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Peggy Guggenheim Collection

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Peggy Guggenheim museum, as seen from the Grand Canal
Peggy Guggenheim museum, as seen from the Grand Canal

The Peggy Guggenheim Collection is an art museum on the Grand Canal in the Dorsoduro sestiere of Venice, Italy. It is one of the most visited attractions in Venice. The collection is housed in the Palazzo Venier dei Leoni [it], an 18th-century palace, which was the home of the American heiress Peggy Guggenheim for three decades. She began displaying her private collection of modern artworks to the public seasonally in 1951. After her death in 1979, it passed to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, which opened the collection year-round from 1980.

The collection includes works of prominent Italian futurists and American modernists working in such genres as Cubism, Surrealism and abstract expressionism. It also includes sculptural works. In 2017, Karole Vail, a granddaughter of Peggy Guggenheim, was appointed Director of the collection, succeeding Philip Rylands, who led the museum for 37 years.

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Art museum

Art museum

An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or have restrictions in place. Although primarily concerned with visual art, art museums are often used as a venue for other cultural exchanges and artistic activities, such as lectures, performance arts, music concerts, or poetry readings. Art museums also frequently host themed temporary exhibitions, which often include items on loan from other collections.

Grand Canal (Venice)

Grand Canal (Venice)

The Grand Canal is a channel in Venice, Italy. It forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city.

Dorsoduro

Dorsoduro

Dorsoduro is one of the six sestieri of Venice, in northern Italy.

Sestiere

Sestiere

A sestiere is a subdivision of certain Italian towns and cities. The word is from sesto (‘sixth’), so it is thus used only for towns divided into six districts. The best-known example is the sestieri of Venice, but Ascoli Piceno, Genoa, Milan and Rapallo, for example, were also divided into sestieri. The medieval Lordship of Negroponte, on the island of Euboea, was also at times divided into six districts, each with a separate ruler, through the arbitration of Venice, which were known as sestieri. The island of Crete, a Venetian colony from the Fourth Crusade, was also divided into six parts, named after the sestieri of Venice herself, while the capital Candia retained the status of a comune of Venice. The island of Burano north of Venice is also subdivided into sestieri.

Peggy Guggenheim

Peggy Guggenheim

Marguerite "Peggy" Guggenheim was an American art collector, bohemian and socialite. Born to the wealthy New York City Guggenheim family, she was the daughter of Benjamin Guggenheim, who went down with the Titanic in 1912, and the niece of Solomon R. Guggenheim, who established the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Guggenheim collected art in Europe and America primarily between 1938 and 1946. She exhibited this collection as she built it; in 1949, she settled in Venice, where she lived and exhibited her collection for the rest of her life. The Peggy Guggenheim Collection is a modern art museum on the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy, and is one of the most visited attractions in Venice.

Modern art

Modern art

Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophies of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. A tendency away from the narrative, which was characteristic for the traditional arts, toward abstraction is characteristic of much modern art. More recent artistic production is often called contemporary art or postmodern art.

Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation is a nonprofit organization founded in 1937 by philanthropist Solomon R. Guggenheim and his long-time art advisor, artist Hilla von Rebay. The foundation is a leading institution for the collection, preservation, and research of modern and contemporary art and operates several museums around the world. The first museum established by the foundation was The Museum of Non-Objective Painting, in New York City. This became The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1952, and the foundation moved the collection into its first permanent museum building, in New York City, in 1959. The foundation next opened the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice, Italy, in 1980. Its international network of museums expanded in 1997 to include the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in Bilbao, Spain, and it expects to open a new museum, Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates after its construction is completed.

Futurism

Futurism

Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy, and to a lesser extent in other countries, in the early 20th century. It emphasized dynamism, speed, technology, youth, violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane, and the industrial city. Its key figures included the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Fortunato Depero, Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, and Luigi Russolo. Italian Futurism glorified modernity and according to its doctrine, aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of its past. Important Futurist works included Marinetti's 1909 Manifesto of Futurism, Boccioni's 1913 sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Balla's 1913–1914 painting Abstract Speed + Sound, and Russolo's The Art of Noises (1913).

