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Pallava dynasty

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Pallava Dynasty
275 CE–897 CE
This is not the official Pallava dynasty flag, but a modern imagination of what the flag used by Pallavas would look like. It has no historical background (no historical information on the shade or hue of the color, the angle of lines, the curvature or straightness of lines, etc). No flag artifact or any archaeological proof of a flag used by Pallavas survived.
The Singam or Lion flag is used to represent the Pallava dynasty, although there isn't any official royal emblem used by the Pallavas.
Pallava territories during Narasimhavarman I c. 645. This includes the Chalukya territories occupied by the Pallavas.[1]
Pallava territories during Narasimhavarman I c. 645. This includes the Chalukya territories occupied by the Pallavas.[1]
StatusDynasty
CapitalKanchipuram
Common languages
Religion
Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism
GovernmentMonarchy
• 275–300
Simhavarman I
• 885–897
Aparajitavarman
Historical eraClassical India
• Established
275 CE
• Disestablished
897 CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kalabhra dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
Chola dynasty
Kadamba dynasty
Western Ganga dynasty
Today part ofIndia
Sri Lanka[4]

The Pallava dynasty existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a significant portion of the Deccan, also known as Tondaimandalam. The dynasty rose to prominence after the downfall of the Satavahana dynasty, with whom they had formerly served as feudatories.[5][6]

The Pallavas became a major South Indian power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (600–630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630–668 CE), and dominated the southern Andhra Region and the northern parts of the Tamil region for about 600 years, until the end of the 9th century. Throughout their reign, they remained in constant conflict with both the Chalukyas of Badami in the north, and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south. The Pallavas were finally defeated by the Chola ruler Aditya I in the 9th century CE.[7]

The Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of Hindu temple architecture, the finest example being the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Mamallapuram. Kancheepuram served as the capital of the Pallava kingdom. The dynasty left behind magnificent sculptures and temples, and are recognised to have established the foundations of medieval South Indian architecture, which some scholars believe the ancient Hindu treatise Manasara inspired.[8] They developed the Pallava script, from which Grantha ultimately took form. This script eventually gave rise to several other Southeast Asian scripts such Khmer. The Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited Kanchipuram during Pallava rule and extolled their benign rule.

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South India

South India

South India, also known as Dakshina Bharata or Peninsular India, consists of the southern part of India encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana, as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, comprising 19.31% of India's area and 20% of India's population. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges – the Western and Eastern Ghats – bordering the plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Periyar, Bharathappuzha, Pamba, Thamirabarani, Palar, and Vaigai rivers are important perennial rivers.

Mahendravarman I

Mahendravarman I

Mahendravarman I was a Pallava emperor who ruled the Southern portion of present-day Andhra region and Northern regions of what forms present-day Tamil Nadu in India in the early 7th century. He was a scholar, painter, architect, musician. He was the son of Simhavishnu, who defeated the Kalabhras and re-established the Pallava kingdom.

Narasimhavarman I

Narasimhavarman I

Narasimhavarman I was a emperor of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India from 630 CE – 668 CE. He shared his father Mahendravarman I's love of art and completed the work started by Mahendravarman in Mamallapuram. During his reign famous Pancha Rathas Temple was constructed which is Rock Cut Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is a state in the south-eastern coastal region of India. It is the seventh-largest state by area covering an area of 162,975 km2 (62,925 sq mi) and tenth-most populous state with 49,386,799 inhabitants. It is bordered by Telangana to the north-west, Chhattisgarh to the north, Odisha to the north-east, Tamil Nadu to the south, Karnataka to the west and the Bay of Bengal to the east. It has the second longest coastline in India after Gujarat, of about 974 km (605 mi). Andhra Pradesh was the first state to be formed on a linguistic basis in India on 1 October 1953. On 1 November 1956, Andhra State was merged with the Telugu-speaking areas of the Hyderabad State to form Andhra Pradesh. Amaravati serves as the capital with the largest city being Visakhapatnam.

Badami

Badami

Badami, formerly known as Vatapi, is a town and headquarters of a taluk by the same name, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. It was the regal capital of the Badami Chalukyas from CE 540 to 757. It is famous for its rock cut monuments such as the Badami cave temples, as well as the structural temples such as the Bhutanatha temples, Badami Shivalaya and Jambulingesvara Temple, Badami|Jambulingesvara temple. It is located in a ravine at the foot of a rugged, red sandstone outcrop that surrounds Agastya lake. Badami has been selected as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.

Aditya I

Aditya I

Aditya I, the son of Vijayalaya, was the Chola king who extended the Chola dominions by the conquest of the Pallavas and occupied the Western Ganga Kingdom.

Shore Temple

Shore Temple

The Shore Temple is a complex of temples and shrines that overlooks the shore of the Bay of Bengal. It is located in Mahabalipuram, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) south of Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India.

Mamallapuram

Mamallapuram

Mamallapuram, also known as Mahabalipuram, is a town in Chengalpattu district in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, best known for the UNESCO World Heritage Site of 7th- and 8th-century Hindu Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram. It is one of the famous tourist sites in India. The ancient name of the place is Thirukadalmallai.

Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram also known as Conjeevaram, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in the Tondaimandalam region, 72 km (45 mi) from Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu. Known as the City of Thousand Temples, Kanchipuram is known for its temple architectures, 1000-pillared halls, huge temple towers and silk sarees. Kanchipuram serves as one of the most important tourist destinations in India. Kanchipuram has become a centre of attraction to the foreign tourists as well. The city covers an area of 36.14 km2 (13.95 sq mi) and an estimated population of more than 300,000 in 2021. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanchipuram District. Kanchipuram is well-connected by road and rail.

Manasara

Manasara

The Mānasāra, also known as Manasa or Manasara Shilpa Shastra, is an ancient Sanskrit treatise on Indian architecture and design. Organized into 70 adhyayas (chapters) and 10,000 shlokas (verses), it is one of many Hindu texts on Shilpa Shastra – science of arts and crafts – that once existed in 1st-millennium CE. The Manasara is among the few on Hindu architecture whose complete manuscripts have survived into the modern age. It is a treatise that provides detailed guidelines on the building of Hindu temples, sculptures, houses, gardens, water tanks, laying out of towns and other structures.

Khmer language

Khmer language

Khmer is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Khmer people, and the official and national language of Cambodia. Khmer has been influenced considerably by Sanskrit and Pali, especially in the royal and religious registers, through Hinduism and Buddhism. It is also the earliest recorded and earliest written language of the Mon–Khmer family, predating Mon and Vietnamese, due to Old Khmer being the language of the historical empires of Chenla, Angkor and, presumably, their earlier predecessor state, Funan.

Xuanzang

Xuanzang

Xuanzang, born Chen Hui / Chen Yi, also known as Hiuen Tsang, was a 7th-century Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator. He is known for the epoch-making contributions to Chinese Buddhism, the travelogue of his journey to India in 629–645 CE, his efforts to bring over 657 Indian texts to China, and his translations of some of these texts.

Etymology

The word Pallava means a creeper or branch in Sanskrit.[9][10][11] Pallava also means arrow or spruce in Tamil.[12][13][14]

Origins

Inner court or the circumambulatory passage with 58 subshrines. Kailasanathar Temple, KanchipuramPillar with multi-headed lions. Kailasanathar Temple, KanchipuramKailasanathar Temple, Kanchipuram
Inner court or the circumambulatory passage with 58 subshrines. Kailasanathar Temple, Kanchipuram
Inner court or the circumambulatory passage with 58 subshrines. Kailasanathar Temple, KanchipuramPillar with multi-headed lions. Kailasanathar Temple, KanchipuramKailasanathar Temple, Kanchipuram
Pillar with multi-headed lions. Kailasanathar Temple, Kanchipuram

The origins of the Pallavas have been debated by scholars.[15] The available historical materials include three copper-plate grants of Sivaskandavarman in the first quarter of the 4th century CE, all issued from Kanchipuram but found in various parts of Andhra Pradesh, and another inscription of Simhavarman I half century earlier in the Palnadu (Pallava Nadu) area of the western Guntur district.[16][17] All the early documents are in Prakrit, and scholars find similarities in paleography and language with the Satavahanas and the Mauryas.[18] Their early coins are said to be similar to those of Satavahanas.[19] Two main theories of the origins have emerged from this data: one that the Pallavas were former subsidiaries of Satavahanas in the Andhradesa (the region north of Penna River in modern Andhra Pradesh[20]) and later expanded south up to Kanchi, and the other that they initially rose to power in Kanchi and expanded north up to the Krishna river, and the other that they are Dependent from Chola Prince Ilandiraiyan ad native to Tondaimandalam

The proponents of the Andhra origin theory include S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar and K. A. Nilakanta Sastri. They believe that Pallavas were originally feudatories of the Satavahanas in the south-eastern part of their empire who became independent when the Satavahana power declined.[21] They are seen to be "strangers to the Tamil country", unrelated to the ancient lines of Cheras, Pandyas and Cholas. Since Simhavarman's grant bears no regal titles, they believe that he might have been a subsidiary to the Andhra Ikshvakus who were in power in Andhradesa at that time. In the following half-century, the Pallavas became independent and expanded up to Kanchi.[22][23]

S. Krishnaswami Aiyengar also speculates that the Pallavas were natives of Tondaimandalam and the name Pallava is identical with the word Tondaiyar.[24] Chola Prince Ilandiraiyan is traditionally regarded as the founder of the Pallava dynasty.[25] Ilandiraiyan is referred to in the literature of the Sangam period such as the Pathupattu. In the Sangam epic Manimekalai, he is depected as the son of Chola king Killi and the Naga princess Pilivalai, the daughter of king Valaivanan of Manipallavam.

