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Philippine Independent Church

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Coat of arms of the Philippine Independent Church
Philippine Independent Church
Iglesia Filipina Independiente
Filipino: Malayang Simbahan ng Pilipinas
6222Barangays of San Felipe, Zambales 07.jpg
The Iglesia Filipina Independiente Cathedral Church of San Roque in Zambales
AbbreviationIFI, PIC
TypeChristianity
ClassificationCatholic
OrientationIndependent Catholic, Anglican, Nationalist
ScriptureBible (GNB, RSV, NRSV, IFI Centennial Bible)[1]
TheologyIndependent Catholic doctrine
PolityEpiscopal
GovernanceSynod (The General Assembly)
Supreme BishopRhee Timbang
AdministrationIFI Executive Commission
Dioceses
  • Local dioceses: 47 (clustered into bishops conferences)
  • Overseas dioceses: 2
  • Overseas congregations: 4
AssociationsNational Council of Churches in the Philippines
Christian Conference of Asia
World Council of Churches[2]
United Society Partners in the Gospel[3]
Full CommunionAnglican Communion
Episcopal Church in the United States
Church of England
Union of Utrecht of the Old Catholic Churches[4]
Episcopal Church in the Philippines
RegionPhilippines
North America
Europe
Middle East
East Asia
Southeast Asia
Pacific Islands
LanguageFilipino, Native Philippine regional languages, English, Spanish, Latin
LiturgyThe Filipino Ritual by Iglesia Filipina Independiente, 1961[5]
HeadquartersIglesia Filipina Independiente National Cathedral of the Holy Child
#1500 Taft Avenue,
Ermita, Manila, Philippines
FounderIsabelo de los Reyes, Sr.
Gregorio Aglipay
OriginAugust 3, 1902; 120 years ago (1902-08-03)
Quiapo, Manila, Philippine Islands
Separated fromCatholic Church
Separations
  • Independent Church of Filipino Christians (Aglipay Memorial Church) – ICFC/AMC (1955)
  • Church Body of Christ – Filipinista (1966)
  • Holy Catholic Apostolic Church (HCAC) (1966)[6]
  • Philippine Independent Catholic Church (Iglesia Catolica Filipina Independiente) – PICC/ICFI (1981)[7][8]
  • Aglipayan Christian Church Inc. (1995)[9]
  • 63rd and Mothers Apostolic Church of the Philippines (2000s)
  • At least 30 other "Aglipayan" breakaway factions and splinter groups not in communion with the IFI[10]
Members756,225 (2015)[11]
Aid organizationIFI – Task Force on Emergency Relief (IFI–TFER)
Other name(s)Aglipayan Church
PublicationsThe Christian Register
Official websitewww.ifi.org.ph
SloganLatin: Pro Deo Et Patria
Slogan/Mottos in English: "For God and Fatherland - Scripture, Charity, Knowledge, Liberty"

The Philippine Independent Church (Spanish: Iglesia Filipina Independiente; Tagalog: Malayang Simbahan ng Pilipinas; Latin: Libera Ecclesia Philippina; colloquially called the Aglipayan Church, IFI, and PIC) is an independent[a] Christian denomination, in the form similar to that of a national church, in the Philippines.[b] Its schism from the Catholic Church was proclaimed in 1902 by members of the Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina, due to the mistreatment of the Filipinos by Spanish priests and the executions of José Rizal and Filipino priests Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora[13][14] during Spanish colonial rule.

Prominent Filipino historian Teodoro Agoncillo described the Philippine Independent Church as "the only living and tangible result of the Philippine Revolution."[15][16]

Its central office is located at the National Cathedral of the Holy Child in Ermita, Manila. The Philippine Independent Church is the country's first and oldest independent church.[7]

Discover more about Philippine Independent Church related topics

Christian denomination

Christian denomination

A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity that comprises all church congregations of the same kind, identifiable by traits such as a name, particular history, organization, leadership, theological doctrine, worship style and sometimes a founder. It is a secular and neutral term, generally used to denote any established Christian church. Unlike a cult or sect, a denomination is usually seen as part of the Christian religious mainstream. Most Christian denominations self-describe themselves as churches, whereas some newer ones tend to interchangeably use the terms churches, assemblies, fellowships, etc. Divisions between one group and another are defined by authority and doctrine; issues such as the nature of Jesus, the authority of apostolic succession, biblical hermeneutics, theology, ecclesiology, eschatology, and papal primacy may separate one denomination from another. Groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs, practices, and historical ties—are sometimes known as "branches of Christianity". These branches differ in many ways, especially through differences in practices and belief.

Catholic Church

Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2019. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church consists of 24 sui iuris churches, including the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, which comprise almost 3,500 dioceses and eparchies located around the world. The pope, who is the bishop of Rome, is the chief pastor of the church. The bishopric of Rome, known as the Holy See, is the central governing authority of the church. The administrative body of the Holy See, the Roman Curia, has its principal offices in Vatican City, a small enclave of the Italian city of Rome, of which the pope is head of state.

Filipinos

Filipinos

Filipinos are the people who are citizens of or native to the Philippines. The majority of Filipinos today come from various Austronesian ethnolinguistic groups, all typically speaking either Filipino, English and/or other Philippine languages. Currently, there are more than 185 ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines; each with its own language, identity, culture and history.

Friars in Spanish Philippines

Friars in Spanish Philippines

The Spanish Friars were the crucial elements in the Westernizing of the Philippine Archipelago, and in spreading the Christian faith in that part of the world. Journeying with the first European explorers to these islands in the Far East, they came with the intention of establishing Catholicism under the Patronato real of the Kings of Spain.

Gomburza

Gomburza

Gomburza, alternatively stylized as GOMBURZA or GomBurZa, refers to three Filipino Catholic priests, Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, who were executed by garrote on February 17, 1872, in Bagumbayan, Philippines by Spanish colonial authorities on charges of subversion arising from the 1872 Cavite mutiny. The name is a portmanteau of the priests' surnames.

José Burgos

José Burgos

José Apolonio Burgos y García was a Filipino Catholic priest, accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century. He was tried and executed in Manila along with two other clergymen, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora, who are collectively known as the Gomburza.

Jacinto Zamora

Jacinto Zamora

Jacinto Zamora y del Rosario was a Filipino Catholic priest, part of the Gomburza, a trio of priests who were falsely accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century.

Historian

Historian

A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.

Iglesia Filipina Independiente National Cathedral

Iglesia Filipina Independiente National Cathedral

The Cathedral of the Holy Child is the National Cathedral of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente and the seat of the Obispo Maximo, the Church's chief pastor and spiritual head, located in Ermita, Manila, Philippines. It was built in 1969 and was dedicated to the honor of the Holy Infant Jesus, patron of Tondo, Manila. It replaced the first cathedral in Tondo, which was completely destroyed during World War II.

Ermita

Ermita

Ermita is a district in Manila, Philippines. Located at the central part of the city, the district is a significant center of finance, education, culture, and commerce. Ermita serves as the civic center of the city, bearing the seat of city government and a large portion of the area's employment, business, and entertainment activities.