Modernism

Modernism

Modernism is both a philosophical and arts movement that arose from broad transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The movement reflected a desire for the creation of new forms of art, philosophy, and social organization which reflected the newly emerging industrial world, including features such as urbanization, architecture, new technologies, and war. Artists attempted to depart from traditional forms of art, which they considered outdated or obsolete. The poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it New" was the touchstone of the movement's approach.

Cubism

Cubism

Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from a single viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris or near Paris (Puteaux) during the 1910s and throughout the 1920s.

Abstract expressionism

Abstract expressionism

Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York City in the 1940s. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put New York at the center of the Western art world, a role formerly filled by Paris.

Karole Vail

Karole Vail

Karole P. B. Vail is an American museum director, curator and writer. Since 2017, she has been the director of the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice and Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation Director for Italy. Prior to this appointment, she worked on the curatorial staff at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York for 20 years.

Collection

The collection is principally based on the personal art collection of Peggy Guggenheim, a former wife of artist Max Ernst and a niece of the mining magnate, Solomon R. Guggenheim. She collected the artworks mostly between 1938 and 1946, buying works in Europe "in dizzying succession" as World War II began, and later in America, where she discovered the talent of Jackson Pollock, among others.[1] The museum "houses an impressive selection of modern art. Its picturesque setting and well-respected collection attract some 400,000 visitors per year",[1] making it "the most-visited site in Venice after the Doge's Palace".[2] Works on display include those of prominent Italian futurists and American modernists. Pieces in the collection embrace Cubism, Surrealism and abstract expressionism.[3] During Peggy Guggenheim's 30-year residence in Venice, her collection was seen at her home in the Palazzo Venier dei Leoni and at special exhibitions in Amsterdam (1950), Zürich (1951), London (1964), Stockholm (1966), Copenhagen (1966), New York (1969) and Paris (1974).[4]

Peggy Guggenheim, Marseille, 1937
Peggy Guggenheim, Marseille, 1937

Among the artists represented in the collection are: from Italy, Giorgio de Chirico (The Red Tower, The Nostalgia of the Poet) and Gino Severini (Sea Dancer); from France, Georges Braque (The Clarinet), Jean Metzinger (Au Vélodrome), Albert Gleizes (Woman with Animals), Marcel Duchamp (Sad Young Man on a Train), Fernand Léger (Study of a Nude and Men in the City[5][a]), Francis Picabia (Very Rare Picture on Earth); from Spain, Salvador Dalí (Birth of Liquid Desires), Joan Miró (Seated Woman II) and Pablo Picasso (The Poet, On the Beach); from other European countries, Constantin Brâncuși (including a sculpture from the Bird in Space series), Max Ernst (The Kiss, Attirement of the Bride), Alberto Giacometti (Woman with Her Throat Cut, Woman Walking), Arshile Gorky (Untitled), Wassily Kandinsky (Landscape with Red Spots, No. 2, White Cross), Paul Klee (Magic Garden), René Magritte (Empire of Light) and Piet Mondrian (Composition No. 1 with Grey and Red 1938, Composition with Red 1939); and from the US, Alexander Calder (Arc of Petals) and Pollock (The Moon Woman, Alchemy).[3] In one room, the museum also exhibits a few paintings by Peggy's daughter Pegeen Vail Guggenheim.[7]

In addition to the permanent collection, the museum houses 26 works on long-term loan from the Gianni Mattioli Collection, including images of Italian futurism by artists including Umberto Boccioni (Materia, Dynamism of a Cyclist), Carlo Carrà (Interventionist Demonstration), Luigi Russolo (The Solidity of Fog) and Severini (Blue Dancer), as well as works by Giacomo Balla, Fortunato Depero, Ottone Rosai, Mario Sironi and Ardengo Soffici.[3] In 2012, the museum received 83 works from the Rudolph and Hannelore Schulhof Collection, which has its own gallery within in the building.[8][9]

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Jackson Pollock

Jackson Pollock

Paul Jackson Pollock was an American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. He was widely noticed for his "drip technique" of pouring or splashing liquid household paint onto a horizontal surface, enabling him to view and paint his canvases from all angles. It was called all-over painting and action painting, since he covered the entire canvas and used the force of his whole body to paint, often in a frenetic dancing style. This extreme form of abstraction divided the critics: some praised the immediacy of the creation, while others derided the random effects. In 2016, Pollock's painting titled Number 17A was reported to have fetched US$200 million in a private purchase.