Another theory is propounded by historians R. Sathianathaier[15] and D. C. Sircar,[26] with endorsements by Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund[27] and Burton Stein.[28] Sircar points out that the family legends of the Pallavas speak of an ancestor descending from Ashwatthama, the legendary warrior of Mahabharata, and his union with a Naga princess. According to Ptolemy, the Aruvanadu region between the northern and southern Penner rivers (Penna and Ponnaiyar[29][30]) was ruled by a king Basaronaga around 140 CE. By marrying into this Naga family, the Pallavas would have acquired control of the region near Kanchi.[26] While Sircar allows that Pallavas might have been provincial rulers under the later Satavahanas with a partial northern lineage, Sathianathaier sees them as natives of Tondaimandalam (the core region of Aruvanadu). He argues that they could well have adopted north Indian practices under the Mauryan Asoka's rule. He relates the name "Pallava" to Pulindas, whose heritage is borne by names such as "Pulinadu" and "Puliyurkottam" in the region.[31]

According to Sir H. A. Stuart the Pallavas were Kurumbas and Kurubas their modern representatives.[32] This is supported by Marathi historian R. C. Dhere who stated that Pallavas were originally pastoralists that belonged to Kuruba lineages.[33] The territory of Pallavas was bordered by the Coromandel Coast along present Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh. Out of the coins found here, the class of gold and silver coins belonging to the 2nd-7th century CE period contain the Pallava emblem, the maned lion, together with Kannada or Sanskrit inscription which showed that the Pallavas used Kannada too in their administration along with Prakrit, Sanskrit and Tamil.[34]

According to C. V. Vaidya, the Pallavas were Maharashtrian Aryans who spoke Maharashtri Prakrit for centuries and hence retained it even in the midst of surrounding Dravidian languages. They may even be said to have been 'Marathas' for their name was said to be still preserved in the Maratha family name of 'Pālave' (which is just Prakrit form of Pallava). And a further corroboration is that the gotra of the Pālave Maratha family is Bharadwaja, same as the one which Pallavas have attributed to themselves in their records.[35]

Overlaid on these theories is another hypothesis of Sathianathaier which claims that "Pallava" is a derivative of Pahlava (the Sanskrit term for Parthians). According to him, partial support for the theory can be derived from a crown shaped like an elephant's scalp depicted on some sculptures, which seems to resemble the crown of Demetrius I.[15]

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Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram also known as Conjeevaram, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in the Tondaimandalam region, 72 km (45 mi) from Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu. Known as the City of Thousand Temples, Kanchipuram is known for its temple architectures, 1000-pillared halls, huge temple towers and silk sarees. Kanchipuram serves as one of the most important tourist destinations in India. Kanchipuram has become a centre of attraction to the foreign tourists as well. The city covers an area of 36.14 km2 (13.95 sq mi) and an estimated population of more than 300,000 in 2021. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanchipuram District. Kanchipuram is well-connected by road and rail.

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu is a state in southern India. It is the tenth largest Indian state by area and the sixth largest by population. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu is the home of the Tamil people, whose Tamil language—one of the longest surviving classical languages in the world—is widely spoken in the state and serves as its official language.

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is a state in the south-eastern coastal region of India. It is the seventh-largest state by area covering an area of 162,975 km2 (62,925 sq mi) and tenth-most populous state with 49,386,799 inhabitants. It is bordered by Telangana to the north-west, Chhattisgarh to the north, Odisha to the north-east, Tamil Nadu to the south, Karnataka to the west and the Bay of Bengal to the east. It has the second longest coastline in India after Gujarat, of about 974 km (605 mi). Andhra Pradesh was the first state to be formed on a linguistic basis in India on 1 October 1953. On 1 November 1956, Andhra State was merged with the Telugu-speaking areas of the Hyderabad State to form Andhra Pradesh. Amaravati serves as the capital with the largest city being Visakhapatnam.

Simhavarman I

Simhavarman I

Simhavarman I was the earliest recorded Pallava king. His only inscription was found at Manchikallu Village in Palnadu district of Andhra Pradesh.

Palnadu district

Palnadu district

Palnadu district is a district in coastal Andhra Region in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. With Narasaraopet as its administrative headquarters, it was formed on 04 April 2022 to become one of the resultant twenty-six districts The district would be formed from Gurazala, Sattenapalli and Narasaraopet revenue divisions from Guntur district. The district covers most of the Palnadu region.

Guntur district

Guntur district

Guntur district is one of the twenty six districts in the Coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The administrative seat of the district is located at Guntur, the largest city of the district in terms of area and with a population of 670,073. It has a coastline of approximately 100 km (62 mi) on the right bank of Krishna River, that separates it from Krishna district and NTR district. It is bounded on the south by Bapatla district and on the west by Palnadu district. It has an area of 2,443 km2 (943 sq mi) and with a population of 20,91,075 as per 2011 census of India.

Prakrit

Prakrit

The Prakrits are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages that were used in the Indian subcontinent from around the 3rd century BCE to the 8th century CE. The term Prakrit is usually applied to the middle period of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, excluding earlier inscriptions and the later Pali.

Penna River

Penna River

Penna is a river of southern India. This is a unique river in world where after originating from Nandi hills, it flows as two different streams, one in North and South directions. The Penna rises in the Nandi Hills in Chikkaballapur District of Karnataka state, and runs north and east through the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh to empty into bay of bengal in Andhra Pradesh. It is 597 kilometres (371 mi) long, with a drainage basin covering 55,213 km2: 6,937 km2 in Karnataka and 48,276 km2 in Andhra Pradesh. Along with this main stream there is another stream south towards Tamilnadu with the name Then Pennai or south Pennar which further moves towards the east to empty into the Bay of Bengal.The Penna river basin lies in the rain shadow region of Eastern Ghats and receives 500 mm average rainfall annually.

