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Panenka (penalty kick)

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In association football, the Panenka is a technique used while taking a penalty kick in which the taker, instead of kicking the ball to the left or right of the goalkeeper, gives a light touch underneath the ball, causing it to rise and fall within the centre of the goal, deceiving the goalkeeper who is counted on by the taker to have guessed a side and committed to a dive away from the centre.

The technique was invented by Czech player Antonín Panenka, who introduced it to the world in the UEFA Euro 1976 final in Belgrade, when he beat West German goalkeeper Sepp Maier to claim the title for the Czechoslovakia national team.[1][2] After its much publicised debut in the tournament, the Panenka kick has been used on rare occasions and mostly by highly respected players who can deal with the consequences of missing such an attempt.[3][4]

Originally, in Czech language the kick is called Vršovický dloubák—a reference to the Prague district of Vršovice, where Panenka's home club Bohemians is based.

This style of penalty kick is also called Il cucchiaio ("the spoon") in Italy,[5] cavadinha ("little dig") in Brazil and penal picado ("poked penalty kick") in Argentina and elsewhere in South America.[6]

Discover more about Panenka (penalty kick) related topics

Association football

Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of 11 players who primarily use their feet to propel the ball around a rectangular field called a pitch. The objective of the game is to score more goals than the opposition by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing side's rectangular framed goal. Traditionally, the game has been played over two 45 minute halves, for a total match time of 90 minutes. With an estimated 250 million players active in over 200 countries, it is considered the world's most popular sport.

Penalty kick (association football)

Penalty kick (association football)

A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, in which a player is allowed to take a single shot at the goal while it is defended only by the opposing team's goalkeeper. It is awarded when an offence punishable by a direct free kick is committed by a player in their own penalty area. The shot is taken from the penalty mark, which is 11 m from the goal line and centred between the touch lines.

Antonín Panenka

Antonín Panenka

Antonín Panenka is a Czech retired footballer who played as an attacking midfielder. He spent most of his career representing Czechoslovak club Bohemians Prague. Panenka won UEFA Euro 1976 with the national team of Czechoslovakia. In the final against West Germany, he notably scored the winning penalty in the shootout with a softly-chipped ball up the middle of the goal as the goalkeeper dived away; a style of penalty now known as a panenka, named after him. In 1980, he won Czechoslovak Footballer of the Year and his team finished third at Euro 1980.

UEFA Euro 1976

UEFA Euro 1976

The 1976 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was held in Yugoslavia. This was the fifth UEFA European Championship, held every four years and endorsed by UEFA. The final tournament took place between 16 and 20 June 1976.

UEFA Euro 1976 Final

UEFA Euro 1976 Final

The UEFA Euro 1976 Final was the final match of Euro 1976, the fifth edition of the European Championship, UEFA's top football competition for national teams. Contested by Czechoslovakia and West Germany, the match was played at Stadion Crvena Zvezda, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, on 20 June 1976. En route to the final, Czechoslovakia finished top of their qualifying group, which included England, Cyprus and Portugal. After beating the Soviet Union 4–2 on aggregate over a two-legged tie in the quarter-finals, they progressed to the final after defeating the Netherlands 3–1 after extra time in the semi-final. West Germany won their qualifying group, which included Greece, Malta and Bulgaria, before beating Spain 3–1 on aggregate in the two-legged quarter-final and tournament hosts Yugoslavia 4–2 after extra time in the single-match semi-final.

Belgrade

Belgrade

Belgrade is the capital and largest city in Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkan Peninsula. Nearly 2.5 million people live within the administrative limits of the City of Belgrade. It is the third largest of all cities on the Danube river.

Sepp Maier

Sepp Maier

Josef Dieter "Sepp" Maier is a German former professional football goalkeeper who played for Bayern Munich and the Germany national football team. Regarded as one of football's greatest goalkeepers, he was nicknamed "Die Katze von Anzing" for his fast reflexes, agility, flexibility, speed, and consistency; in addition to his shot-stopping ability, Maier was also known for his ability to dominate his box, as well as his sense of humour and personality throughout his career, which made him a fan favourite. Regarding his playing style, he once quipped "a keeper should give off a sense of calm, and not fall asleep while doing so."

