity". She further argued that polyamory is not liberatory and said that, in her view, "it ultimately serves to shore up a hierarchy of relationships" and is pretentious, while stating that polyamory is becoming a way of life for a "combination of hipster-millennial-wealthy-people".[202]

Julie Bindel also penned a criticism in The Guardian that said that while she does not care how people organize their relationships, the "co-opting and rebranding of polygamy" is disturbing, while also stating that the idea of non-monogamy was actually developed by radical feminists from the 1970s and later as a way "to challenge patriarchal heterosexuality". She further argued that "modern proponents of polyamory tend to ignore gender-dynamics" and called polyamory the choice of "overwhelmingly white, affluent, university-educated, and privileged folk" who have too much time on their hands.[203]

The conservative National Review claimed that "widespread acceptance of polyamory could make society worse off" with supposed false notions of honesty.[204]

Conor Friedersdorf of The Atlantic said that while he would welcome a polyamorous family as neighbors, it would not make sense to call their arrangement a civil marriage with the entitlements and rights that came with it, and opposed normalizing group marriage.[205]

Scientific study of psychological well-being and relationship satisfaction for participants in polyamory has been limited due to mostly being a "hidden population". While some results could be interpreted as positive, these findings often suffer from bias and methodological issues.[206] A significant number of studies rely on small samples, often recruited from referrals, snowball-sampling, and websites devoted to polyamory.[206] Individuals recruited in this manner tend to be relatively homogeneous in terms of values, beliefs, and demographics, which limits the generalizability of the findings. These samples also tend to be self-selecting toward individuals with positive experiences, whereas those who found polyamory to be distressing or hurtful might be more reluctant to participate in the research.[206] Most of the studies rely entirely on self-report measures. Generally, self-reports of the degree of well-being and relationship satisfaction over time are flawed, and are often based on belief rather than actual experience.[206] Self-report measures are also at risk of self-enhancement bias, as subjects may feel pressure to give positive responses about their well-being and relationship satisfaction in the face of stereotype threat.[206] This disparity was noted by Amy C. Moors, Terri D. Conley, Robin S. Edelstein, and William J. Chopik (2014); who compared respondents expressing interest in consensual non-monogamy drawn from the general population to those drawn from online communities devoted to discussing positive aspects of non-monogamy. In particular, it was noted that individuals with inclinations toward consensual non-monogamy in the general population sample were robustly correlated with having an avoidant attachment pattern.[207]

Discover more about Criticism related topics

Against Equality

Against Equality

Founded in 2009, Against Equality (AE) is an online archive of writings and arts, and a series of books, by queer and trans writers that critique mainstream LGBT politics. AE has focused on issues regarding the institution of marriage, the U.S. military, and the prison-industrial complex via hate crime law.

Anti-capitalism

Anti-capitalism

Anti-capitalism is a political ideology and movement encompassing a variety of attitudes and ideas that oppose capitalism. In this sense, anti-capitalists are those who wish to replace capitalism with another type of economic system, such as socialism or communism.

Queer anarchism

Queer anarchism

Queer anarchism, or anarcha-queer, is an anarchist school of thought that advocates anarchism and social revolution as a means of queer liberation and abolition of hierarchies such as homophobia, lesbophobia, transmisogyny, biphobia, transphobia, heteronormativity, patriarchy, and the gender binary. People who campaigned for LGBT rights both outside and inside the anarchist and LGBT movements include John Henry Mackay, Lucía Sánchez Saornil, Adolf Brand and Daniel Guérin. Individualist anarchist Adolf Brand published Der Eigene from 1896 to 1932 in Berlin, the first sustained journal dedicated to gay issues.

Fetishism

Fetishism

A fetish is an object believed to have supernatural powers, or in particular, a human-made object that has power over others. Essentially, fetishism is the attribution of inherent value, or powers, to an object.

Legal recognition

Legal recognition

Legal recognition of a status or fact in a jurisdiction is formal acknowledgement of it as being true, valid, legal, or worthy of consideration, and may involve approval or the granting of rights.

Polygamy

Polygamy

Polygamy is the practice of marrying multiple spouses. When a man is married to more than one wife at the same time, sociologists call this polygyny. When a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry.

Female promiscuity

Female promiscuity

Promiscuity tends to be frowned upon by many societies that expect most members to have committed, long-term relationships. Among women, as well as men, inclination for sex outside committed relationships is correlated with a high libido, but evolutionary biology as well as social and cultural factors have also been observed to influence sexual behavior and opinion.

Alterity

Alterity

Alterity is a philosophical and anthropological term meaning "otherness", that is, the "other of two". It is also increasingly being used in media to express something other than "sameness", or something outside of tradition or convention.

Hipster (contemporary subculture)

Hipster (contemporary subculture)

The 21st-century hipster is a subculture. Fashion is one of the major markers of hipster identity. Members of the subculture typically do not self-identify as hipsters, and the word hipster is often used as a pejorative for someone who is pretentious or overly concerned with appearing trendy.

Millennials

Millennials

Millennials, also known as Generation Y or Gen Y, are the demographic cohort following Generation X and preceding Generation Z. Researchers and popular media use the early 1980s as starting birth years and the mid-1990s to early 2000s as ending birth years, with the generation typically being defined as people born from 1981 to 1996. Most millennials are the children of baby boomers and early Gen Xers; millennials are often the parents of Generation Alpha.