Chola dynasty

Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty was a Tamil thalassocratic empire of southern India and a longest-ruling dynasties in world history. The earliest datable references to the Chola are from inscriptions dated to the 3rd century BCE during the reign of Ashoka of the Maurya Empire. As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territories until the 13th century CE. Despite these ancient origins, the rise of the Chola, as the "Chola Empire," only begins with the medieval Cholas in the mid-9th century CE.

Rivalries

With Cholas

The Pallavas captured Kanchi from the Cholas as recorded in the Velurpalaiyam Plates, around the reign of the fifth king of the Pallava line Kumaravishnu I. Thereafter Kanchi figures in inscriptions as the capital of the Pallavas. The Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchi in the mid-4th century, in the reign of Vishnugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line. The Pallavas re-captured Kanchi from the Kalabhras in the mid-6th century,possibly in the reign of Simhavishnu, the fourteenth king of the Pallava line, whom the Kasakudi plates state as "the lion of the earth". Thereafter the Pallavas held on to Kanchi until the 9th century, until the reign of their last king, Vijaya-Nripatungavarman.[37]

With Kadambas

The Pallavas were in conflict with major kingdoms at various periods of time. A contest for political supremacy existed between the early Pallavas and the Kadambas. Numerous Kadamba inscriptions provide details of Pallava-Kadamba hostilities.[38]

With Kalabhras

During the reign of Vishnugopavarman II (approx. 500–525), political convulsion engulfed the Pallavas due to the Kalabhra invasion of the Tamil country. Towards the close of the 6th century, the Pallava Simhavishnu stuck a blow against the Kalabhras. The Pandyas followed suit. Thereafter the Tamil country was divided between the Pallavas in the north with Kanchipuram as their capital, and Pandyas in the south with Madurai as their capital.[39]

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Arjunayanas

Arjunayanas

Arjunayana, Arjunavana, Arjunavayana or Arjunayanaka was an ancient republican people located in Punjab or north-eastern Rajasthan. They emerged as a political power during the Shunga period. In the Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta, the Arjunayanas figure among the autonomous political communities bordering on the Gupta Empire who accepted the overlordship of Samudragupta. They are also mentioned in Bṛhat Saṃhitā of Varahamihira. According to Dr Buddha Prakash, the Arjunayanas are mentioned as Prajjunakas in Kautiliya's text Arthashastra which also places them in the northern division of India. Vincent Smith locates their republic in Alwar and Bharatpur states now in Rajasthan, a view which has been rejected by R. C. Majumdar. They are mentioned in the literary sources in Afghanistan from 4th century BCE and after Alexander's invasions in 3rd century they have been mentioned in Agra, Mathura and Southern Haryana region till 4th century CE where their coins have been found too.

Madra Kingdom

Madra Kingdom

Madra Kingdom was a kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. Its capital was Sagala in Madra region, modern Sialkot in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The Kuru king Pandu's (Pāṇḍu) second wife was from Madra kingdom and was called Madri. The Pandava twins, Nakula and Sahadeva, were her sons. Madri's brother Shalya was the king of Madra. Though affectionate to the Pandavas, he was tricked to give support to Duryodhana and fought against the Pandavas during the Kurukshetra War. He was killed by Yudhishthira, the eldest Pandava. Other than the Madra kingdom with Sagala as its capital, it is believed that there was a Western Madra and a Northern Madra.

Andhra Ikshvaku

Andhra Ikshvaku

The Ikshvaku dynasty ruled in the eastern Krishna River valley of India, from their capital at Vijayapuri during approximately 3rd and 4th centuries CE. The Ikshvakus are also known as the Andhra Ikshvakus or Ikshvakus of Vijayapuri to distinguish them from their legendary namesakes.

Kalabhra dynasty

Kalabhra dynasty

The Kalabhra dynasty, also called Kaḷabrar, Kaḷappirar, Kallupura or Kalvar, were rulers of all or parts of Tamil region sometime between the 3rd century and 6th century CE, after the ancient dynasties of the early Cholas, the early Pandyas and Chera. Information about the origin and reign of the Kalabhras is uncertain and scarce. Their proposed roots vary from southeast region of modern Karnataka, Kalappalars of Vellalar community, to Kalavar chieftains. This age is generally called "The Augustan age of Tamil Literature", in a 1922 book by the name "Studies in South Indian Jainism" written by M.S Ramaswami Ayyangar and B. Seshagiri Rao. The Kalabhra era is sometimes referred to as the "dark period" of Tamil history, and information about it is generally inferred from any mentions in the literature and inscriptions that are dated many centuries after their era ended.

Kadamba dynasty

Kadamba dynasty

The Kadambas were an ancient royal family of Karnataka, India, that ruled northern Karnataka and the Konkan from Banavasi in present-day Uttara Kannada district. The kingdom was founded by Mayurasharma in c. 345, and at later times showed the potential of developing into imperial proportions. An indication of their imperial ambitions is provided by the titles and epithets assumed by its rulers, and the marital relations they kept with other kingdoms and empires, such as the Vakatakas and Guptas of northern India. Mayurasharma defeated the armies of the Pallavas of Kanchi possibly with the help of some native tribes and claimed sovereignty. The Kadamba power reached its peak during the rule of Kakusthavarma.