Doge's Palace

Doge's Palace

The Doge's Palace is a palace built in Venetian Gothic style, and one of the main landmarks of the city of Venice in northern Italy. The palace was the residence of the Doge of Venice, the supreme authority of the former Republic of Venice. It was built in 1340 and extended and modified in the following centuries. It became a museum in 1923 and is one of the 11 museums run by the Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia.

Giorgio de Chirico

Giorgio de Chirico

Giuseppe Maria Alberto Giorgio de Chirico was an Italian artist and writer born in Greece. In the years before World War I, he founded the scuola metafisica art movement, which profoundly influenced the surrealists. His best-known works often feature Roman arcades, long shadows, mannequins, trains, and illogical perspective. His imagery reflects his affinity for the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer and of Friedrich Nietzsche, and for the mythology of his birthplace.

Gino Severini

Gino Severini

Gino Severini was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the "return to order" in the decade after the First World War. During his career he worked in a variety of media, including mosaic and fresco. He showed his work at major exhibitions, including the Rome Quadrennial, and won art prizes from major institutions.

Georges Braque

Georges Braque

Georges Braque was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. His most notable contributions were in his alliance with Fauvism from 1905, and the role he played in the development of Cubism. Braque's work between 1908 and 1912 is closely associated with that of his colleague Pablo Picasso. Their respective Cubist works were indistinguishable for many years, yet the quiet nature of Braque was partially eclipsed by the fame and notoriety of Picasso.

Jean Metzinger

Jean Metzinger

Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with Albert Gleizes wrote the first theoretical work on Cubism. His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were influenced by the neo-Impressionism of Georges Seurat and Henri-Edmond Cross. Between 1904 and 1907 Metzinger worked in the Divisionist and Fauvist styles with a strong Cézannian component, leading to some of the first proto-Cubist works.

Au Vélodrome

Au Vélodrome

Au Vélodrome, also known as At the Cycle-Race Track and Le cycliste, is a painting by the French artist and theorist Jean Metzinger. The work illustrates the final meters of the Paris–Roubaix race, and portrays its 1912 winner Charles Crupelandt. Metzinger's painting is the first in Modernist art to represent a specific sporting event and its champion.

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of Cubism and an influence on the School of Paris. Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, Du "Cubisme", 1912. Gleizes was a founding member of the Section d'Or group of artists. He was also a member of Der Sturm, and his many theoretical writings were originally most appreciated in Germany, where especially at the Bauhaus his ideas were given thoughtful consideration. Gleizes spent four crucial years in New York, and played an important role in making America aware of modern art. He was a member of the Society of Independent Artists, founder of the Ernest-Renan Association, and both a founder and participant in the Abbaye de Créteil. Gleizes exhibited regularly at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie de l’Effort Moderne in Paris; he was also a founder, organizer and director of Abstraction-Création. From the mid-1920s to the late 1930s much of his energy went into writing, e.g., La Peinture et ses lois, Vers une conscience plastique: La Forme et l’histoire and Homocentrisme.

Fernand Léger

Fernand Léger

Joseph Fernand Henri Léger was a French painter, sculptor, and filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism which he gradually modified into a more figurative, populist style. His boldly simplified treatment of modern subject matter has caused him to be regarded as a forerunner of pop art.