Independent Catholicism

Independent Catholicism

Independent Catholicism is an independent sacramental movement of clergy and laity who self-identify as Catholic and form "micro-churches claiming apostolic succession and valid sacraments", in spite of not being affiliated to the historic Catholic churches such as the Roman Catholic and Utrechter Old Catholic churches. The term "Independent Catholic" derives from the fact that "these denominations affirm both their belonging to the Catholic tradition as well as their independence from Rome."

Free church

Free church

A free church is a Christian denomination that is intrinsically separate from government. A free church does not define government policy, and a free church does not accept church theology or policy definitions from the government. A free church also does not seek or receive government endorsements or funding to carry out its work. The term is especially relevant in countries with established state churches. An individual belonging to a free church is known as a free churchperson or historically, a free churchman.

History

Gregorio Aglipay and the Philippine Revolution

Gregorio Aglipay in his middle age as Supreme Bishop.
Gregorio Aglipay in his middle age as Supreme Bishop.

Gregorio Aglipay was an activist and Roman Catholic priest from Ilocos Norte, who would later be excommunicated by then Archbishop of Manila, Bernardino Nozaleda, for "usurpation of ecclesiastical jurisdiction" by joining Emilio Aguinaldo's libertarian movement and suspicion in possibly fomenting schism with the Pope (then Pope Leo XIII) in 1899.[17]

During the Philippine Revolution, Aglipay and his former classmate Isabelo de los Reyes (also known as Don Belong), an ilustrado author, journalist, and labour activist, who was on exile in Spain at the time, acted to reform the Filipino Catholic clergy.[18][19] Then-President Emilio Aguinaldo persuaded Aglipay to head the existing Church in the Philippines by appointing him military vicar general in 1898, wishing to overthrow the spiritual power of the Spanish friar-bishops.[20] Aglipay was also the convener of the Filipino Ecclesiastical Council (Paniqui Assembly), in response to former Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini's manifesto urging the Filipino clergy to organize a Filipino national church.[19]

Aglipay was a member of the Malolos Congress, the lone member coming from the religious sector, although he also represented his home province, as well.[18] He was also a guerilla leader during the Philippine–American War, with the rank of lieutenant-general. Thereafter, Mabini's idea to organize a Filipino national church received the support of Aguinaldo.[21]

Post-excommunication and establishment

President Emilio Aguinaldo and Supreme Bishop Gregorio Aglipay, with some Cabinet officials of the First Philippine Republic, December 1904.
President Emilio Aguinaldo and Supreme Bishop Gregorio Aglipay, with some Cabinet officials of the First Philippine Republic, December 1904.

Following the Philippine–American War, de los Reyes, together with the members of Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina, founded and publicly proclaimed the birth of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (translated to "Philippine Independent Church" in English) on August 3, 1902, at the Centro de Bellas Artes in Quiapo, Manila.[22] The Church was incorporated with the then-Insular Government of the Philippines as a religious corporation sole in 1904.[23] The new Church rejected the spiritual authority of the Pope and abolished the celibacy requirement for priests, allowing them to marry. At that time, all of its clergy were former Catholic priests, some of whom became the Church's first consecrated bishops, as justified in accordance with the Church's early Fundamental Epistles.[20][24]

De los Reyes was one of the initiators of the separation and suggested that Aglipay[25][26] should be the founding head, or Obispo Maximo (Supreme Bishop), of the Church. De los Reyes' idea to form a new church was conceptualized upon his return to the Philippines from Spain in 1901, after his talks with the Papal Nuncio Giuseppe Francica-Nava de Bontifè in 1899 to request the Holy See in looking into the conditions of the Philippines had failed. By then, the country had changed from Spanish rule to American.[13]

De los Reyes managed to rally enough people from his organization, Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina, to create an independent church "conserving all that is good in the Roman Church and eliminating all the deceptions, which the Romanists had introduced to corrupt the moral purity and sacredness of the doctrines of Christ." At the time, he had the necessary logistics needed to form a new church, but one: an equipped and empowered bishop to head it.[13]

At first, Aglipay, who was already excommunicated, was reluctant, as he was initially against a schism. He believed that all means of reaching an understanding with Rome should be exhausted first before declaring any schism. However, after his talks with Jesuit and Protestant leaders quickly backfired when both were dismissive and would not allow Filipino priests lead their respective Churches, he eventually accepted de los Reyes' offer to establish an independent church on September 6, 1902 and became the de facto Supreme Bishop, until he was finally consecrated to the position by the Church's bishops on January 18, 1903.[16][13] Thus, it became also known as the "Aglipayan Church", after its first Supreme Bishop. De los Reyes himself was also formally excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1903. On October 1, 1902, Aglipay headed the signatories, approval and promulgation of the first and short-lived Constitution of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. In late 1902, the Church opened the Seminario Central de Mabini (present-day Aglipay Central Theological Seminary), named after Apolinario Mabini, at Nancamaliran West, Urdaneta, Pangasinan.[27][28][29]

Afterwards, Aglipay immediately demanded both then Governor-General William Howard Taft and Catholic Church authorities in September 27, 1902 to turn-over the church buildings to him, starting with the Manila Cathedral, but got rejected. A five-year campaign resulted in the acquisition of nearly one-half of Catholic Church properties in the country by Aglipay's followers. However, in 1906, the then-conservative Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled that all property that had been occupied by Aglipay's followers had to be returned to the Catholic Church. The Supreme Court of the United States upheld the decision in 1909. The Aglipayan Church was then forced to move to makeshift quarters.[30]

Developing early theology

Aglipay, like Rizal, later became a Freemason in May 1918. Although not a Mason himself, de los Reyes who created a distinct doctrine, liturgy, and structure for the Philippine Independent Church, drew some concepts of theology and worship from them, which was then approved formally by Aglipay.[30] De los Reyes was supported by Miguel Morayta, the Grand Master of the Spanish Orient Lodge of Freemasonry in Madrid.[31][32] The late historian Fr. John N. Schumacher, S.J., contended that Morayta and other non-Filipino laymen pushed Aglipay and de los Reyes towards schism with the Catholic Church because of their resentment towards the activities of Catholic religious orders in the Philippines, rather than simple admiration and encouragement for Filipino nationalism.[31] Aglipay later named de los Reyes, being a lay person, as Obispo Honorario (Honorary Bishop) of the IFI in 1929.[33]

Representation of "Ang Birhen sa Balintawak" (La Hermosa Virgen de Balintawak, Our Lady of Balintawak or Virgin of Balintawak), the most popular icon of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente which is believed to be a Marian apparition during the Philippine Revolution. It depicts an indigenous Virgin Mary, as the mother of a struggling nation dressed in traditional Filipina dress, with her Son, the Divine Infant, attired as a Katipunero.
Representation of "Ang Birhen sa Balintawak" (La Hermosa Virgen de Balintawak, Our Lady of Balintawak or Virgin of Balintawak), the most popular icon of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente which is believed to be a Marian apparition during the Philippine Revolution. It depicts an indigenous Virgin Mary, as the mother of a struggling nation dressed in traditional Filipina dress, with her Son, the Divine Infant, attired as a Katipunero.