Affluence in the United States

Affluence in the United States

Affluence refers to an individual's or household's economical and financial advantage in comparison to others. It may be assessed through either income or wealth.

Julie Bindel

Julie Bindel

Julie Bindel is an English radical feminist writer. She is also co-founder of the law reform group Justice for Women, which has aimed to help women who have been prosecuted for assaulting or killing violent male partners.

Source: "Polyamory", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyamory.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

See also
Notes
  1. ^ Fry breaks up with Colleen and becomes the messenger of Yivo after he states that their relationship is not working out.
  2. ^ Dashawn Manheim, Steve Mannheim, Jose Guerrero, Cupe Robinson III, Otto Zilberschlag, Arturo "Ice Man" Fonzerelli, Gregory Hsung, and Quackers McQuack
References
  1. ^ Thomas, Melody (April 22, 2019). "Pretty poly: Why non-monogamous relationships are all the rage". Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  2. ^ Schumer, Lizz (May 16, 2022). "21 LGBTQ Flags and What They Symbolize". Good Housekeeping.
  3. ^ Walsh, Matthias. "What does the polyamorous flag look like?". LGBTQ Nation.
  4. ^ Sheff, Elisabeth (2016). When Someone You Love Is Polyamorous: Understanding Poly People and Relationships. Portland, Oregon: Thorntree Press.
  5. ^ a b Haritaworn, J.; Lin, C.-J.; Klesse, C. (August 15, 2016). "Poly/logue: A Critical Introduction to Polyamory". Sexualities. 9 (5): 515–29. doi:10.1177/1363460706069963. S2CID 145274479. Polyamory describes a form of relationship where it is possible, valid and worthwhile to maintain (usually long-term) intimate and sexual relationships with multiple partners simultaneously.
  6. ^ a b Klesse, C. (2011). "Notions of love in polyamory: Elements in a discourse on multiple loving". Laboratorium. 3 (2): 4–25. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  7. ^ "What Does It Mean to Be Polyamorous?". Healthline. March 14, 2019. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  8. ^ Miller, Timothy (1999). The 60s communes: hippies and beyond. Syracuse University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-8156-0601-7. Archived from the original on November 7, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
  9. ^ Pines, Ayala; Aronson, Elliot (1981). "Polyfidelity: An alternative lifestyle without jealousy?". Journal of Family and Economic Issues. 4 (3): 373–392. doi:10.1007/BF01257945.
  10. ^ "Poly glossary". PolyMatchMaker.com. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  11. ^ Helen Echlin (November 14, 2003). "When two just won't do". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 27, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
  12. ^ Schippers, Mimi (2017). Beyond Monogamy: Polyamory and the Future of Polyqueer Sexualities. NYU Press. Archived from the original on August 7, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2017.
  13. ^ Klesse, C. (August 15, 2016). "Polyamory and its 'Others': Contesting the Terms of Non-Monogamy". Sexualities. 9 (5): 565–583. doi:10.1177/1363460706069986. S2CID 143812369. Archived from the original on March 10, 2022. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
  14. ^ a b c d e Brunning, Luke (2018). "The Distinctiveness of Polyamory". Journal of Applied Philosophy. 35 (3): 15–16. doi:10.1111/japp.12240. ISSN 0264-3758. S2CID 147982689. Archived from the original on October 25, 2020. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  15. ^ a b Alan (January 6, 2007). ""Polyamory" enters the Oxford English Dictionary, and tracking the word's origins". Polyamory in the News!. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  16. ^ The Ravenhearts. "Frequently Asked Questions re: Polyamory". Archived from the original on March 24, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
  17. ^ "September 2006 update". The OED today. Oxford University Press. September 14, 2006. Archived from the original on December 28, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  18. ^ "Definition of polyamory in US English". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on January 30, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  19. ^ "Definition of polyamory in English". Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on January 30, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  20. ^ "Definition of "polyamory" – English Dictionary". Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on January 30, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  21. ^ "Polyamory -- Definition of Polyamory at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. 2020. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  22. ^ "Polyamory--Definition of Polyamory by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-Webster. 2020. Archived from the original on August 3, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  23. ^ Kassel, Gabrielle (July 24, 2019). "Here's What a Polyamorous Relationship Actually Is—and What It Isn't". Shape magazine. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  24. ^ Orfanidis, Georgios A. (December 27, 2019). "Polyamory (Polygamy and Polyandry)". In Leeming, David A. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion. Springer. pp. 1–4. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27771-9_200097-1. ISBN 978-3-642-27771-9. S2CID 239527267. Archived from the original on March 10, 2022. Retrieved December 27, 2020 – via Springer Link.
  25. ^ Sheff, Elisabeth A. (July 26, 2018). "What Is the Difference Between Polyamory and Polygamy?". Psychology Today. Archived from the original on December 25, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  26. ^ Haupert, M. L.; Gesselman, Amanda N.; Moors, Amy C.; Fisher, Helen E.; Garcia, Justin R. (July 4, 2017). "Prevalence of Experiences With Consensual Nonmonogamous Relationships: Findings From Two National Samples of Single Americans". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 43 (5): 424–440. doi:10.1080/0092623X.2016.1178675. ISSN 0092-623X. PMID 27096488. S2CID 6855648.
  27. ^ Ficher, Nancy; Seidman, Steven, eds. (2016). "Contesting the Culture of Monogamy". Introducing the New Sexuality Studies (third ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. p. 326.