Francis Picabia

Francis Picabia

Francis Picabia was a French avant-garde painter, poet and typographist. After experimenting with Impressionism and Pointillism, Picabia became associated with Cubism. His highly abstract planar compositions were colourful and rich in contrasts. He was one of the early major figures of the Dada movement in the United States and in France. He was later briefly associated with Surrealism, but would soon turn his back on the art establishment.

Constantin Brâncuși

Constantin Brâncuși

Constantin Brâncuși was a Romanian sculptor, painter and photographer who made his career in France. Considered one of the most influential sculptors of the 20th-century and a pioneer of modernism, Brâncuși is called the patriarch of modern sculpture. As a child he displayed an aptitude for carving wooden farm tools. Formal studies took him first to Bucharest, then to Munich, then to the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1905 to 1907. His art emphasizes clean geometrical lines that balance forms inherent in his materials with the symbolic allusions of representational art. Brâncuși sought inspiration in non-European cultures as a source of primitive exoticism, as did Paul Gauguin, Pablo Picasso, André Derain and others. However, other influences emerge from Romanian folk art traceable through Byzantine and Dionysian traditions.

Bird in Space

Bird in Space

Bird in Space is a series of sculptures by Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. The original work was created in 1923 and made of marble. This sculpture is also known for containing seven marble figures and nine bronze casts. Brancusi created the piece over 14 times and in several mediums over a period of 20 years. It was sold in 2005 for $27.5 million, at the time a record price for a sculpture sold in an auction. The original title in Romanian is Pasărea în văzduh.

Building and Venice Biennale

Entrance to Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Palazzo Venier dei Leoni
Entrance to Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Palazzo Venier dei Leoni

The collection is housed in the Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, which Peggy Guggenheim purchased in 1949.[1] Although sometimes mistaken for a modern building,[10] it is an 18th-century palace designed by the Venetian architect Lorenzo Boschetti [it].[11] The building was unfinished, and has an unusually low elevation on the Grand Canal. The museum's website describes it thus:

Palazzo Venier dei Leoni's long low façade, made of Istrian stone and set off against the trees in the garden behind that soften its lines, forms a welcome "caesura" in the stately march of Grand Canal palaces from the Accademia to the Salute.[12]

The palazzo was Peggy Guggenheim's home for thirty years.[11] In 1951, the palazzo, its garden, now called the Nasher Sculpture Garden, and her art collection were opened to the public from April to October for viewing.[13] Her collection at the palazzo remained open during the summers until her death in Camposampiero, northern Italy, in 1979; she had donated the palazzo and the 300-piece collection to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in 1976.[1][14] The foundation, then under the direction of Peter Lawson-Johnston, took control of the palazzo and the collection in 1979[15] and re-opened the collection there in April 1980 as the Peggy Guggenheim Collection.

After the Foundation took control of the building in 1979, it took steps to expand gallery space; by 1985, "all of the rooms on the main floor had been converted into galleries ... the white Istrian stone facade and the unique canal terrace had been restored" and a protruding arcade wing, called the barchessa, had been rebuilt by architect Giorgio Bellavitis.[16] Since 1985, the museum has been open year-round.[12] In 1993, apartments adjacent to the museum were converted to a garden annex, a shop and more galleries.[16] In 1995, the Nasher Sculpture Garden was completed, additional exhibition rooms were added, and a café was opened.[16] A few years later, in 1999 and in 2000, the two neighboring properties were acquired.[16] In 2003, a new entrance and booking office opened to cope with the increasing number of visitors, which reached 350,000 in 2007.[17] Since 1993, the museum has doubled in size, from 2,000 to 4,000 square meters.[1]

Since 1985, the United States has selected the foundation to operate the U.S. Pavilion of the Venice Biennale, an exhibition held every other summer. In 1986, the foundation purchased the Palladian-style pavilion, built in 1930.[1][18]

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Gallerie dell'Accademia

Gallerie dell'Accademia

The Gallerie dell'Accademia is a museum gallery of pre-19th-century art in Venice, northern Italy. It is housed in the Scuola della Carità on the south bank of the Grand Canal, within the sestiere of Dorsoduro. It was originally the gallery of the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia, the art academy of Venice, from which it became independent in 1879, and for which the Ponte dell'Accademia and the Accademia boat landing station for the vaporetto water bus are named. The two institutions remained in the same building until 2004, when the art school moved to the Ospedale degli Incurabili.