The Philippine Independent Church continued to follow Roman Catholic forms of worship.[34] The Church reformed the Latin Tridentine liturgy and mass in its earliest days were then spoken both in Spanish and the vernacular. Aglipay and de los Reyes later developed their theology, coming to reject the divinity of Jesus and the concept of the Holy Trinity, becoming theologically Unitarian.[35] Aglipay and de los Reyes' unitarian, rationalist, and progressive theological ideas were even evident in the Church's "Catecismo" (1905),[36] "Oficio Divino" (1906),[37] and the novena, "Pagsisiyam sa Birhen sa Balintawak" (1925),[38] as well as its English translation, "Novenary of the Motherland" (1926).[39] Aglipay held the position of Supreme Bishop until his death on September 1, 1940.

De los Reyes, meanwhile, held the position of Honorary Bishop until his death on October 10, 1938. There were claims that he retracted and returned to the Catholic Church two years before his death. However, his son, Isabelo de los Reyes Jr., who later became Supreme Bishop, vehemently opposed these said claims.[33][24]

Factionalism and schism

From its early days, two principal factions coexisted uneasily within the IFI: one Unitarian (led by Aglipay's successor, clergyperson-turned-politician, and second Supreme Bishop Santiago Fonacier, who was faithful to Aglipay and Isabelo Sr.'s theology) and the other Trinitarian (led by Isabelo de los Reyes Jr., who was elected the fourth Supreme Bishop in 1946).[21][40][41]

A schism was developed at the tail-end of Fonacier's term, and the Unitarian faction left the Church and claimed the right to the name and possession of church properties. Under Isabelo Jr.'s leadership, the Church's affiliation with revolutionary movements were severed and abrogated, coupled with his pursuit for ecumenism. On August 4, 1947, the IFI General Assembly, under Isabelo Jr., petitioned the House of Bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, one of the churches of the Anglican Communion, to bestow the IFI the gift of apostolic succession.[24]

On August 5, 1947, the IFI Church adopted a new Declaration of Faith and Articles of Religion that were Trinitarian. The House of Bishops of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America then granted the IFI petition during their meeting in November 1947. On April 7, 1948, the IFI had its bishops, namely: de los Reyes, Manuel Aguilar, and Gerardo Bayaca (third Supreme Bishop), reconsecrated and bestowed upon the apostolic succession by the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Former President Emilio Aguinaldo acted as a sponsor for the three bishops. The Trinitarian IFI then sued the Unitarian faction for sole rights to the name and property of the original IFI.[42][30]

After prolonged litigation, in 1955, the more dominant Trinitarian faction was finally awarded by the Supreme Court the right to the name and possessions of the original IFI. The IFI entered into full communion with the Anglican Communion in 1961 through the Episcopal Church in the United States of America.[43][44] The Episcopal Church assisted in coming up with the IFI liturgical books with a Filipino missal. The missal shows a marked Anglican influence while retaining the form of the Catholic Mass.[45] The Church later signed a concordat of full communion with the Church of England in 1963 and the Old Catholic Union of Utrecht in 1965.[3][46][4] Fonacier's group, on the other hand, remained Unitarian, later became known as the "Independent Church of Filipino Christians" (ICFC). However, they would soon fragment into other minor groups.[34][24][9][47]

In 1977, the Church adopted a new set of Constitution and Canons, as approved by the General Assembly. In 1981, a faction of the Church called the "Iglesia Catolica Filipina Independiente" or the "Philippine Independent Catholic Church" (ICFI/PICC), led by Macario V. Ga (fifth Supreme Bishop) and priest Armando L. de la Cruz, who claimed to have maintained the "original Catholic ethos and doctrine of the original nationalist independent church", was formed. Ga was a known staunch supporter of former president and dictator Ferdinand Marcos, which caused tension to a number of bishops and laity who were critical of Marcos and his dictatorship, thus marking the rekindling of the Church's revolutionary nationalist roots. The opposing faction rallied the election of Abdias R. de la Cruz as the new Supreme Bishop in the 1981 General Assembly. Ga then filed a petition at the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), in an attempt to nullify the election of de la Cruz. Ga also questioned the authenticity of the approved 1977 Constitution and Canons after a few years from approval. However, even after a motion for reconsideration, both the SEC and the Court of Appeals executed the decision in favor of de la Cruz in 1985 and 1987, respectively. Ga's faction subsequently got their name registered separately in the SEC. The IFI later responded by asking the Court to prevent the faction from using the name "Iglesia Catolica Filipina Independiente", a variation of their SEC-registered name. The SEC later revoked the certificate of incorporation of the ICFI and ordered to change its name to avoid confusion with the IFI.[24]

The ICFI/PICC appealed and the case reached the Supreme Court. However, because of technicalities, the latter ruled to close and terminate the case. Eventually, to avoid conflict with the IFI, the ICFI/PICC and its chapters registered the name once again in the SEC with a slight modification and variation of the name in 2014 and later in 2019, now known as the "International Conference of Philippine Independent Catholic Churches of Jesus Christ", which is in concordat with the Anglican Church in North America (ACNA) since 2020.[7][48][49][8] In the latter part of the 1990s, Ga voluntarily reconciled with the IFI which led to the signing of a memorandum of agreement, however, Armando de la Cruz, who was already ICFI/PICC's Supreme Bishop, was adamant with the reunification. From the ICFI/PICC, another breakaway group was established in 1995 under the name "Aglipayan Christian Church Inc.", which is based in Davao City.[9]

On February 17, 1997, the IFI signed a concordat of full communion with the newly-autonomous Episcopal Church in the Philippines (ECP).[3][50][51][52]

Present day

IFI congregations are also found throughout the Philippine diaspora in North America, Europe, Middle East, and parts of Asia. According to some sources, the Church is the second-largest single Christian denomination in the Philippines, after the Catholic Church (some 80.2% of the population), comprising about 6.7% of the total population of the Philippines. By contrast, the 2010 and 2015 Philippine Census recorded only 916,639 and 756,225 members in the country, respectively, or about 1% of the population.[53][11] Winning large numbers of adherents in its early years because of its nationalist roots, Aglipayan numbers gradually dwindled through the years due to factionalism and doctrinal disagreements.[54]

The Church does not discourage its members from joining Freemasonry. Some of the members of the Church, like the founders Aglipay and de los Reyes, are political activists, often involved in progressive groups and advocating nationalism, anti-imperialism, democracy, as well as opposing extrajudicial killings. They have often been victims of enforced disappearances and been branded as leftists by the government for being aligned with progressive groups, specifically after Alberto Ramento, the ninth Supreme Bishop, was killed in 2006 for being an anti-government critic.[55][56] The Church then created the "Ramento Project for Rights Defenders", the IFI's human rights advocacy and service arm, in his honor. The Church has also managed to build schools from kindergarten to college, and cemeteries in some areas of the country managed by its respective dioceses.[57] The Church itself claims to be not an ally with any particular school of political thought or with any political party, asserting that its members are politically free.[58]

Members of the IFI Church refer to themselves as "Aglipayans", "Filipinistas", and "Independientes".[59][60][61]

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Catholic Church in the Philippines

Catholic Church in the Philippines

The Catholic Church in the Philippines or the Filipino Catholic Church is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual direction of the Pope and the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP). The Philippines is one of the two nations in Asia having a substantial portion of the population professing the Catholic faith, along with East Timor, and has the third largest Catholic population in the world after Brazil and Mexico. The episcopal conference responsible in governing the faith is the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines.