Czechoslovakia national football team

Czechoslovakia national football team

The Czechoslovakia national football team was the national football team of Czechoslovakia from 1920 to 1993. The team was controlled by the Czechoslovak Football Association, and the team qualified for eight World Cups and three European Championships. It had two runner-up finishes in World Cups, in 1934 and 1962, and won the European Championship in the 1976 tournament.

Prague

Prague

Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, and the historical capital of Bohemia. On the Vltava river, Prague is home to about 1.3 million people. The city has a temperate oceanic climate, with relatively warm summers and chilly winters.

Vršovice

Vršovice

Vršovice is a district of Prague. All of Vršovice lies within the Prague 10 administrative district. Vršovice is located south-east of the city centre. It borders Vinohrady to the north, Nusle to the south-west, Michle to the south and Strašnice to the east. The name is first mentioned in 1088 in the founding document of the Vyšehrad Chapter. In 1922 the district was incorporated into the city of Prague. It has 107 streets and 1,611 addresses and has about 38,700 inhabitants.

Bohemians 1905

Bohemians 1905

Bohemians Praha 1905 is a Prague-based football club, which was founded in 1905 as AFK Vršovice. The club won the 1982–83 Czechoslovak First League, its only league championship. Its colours are green and white.

Technique

The aim of the technique is not to chip the ball over the goalkeeper, but to take advantage of the fact that many goalkeepers will dive to either side of the goal in anticipation, rather than waiting to see in which direction the ball is going. It is a very risky technique, because the subtle touch on the ball gives it a very slow speed, thus allowing the goalkeeper to move back from where they jumped, or even to simply remain in the same spot and wait for the ball to fall easily into their hands. In addition, the subtle touch is most easily applied by a taker who slows down as he or she is about to strike the ball, making it possible for the goalkeeper to recognize what the taker is intending. The move is known for only being used by confident penalty takers who dare to risk missing the kick.[3] Some players that have used the Panenka kick have been criticized by the specialized media or their team's members and supporters, especially if they miss it.[7]

According to studies, a Panenka has a lower scoring probability over placement or power, though it is alleged that if successful, a Panenka's psychological impact on the opposite team may be profound, which may be why penalty takers elect to use it. Antonín Panenka, though, saw the penalty as a reflection of his own personality.[8]

History

The original penalty

"I saw myself as an entertainer and I saw this penalty as a reflection of my personality. I wanted to give the fans something new to see, to create something that would get them talking."

—Antonin Panenka[8]

Antonín Panenka came to international prominence playing for Czechoslovakia in the 1976 European Championship; Czechoslovakia reached the final, where they faced West Germany. After extra time, the result was 2–2, and so the first penalty shootout in a European Championships final ensued. The first seven kicks were converted, until West Germany's fourth penalty taker, Uli Hoeneß, ballooned his shot over the bar. With the score 4–3, Panenka stepped up to take the fifth Czechoslovakian penalty, to win the match under immense pressure. He feigned shooting to the side of the goal, causing West German goalkeeper Sepp Maier to dive to his left, and then gently chipped the ball into the middle of the net.[9] The perceived impudence of the shot, in addition to its success, led a watching French journalist to dub Panenka "a poet", and his winning kick is one of the most famous ever, making Panenka's name synonymous with that particular style of penalty kick.[10] After the game, Panenka was told that he could have been punished if he missed, as it may have been seen as disrespecting the Communist system in place at the time in his home country.[8] On viewing the penalty Pelé described Panenka as being "either a genius or a madman".[2]

Since 1976

Panenka in 2013. His original penalty technique has been imitated by many other players.
Panenka in 2013. His original penalty technique has been imitated by many other players.