Santa Maria della Salute

Santa Maria della Salute

Santa Maria della Salute, commonly known simply as the Salute, is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica located at Punta della Dogana in the Dorsoduro sestiere of the city of Venice, Italy.

Camposampiero

Camposampiero

Camposampiero is a town and comune in the province of Padua, Veneto, northern Italy. The 15th-century Santuario del Noce, a Roman Catholic chapel dedicated to Anthony of Padua, is located in Camposampiero.

Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation is a nonprofit organization founded in 1937 by philanthropist Solomon R. Guggenheim and his long-time art advisor, artist Hilla von Rebay. The foundation is a leading institution for the collection, preservation, and research of modern and contemporary art and operates several museums around the world. The first museum established by the foundation was The Museum of Non-Objective Painting, in New York City. This became The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1952, and the foundation moved the collection into its first permanent museum building, in New York City, in 1959. The foundation next opened the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice, Italy, in 1980. Its international network of museums expanded in 1997 to include the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in Bilbao, Spain, and it expects to open a new museum, Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates after its construction is completed.

Istria

Istria

Istria is the largest peninsula within the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Kvarner Gulf. It is shared by three countries: Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy. Croatia encapsulates most of the Istrian peninsula with its Istria County.

Venice Biennale

Venice Biennale

The Venice Biennale is an international cultural exhibition hosted annually in Venice, Italy by the Biennale Foundation. The biennale has been organised every year since 1895, which makes it the oldest of its kind. The main exhibition held in Castello, in the halls of the Arsenale and Biennale Gardens, alternates between art and architecture. The other events hosted by the Foundation—spanning theatre, music, and dance—are held annually in various parts of Venice, whereas the Venice Film Festival takes place at the Lido.

Management and attendance

Philip Rylands led the museum for 37 years after Peggy Guggenheim's death, until 2017.[19] He was appointed the first director of the collection in 2000,[20] and in 2017 he became director emeritus.[19] In 2017, Peggy Guggenheim's granddaughter, Karole P. B. Vail, succeeded Rylands after having been a curator at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York since 1997.[21][22]

As of 2012, the collection was the most visited art gallery in Venice and the 11th most visited in Italy.[20]

Lawsuits

Since 1992, Peggy Guggenheim's grandson Sandro Rumney, together with his children and some cousins, have raised several disputes with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. The disputes concern, in part, the difference in language between Guggenheim's unconditional 1976 deed of gift to the foundation, a 1969 letter, and a 1972 version of her will. The courts have found the deed binding.[23] In 1992, Rumney and two other grandsons sued the foundation in Paris. They claimed, among other things, that the modernization of the collection did not comply with the letter and spirit of her wishes. In 1994, the court dismissed the claims and ordered the grandsons to pay the foundation court costs.[24]

Following the gift of approximately 80 works to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation by Hannelore and Rudolph Schulhof (a former trustee of the foundation) in 2012, some works collected by Guggenheim were removed from the Palazzo to make room for the display of the new works. The Schulhofs' names were inscribed alongside Guggenheim's at both entrances of the museum. Their son, Michael P. Schulhof, has been a trustee of the Guggenheim foundation since 2009. In 2014, several French descendants of Peggy Guggenheim, led by Rumney, sued the foundation for violating her will and agreements with the foundation, which they said require that her collection "remain intact and on display". They also claimed that the resting place of her ashes in the gardens of the Palazzo has been desecrated by the display of sculptures nearby, among other things. The lawsuit requested that the founder's bequest be revoked or that the collections, gravesite and signage be restored.[9] Other descendants of Peggy Guggenheim supported the foundation's position.[2] In 2014, the court dismissed the claims and awarded the foundation legal fees. The court noted that the descendants had attended some of the parties held in the gardens by the foundation. In 2015, the Paris Court of Appeal dismissed the lawsuit and awarded the foundation additional legal fees.[24][25] Rumney stated his intention to continue to appeal.[24]

Selected works

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Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist and theatre designer who spent most of his adult life in France. One of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and the anti-war painting Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by German and Italian air forces during the Spanish Civil War.