  28. ^ a b c Weitzman, Geri (2006). "Therapy with Clients Who Are Bisexual and Polyamorous". Journal of Bisexuality. 6 (1–2): 137–164. doi:10.1300/J159v06n01_08. S2CID 143967318. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2006.
  29. ^ Strassberg, Maura I. "The Challenge Of Post-Modern Polygamy: Considering Polyamory" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 24, 2006.
  30. ^ Barker & Langdridge 2012, p. 71, Swinging: Pushing the Boundaries of Monogamy?.
  31. ^ "Polyamory 101". PolyamoryOnline. 2007. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved April 27, 2007.
  32. ^ "The Chicago School of Professional Psychology" (PDF). ego.thechicagoschool.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2015.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Bennett, Jessica (July 29, 2009). "Polyamory: The Next Sexual Revolution?". Newsweek. Archived from the original on November 4, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  34. ^ Newitz, Annalee (July 7, 2006). "Love Unlimited: The Polyamorists". New Scientist. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  35. ^ Penny, Laurie (August 20, 2013). "Being polyamorous shows there's no 'traditional' way to live". The Guardian. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  36. ^ Iovine, Anna (April 19, 2020). "What it's like to be polyamorous during the coronavirus quarantine". Mashable. Archived from the original on April 19, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  37. ^ Smith, Gabrielle (August 7, 2020). "9 Ways Non-Monogamous People Are Dealing With the Pandemic". Self. Archived from the original on November 29, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  38. ^ Migdal, Alex (July 24, 2019). "Polyamory during a pandemic? It's complicated". CBC News. Archived from the original on August 9, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  39. ^ Zhu, Jingshu (January 2018). "We're Not Cheaters: Polyamory, Mixed-Orientation Marriage and the Construction of Radical Honesty" (PDF). Social Science. 14 (1). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 28, 2021. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  40. ^ Sudeep, Theres (November 28, 2020). "In Bengaluru, many couples are exploring polyamory". Deccan Herald. Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Archived from the original on December 4, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
  41. ^ Cook, Elaine (December 12, 2005). "Commitment in Polyamory". Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality. 8. Archived from the original on November 27, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  42. ^ a b Klesse, Christian (February 5, 2014). "Polyamory: Intimate practice, identity or sexual orientation?" (PDF). Sexualities. 17 (1–2): 81. doi:10.1177/1363460713511096. S2CID 144546531. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
  43. ^ a b c Davidson, Joy (April 16, 2002). "Working with Polyamorous Clients in the Clinical Setting". Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality. 5. Archived from the original on September 19, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2020. Also delivered to the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Western Regional Conference, April 2002.
  44. ^ Slone, Isabel B. (June 9, 2020). "How a polyamorous Toronto man is managing his four romantic relationships remotely". Toronto Life. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  45. ^ a b Bergdall, Melissa K.; Blumer, Markie L. C. (January 2, 2015). "More Than Two: A Practical Guide to Ethical Polyamory, by Franklin Veaux and Eve Rickert". Journal of Feminist Family Therapy. 27 (1): 40–45. doi:10.1080/08952833.2015.1005963. ISSN 0895-2833. S2CID 143233814.
  46. ^ a b c Veaux, Franklin; Rickert, Eve (2014). More than two : a practical guide to ethical polyamory. ISBN 9780991399703. OCLC 878396611.
  47. ^ a b Sheff, Elisabeth A. (October 14, 2013). "Solo Polyamory, Singleish, Single & Poly". Psychology Today. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  48. ^ a b Dodgson, Lindsay (February 19, 2019). "There's a dark side of polyamory that nobody talks about". Insider. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  49. ^ Cook, Elaine (2005). "Commitment in Polyamorous Relationships". Archived from the original on October 4, 2006. Retrieved July 10, 2006.
  50. ^ Zane, Zachary (December 9, 2020). "I'm in a Loving, Committed Relationship. I'm Also Polyamorous". Men's Health. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  51. ^ a b From PolyOz glossary: "Not in the [linguistic roots of the term] but very important is the commitment to honesty with all partners, and openly negotiated ground rules." Scm-rpg.com Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ a b From sexuality.org: "Two of the cultural cornerstones of the polyamory community are honesty and communication: it's expected that you and your existing long-term partner(s) will have talked over what you're comfortable with and what you aren't comfortable with, and that nobody is going around behind anyone else's back."
  53. ^ a b McCullough, Derek; Hall, David S. (February 27, 2003). "Polyamory – What it is and what it isn't". Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality. 6. Archived from the original on December 10, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  54. ^ Street, Mikelle (December 3, 2020). "YungBlud Opens Up About Sexuality, Talks Male Hookups". Out. Archived from the original on December 3, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  55. ^ a b "Black and Poly Dictionary". Black and Poly. November 13, 2017. Archived from the original on July 1, 2019. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
  56. ^ Attridge, Mark (February 4, 2013). "Jealousy and Relationship Closeness". SAGE Open. 3 (1): 215824401347605. doi:10.1177/2158244013476054.
  57. ^ Sheff, Elisabeth (December 17, 2013). "Jealousy and Compersion with Multiple Partners – How polys deal with jealousy and feel happy when their lover loves someone else". Psychology Today. Archived from the original on March 10, 2022. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  58. ^ a b "Polyamory Society Glossary". Archived from the original on August 7, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
  59. ^ "PolyOz | Compersion | Poly Terms and Concepts". Archived from the original on November 1, 2012.