Gregorio Aglipay

Gregorio Aglipay

Gregorio Aglipay Cruz y Labayán was a former Filipino Catholic priest who became the first head of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, an independent Church in the form of a national church in the Philippines.

Ilocos Norte

Ilocos Norte

Ilocos Norte, is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region. Its capital and largest city is Laoag City, located in the northwest corner of Luzon Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra to the southeast, and Ilocos Sur to the southwest. Ilocos Norte faces the West Philippine Sea to the west and the Luzon Strait to the north.

Excommunication (Catholic Church)

Excommunication (Catholic Church)

In the canon law of the Catholic Church, excommunication, the principal and severest censure, is a penalty that excludes the guilty Catholic of all participation in church life. Being a penalty, it presupposes guilt and being the most serious penalty that the Catholic Church can nowadays inflict, it supposes a grave offense. The excommunicated person is basically considered as an exile from the Church, for a time at least, in the sight of ecclesiastical authority.

Ecclesiastical jurisdiction

Ecclesiastical jurisdiction

Ecclesiastical jurisdiction signifies jurisdiction by church leaders over other church leaders and over the laity.

Emilio Aguinaldo

Emilio Aguinaldo

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino revolutionary, statesman, and military leader who is the youngest president of the Philippines (1899–1901) and is recognized as the first president of the Philippines and of an Asian constitutional republic. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901).

Libertarianism

Libertarianism

Libertarianism is a political philosophy that upholds liberty as a core value. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and political freedom, and minimize the state's encroachment on and violations of individual liberties; emphasizing the rule of law, pluralism, cosmopolitanism, cooperation, civil and political rights, bodily autonomy, free association, free trade, freedom of expression, freedom of choice, freedom of movement, individualism and voluntary association. Libertarians are often skeptical of or opposed to authority, state power, warfare, militarism and nationalism, but some libertarians diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing economic and political systems. Various schools of Libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the legitimate functions of state and private power, often calling for the restriction or dissolution of coercive social institutions. Different categorizations have been used to distinguish various forms of Libertarianism. Scholars distinguish libertarian views on the nature of property and capital, usually along left–right or socialist–capitalist lines. Libertarians of various schools were influenced by liberal ideas.

Philippine Revolution

Philippine Revolution

The Philippine Revolution, called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution, a civil war and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities of the Spanish East Indies, under the Spanish Empire.

Isabelo de los Reyes

Isabelo de los Reyes

Isabelo de los Reyes Sr. y Florentino, also known as Don Belong, was a prominent Filipino politician, writer, and labor activist in the 19th and 20th centuries. He was the original founder of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, a Filipino independent Church in the form of a national church. He is now known as the "Father of Philippine Folklore", the "Father of the Philippine Labor Movement", and the "Father of Filipino Socialism".

Ilustrado

Ilustrado

The Ilustrados constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in the late 19th century. Elsewhere in New Spain, the term gente de razón carried a similar meaning.

Apolinario Mabini

Apolinario Mabini

Apolinario Mabini y Maranan was a Filipino revolutionary leader, educator, lawyer, and statesman who served first as a legal and constitutional adviser to the Revolutionary Government, and then as the first Prime Minister of the Philippines upon the establishment of the First Philippine Republic. He is regarded as the "utak ng himagsikan" or "brain of the revolution" and is also considered as a national hero in the Philippines. Mabini's work and thoughts on the government shaped the Philippines' fight for independence over the next century.

Malolos Congress

Malolos Congress

The Malolos Congress, formally known as the National Assembly, was the legislative body of the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines. Members were chosen in the elections held from June 23 to September 10, 1898. The assembly consisted of elected delegates chosen by balloting in provincial assemblies and appointed delegates chosen by the president to represent regions under unstable military and civilian conditions. The Revolutionary Congress was opened on September 15, 1898 at Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan. President Emilio Aguinaldo presided over the opening session of the assembly.

Doctrine and practice

Liturgy

The main Sunday liturgy is the Eucharist or the Holy Mass, which is spoken and celebrated in the vernacular. The Eucharistic liturgy of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente resembles that of the Roman Missal, with elements taken from the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, such as the Collect for Purity, the positioning of the Peace before the Offertory, the Eucharistic Prayers, and the Prayer of Humble Access. Orders of service and ceremonies are contained in the Filipino ritual and Filipino Missal. Aglipayans adhere in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and communion is distributed under both kinds. However, they are non-committal in belief regarding transubstantiation. Aglipayans maintain that the belief in the real presence does not imply a claim to know how Christ is present in the Eucharistic species. Moreover, belief in the real presence does not imply belief that the consecrated Eucharistic species cease to be bread and wine. Church members are taught that the Eucharistic species, the consecrated bread and the wine, do not necessarily change into the actual body and blood of Jesus Christ but one still receives the body and blood of Christ by faith, asserting instead that Christ is present in the Eucharist in a "heavenly and spiritual manner".[60]

Being a nationalist church, Aglipayans employ Filipino national symbols in their liturgical practices, such as the use of national colors and motifs, the singing of the national anthem, and the displaying of the national flag in the sanctuary.

Aglipayans are also adherents to praying the rosary. They do not practice auricular confession[c] and repudiate the concept of purgatory. The IFI also has their own process of exorcism, but is not considered a sacrament and has no specific prescribed formula, nor an office of "exorcist". Unlike the Catholic Church, wherein a priest has to undergo specialized training and authority, all ordained IFI priests with "strong spiritual discernment" can perform exorcism, as long as they consulted their respective diocesan bishops, after a careful medical examination to exclude the possibility of mental illness, and should only be done as a last resort. Although not mandatory, the Church also highly encourages its members to practice tithing as the minimum standard form of Christian giving.[58][62][60][63]

Priesthood

The Iglesia Filipina Independiente maintains the historic threefold ministry of bishops, priests, and deacons. Bishops of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente derive their apostolic succession from the Episcopal Church in the United States of America, which was first bestowed on April 7, 1948. The Church rejects the exclusive right to apostolic succession by the Petrine Papacy. Clerical celibacy is optional. It allows its priests to marry, rejecting mandatory clerical celibacy. Priests may also remain unmarried.

The Iglesia Filipina Independiente also allows the ordination of women. In February 1997, Rosalina V. Rabaria of the Diocese of Aklan and Capiz became the first woman to be officially ordained priest in the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. On the other hand, in May 2019, Emelyn Dacuycuy of the Diocese of Batac became the first woman to be ordained bishop in the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, further asserting their belief in women's inclusion and breaking the tradition of patriarchy in the clergy. The Church as a whole also refers to itself using female pronouns.[64][65][66][67]

Unlike the Catholic Church and most Anglican churches, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente currently does not have nuns or religious sisters. Some members of the Women of the Philippine Independent Church (WOPIC) wear veils and religious habits, similar to that of the religious sisters, during mass as a "sign of reverence". During Lenten season, a group of WOPIC members called nobisyas (translated to novice in English) render 40-day church services as their pamamanata (act of penance) and wear veil as "an honorable way to imitate Mary, mother of Jesus." The IFI used to have nuns when the Episcopal Sisters of St. Anne in Mindanao and the Episcopal Sisters of Mary the Virgin in Luzon accepted IFI women to their religious congregations for sisterhood training in the 1960s. The IFI sisters later established their own Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus in the 1970s, having their base at the Episcopalian St. Andrew's Theological Seminary, and unlike its priests, the IFI nuns adhere to the vow of chastity. However, due to insufficient institutional patronage, the congregation eventually disbanded, with some of them joining back the Episcopalian sisters in Luzon.[27]

Contraception

Aglipayan bishops joined public demonstrations in support of the Reproductive Health Bill, a legislation advocating for contraception and sex education to reduce the rate of abortion and control rapid population growth that the Catholic Church and several other Christian denominations objected to on moral grounds.[68][69]

LGBTQ rights

Members of the Philippine Independent Church and Episcopal Church in the Philippines participating in the 2017 Pride March in Marikina City, Philippines.
Members of the Philippine Independent Church and Episcopal Church in the Philippines participating in the 2017 Pride March in Marikina City, Philippines.