Jean Metzinger

Jean Metzinger

Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with Albert Gleizes wrote the first theoretical work on Cubism. His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were influenced by the neo-Impressionism of Georges Seurat and Henri-Edmond Cross. Between 1904 and 1907 Metzinger worked in the Divisionist and Fauvist styles with a strong Cézannian component, leading to some of the first proto-Cubist works.

Au Vélodrome

Au Vélodrome

Au Vélodrome, also known as At the Cycle-Race Track and Le cycliste, is a painting by the French artist and theorist Jean Metzinger. The work illustrates the final meters of the Paris–Roubaix race, and portrays its 1912 winner Charles Crupelandt. Metzinger's painting is the first in Modernist art to represent a specific sporting event and its champion.

Marcel Duchamp

Marcel Duchamp

Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp was a French painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the 20th century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Duchamp has had an immense impact on 20th- and 21st-century art, and he had a seminal influence on the development of conceptual art. By the time of World War I, he had rejected the work of many of his fellow artists as "retinal" art, intended only to please the eye. Instead, Duchamp wanted to use art to serve the mind.

Wassily Kandinsky

Wassily Kandinsky

Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky was a Russian painter and art theorist. Kandinsky is generally credited as one of the pioneers of abstraction in western art, possibly after Hilma af Klint. Born in Moscow, he spent his childhood in Odessa, where he graduated at Grekov Odessa Art School. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics. Successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship at the University of Dorpat —Kandinsky began painting studies at the age of 30.

Landscape with Red Spots (Kandinsky)

Landscape with Red Spots (Kandinsky)

Landscape with Red Spots was the name given to each of two successive oil paintings produced in Bavaria in 1913 by the Russian émigré painter Wassily Kandinsky. The first is now in the Museum Folkwang in Essen, Germany. The second, known as Landscape with Red Spots, No 2, is in the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice, Italy.

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of Cubism and an influence on the School of Paris. Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, Du "Cubisme", 1912. Gleizes was a founding member of the Section d'Or group of artists. He was also a member of Der Sturm, and his many theoretical writings were originally most appreciated in Germany, where especially at the Bauhaus his ideas were given thoughtful consideration. Gleizes spent four crucial years in New York, and played an important role in making America aware of modern art. He was a member of the Society of Independent Artists, founder of the Ernest-Renan Association, and both a founder and participant in the Abbaye de Créteil. Gleizes exhibited regularly at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie de l’Effort Moderne in Paris; he was also a founder, organizer and director of Abstraction-Création. From the mid-1920s to the late 1930s much of his energy went into writing, e.g., La Peinture et ses lois, Vers une conscience plastique: La Forme et l’histoire and Homocentrisme.

Woman with Animals

Woman with Animals

Woman with Animals, originally referred to as La dame aux bêtes and Portrait de Mme D.V. or Madame Raymond Duchamp-Villon, is a painting created late 1913 and completed during the month of February, 1914, by the French artist, theorist and writer Albert Gleizes. The painting was exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants, Paris, 1 March – 30 April 1914. Woman with animals is executed in a personal Cubist style noted by the fusing background and figure, the multiple perspective or successive views at various moments in time of the Mrs. Duchamp-Villon's face and other elements, the freestyle brushstrokes delineating juxtaposing planes. The work was restored in 1940 by Jacques Villon and Robert Delaunay. Formerly in the collection of Marcel Duchamp, the work—along with a 1913 lavis and gouache study of the same subject entitled La femme aux bêtes—has been in the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, Italy, since 1940.

Source: "Peggy Guggenheim Collection", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peggy_Guggenheim_Collection.