  60. ^ InnKeeper, Joreth. "The Inn Between". Archived from the original on April 10, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
  61. ^ Anapol, Deborah M (1997). Polyamory: The New Love Without Limits. San Rafael, CA: IntinNet Resource Center. pp. 49–64.
  62. ^ Taormino 2008, p. 217.
  63. ^ Shernoff, M (2006). "Negotiated nonmonogamy and male couples" (PDF). Family Process. 45 (4): 407–18. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.2006.00179.x. ISSN 0014-7370. PMID 17220111. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2013.
  64. ^ Fleckenstein, James R.; Cox, Derrell W. (November 18, 2014). "The association of an open relationship orientation with health and happiness in a sample of older US adults". Sexual and Relationship Therapy. 30 (1): 94–116. doi:10.1080/14681994.2014.976997. ISSN 1468-1994. S2CID 144311126. Regression analyses suggest that the factors which predict better health and happiness differ between the general population and those who participate in consensually non-exclusive sexual relationships
  65. ^ Sizemore, Kayla M.; Olmstead, Spencer B. (October 6, 2017). "Willingness of Emerging Adults to Engage in Consensual Non-Monogamy: A Mixed-Methods Analysis". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 47 (5): 1423–1438. doi:10.1007/s10508-017-1075-5. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 28986760. S2CID 4030065. The final reason given by those in the 'Willing' group was that their engagement in CNM would be a sacrifice for their partner or for their relationship. This group of participants indicated that despite their own lack of desire to engage in CNM, they would be willing to try CNM for their partner or their relationship.
  66. ^ a b Masters, Robert (2011). Transformation through intimacy : the journey toward awakened monogamy. Berkeley, Calif: North Atlantic Books. pp. 23–25. ISBN 978-1-58394-388-5. OCLC 793850748.
  67. ^ Doheny, Kathleen (November 20, 2007). "The Truth About Open Marriage". WebMD. Archived from the original on August 15, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  68. ^ Divilbiss, April (October 2000). "PolyFamily Child Custody Case Ends After 2 Year Battle..." Polyamory Society. Archived from the original on August 26, 2005. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  69. ^ Tweedy, Ann (October 2011). "Polyamory as a sexual orientation". University of Cincinnati Law Review. 79 (4): 1461–1515. Archived from the original on August 24, 2020. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  70. ^ Keese, Christian (2016). "Marriage, Law and Polyamory. Rebutting Mononormativity with Sexual Orientation Discourse?". Oñati Socio-legal Series. 6 (6): 1348. Archived from the original on April 22, 2018. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  71. ^ Gould, Rebecca Ruth (August 15, 2016). "Love Without Monogamy". OpenDemocracy. Archived from the original on August 29, 2019. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  72. ^ Feldman, Jamie (December 23, 2020). "This Throuple Made History With Their First Child. Here's What Their Lives Are Like". HuffPost. Archived from the original on March 2, 2021. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  73. ^ MacDonald, Michael (June 14, 2018). "3 adults in polyamorous relationship declared legal parents by N. L. court". CBC News. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  74. ^ Stening, Tanner (July 1, 2020). "Somerville City Council passes ordinance recognizing polyamorous domestic partnerships". masslive. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  75. ^ Taliesin, Julia. "Somerville votes to recognize polyamorous domestic partnerships. It is one of the first in nation". MetroWest Daily News, Framingham, MA. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  76. ^ McNamara, Audrey (July 3, 2020). "Massachusetts city officially recognizes polyamorous relationships". CBS News. Archived from the original on December 3, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  77. ^ Greenberg, Zoe (July 2, 2020). "Somerville's new polyamory-friendly policy a 'turning point'". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on December 3, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  78. ^ VTD Editor (November 6, 2020). "SCOV Law Blog: Court decides parentage issue in divorce involving polyamory". VTDigger. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2020. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  79. ^ Brown, Elizabeth Nolan (March 10, 2021). "Cambridge Will Recognize Polyamorous Partnerships and Other Domestic Arrangements With More Than 2 Adults". Reason.com. Archived from the original on March 10, 2021. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  80. ^ "Cambridge City Council meeting - March 8, 2021 - AGENDA". Cambridge Civic Journal. March 8, 2021. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved March 13, 2021. This is a publication run by a man named Robert Winters, who is a civic watcher of the Cambridge, MA government.
  81. ^ Adams, Diana; Chen, Alexander (March 9, 2021). "Cambridge Becomes 2nd US City to Legalize Polyamorous Domestic Partnerships" (PDF) (Press release). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Polyamory Legal Advocacy Coalition. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  82. ^ Levy, Marc (July 28, 2020). "Law acknowledging polyamorous relationships takes step forward, two councillors holding back". Cambridge Day. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  83. ^ "POR 2020 #180 The City Manager be and hereby is requested to confer with the City of Cambridge Law Department to review the above changes to the language of the Domestic Partnerships Ordinance and report back to the Council. PASSED TO A SECOND READING IN COUNCIL JULY 27, 2020. TO BE ORDAINED ON OR AFTER SEPTEMBER 14, 2020". Cambridge, Massachusetts. 2020. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  84. ^ Collings, Jesse. "Town Meeting approves domestic partnership for relationships with more than two people". Wicked Local. Archived from the original on May 13, 2021. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  85. ^ Labbé, Stefan (April 28, 2021). "B.C. judge declares woman third legal parent in polyamorous 'triad'". Times Colonist. Archived from the original on August 28, 2021. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  86. ^ Turley, Jonathan (October 3, 2004). "Polygamy laws expose our own hypocrisy". USA Today. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  87. ^ Ruby Deaton Pharr, v. Joyce W. Beck, 554 S.E.2d COA01-3 (North Carolina Court of Appeals November 20, 2001).