As well as winning the 1976 European Championship, Panenka helped Czechoslovakia come third in the 1980 tournament, after scoring once again in a 9–8 penalty shootout win.[11] In the finals of the 1982 World Cup, Panenka scored twice with penalties, but these were the only Czechoslovakian goals, and the team did not progress beyond the first group stage.[12][13]

The Panenka penalty has since been successfully performed by many other players in a wide range of competitions. Only a small number of these have been, like Panenka's original, in major cup finals – Zinedine Zidane in the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final,[10] Alexis Sánchez in the 2015 Copa América Final,[14] and Odsonne Édouard in the 2020 Scottish Cup final.[15] Examples of Panenkas outside finals include Sebastián Abreu for Uruguay in their 2010 FIFA World Cup quarter-final shoot-out against Ghana, Andrea Pirlo for Italy in their Euro 2012 quarter-final shoot-out against England, Lionel Messi with the winner in a UEFA Champions League game for Paris Saint-Germain against RB Leipzig in 2021,[16][17] and Karim Benzema for Real Madrid against Manchester City in a UEFA Champions League semi-final in 2022.

As with all penalty attempts, not every one is successful. In the 2019 A-League Grand Final Perth Glory player Brendon Santalab, who had scored multiple Panenka penalties previously in his career, played his last game as a professional. The match ended in a penalty shootout between Sydney FC and Santalab's club Perth Glory. With the score at 3 to 1 in favour of Sydney FC, Santalab took Perth's third penalty, attempting a Panenka, but Sydney FC goalkeeper Andrew Redmayne was expecting it. The keeper stood upright and easily saved the weak kick. Sydney FC scored their next penalty, winning the shootout and the A-League Championship 4 to 1.[18] Former England captain Gary Lineker infamously failed a Panenka which at the time, would have put him level with Bobby Charlton for the England team's top scorer, the missed penalty instead leaving him one goal behind on 48 for the rest of his career.

In the 2022 World Cup, Canadian forward Lucas Cavallini attempted a Panenka penalty kick vs Belgium, resulting in a miss. Belgium would win that game, resulting in head coach Herdman saying, "Hit it as hard as you can, as low as you can into the corner. I don't know why we need to do that stuff."[19]

Discover more about History related topics

Antonín Panenka

Antonín Panenka

Antonín Panenka is a Czech retired footballer who played as an attacking midfielder. He spent most of his career representing Czechoslovak club Bohemians Prague. Panenka won UEFA Euro 1976 with the national team of Czechoslovakia. In the final against West Germany, he notably scored the winning penalty in the shootout with a softly-chipped ball up the middle of the goal as the goalkeeper dived away; a style of penalty now known as a panenka, named after him. In 1980, he won Czechoslovak Footballer of the Year and his team finished third at Euro 1980.

Czechoslovakia national football team

Czechoslovakia national football team

The Czechoslovakia national football team was the national football team of Czechoslovakia from 1920 to 1993. The team was controlled by the Czechoslovak Football Association, and the team qualified for eight World Cups and three European Championships. It had two runner-up finishes in World Cups, in 1934 and 1962, and won the European Championship in the 1976 tournament.

Germany national football team

Germany national football team

The Germany national football team represents Germany in men's international football and played its first match in 1908. The team is governed by the German Football Association, founded in 1900. Between 1949 and 1990, separate German national teams were recognised by FIFA due to Allied occupation and division: the DFB's team representing the Federal Republic of Germany, the Saarland team representing the Saar Protectorate (1950–1956) and the East Germany team representing the German Democratic Republic (1952–1990). The latter two were absorbed along with their records; the present team represents the reunified Federal Republic. The official name and code "Germany FR (FRG)" was shortened to "Germany (GER)" following reunification in 1990.

Dummy (football)

Dummy (football)

In association football, rugby league, rugby union and Australian rules football, a dummy or feint is a player deceiving the opposition into believing he is going to pass, shoot, move in a certain direction, or receive the ball and instead doing something different, thus gaining an advantage.

Goalkeeper (association football)

Goalkeeper (association football)

The goalkeeper is a position in association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport. The goalkeeper's main role is to stop the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by having the goalkeeper move into the trajectory of the ball to either catch it or direct it further from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are allowed to use their hands, giving them the sole rights on the field to handle the ball. The goalkeeper is indicated by wearing a different coloured kit from their teammates and opposition.

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, formerly known from 1948 to 1960 as the Czechoslovak Republic or Fourth Czechoslovak Republic, was the official name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 to 29 March 1990, when it was renamed the Czechoslovak Federative Republic. On 23 April 1990, it became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic. From 1948 until the end of November 1989, the country was under Communist rule and was regarded as a satellite state in the Soviet sphere of interest.