In 2017, the Church's position on the LGBTQ+ community changed to an extent where the church leadership apologized and released a statement in which it states, among other things, that the IFI has "for many times shown indifference, and have made the LGBTQ+ people feel less human, discriminated against, and stigmatized." The statement – dubbed "Our Common Humanity, Our Shared Dignity" – stresses the Church's position that it "must openly embrace God's people of all sexes, sexual orientations, gender identities, and expressions (SSOGIE)." Moreover, the statement stresses that the IFI is "offering their Church as a community where LGBTIQ+ people can freely and responsibly express themselves, pronouncing God's all-inclusive love."[70][71]

This apology statement's groundwork first came up in 2014, when a gay man articulated during the church plenary his query about the Church's plans for sexual minorities. This led to discussions among the newly-elected set of national youth officers, led by an openly gay president and a lesbian executive vice-president, which would later be succeeded by another openly gay president. The Church's position on LGBTQ+ persons was approved by the Supreme Council of Bishops and officially adopted by the entire Church in February 2017.[70][71]

Saints

Just like the Catholic Church, IFI members are Marian devotees and devotees of saints, however, several saints canonized by Rome after the 1902 schism are not recognized by the IFI Church and its members. Popes universally canonized as saints before the 1902 schism are also acknowledged by the IFI Church.[58][72][73]

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Liturgy

Liturgy

Liturgy is the customary public ritual of worship performed by a religious group. Liturgy can also be used to refer specifically to public worship by Christians. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a communal response to and participation in the sacred through activities reflecting praise, thanksgiving, remembrance, supplication, or repentance. It forms a basis for establishing a relationship with God.

Eucharist

Eucharist

The Eucharist, also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper among other names, is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper; giving his disciples bread and wine during a Passover meal, he commanded them to "do this in memory of me" while referring to the bread as "my body" and the cup of wine as "the blood of my covenant, which is poured out for many".

Book of Common Prayer

Book of Common Prayer

The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the name given to a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion and by other Christian churches historically related to Anglicanism. The original book, published in 1549 in the reign of King Edward VI of England, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome. The work of 1549 was the first prayer book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English. It contained Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, the Litany, and Holy Communion and also the occasional services in full: the orders for Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, "prayers to be said with the sick", and a funeral service. It also set out in full the "propers" : the introits, collects, and epistle and gospel readings for the Sunday service of Holy Communion. Old Testament and New Testament readings for daily prayer were specified in tabular format as were the Psalms and canticles, mostly biblical, that were provided to be said or sung between the readings.

Collect for Purity

Collect for Purity

The Collect for Purity is the name traditionally given to the collect prayed near the beginning of the Eucharist in most Anglican rites. Its oldest known sources are Continental, where it appears in Latin in the 10th century Sacramentarium Fuldense Saeculi X.

Prayer of Humble Access

Prayer of Humble Access

The Prayer of Humble Access is the name traditionally given to a prayer contained in many Anglican, Methodist, Presbyterian, and other Christian eucharistic liturgies. Its origins lie in the healing the centurion's servant as recounted in two of the Gospels. It is comparable to the Domine, non sum dignus long used in the Catholic Mass; it is used by the personal ordinariates established for former Anglican groups reconciled to the Catholic Church.

Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist

Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist

The real presence of Christ in the Eucharist is the Christian doctrine that Jesus Christ is present in the Eucharist, not merely symbolically or metaphorically, but in a true, real and substantial way.

Communion under both kinds

Communion under both kinds

Communion under both kinds in Christianity is the reception under both "species" of the Eucharist. Denominations of Christianity that hold to a doctrine of Communion under both kinds may believe that a Eucharist which does not include both bread and wine as elements of the religious ceremony is not valid, while others may consider the presence of both bread and wine as preferable, but not necessary, for the ceremony. In some traditions, grape juice may take the place of wine with alcohol content as the second element.

National symbols of the Philippines

National symbols of the Philippines

The national symbols of the Philippines consist of symbols that represent Philippine traditions and ideals and convey the principles of sovereignty and national solidarity of the Filipino people. Some of these symbols namely the national flag, the Great Seal, the coat of arms and the national motto are stated in the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines, which is also known as Republic Act 8491. In the Constitution of the Philippines, the Filipino language is stated as the national language of the Philippines. Aside from those stated symbols in the Constitution and in Republic Act 8491, there are only six official national symbols of the Philippines enacted through law, namely sampaguita as national flower, narra as national tree, the Philippine eagle as national bird, Philippine pearl as national gem, arnis as national martial art and sport and the Filipino Sign Language as the national sign language. Thus, there is a total of twelve official national symbols passed through Philippine laws.

Lupang Hinirang

Lupang Hinirang

"Lupang Hinirang", originally titled in Spanish as "Marcha Nacional Filipina", and commonly and informally known by its incipit "Bayang Magiliw", is the national anthem of the Philippines. Its music was composed in 1898 by Julián Felipe, and the lyrics were adopted from the Spanish poem "Filipinas", written by José Palma in 1899.

Flag of the Philippines

Flag of the Philippines

The national flag of the Philippines is a horizontal bicolor flag with equal bands of royal blue and crimson red, with a white, equilateral triangle at the hoist. In the center of the triangle is a golden-yellow sun with eight primary rays, each representing a province. At each vertex of the triangle is a five-pointed, golden-yellow star, each of which representing one of the country's three main island groups—Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The white triangle at the flag represents liberty, equality, and fraternity. A unique feature of this flag is its usage to indicate a state of war if it is displayed with the red side on top, which is effectively achieved by flipping the flag upside-down.

Purgatory

Purgatory

Purgatory is, according to the belief of some Christian denominations, an intermediate state after physical death for expiatory purification. The process of purgatory is the final purification of the elect, which is entirely different from the punishment of the damned. Tradition, by reference to certain texts of scripture, sees the process as involving a cleansing fire. Some forms of Western Christianity, particularly within Protestantism, deny its existence. Other strands of Western Christianity see purgatory as a place, perhaps filled with fire. Some concepts of Gehenna in Judaism resemble those of purgatory.