  88. ^ Grossman, Joanna (December 16, 2003). "Punishing Adultery in Virginia". Findlaw. Archived from the original on November 27, 2018. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  89. ^ Francoeur, Robert T. (2004). "United States: Interpersonal Heterosexual Behaviors". In Francoeur, Robert T.; Noonan, Raymond J. (eds.). The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. London: A&C Black. pp. 1205–1206. ISBN 9780826414885. Archived from the original on March 10, 2022. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  90. ^ Constantine, Larry L. (1974). Group Marriage: A Study of Contemporary Multilateral Marriage. Collier Books. ISBN 978-0020759102. Archived from the original on March 10, 2022. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  91. ^ Crawford, Alison (September 14, 2016). "Canadian polyamorists face unique legal challenges, research reveals". CBC. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  92. ^ Martinez, Michelle (2014). "Polygamy". In Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn J. (eds.). The Social History of the American Family: An Encyclopedia. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications. p. 1048. ISBN 978-1452286150. Archived from the original on March 10, 2022. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  93. ^ a b c d "Polyamory Day - Canadian Polyamory Advocacy Association". Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved December 26, 2020.
  94. ^ Sheff, Elisabeth A. (January 18, 2014). "The Five Most Common Legal Issues Facing Polyamorists". Psychology Today. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  95. ^ Anapol, Deborah (2012). Polyamory in the 21st Century: Love and Intimacy with Multiple Partners. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442200227. Archived from the original on September 26, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  96. ^ Den Otter, Ron. "Three May Not Be a Crowd: The Case for a Constitutional Right to Plural Marriage". Emory Law Journal. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  97. ^ McCormick, Joseph (May 1, 2015). "Natalie Bennett is 'open' to polyamorous marriages and civil partnerships". PinkNews. Archived from the original on June 20, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  98. ^ Holehouse, Matthew (May 1, 2015). "Greens 'open' to three-person marriage, says Natalie Bennett". Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on March 16, 2018. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  99. ^ Ashton, Emily (May 1, 2015). "The Green Party Is "Open" To Legalizing Three-Way Marriages". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on December 24, 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  100. ^ Barrett, Redfern (May 4, 2015). "Comment: Why polyamorous marriages are the next step to equality". PinkNews. Archived from the original on July 2, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  101. ^ Reynolds, Daniel (June 15, 2017). "Three Gay Men Make History by Marrying in Colombia". The Advocate. Archived from the original on June 16, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  102. ^ Brodzinski, Sibylla (July 3, 2017). "Colombia legally recognizes union between three men". The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 13, 2018. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  103. ^ Taylor-Coleman, Jasmine (July 20, 2017). "Polyamorous marriage: Is there a future for three-way weddings?". BBC News. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  104. ^ Dryden, J. Boone (2015). "This Is the Family I Chose: Broadening DomesticPartnership Law to Include Polyamory". Hamline University's School of Law's Journal of Public Law and Policy. 36 (1): 162–188. Archived from the original on March 6, 2022. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  105. ^ Brake, Elizabeth (2013). "Recognizing Care: The Case for Friendship and Polyamory". Syracuse Journal of Law & Civic Engagement. 14 (1). Archived from the original on April 8, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  106. ^ Emens, Elizabeth F. (2004). "Monogamy's Law: Compulsory Monogamy and Polyamorous Existence". New York University Review of Law & Social Change. 29: 280–283. SSRN 506242. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved December 23, 2020.
  107. ^ Finnish Sex Survey 1992 Archived September 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine (PDF)
  108. ^ Kassel, Gabrielle (October 30, 2020). "What To Know About Vee Relationships, the Polyamorous Structure Some People Swear By". Well + Good. Archived from the original on November 1, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  109. ^ "What Psychology Professionals Should Know About Polyamory". polyamory.org. Archived from the original on April 9, 2005. Retrieved March 26, 2005.
  110. ^ Kavanagh, Jess (September 19, 2020). "Building bridges: How polyamory made me a better friend, lover and person". Irish Times. Archived from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  111. ^ Moors, Amy (March 23, 2021). "Desire, Familiarity, and Engagement in Polyamory: Results From a National Sample of Single Adults in the United States". Frontiers in Psychology. 12: 619640. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.619640. PMC 8023325. PMID 33833712.
  112. ^ Cole, Samantha (March 12, 2021). "Google Play Store Suspends Polyamory Dating App". Vice.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2021. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  113. ^ Beckerman, Marty (April 23, 2009). "The Ethical Slut Returns". The Daily Beast. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  114. ^ Rahner, Mark (March 9, 2009). "Seattle-based 'Family' webisodes no ordinary sexy sitcom". The Seattle Times. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  115. ^ "What Polyamory is, and What Polyamory isn't". April 1, 2015.
  116. ^ Sachie Godwin, Clamor Magazine, "Perfect Bound". Archived from the original on April 5, 2010. Retrieved March 20, 2010., issue 17, 2002