Kushan Empire

Kushan Empire

The Kushan Empire was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. It spread to encompass much of modern-day territory of, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, and northern India, at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares), where inscriptions have been found dating to the era of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka the Great.

Licchavi (tribe)

Licchavi (tribe)

Licchavi was an ancient Indo-Aryan tribe of north-eastern South Asia whose existence is attested from the Iron Age to the Classical Age. The population of Licchavi, the Licchavikas, were organised into a gaṇasaṅgha, presently referred to as the Licchavi Republic, which was the leading state of the larger Vajjika League.

Hind (Sasanian province)

Hind (Sasanian province)

Hind was the name of a southeastern Sasanian province lying near the Indus River. The boundaries of the province are obscure. The Austrian historian and numismatist Nikolaus Schindel has suggested that the province may have corresponded to the Sindh region, where the Sasanians notably minted unique gold coins of themselves. According to the modern historian C. J. Brunner, the province possibly included—whenever jurisdiction was established—the areas of the Indus River, including the southern part of Punjab.

Kamarupa

Kamarupa

Kamarupa, an early state during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, was the first historical kingdom of Assam.

Gauda Kingdom

Gauda Kingdom

The Gauḍa Kingdom or Shashankas, was a classic kingdom during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal in 4th century CE or possibly earlier.

Kidarites

Kidarites

The Kidarites, or Kidara Huns, were a dynasty that ruled Bactria and adjoining parts of Central Asia and South Asia in the 4th and 5th centuries. The Kidarites belonged to a complex of peoples known collectively in India as the Huna, and in Europe as the Chionites, and may even be considered as identical to the Chionites. The 5th century Byzantine historian Priscus called them Kidarite Huns, or "Huns who are Kidarites". The Huna/Xionite tribes are often linked, albeit controversially, to the Huns who invaded Eastern Europe during a similar period. They are entirely different from the Hephthalites, who replaced them about a century later.

Abhira dynasty

Abhira dynasty

The Abhira dynasty was a dynasty that ruled over the western Deccan, where they succeeded the Satavahanas. From 203 to roughly 260, they formed a vast kingdom. They were from the Abhira kshatriya clan. Abhira Era started by Ishwarsena in AD 249, continued with them and was called Abhira-Traikutika era. This era was later continued by Kalachuri Dynasty, calling it Kalachuri era, and later Kalachuri-Chedi era.

Birudas

The royal custom of using a series of descriptive honorific titles, Birudas, was particularly prevalent among the Pallavas. The birudas of Mahendravarman I are in Sanskrit, Tamil and Telugu. The Telugu birudas show Mahendravarman's involvement with the Andhra region continued to be strong at the time he was creating his cave-temples in the Tamil region. The suffix "Malla" was used by the Pallava rulers.[40] Mahendravarman I used the biruda, Shatrumalla, "a warrior who overthrows his enemies", and his grandson Paramesvara I was called Ekamalla "the sole warrior or wrestler". Pallava kings, presumably exalted ones, were known by the title Mahamalla ("great wrestler").[41]

Languages used

Coin of the Pallavas of Coromandel, king Narasimhavarman I. (630-668 AD).Obv Lion left Rev Name of Narasimhavarman with solar and lunar symbols around.
Coin of the Pallavas of Coromandel, king Narasimhavarman I. (630-668 AD).Obv Lion left Rev Name of Narasimhavarman with solar and lunar symbols around.

Pallava inscriptions have been found in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Tamil.

Sanskrit and Prakrit were main languages used by the Pallavas in their inscriptions, though a few records continued to be in Tamil.[42][43] At the time of the time of Paramesvaravarman I, the practice came into vogue of inscribing a part of the record in Sanskrit and the rest in Tamil. Almost all the copper plate records, viz., Kasakudi, Tandantottam, Pattattalmangalm, Udayendiram and Velurpalaiyam are composed both in Sanskrit and Tamil.[43]

Many Pallava royal inscriptions were in Sanskrit or Prakrit, considered the official languages. Similarly, inscriptions found in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka State are in Sanskrit and Prakrit.[44] Sanskrit was widely used by Simhavishnu and Narasimhavarman II in literature. The phenomenon of using Prakrit as official languages in which rulers left their inscriptions and epigraphies continued till the 6th century. It would have been in the interest of the ruling elite to protect their privileges by perpetuating their hegemony of Prakrit in order to exclude the common people from sharing power (Mahadevan 1995a: 173–188). The Pallavas in their Tamil country used Tamil and Sanskrit in their inscriptions.[45][43]

Writing system

Under the Pallava dynasty, a unique form of Grantha script, a descendant of Pallava script which is a type of Brahmic script, was used. Around the 6th century, it was exported eastwards and influenced the genesis of almost all Southeast Asian scripts.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit

Sanskrit is a classical language belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had diffused there from the northwest in the late Bronze Age. Sanskrit is the sacred language of Hinduism, the language of classical Hindu philosophy, and of historical texts of Buddhism and Jainism. It was a link language in ancient and medieval South Asia, and upon transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia, East Asia and Central Asia in the early medieval era, it became a language of religion and high culture, and of the political elites in some of these regions. As a result, Sanskrit had a lasting impact on the languages of South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, especially in their formal and learned vocabularies.