Exorcism in Christianity

Exorcism in Christianity

In Christianity, exorcism involves the practice of casting out one or more demons from a person whom they are believed to have possessed. The person performing the exorcism, known as an exorcist, is often a member of the Christian Church, or an individual thought to be graced with special powers or skills. The exorcist may use prayers and religious material, such as set formulas, gestures, symbols, icons, or amulets. The exorcist often invokes God, Jesus, angels and archangels, and various saints to aid with the exorcism. Christian exorcists most commonly cast out demons in Jesus' name.

Organization

The Church is led by the Supreme Bishop, similar to a presiding bishop in other denominations. The 13th and current Supreme Bishop is Rhee Timbang, who was elected on May 14, 2017.

The Church has three predominant clergy councils: the Supreme Council of Bishops (SCB), the Council of Priests (COP), and the National Lay Council (NCL). There are six sectoral organizations of the laity (lay organizations) in the Church: the Youth of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (YIFI), the Women of the Philippine Independent Church (WOPIC), the Laymen of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (LIFI), the National Priests Organization (NPO), the Clergy Spouses Organization (CSO), and the nonsanctioned Clergy Children Organization (CCO).

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Notable churches

A bust of Gregorio Aglipay displayed at the front of the National Cathedral.
A bust of Gregorio Aglipay displayed at the front of the National Cathedral.

The structure of the church buildings, as well as the outstation chapels, of the Philippine Independent Church do not differ significantly from Catholic church buildings in the Philippines.

Cathedral of the Holy Child (National Cathedral)

The baptistery at the Cathedral of the Holy Child (National Cathedral)
The baptistery at the Cathedral of the Holy Child (National Cathedral)

Located along Taft Avenue, the Cathedral of the Holy Child in Ermita, Manila, is the National Cathedral of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente and the seat of the Supreme Bishop. Designed by architect Carlos Arguelles, construction of the church began in 1964 and was inaugurated on May 8, 1969, to commemorate the 109th birth anniversary of its first Supreme Bishop, Gregorio Aglipay.[74] The church is made largely of bare concrete and wood and has been noted for having a suspended block with sloping trapezoidal walls and textured with horizontal grooves all throughout, suspended with a triangular block.[75]

María Clara Parish Church

Interior of the Maria Clara Parish ChurchThe original statue of the Virgin of Balintawak located in Maria Clara Parish Church.
Interior of the Maria Clara Parish Church
Interior of the Maria Clara Parish ChurchThe original statue of the Virgin of Balintawak located in Maria Clara Parish Church.
The original statue of the Virgin of Balintawak located in Maria Clara Parish Church.

Named after the main heroine in Rizal's Noli Me Tángere, the María Clara Parish Church in Santa Cruz, Manila, was originally built as a wooden structure in 1923 before it was expanded and rebuilt as a concrete structure in the 1950s. When the original national cathedral of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente in Tondo was destroyed during World War II, the María Clara Parish Church became the temporary office of the Supreme Bishop before relocating in 1969 to the present-day Cathedral of the Holy Child. The original statue of the Virgin of Balintawak is housed in the Maria Clara Parish Church. The Church is under the Diocese of Greater Manila Area but the property is owned by the de los Reyes family.[74][76]

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Iglesia Filipina Independiente National Cathedral

Iglesia Filipina Independiente National Cathedral

The Cathedral of the Holy Child is the National Cathedral of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente and the seat of the Obispo Maximo, the Church's chief pastor and spiritual head, located in Ermita, Manila, Philippines. It was built in 1969 and was dedicated to the honor of the Holy Infant Jesus, patron of Tondo, Manila. It replaced the first cathedral in Tondo, which was completely destroyed during World War II.

Baptistery

Baptistery

In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry is the separate centrally planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. The baptistery may be incorporated within the body of a church or cathedral, and provided with an altar as a chapel. In the early Church, the catechumens were instructed and the sacrament of baptism was administered in the baptistery.

Taft Avenue

Taft Avenue

Taft Avenue is a major road in the south of Metro Manila. It passes through three cities in the metropolis: Manila, Pasay and Parañaque. The road was named after the former Governor-General of the Philippines and U.S. President, William Howard Taft; the Philippines was a former commonwealth territory of the United States in the first half of the 20th century. The avenue is a component of National Route 170 (N170), a secondary road in the Philippine highway network, and anchors R-2 of the Manila arterial road network.

Ermita

Ermita

Ermita is a district in Manila, Philippines. Located at the central part of the city, the district is a significant center of finance, education, culture, and commerce. Ermita serves as the civic center of the city, bearing the seat of city government and a large portion of the area's employment, business, and entertainment activities.

Carlos Arguelles

Carlos Arguelles

Carlos D. Arguelles was a Filipino architect who was known for being a leading proponent of the International Style of architecture in the Philippines in the 1960s. He was an Eagle Scout and a Distinguished Eagle Scout Awardee of the Boy Scouts of America.

María Clara

María Clara

María Clara, whose full name is María Clara de los Santos y Alba, is the mestiza heroine in Noli Me Tángere, a novel by José Rizal, the national hero of the Philippines. Her name and character has since become a byword in Filipino culture for the traditional, feminine ideal.

Noli Me Tángere (novel)

Noli Me Tángere (novel)

Noli Me Tángere is an 1887 novel by Filipino writer and activist José Rizal published during the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. It explores perceived inequities in law and practice in terms of the treatment by the ruling government and the Spanish Catholic friars of the resident peoples a hundred years ago.

Santa Cruz, Manila

Santa Cruz, Manila

Santa Cruz is a district in the northern part of the City of Manila, Philippines, located on the right bank of the Pasig River near its mouth, bordered by the districts of Tondo, Binondo, Quiapo, and Sampaloc, as well as the areas of Grace Park and Barrio San Jose in Caloocan and the district of La Loma in Quezon City. The district belongs to the 3rd congressional district of Manila.

Tondo, Manila

Tondo, Manila

Tondo is a district located in Manila, Philippines. It is the largest in terms of area and population of Manila's sixteen districts, with a Census-estimated 631,313 people in 2015 and consists of two congressional districts. It is also the second most densely populated district in the city.

World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers. World War II was a total war that directly involved more than 100 million personnel from more than 30 countries.

Seminaries

Aglipay Central Theological Seminary (ACTS)
Aglipay Central Theological Seminary (ACTS)

The Aglipay Central Theological Seminary (ACTS) in Urdaneta City, Pangasinan is the regional seminary of the Church serving the North-Central and South-Central Luzon Dioceses. ACTS offers Bachelor of Theology and Divinity programs for members who aspire to enter the ordained ministry. These are four-year study programs with curriculum focusing on biblical, theological, historical, and pastoral studies, with reference to parish management and development and cultural and social context.[77][78][79]

The St. Paul's Theological Seminary (SPTS) in Jordan, Guimaras is the regional seminary of the Church serving the Visayas and Mindanao Dioceses.[24][65][80]

The St. Andrew's Theological Seminary (SATS) in Quezon City is run by the Episcopal Church in the Philippines, serving both its Church and the Iglesia Filipina Independiente.[81]

The St. John the Divine School of Theology is planned to be established in Mindanao.

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Urdaneta, Pangasinan

Urdaneta, Pangasinan

Urdaneta, officially known as the City of Urdaneta, is a 2nd class component city in the province of Pangasinan, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 144,577 people. 