  117. ^ "about the author". slutandsons.com. July 14, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  118. ^ "Brenda Howard | LGBTHistoryMonth.com". lgbthistorymonth.com. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
  119. ^ "Willow Smith comes out as polyamorous — and reveals the 'only' reason she'd get married". TODAY.com. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  120. ^ Foster, Lawrence (January 2010). "Free Love and Community: John Humphrey Noyes and the Oneida Perfectionists". In Pitzer, Donald E. (ed.). America's Communal Utopias. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 253–278. ISBN 978-0807846094. Archived from the original on January 30, 2022. Retrieved December 25, 2020.
  121. ^ Stoehr, Taylor (1979). Free Love in America: A Documentary History. New York: AMS Press, Inc. ISBN 9780404160340.
  122. ^ Herrick, Tirzah Miller; Fogarty, Robert S. (2000). Fogarty, Robert S. (ed.). Desire and Duty at Oneida: Tirzah Miller's Intimate Memoir. Bloomington Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253213624. OCLC 247762494.
  123. ^ Chmielewski, Wendy E. (2001). "Review of Desire and Duty at Oneida: Tirzah Miller's Intimate Memoir". Utopian Studies. 12 (1): 176–178. ISBN 9780815621690. JSTOR 20718260. OCLC 5542766034.
  124. ^ "Multiple intimate relationships: a summary of liberated Christians' views". Liberated Christians. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
  125. ^ Meyer, Holly (August 29, 2017). "More than 150 evangelical religious leaders sign 'Christian manifesto' on human sexuality". USA Today. Archived from the original on August 30, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
  126. ^ Meyer, Holly (August 30, 2017). "What is the Nashville Statement and why are people talking about it?". USA Today. Archived from the original on August 31, 2017. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  127. ^ Goldstein, Sarah (February 2007). "A Modest Proposal for the "Vanishing American Jew"". Heeb Magazine. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Rabbi Jacob Levin, 62, is an exception. When he came out to his synagogue’s board seven years ago, his disclosure was met with a mix of confusion and dismay.
  128. ^ Teutsch, David (2011). A Guide to Jewish Practice: Volume 1 – Everyday Living. RRC Press. pp. 217–227. ISBN 978-0938945185.
  129. ^ "Polyamorous Jews seek acceptance". Haaretz. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. October 12, 2013. Archived from the original on March 19, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
  130. ^ Lavin, Talia (March 10, 2013). "Married and dating: Polyamorous Jews share love, seek acceptance". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  131. ^ "Married and dating: Polyamorous Jews share love, seek acceptance". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. October 10, 2013. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
  132. ^ Hoffman, Lawrence, ed. (1997). My People's Prayer Book: The Sh'ma and its blessings. Jewish Lights Publishing. p. 69. ISBN 9781879045798.
  133. ^ "Founding Family: "Morality" versus Same-Sex Marriage". Church of Satan. Archived from the original on October 27, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  134. ^ a b "UUPA website". Archived from the original on December 5, 2019. Retrieved December 17, 2019.
  135. ^ "Unitarian Universalist Association: Rule II, Section C-2.3.: Non-discrimination". Archived from the original on May 18, 2015.
  136. ^ "A Statement on Sexual Ethics for the 21st Century". humanisticrabbis. Archived from the original on January 27, 2021. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  137. ^ "History of NCSF". National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. 2020. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  138. ^ Weitzman, Geri; et al. (2009). What psychotherapists should know about polyamory (PDF). Baltimore, Maryland: National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 26, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  139. ^ Adrianne L. Johnson (2010). "Counseling the Polyamorous Client: Implications for Competent Practice" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on December 24, 2020.
  140. ^ David M. Ortmann; Richard A. Sprott (November 15, 2012). Sexual Outsiders: Understanding BDSM Sexualities and Communities. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 137–. ISBN 978-1-4422-1737-9. Archived from the original on March 10, 2022. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  141. ^ "Kink Aware Professionals (KAP) – Sex-Positive Support for Kink and Nonmonogamy". Archived from the original on March 27, 2021. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  142. ^ "Welcome to the New Kink And Poly Aware Professionals Directory (KAP)". Kink Aware Professionals (KAP). Archived from the original on March 27, 2021. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  143. ^ "Polyamory-Friendly Professionals Directory: Search". www.polyfriendly.org. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved March 26, 2021.
  144. ^ Cowsill, Alan; Irvine, Alex; Korte, Steve; Manning, Matt; Wiacek, Win; Wilson, Sven (2016). The DC Comics Encyclopedia: The Definitive Guide to the Characters of the DC Universe. DK Publishing. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-4654-5357-0.
  145. ^ a b Century, Sara (October 18, 2018). "Why Starfire's polyamory matters". Syfy Wire. Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  146. ^ Schenkel, Katie (June 24, 2016). "The Case For Pansexual Starfire [Pride Week]". ComicsAlliance. Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  147. ^ Yadao, Jason S. (2009). The Rough Guide to Manga. London: Rough Guides. p. 178. ISBN 9781858285610. Archived from the original on March 10, 2022. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  148. ^ Handlen, Zack (June 25, 2015). "Futurama: "A Taste Of Freedom"/"Bender Should Not Be Allowed On Television"". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on November 4, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  149. ^ O'Connor, Stuart (May 16, 2008). "Futurama: The Beast With a Billion Backs (DVD)". ScreenJabber. Archived from the original on June 4, 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2020. Fry decides to move in with Colleen [despite]...after making the horrifying discovery that he is merely one of the five boyfriends she shares her apartment with.