Pelé

Pelé

Edson Arantes do Nascimento, known as Pelé, is a Brazilian former professional footballer who played as a forward. Regarded as one of the greatest players of all time, and labelled "the greatest" by FIFA, he was among the most successful and popular sports figures of the 20th century. In 1999, he was named Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee and was included in the Time list of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. In 2000, Pelé was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS), and was one of the two joint winners of the FIFA Player of the Century. His 1,279 goals in 1,363 games, which includes friendlies, is recognised as a Guinness World Record.

1982 FIFA World Cup

1982 FIFA World Cup

The 1982 FIFA World Cup was the 12th FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial football tournament for men's senior national teams, and was played in Spain between 13 June and 11 July 1982. The tournament was won by Italy, who defeated West Germany 3–1 in the final, held in the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium in the Spanish capital of Madrid. It was Italy's third World Cup title, but their first since 1938. The defending champions, Argentina, were eliminated in the second round. Algeria, Cameroon, Honduras, Kuwait and New Zealand made their first appearances in the finals.

2006 FIFA World Cup Final

2006 FIFA World Cup Final

The 2006 FIFA World Cup Final was a football match that took place on 9 July 2006 at the Olympiastadion in Berlin, Germany, to determine the winner of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. The match was contested between Italy and France.

Alexis Sánchez

Alexis Sánchez

Alexis Alejandro Sánchez Sánchez, also known mononymously as Alexis, is a Chilean professional footballer who plays as a forward for Ligue 1 club Marseille and the Chile national team. He is often lauded as the greatest Chilean player of all time.

2015 Copa América Final

2015 Copa América Final

The 2015 Copa América Final was the final match of the 2015 Copa América, an international football tournament organized by CONMEBOL that was played in Chile.

Odsonne Édouard

Odsonne Édouard

Odsonne Édouard is a French professional footballer who plays as a forward for Premier League club Crystal Palace.

Source: "Panenka (penalty kick)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panenka_(penalty_kick).

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References
  1. ^ "The footballers who have moves named after them". Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  2. ^ a b "Antonin Panenka - the footballer Pele described as "either a genius or a madman"". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  3. ^ a b "Euro 2012: Pirlo's courage to kick a penalty like Panenka helped Italy's 4-2 win over England". The Star. Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  4. ^ "Andrea Pirlo explains THAT Panenka penalty which bamboozled Joe Hart at Euro 2012". The Mirror. Archived from the original on 14 January 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  5. ^ "Il rigore di Panenka" (in Italian). Storie di Calcio. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  6. ^ "¿Cómo nació el penal picado a lo Panenka?". Pasión Fútbol. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  7. ^ "14 of the best and worst Panenkas ever". Planet Football. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  8. ^ a b c Ingle, Sean (10 May 2021). "Was Aguero's Panenka really a mistake? Analysing the art and science of penalties". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021.
  9. ^ Tom Bryant. "Football - Knowledge: the footballers who have moves named after them". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  10. ^ a b "The cult of the Panenka penalty". FIFA.com. 25 June 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  11. ^ "UEFA EURO 1980 - History - Czechoslovakia-Italy - UEFA.com". UEFA.com. 4 October 2003. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  12. ^ "1982 FIFA World Cup Spain - Statistics - Players - Top goals". FIFA.com. FIFA. Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  13. ^ "1982 FIFA World Cup Spain - Groups". FIFA.com. FIFA. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  14. ^ "Chile 0-0 Argentina (4-1 pens): Hosts claim first Copa America title with shoot-out victory". Sky Sports. 4 July 2015. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  15. ^ "Celtic win Scottish Cup on penalties to complete quadruple treble". BBC. 20 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  16. ^ "Lionel Messi's Panenka wins it for PSG after RB Leipzig threaten upset". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  17. ^ "The trickery of Panenka Penalty". Yahoo. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  18. ^ "Perth Glory A-League Grand Final offside controversy". The West Australian. 19 May 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  19. ^ Jones, Chris (23 November 2022). "Penalty-kick decision lingers in wake of Canada's World Cup-opening loss to Belgium". CBC News. Retrieved 25 November 2022.

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