Pangasinan

Pangasinan

Pangasinan, officially the Province of Pangasinan is a coastal province in the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region of Luzon. Its capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is in the western area of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea. It has a total land area of 5,451.01 square kilometres (2,104.65 sq mi). According to the 2020 census it has a population of 3,163,190.  The official number of registered voters in Pangasinan is 1,651,814. The western portion of the province is part of the homeland of the Sambal people, while the central and eastern portions are the homeland of the Pangasinan people. Due to ethnic migration, the Ilocano people settled in the province.

Luzon

Luzon

Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. Located in the northern portion of the Philippines archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country's most populous city. With a population of 64 million as of 2021,  it contains 52.5% of the country's total population and is the fourth most populous island in the world. It is the 15th largest island in the world by land area.

Jordan, Guimaras

Jordan, Guimaras

Jordan, officially the Municipality of Jordan, is a 3rd class municipality and capital of the province of Guimaras, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 39,566 people, making it the third largest settlement in the province. 

Visayas

Visayas

The Visayas, or the Visayan Islands, are one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Luzon and Mindanao. Located in the central part of the archipelago, it consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are also considered the northeast extremity of the entire Sulu Sea. Its inhabitants are predominantly the Visayan peoples.

Mindanao

Mindanao

Mindanao is the second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon, and seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the island is part of an island group of the same name that also includes its adjacent islands, notably the Sulu Archipelago. According to the 2020 census, Mindanao has a population of 26,252,442 people, while the entire island group has an estimated population of 27,021,036 according to the 2021 census.

Quezon City

Quezon City

Quezon City, also known as the City of Quezon and Q.C., is the most populous city in the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 2,960,048 people. It was founded on October 12, 1939, and was named after Manuel L. Quezon, the second president of the Philippines.

Episcopal Church in the Philippines

Episcopal Church in the Philippines

The Episcopal Church in the Philippines is a province of the Anglican Communion comprising the country of the Philippines. It was established by the Episcopal Church of the United States in 1901 by American missionaries led by Charles Henry Brent, who served as the first resident bishop, when the Philippines was opened to Protestant American missionaries. It became an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion on May 1, 1990.

Relationship with other Christian denominations

Churches in communion

The Church enjoys full communion with the Anglican Communion and the Episcopal Church in the United States since September 22, 1961.[44][43][82]

Other Churches the IFI is in full communion with include: the Church of England, the Union of Utrecht, and the Episcopal Church in the Philippines.[3][4][46][43][51]

Relation with the Anglican realignment

The Iglesia Filipina Independiente endorsed a concordat with the Anglican Church in North America, in January 2020, in a meeting held in Melbourne, Florida, which was to be presented for approval at the ACNA's Provincial Council in June.[83]

Relation with the Catholic Church

On August 3, 2021, during the IFI's 119th Proclamation Anniversary and as part of celebrating 500 years of Christianity in the Philippines, Catholic Church leaders signed two documents with the IFI "for more ecumenical cooperation amidst diversity." Although the IFI still remains to be independent from the Holy See, in the first joint statement, both the IFI and Catholic Church leaders "ask and pray for mutual forgiveness for any injuries inflicted in the past" and "strive for the healing and purification of memories among its members. In addition, the first statement also notes that the IFI, as well, "strives to reach out for healing and reconciliation with other separated Churches founded in the Aglipayan tradition."[72][84][85]

The second joint statement, on the other hand, is an expression of mutual recognition by both Churches, emphasizing the "mutual recognition of baptisms" between the IFI and the Catholic Church. The Trinitarian baptismal formula of the IFI has already been recognized by the Catholic Church in its list of validly administered baptisms by other Christian Churches.[73] For years, IFI officials had been seeking the recognition of their baptismal rites by the Catholic Church in order to ease inter-denominational marriages, notably the blessing of Pope Francis during his state visit to the Philippines in 2015, so that Aglipayans will not be obliged anymore to be baptized as Catholics before they could marry Catholics.[86][87][88]

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Full communion

Full communion

Full communion is a communion or relationship of full agreement among different Christian denominations that share certain essential principles of Christian theology. Views vary among denominations on exactly what constitutes full communion, but typically when two or more denominations are in full communion it enables services and celebrations, such as the Eucharist, to be shared among congregants or clergy of any of them with the full approval of each.

Anglican Communion

Anglican Communion

The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion after the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. Founded in 1867 in London, the communion has more than 85 million members within the Church of England and other autocephalous national and regional churches in full communion. The traditional origins of Anglican doctrine are summarised in the Thirty-nine Articles (1571). The Archbishop of Canterbury in England acts as a focus of unity, recognised as primus inter parescode: lat promoted to code: la , but does not exercise authority in Anglican provinces outside of the Church of England. Most, but not all, member churches of the communion are the historic national or regional Anglican churches.

Episcopal Church (United States)

Episcopal Church (United States)

The Episcopal Church, based in the United States with additional dioceses elsewhere, is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. It is a mainline Protestant denomination and is divided into nine provinces. The presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position.

Church of England

Church of England

The Church of England is the established Christian church in England and the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the 3rd century and to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury.

Episcopal Church in the Philippines

Episcopal Church in the Philippines

The Episcopal Church in the Philippines is a province of the Anglican Communion comprising the country of the Philippines. It was established by the Episcopal Church of the United States in 1901 by American missionaries led by Charles Henry Brent, who served as the first resident bishop, when the Philippines was opened to Protestant American missionaries. It became an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion on May 1, 1990.

Anglican realignment

Anglican realignment

The Anglican realignment is a movement among some Anglicans to align themselves under new or alternative oversight within or outside the Anglican Communion. This movement is primarily active in parts of the Episcopal Church in the United States and the Anglican Church of Canada. Two of the major events that contributed to the movement were the 2002 decision of the Diocese of New Westminster in Canada to authorise a rite of blessing for same-sex unions, and the nomination of two openly gay priests in 2003 to become bishops. Jeffrey John, an openly gay priest with a long-time partner, was appointed to be the next Bishop of Reading in the Church of England and the General Convention of the Episcopal Church ratified the election of Gene Robinson, an openly gay non-celibate man, as Bishop of New Hampshire. Jeffrey John ultimately declined the appointment due to pressure.

Anglican Church in North America

Anglican Church in North America

The Anglican Church in North America (ACNA) is a Christian denomination in the Anglican tradition in the United States and Canada. It also includes ten congregations in Mexico, two mission churches in Guatemala, and a missionary diocese in Cuba. Headquartered in Ambridge, Pennsylvania, the church reported 974 congregations and 122,450 members in 2021. The first archbishop of the ACNA was Robert Duncan, who was succeeded by Foley Beach in 2014.

Florida

Florida

Florida is a state located in the Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Bahamas and Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida and Cuba; it is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Spanning 65,758 square miles (170,310 km2), Florida ranks 22nd in area among the 50 states, and with a population of over 21 million, is the third-most populous. The state capital is Tallahassee and the most populous city is Jacksonville. The Miami metropolitan area, with a population of almost 6.2 million, is the most populous urban area in Florida and the ninth-most populous in the United States; other urban conurbations with over one million people are Tampa Bay, Orlando, and Jacksonville.