  150. ^ Callan, Jonathan (June 25, 2008). "REVIEW - Futurama: The Beast with a Billion Backs". CBR. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020. The first act parallels the rip in space with the introduction of Fry's new girlfriend, Colleen (voiced by Brittany Murphy), whom Fry soon discovers has four **other** boyfriends. This serves as a thematic lead-in to the plot that tackles notions of polygamous love head-on...It's in the third act, where humanity moves in with Yeevo, that the film really becomes something special...after being exposed as a randy bachelor, Yevo confesses: "Granted, at first I wished only to bang out a cheap one with your universe. But it's your own fault. Your universe dresses provocatively.""
  151. ^ Handlen, Zack (August 27, 2015). "Futurama: The Beast With A Billion Backs". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2020. ...while it’s neat for Fry’s relationship to Colleen to eventually end with Yivo deciding Colleen, with her group relationships, is the only person to really understand him, that doesn’t make Colleen into a better written character, and it doesn’t make Fry’s romantic struggles more interesting in their own right.
  152. ^ a b c d e Stepaniuk, Casey (November 16, 2016). "8 Books with Queer Polyamorous Characters". Book Riot. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  153. ^ "Meet the polyamorists – a growing band of people who believe". The Independent. October 22, 2011. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  154. ^ Igarashi, Hayley (March 25, 2014). "The ABCs of Doccubus, TV's Steamy Succubus Romance". Zimbio. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  155. ^ Liszewski, Bridget (March 12, 2018). "Lost Girl's Anna Silk is Eager to Reunite with Cast Mates and Meet Fans at ClexaCon 2018". The TV Junkies. Archived from the original on October 7, 2018. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  156. ^ Newitz, Annalee (February 22, 2010). "Is Caprica the Big Love Of Science Fiction?". Archived from the original on April 11, 2021. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  157. ^ Juzwiak, Rich (June 26, 2013). "Showtime's Polyamory Is Trashy, Profound and the Best Reality Show on TV". Gawker. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  158. ^ Fraser, Jeff (September 21, 2012). "Polyamory: Exploring the ins and outs of multiple partners". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on October 28, 2018. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  159. ^ "Polyamory: Married & Dating official website". Showtime. 2020. Archived from the original on June 4, 2018. Retrieved August 1, 2020.The cast and characters pages also notes that , and are bisexual.
  160. ^ Wong, Britany (January 5, 2017). "10 Comics That Show What Polyamorous Love Is Really Like". HuffPost. Archived from the original on February 8, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  161. ^ Hanks, E. A. (November 19, 2015). "'American Horror Story' Season 5, Episode 7: Gods and Monsters". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 28, 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  162. ^ Byrne, Catie (June 26, 2016). "The Gay and Wondrous Life of Caleb Gallo". The Carolinian (newspaper). Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020. Dubbed by fans as the “throuple scene,” this unusual sort of tit for tat homoerotic and polyamorous sexuality encapsulates the dynamic humor and sexual fluidity between characters on the show.
  163. ^ Horowitz, Steven J. (June 26, 2016). "Chatting With "Gay and Wondrous Life of Caleb Gallo" Creator Brian Jordan Alvarez". Paper Magazine. Archived from the original on October 24, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2020. I never want to be monogamous and I'm always falling into this super lovey-dovey kind of love with guys, and then they think that it's implied monogamy when in fact, the texture of my love is monogamous, but my mental and sexual desires are polyamorous.
  164. ^ Ari North (w, a). "Here Goes Nothing" Always Human v2, 69 (April 7, 2017), Webtoon Archived April 11, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
  165. ^ Rosi, Kämpe (September 11, 2015). "Cast". Unknown Lands the comic series. Archived from the original on February 22, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  166. ^ otterchild (September 23, 2016). "Backstage Pass September: Rosi Kampe". The Strip Show, a Webcomic Revue. Archived from the original on February 2, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  167. ^ Smith, Anna (November 16, 2017). "How movies brought polyamory into the mainstream". The Guardian. Archived from the original on June 16, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  168. ^ Clare, Cassandra (July 11, 2015). "Hi Cassie, I wanted to say thank you for these..." Cassandra Clare's official Tumblr. Archived from the original on May 30, 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  169. ^ Clare, Cassandra (July 18, 2015). "Clockworks and triads". Cassandra Clare's official Tumblr. Archived from the original on July 18, 2015. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  170. ^ K. Ancrum (2020). "Author F.A.Q". K. Ancrum's official website. Archived from the original on October 2, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  171. ^ Sugar, Rebecca (director), Jones-Quartey, Ian (Writer), Brewster, Miki (Writer), Abrams, Lamar (Writer) (September 2, 2019). Steven Universe: The Movie [Steven Universe: The Movie] (TV Movie). United States: Cartoon Network. Event occurs at 8 PM. B07W8HR413. Archived from the original (Prime video) on December 31, 2019. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
  172. ^ a b Brown, Tracy (July 21, 2017). "'Steven Universe's' Rebecca Sugar confirms Fluorite is a representation of a polyamorous relationship". L.A. Times. Archived from the original on December 31, 2019. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
  173. ^ a b Kelley, Shamus (August 1, 2017). "Steven Universe: 9 Things We Learned". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on December 31, 2019. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
  174. ^ slai (August 9, 2017). "SDCC 2017: The "Steven Universe" Panel". Anime Superhero. Archived from the original on December 31, 2019. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
