Political institutions of ancient Rome
|Precedent and law|
|Titles and honours|
Various lists regarding the political institutions of ancient Rome are presented. Each entry in a list is a link to a separate article. Categories included are: constitutions (5), laws (5), and legislatures (7); state offices (28) and office holders (6 lists); political factions (2 + 1 conflict) and social ranks (8). A political glossary (35) of similar construction follows.
Discover more about Laws related topics
- Roman Senate
- Roman assemblies
- Roman Curia
- Comitia curiata
- Comitia centuriata
- Comitia tributa
- Concilium plebis
Discover more about Legislatures related topics
- aedile – Office of the Roman Republic
- censor – Roman magistrate and census administrator
- comes – Latin word for companion, Roman court title
- comes palatinus – High-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman times
- consul – Political office in ancient Rome
- consularis – Ancient Roman title, given to those who had served as consuls
- decemviri – 10-man commission in the Roman Republic
- dictator – Extraordinary magistrate of the Roman Republic
- dux – Roman title
- emperor – Ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period
- governor – Position
- imperator – Rank in ancient Rome
- legatus – High-ranking Roman military officer
- legatus Augusti pro praetore – position in the Roman Empire
- lictor – Bodyguard and attendant to ancient Roman magistrates
- magistrate – Elected official in Ancient Rome
- officium – duties ancient Rome
- pontifex maximus – Chief high priest in ancient Rome
- praefectus – prefect in ancient Rome
- praepositus sacri cubiculi – court position in the Byzantine Empire
- praeses – title for the governor of a Roman province in the later Roman empire
- praetor – Official of the Roman Republic
- praetor peregrinus – Official of the Roman Republic
- princeps senatus – First member by precedence of the Roman Senate
- proconsul – Governor of a province in the Roman republic
- procurator – Administrative title in the Roman Empire
- promagistrates – Ancient Roman office
- quaestor – Public official in ancient Rome
- rector – political function in Rome and in medieval republics
- rex – Chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom
- senator – Political institution in ancient Rome
- tribune – Elected Roman officials
- triumviri – Regime dominated by three individuals
- vicarius – Latin word meaning substitute or deputy
- vigintisexviri – College of minor magistrates of the Roman Republic
Discover more about State offices related topics
Lists of individual office holders
(also see Conflict of the Orders)
Glossary of law and politics
- auctoritas – Roman prestige; contrast with power, imperium
- civitas – Roman concept of citizenry as an entity united by law
- collegia – any association in ancient Rome with a legal personality
- consortium – Association of two or more individuals and/or organizations to achieve a common goal
- consuetudo – Legal principle
- contractus litteris
- curiae – Assembly where issues are discussed and decided.
- cursus honorum – The sequential order of public offices held by politicians in Ancient Rome
- decreta – Edict or proclamation usually issued by a head of state
- delectum – Civil wrong
- digest – Roman law digesta
- edicta – Announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism
- aequitas – Roman legal concept
- gravitas – Ancient Roman virtue
- imperium – Type of authority in ancient Rome
- iudex – Official who presides over court proceedings
- ius – right to which a citizen was entitled by virtue of his citizenship
- libertas – Roman goddess of liberty
- mos maiorum – Customs and traditions of ancient Rome
- municipium – Ancient Roman term for a town or city
- obligatio – Course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral
- pietas – Ancient Roman virtue
- potestas – Latin word meaning power or faculty
- responsa – Body of written legal decisions and rulings
- provincia – Major Roman administrative territorial entity outside of Italy
- ratio – Relationship between two numbers of the same kind
- senatus consultum – resolution of the ancient Roman Senate
- First Triumvirate – Alliance between Roman politicians Caesar, Pompey and Crassus
- Second Triumvirate – Roman political organisation (43–32 BC)
Discover more about Glossary of law and politics related topics
Source: "Political institutions of ancient Rome", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 12th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_institutions_of_ancient_Rome.
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Legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic
Conflict of the Orders
Senatus consultum ultimum
Constitution of the Roman Republic
Legislative Assemblies of the Roman Kingdom
Legislative assemblies of the Roman Empire
- ^ Cf., History of Rome (disambiguation).
- ^ A. Berger, Encyclopedic Dictionary of Roman Law (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society 1953).
- ^ Patricians versus Plebs.
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Discover more about Social ranks related topics
Patrician (ancient Rome)
The patricians were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome. The distinction was highly significant in the Roman Kingdom, and the early Republic, but its relevance waned after the Conflict of the Orders. By the time of the late Republic and Empire, membership in the patriciate was of only nominal significance.
The equites constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class. A member of the equestrian order was known as an eques.
In ancient Rome, adsidui were the citizens who were liable to military service in the main line of battle, that is, for much of the history of the Roman Republic, as legionaries. The adsidui were the members of the first five census classes, which were, according to the Roman historian Livy, created under the reign of Servius Tullius, the sixth legendary king of ancient Rome. Under Tullius' original organisation, the first class was made of the richest, and thus best-equipped citizens, with helmet, shield, greaves, cuirass, spear and sword. As one went down through the classes and the corresponding levels of wealth, equipment went lighter and lighter. According to Peter Connolly, the goal of Tullius' reform was to base military service on wealth, and not race, thus better integrating the Etruscans, who at that time ruled Rome and the Romans themselves; he points out, however, that in the beginning most members of the richest first class must have been Etruscans.
Capite censi were literally, in Latin, "those counted by head" in the ancient Roman census. Also known as "the head count", the term was used to refer to the lowest class of citizens, people not of the nobility or middle classes, owning little or no property; thus they were counted by the head rather than by their property. Initially capite censi was synonymous with proletarii, meaning those citizens whose property was too small to be rated for the census. Later, though, the proletarii were distinguished from the capite censi as having "appreciable property" to the value of 11,000 asses or less. In contrast, the capite censi are assumed to have not owned any property of significance.