500 Years of Christianity in the Philippines

500 Years of Christianity in the Philippines

The 500 Years of Christianity in the Philippines is a quincentennial observed in the Philippines. It commemorates the introduction of Christianity in the Philippines in 1521 when the Magellan expedition made a stopover in the islands.

Ecumenism

Ecumenism

Ecumenism, also spelled oecumenism, is the concept and principle that Christians who belong to different Christian denominations should work together to develop closer relationships among their churches and promote Christian unity. The adjective ecumenical is thus applied to any interdenominational initiative that encourages greater cooperation among Christians and among their churches.

Holy See

Holy See

The Holy See, also called the See of Rome, Petrine See or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Pope in his role as the bishop of Rome. It includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome, which has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Catholic Church and the sovereign city-state known as the Vatican City.

Baptism

Baptism

Baptism is a form of ritual purification—a characteristic of many religions throughout time and geography. In Christianity, it is a Christian sacrament of initiation and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water. It may be performed by sprinkling or pouring water on the head, or by immersing in water either partially or completely, traditionally three times, once for each person of the Trinity. The synoptic gospels recount that John the Baptist baptised Jesus. Baptism is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. Baptism according to the Trinitarian formula, which is done in most mainstream Christian denominations, is seen as being a basis for Christian ecumenism, the concept of unity amongst Christians. Baptism is also called christening, although some reserve the word "christening" for the baptism of infants. In certain Christian denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, baptism is the door to church membership, with candidates taking baptismal vows. It has also given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations.

Notable members

Supreme Bishops

Church officials

  • Don Isabelo de los Reyes, Sr. – also known as Don Belong, a prominent Filipino politician, writer, and labour activist in the 19th and 20th centuries. He proclaimed the establishment of the IFI. He is often called the "Father of Filipino Socialism" for his writings and activism with labour unions, most notably the Unión Obrera Democrática Filipina. He was also the first to translate the Bible in Filipino and Ilocano. He became an Honorary Bishop in 1929, while his son, Isabelo Jr., would later become Supreme Bishop in 1946.
  • Gardeopatra Quijano – dentist, educator, and feminist writer. National President of the Women of the Philippine Independent Church (WOPIC) (1975–1977). Daughter of IFI Bishop Juan P. Quijano.
  • Nilo Tayag – former left-wing personality and current IFI Bishop and social activist. Also current member of the Democratic Front for Filipinism (DFF), a right-wing group who are known supporters of former president Rodrigo Duterte.[89]

Politicians

Bureaucrats

Artisans

Military and revolutionary figures

Former members

  • Emilio Aguinaldo – first President of the Philippines. With his influence, together with other Caviteño revolutionary generals and officers, the IFI gained a stronghold in Cavite. His cousin, Baldomero, was the president of Comité de Caballeros of the IFI in Kawit; while his youngest sister Felicidad, his wife Hilaria del Rosario, and his mother Trinidad Famy were officers of the Comisión de Damas (Women's Commission) of the Church. Subsequently reverted to Roman Catholicism in later life.[98][21]
  • Ferdinand Marcos – former President and dictator of the Philippines (1965–1986); son of Mariano. Raised Aglipayan, but subsequently changed religion to marry Imelda Romualdez of Leyte.

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Isabelo de los Reyes

Isabelo de los Reyes

Isabelo de los Reyes Sr. y Florentino, also known as Don Belong, was a prominent Filipino politician, writer, and labor activist in the 19th and 20th centuries. He was the original founder of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, a Filipino independent Church in the form of a national church. He is now known as the "Father of Philippine Folklore", the "Father of the Philippine Labor Movement", and the "Father of Filipino Socialism".

Felipe Buencamino

Felipe Buencamino

Felipe Siojo Buencamino Sr. was an infamous turncoat, Filipino lawyer, and politician. He fought alongside the Spaniards in the Philippine Revolution but later switched sides and joined Emilio Aguinaldo's revolutionary cabinet. He was a member of the Malolos Congress and co-authored the Malolos Constitution. He was also appointed as Secretary of Foreign Relations in the cabinet of Aguinaldo. After he left the revolutionary government, he co-founded the Federal Party and became a founding member of the Philippine Independent Church.

Melchora Aquino

Melchora Aquino

Melchora Aquino de Ramos was a Filipino revolutionary. She became known as "Tandang Sora" because of her age during the Philippine Revolution.

Cesar Virata

Cesar Virata

Cesar Enrique Aguinaldo Virata is a Filipino former politician and businessman who was the fourth Prime Minister of the Philippines from 1981 to 1986. He is currently the corporate vice chairman of the Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation. He is the eponym of the Cesar Virata School of Business, the business school of the University of the Philippines Diliman.

Bayani Fernando

Bayani Fernando

Bayani Flores Fernando is a Filipino politician, businessman and professional mechanical engineer who served as the representative for Marikina's 1st congressional district from 2016 to 2022.

Alexander Gesmundo

Alexander Gesmundo

Alexander Gahon Gesmundo is serving as the chief justice of the Philippines since April 5, 2021. He replaced Diosdado Peralta, who retired early on March 27, 2021. He previously served as an associate justice of the Supreme Court from 2017 to 2021.

Gregorio Aglipay

Gregorio Aglipay

Gregorio Aglipay Cruz y Labayán was a former Filipino Catholic priest who became the first head of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente, an independent Church in the form of a national church in the Philippines.

Malolos Constitution

Malolos Constitution

The Political Constitution of 1899, informally known as the Malolos Constitution, was the constitution of the First Philippine Republic. It was written by Felipe Calderón y Roca and Felipe Buencamino as an alternative to a pair of proposals to the Malolos Congress by Apolinario Mabini and Pedro Paterno. After a lengthy debate in the latter part of 1898, it was promulgated on 21 January 1899.

Ephraim Fajutagana

Ephraim Fajutagana

Ephraim Fajutagana y Servañez is a former Obispo Máximo or Supreme Bishop of the Philippine Independent Church. He is the 12th Obispo Máximo, the highest post of the Church, that goes back from its first and founder Gregorio Aglipay.

Alberto Ramento

Alberto Ramento

Alberto Ramento y Baldovino was the ninth Supreme Bishop and Chairperson of the Supreme Council of Bishops of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (IFI).

Human rights in the Philippines

Human rights in the Philippines

Human rights in the Philippines are protected by the Constitution of the Philippines, to make sure that persons in the Philippines are able to live peacefully and with dignity, safe from the abuse of any individuals or institutions, including the state.

Ilocano language

Ilocano language

Ilocano is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines, primarily by Ilocano people and as a lingua franca by the Igorot people. It is the third most-spoken native language in the country.

Source: "Philippine Independent Church", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 28th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Independent_Church.

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See also
Notes
  1. ^ The Philippine Independent Church does not subject its episcopal authority to the Bishop of Rome or to any other Popes prior to the First Vatican Council.
  2. ^ The "2021 Report on International Religious Freedom: Philippines" (Section II. Status of Government Respect for Religious Freedom - Legal Framework) states that "the constitution provides for the free exercise of religion and religious worship and prohibits the establishment of a state religion. No religious test is required for the exercise of civil or political rights. The constitution provides for the separation of religion and state."[12]
  3. ^ Auricular Confession is the confession of sin "into the ear" of the priest, which is part of penance.
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