  175. ^ Nickalls, Sammy (September 21, 2017). "The Tricky Problem With Hollyhock in 'BoJack Horseman' Season 4". Dot and Line. Archived from the original on March 27, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020. The adopted daughter of eight polyamorous fathers, she [Hollyhock] informs him [Bojack] right off the bat that she’s not looking for a ninth dad in BoJack—who, thanks to the results of a Todd-facilitated DNA test, she believes to be her biological father.
  176. ^ Novick, Ilana (April 10, 2017). "TV Is Finally Starting to Get Polyamory Right". Vice News. Archived from the original on May 7, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  177. ^ Mangan, Lucy (November 4, 2018). "Altered States: Love Without Limits review – Louis Theroux treads his tightrope". The Guardian. Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  178. ^ Lao, Sameer (November 17, 2017). "A Black Queer Couple Candidly Explores Polyamory in '195 Lewis'". ColorLines. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  179. ^ Rachel Montpelier. "2018 Gotham Awards: Wins for Chloé Zhao's "The Rider," "Killing Eve," Elsie Fisher, & More". Women and Hollywood. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  180. ^ "195 Lewis Online Premiere!! — 195 Lewis". 195lewis.com. November 16, 2017. Archived from the original on November 27, 2018. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  181. ^ Mirk, Sarah (January 30, 2019). "Erotic Sci-Fi Graphic Novel "Open Earth" Explores Polyamory In Space" (Online). Interviewed by Isabel. Bust. Archived from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  182. ^ "Trigonometry". BBC News. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  183. ^ "When is polyamory drama Trigonometry on BBC Two? What is it about?". Radio Times. March 15, 2020. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  184. ^ Lee, Jess (July 19, 2021). "Neighbours' Ned Willis suggests polyamorous relationship in new storyline". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved August 16, 2021.
  185. ^ Hugz & Cuddlez (November 30, 2021). ""You" and polyamory". Hugz & Cuddlez blog. Archived from the original on March 10, 2022. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  186. ^ "Metamour Day is February 28!". National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. 2020. Archived from the original on July 30, 2020. Retrieved December 26, 2020.
  187. ^ "When you have 2 lovers, the holidays can be tricky". www.theconversation.com. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  188. ^ staff, Renee Yan, The Shorthorn. "Studies find polyamory appeals to some". The Shorthorn. Archived from the original on February 13, 2021. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  189. ^ Alan M. (November 11, 2010). "Polyamory in the News: As Canadian poly case nears, publicity ramps up". Polyinthemedia. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  190. ^ "About". Polyadvocacy.ca. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  191. ^ "Mission". OPEN.
  192. ^ Safronova, Valeriya (June 17, 2022). "Non-Monogamy Advocates Ask Facebook to Be More Open". The New York Times.
  193. ^ Marshall, Jason (February 6, 2013). "Polyamorists set up lobby group". Archived from the original on August 4, 2021. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  194. ^ "Polyamory Legal Advocacy Coalition". Polyamory Legal Advocacy Coalition. Archived from the original on March 24, 2021. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  195. ^ "Polyamory Legal Advocacy Coalition". www.facebook.com. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved April 29, 2021.
  196. ^ Ben Udashen (March 2, 2019). "Content Warning: Bunker w/ Yasmin Nair (3.2.19)". Unpopular Front (Podcast). Listen Notes. Archived from the original on December 27, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  197. ^ Nair, Yasmin (January 19, 2012). "Newt Gingrich: Polyamorist?". Yasmin Nair's official website. WordPress. Archived from the original on December 27, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  198. ^ Nair, Yasmin (June 28, 2015). "Your Sex Is Not Radical". Yasmin Nair's official website. WordPress. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  199. ^ Nair, Yasmin (November 15, 2015). "On Power Couples". Yasmin Nair's official website. WordPress. Archived from the original on December 27, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  200. ^ Nair, Yasmin (November 23, 2015). "Weekly Roundup: November 22". Yasmin Nair's official website. WordPress. Archived from the original on December 27, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  201. ^ Nair, Yasmin (February 14, 2008). "Friendship in the Time of Love". Yasmin Nair's official website. WordPress. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  202. ^ Nair, Yasmin (February 12, 2019). "Polyamory Is Gay Marriage for Straight People". Yasmin Nair's official website. WordPress. Archived from the original on December 27, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  203. ^ Bindel, Julie (August 26, 2013). "Rebranding polyamory does women no favors". The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 27, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  204. ^ Frost, Daniel; Boyd, Hal (January 7, 2010). "The Counterfeit 'Honesty' of Polyamory". National Review. Archived from the original on December 27, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  205. ^ Friedersdorf, Conor (July 9, 2015). "The Case Against Encouraging Polygamy". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on December 27, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  206. ^ a b c d e Rubel, Alicia N.; Bogaert, Anthony F. (September 4, 2014). "Consensual Nonmonogamy: Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Quality Correlates". The Journal of Sex Research. 52 (9): 961–982. doi:10.1080/00224499.2014.942722. ISSN 0022-4499. PMID 25189189. S2CID 36510972.
  207. ^ Moors, Amy; Conley, Terri; Edelstein, Robin; Chopik, William (2014). "Attached to monogamy? Avoidance predicts willingness to engage (but not actual engagement) in consensual non-monogamy". Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 32 (2): 222–240. doi:10.1177/0265407514529065. ISSN 0265-4075. S2CID 146417288.
Further reading
External links

Polyamory-related media

Polyamory-related media coverage

Research and articles

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.