Prakrit

Prakrit

The Prakrits are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages that were used in the Indian subcontinent from around the 3rd century BCE to the 8th century CE. The term Prakrit is usually applied to the middle period of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, excluding earlier inscriptions and the later Pali.

Tamil language

Tamil language

Tamil is a Dravidian language natively spoken by the Tamil people of South Asia. Tamil is an official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the sovereign nations of Sri Lanka and Singapore, and the Indian territory of Puducherry. Tamil is also spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is also spoken by the Tamil diaspora found in many countries, including Malaysia, Myanmar, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia and Mauritius. Tamil is also natively spoken by Sri Lankan Moors. One of 22 scheduled languages in the Constitution of India, Tamil was the first to be classified as a classical language of India.

Parameswaravarman I

Parameswaravarman I

Parameswaravarman I was a Pallava emperor who ruled in South India in the latter half of the 7th century, 670-695 AD. He ascended to the throne after the death of his father Mahendravarman II in 670 CE. His grandfather Narasimhavarman I had already made the Pallava empire the most powerful force in the subcontinent and destroyed the Chalukya capital at Vatapi. Parameswaravarman was an efficient and capable ruler, known for his military exploits, his love for poetry and his devotion to Siva, to whom he erected many temples.

Simhavishnu

Simhavishnu

Simhavishnu also known as Avanisimha son of Simhavarman III and one of the Pallava kings of India, was responsible for the revival of the Pallavan dynasty. He was the first Pallava monarch whose domain extended beyond Kanchipuram (Kanchi) in the South. He was portrayed as a great conqueror in Mattavilasa Prahasana, a drama written by his son Mahendravarman I.

Narasimhavarman II

Narasimhavarman II

Narasimhavarman II, popularly known as Rajamalla, was a ruler of the Pallava kingdom. Narasimhavarman reigned from 690 CE to 725 CE. He is credited with the construction of the Shore Temple, Isvara and Mukunda Temples in Mahabalipuram, the Panamalai Temple in South Arcot, plus the Kailasanathar Temple. Narasimhavarman's reign was period of great literary and architectural advancements and he is often grouped by historians with Mahendravarman I and Narasimhavarman I as one of the greatest Pallava rulers.

Grantha script

Grantha script

The Grantha script is a South Indian script, found particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Originating from the Pallava script, the Grantha script is related to the Tamil and the Vatteluttu scripts. The modern Malayalam script of Kerala is a direct descendant of the Grantha script. The Southeast Asian and Indonesian scripts such as Thai and Javanese respectively, as well as South Asian Tigalari and Sinhala scripts are derived or closely related to Grantha through the early Pallava script. The Pallava script or Pallava Grantha, emerged in the 4th century CE and was used until the 7th century CE, in India. This early Grantha script was used to write Sanskrit texts, inscriptions on copper plates and stones of Hindu temples and monasteries. It was also used for classical Manipravalam – a language that is a blend of Sanskrit and Tamil. From it evolved Middle Grantha by the 7th century, and Transitional Grantha by about the 8th century, which remained in use until about the 14th century. Modern Grantha has been in use since the 14th century and into the modern era, to write classical texts in Sanskrit and Dravidian languages. It is also used to chant hymns and in traditional Vedic schools.

Religion

Pallavas were followers of Hinduism and made gifts of land to gods and Brahmins. In line with the prevalent customs, some of the rulers performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices.[46] They were, however, tolerant of other faiths. The Chinese monk Xuanzang who visited Kanchipuram during the reign of Narasimhavarman I reported that there were 100 Buddhist monasteries, and 80 Hindu temples in Kanchipuram.[47] The semi-legendary founder of Zen Buddhism, Bodhidharma, may have been a son of a Pallava king.[48]

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Historical Vedic religion

Historical Vedic religion

The historical Vedic religion, constituted the religious ideas and practices among some of the Indo-Aryan peoples of northwest Indian Subcontinent during the Vedic period. These ideas and practices are found in the Vedic texts, and some Vedic rituals are still practiced today. It is one of the major traditions which shaped Hinduism, though present-day Hinduism is markedly different from the historical Vedic religion.

Xuanzang

Xuanzang

Xuanzang, born Chen Hui / Chen Yi, also known as Hiuen Tsang, was a 7th-century Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator. He is known for the epoch-making contributions to Chinese Buddhism, the travelogue of his journey to India in 629–645 CE, his efforts to bring over 657 Indian texts to China, and his translations of some of these texts.

Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram also known as Conjeevaram, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in the Tondaimandalam region, 72 km (45 mi) from Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu. Known as the City of Thousand Temples, Kanchipuram is known for its temple architectures, 1000-pillared halls, huge temple towers and silk sarees. Kanchipuram serves as one of the most important tourist destinations in India. Kanchipuram has become a centre of attraction to the foreign tourists as well. The city covers an area of 36.14 km2 (13.95 sq mi) and an estimated population of more than 300,000 in 2021. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanchipuram District. Kanchipuram is well-connected by road and rail.

Bodhidharma

Bodhidharma

Bodhidharma was a semi-legendary Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th or 6th century CE. He is traditionally credited as the transmitter of Chan Buddhism to China, and regarded as its first Chinese patriarch. According to a 17th century apocryphal story found in a manual called Yijin Jing, he began the physical training of the monks of Shaolin Monastery that led to the creation of Shaolin kungfu. He is known as Dámó in China and as Daruma in Japan. His name means "dharma of awakening (bodhi)" in Sanskrit.