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Notes
  1. ^ A third work that Guggenheim had purchased was never exhibited, as it was suspected to be a fraud. In February 2014, researchers concluded that the piece was a fake after "they detected faint signatures of Cold war-era nuclear bombs in the canvas that reveal the painting was created after Léger's death" in 1959.[6]
References
  1. ^ a b c d e f Walsh, John. "The Priceless Peggy Guggenheim", The Independent, October 21, 2009, accessed March 12, 2012
  2. ^ a b Penketh, Anne. "Peggy Guggenheim's family revive feud by suing foundation over art collection", The Guardian, 19 May 2014
  3. ^ a b c "Collections". guggenheim-venice.it. Peggy Guggenheim Collection. Archived from the original on 2012-04-07. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  4. ^ Decker, p. 133
  5. ^ "Fernand Léger". guggenheim-venice.it. Peggy Guggenheim Collection.
  6. ^ Gannon, Megan (February 6, 2014). "Guggenheim Painting Proven to Be a Fake". LiveScience.com.
  7. ^ "Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, 1950s". guggenheim-venice.it. Peggy Guggenheim Collection. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  8. ^ Catton, Pia (September 19, 2012). "From a Long Island Home, Art for Many Collectors". The Wall Street Journal.
  9. ^ a b Ruiz, Cristina and Hannah McGivern. "Heirs of Peggy Guggenheim sue New York foundation" Archived 2014-03-18 at the Wayback Machine, The Art Newspaper, 14 March 2014
  10. ^ Lauritzen and Zielcke, p. 229
  11. ^ a b Vail, p. 77
  12. ^ a b "The Palace". guggenheim-venice.it. Peggy Guggenheim Collection. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  13. ^ Vail, p. 92
  14. ^ Messer (Nicolini introduction), p. 5
  15. ^ Tacou-Rumney, p. 171
  16. ^ a b c d "Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice". guggenheim.org. Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
  17. ^ Decker, pp. 139–140
  18. ^ "US Pavilion". guggenheim-venice.it. Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  19. ^ a b "The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation Appoints Karole P.B. Vail to Lead the Peggy Guggenheim Collection". guggenheim.org (Press release). Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. June 8, 2017.
  20. ^ a b "Philip Rylands". ArtforBusiness.it. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
  21. ^ Harris, Gareth. "Peggy Guggenheim’s granddaughter takes the reins at the late collector’s Venetian museum" Archived 2017-06-11 at the Wayback Machine, The Art Newspaper, June 8, 2017
  22. ^ "Karole Vail". guggenheim.org. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  23. ^ Ruiz, Cristina. "Peggy Guggenheim's great-grandchildren say New York exhibition violates her legacy" Archived 2017-06-24 at the Wayback Machine, The Art Newspaper, April 20, 2017
  24. ^ a b c Esterow, Milton (January 5, 2017). "The Bitter Legal Battle over Peggy Guggenheim's Blockbuster Art Collection". Vanity Fair.
  25. ^ Carvajal, Doreen (September 23, 2015). "Peggy Guggenheim's Kin Lose Bid to Challenge How Her Collection Is Displayed". The New York Times.
Sources
  • Decker, Darla (2008). Urban development, cultural clusters: The Guggenheim Museum and its global distribution strategies. New York: Dissertation Abstracts International. ISBN 978-0549745273.
  • Lauritzen, Peter; Zielcke, Alexander (1978). Palaces of Venice. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0670537241.
  • Nicolini, Renato (1982). Introduction. Catalogue – Guggenheim Venezia-New York: sessanta opere, 1900–1950. By Thomas M. Messer. Milan: Electa.
  • Tacou-Rumney, Laurence (1996). Peggy Guggenheim – a collector's album. Paris: Flammarion. ISBN 2080136100.
  • Vail, Karole (1998). Peggy Guggenheim: A Celebration. New York: Guggenheim Museum. ISBN 0810969149.
External links

Coordinates: 45°25′50″N 12°19′52″E / 45.43056°N 12.33111°E / 45.43056; 12.33111

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