Pallava architecture

The Shore Temple at Mamallapuram built by Narasimhavarman II
The Shore Temple at Mamallapuram built by Narasimhavarman II
Early Pallava style pillar, 7th c.

The Pallavas were instrumental in the transition from rock-cut architecture to stone temples. The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from 610 to 690 and structural temples between 690 and 900. A number of rock-cut cave temples bear the inscription of the Pallava king, Mahendravarman I and his successors.[49][50][51][52]

Among the accomplishments of the Pallava architecture are the rock-cut temples at Mamallapuram. There are excavated pillared halls and monolithic shrines known as Rathas in Mahabalipuram. Early temples were mostly dedicated to Shiva. The Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram and the Shore Temple built by Narasimhavarman II, rock cut temple in Mahendravadi by Mahendravarman are fine examples of the Pallava style temples.[53] The temple of Nalanda Gedige in Kandy, Sri Lanka is another. The famous Tondeswaram temple of Tenavarai and the ancient Koneswaram temple of Trincomalee were patronised and structurally developed by the Pallavas in the 7th century.[51][54]

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Mamallapuram

Mamallapuram

Mamallapuram, also known as Mahabalipuram, is a town in Chengalpattu district in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, best known for the UNESCO World Heritage Site of 7th- and 8th-century Hindu Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram. It is one of the famous tourist sites in India. The ancient name of the place is Thirukadalmallai.

Narasimhavarman II

Narasimhavarman II

Narasimhavarman II, popularly known as Rajamalla, was a ruler of the Pallava kingdom. Narasimhavarman reigned from 690 CE to 725 CE. He is credited with the construction of the Shore Temple, Isvara and Mukunda Temples in Mahabalipuram, the Panamalai Temple in South Arcot, plus the Kailasanathar Temple. Narasimhavarman's reign was period of great literary and architectural advancements and he is often grouped by historians with Mahendravarman I and Narasimhavarman I as one of the greatest Pallava rulers.

Pallava art and architecture

Pallava art and architecture

Pallava art and architecture represent an early stage of Dravidian art and architecture which blossomed to its fullest extent under the Chola Dynasty. The first stone and mortar temples of South India were constructed during Pallava rule and were based on earlier brick and timber prototypes.

Shiva

Shiva

Shiva , also known as Mahadeva, or Hara, is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the Supreme Being in Shaivism, one of the major traditions within Hinduism.

Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram

Kanchipuram also known as Conjeevaram, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in the Tondaimandalam region, 72 km (45 mi) from Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu. Known as the City of Thousand Temples, Kanchipuram is known for its temple architectures, 1000-pillared halls, huge temple towers and silk sarees. Kanchipuram serves as one of the most important tourist destinations in India. Kanchipuram has become a centre of attraction to the foreign tourists as well. The city covers an area of 36.14 km2 (13.95 sq mi) and an estimated population of more than 300,000 in 2021. It is the administrative headquarters of Kanchipuram District. Kanchipuram is well-connected by road and rail.

Shore Temple

Shore Temple

The Shore Temple is a complex of temples and shrines that overlooks the shore of the Bay of Bengal. It is located in Mahabalipuram, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) south of Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India.

Mahendravadi

Mahendravadi

Mahendravadi is a historical ancient 6th Century Pallava Dynasty Town during Mahendra Varman 1, in Nemili taluk, Tamil Nadu, in northern Tamil Nadu of India.

Nalanda Gedige

Nalanda Gedige

Nalanda Gedige ; Tamil: நாலந்த கெடிகே) is an ancient complete stone temple near Matale, Sri Lanka and its original site was considered as the center of Sri Lanka. The building was constructed in between 8th and 10th centuries with dravidian architecture in and is believed to have been used by Buddhists. A pillar inscription of the 9-10th century A.D. that was unearthed from the site revealed Nalanda Gedige was a Buddhist monastery. Recorded in the Sinhala language, it includes a code of regulations made for the temple. Also some scholars describe this building is a dravidian architecture dedicated to a Mahayanaa cult with pronounced Trantric learning and known for an ancient monument of possible Vajrayana (Tantric) Buddhist affinities.

Kandy

Kandy

Kandy is a major city in Sri Lanka located in the Central Province. It was the last capital of the ancient kings' era of Sri Lanka. The city lies in the midst of hills in the Kandy plateau, which crosses an area of tropical plantations, mainly tea. Kandy is both an administrative and religious city and is also the capital of the Central Province. Kandy is the home of the Temple of the Tooth Relic, one of the most sacred places of worship in the Buddhist world. It was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1988. Historically the local Buddhist rulers resisted Portuguese, Dutch, and British colonial expansion and occupation.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka, formerly known as Ceylon and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia. It lies in the Indian Ocean, southwest of the Bay of Bengal, and southeast of the Arabian Sea; it is separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. Sri Lanka shares a maritime border with India and the Maldives. Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte is its legislative capital, and Colombo is its largest city and financial centre.

Trincomalee

Trincomalee

Trincomalee also known as Gokanna/Gokarna, is the administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. Located on the east coast of the island overlooking the Trincomalee Harbour, 237 kilometres (147 mi) north-east of Colombo, 182 kilometres (113 mi) south-east of Jaffna and 111 kilometres (69 mi) miles north of Batticaloa, Trincomalee has been one of the main centres of Sri Lankan Tamil language speaking culture on the island for over two millennia. With a population of 99,135, the city is built on a peninsula of the same name, which divides its inner and outer harbours. People from Trincomalee are known as Trincomalians and the local authority is Trincomalee Urban Council. Trincomalee city is home to the famous Koneswaram temple from where it developed and earned its historic Tamil name Thirukonamalai. The town is home to other historical monuments such as the Bhadrakali Amman Temple, Trincomalee, the Trincomalee Hindu Cultural Hall and, opened in 1897, the Trincomalee Hindu College. Trincomalee is also the site of the Trincomalee railway station and an ancient ferry service to Jaffna and the south side of the harbour at Muttur.

Pallava society

The Pallava period beginning with Simhavishnu (575 CE – 900 CE) was a transitional stage in southern Indian society with monument building, foundation of devotional (bhakti) sects of Alvars and Nayanars, the flowering of rural Brahmanical institutions of Sanskrit learning, and the establishment of chakravartin model of kingship over a territory of diverse people; which ended the pre-Pallavan era of territorially segmented people, each with their culture, under a tribal chieftain.[55] While a system of ranked relationship among groups existed in the classical period, the Pallava period extolled ranked relationships based on ritual purity as enjoined by the shastras.[56] Burton distinguishes between the chakravatin model and the kshatriya model, and likens kshatriyas to locally based warriors with ritual status sufficiently high enough to share with Brahmins; and states that in south India the kshatriya model did not emerge.[56] As per Burton, south India was aware of the Indo-Aryan varna organised society in which decisive secular authority was vested in the kshatriyas; but apart from the Pallava, Chola and Vijayanagar line of warriors which claimed chakravartin status, only few locality warrior families achieved the prestigious kin-linked organisation of northern warrior groups.[56]

Chronology

Sastri chronology

The earliest documentation on the Pallavas is the three copper-plate grants, now referred to as the Mayidavolu (from Maidavolu village in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh), Hirehadagali (from Hire Hadagali of Karnataka) and the British Museum plates (Durga Prasad, 1988) belonging to Skandavarman I and written in Prakrit.[57] Skandavarman appears to have been the first great ruler of the early Pallavas, though there are references to other early Pallavas who were probably predecessors of Skandavarman.[58] Skandavarman extended his dominions from the Krishna in the north to the Pennar in the south and to the Bellary district in the West. He performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices and bore the title of "Supreme King of Kings devoted to dharma".[57]

The Hirahadagali copper plate (Bellary District) record in Prakrit is dated in the eighth year of Sivaskanda Varman to 283 CE and confirms the gift made by his father who is described merely as "Bappa-deva" (revered father) or Boppa. It will thus be clear that this dynasty of the Prakrit charters beginning with "Bappa-deva" were the historical founders of the Pallava dominion in South India.[59][60]

The Hirahadagalli Plates were found in Hirehadagali, Bellary district and is one of the earliest copper plates in Karnataka and belongs to the reign of early Pallava ruler Shivaskanda Varma. Pallava King Sivaskandavarman of Kanchi of the early Pallavas ruled from 275 to 300 CE, and issued the charter in 283 CE in the eighth year of his reign.

As per the Hirahadagalli Plates of 283 CE, Pallava King Sivaskandavarman granted an immunity viz the garden of Chillarekakodumka, which was formerly given by Lord Bappa to the Brahmins, freeholders of Chillarekakodumka and inhabitants of Apitti. Chillarekakodumka has been identified by some as ancient village Chillarige in Bellary, Karnataka.[59]

In the reign of Simhavarman II, who ascended the throne in 436, the territories lost to the Vishnukundins in the north up to the mouth of the Krishna were recovered.[61] The early Pallava history from this period onwards is furnished by a dozen or so copper-plate grants in Sanskrit. They are all dated in the regnal years of the kings.[46]

The following chronology was composed from these charters by Nilakanta Sastri in his A History of South India:[46]

Early Pallavas

  • Simhavarman I (275–300)
  • Shivskandvarman (unknown)
  • Vijayskandavarman (unknown)
  • Skandavarman (unknown)
  • Vishnugopa I (350–355)
  • Kumaravishnu I (350–370)
  • Skandavarman II (370–385)
  • Viravarman (385–400)
  • Skandavarman III (400–436)
  • Simhavarman II (436–460)
  • Skandavarman IV (460–480)
  • Nandivarman I (480–510)
  • Kumaravishnu II (510–530)
  • Buddhavarman (530–540)
  • Kumaravishnu III (540–550)
  • Simhavarman III (550–560)

Later Pallavas

The rock-cut temples at Mamallapuram constructed during the reign of Narasimhavarman I
The rock-cut temples at Mamallapuram constructed during the reign of Narasimhavarman I
Elephant carved out of a single-stone
Elephant carved out of a single-stone

The incursion of the Kalabhras and the confusion in the Tamil country was broken by the Pandya Kadungon and the Pallava Simhavishnu.[62] Mahendravarman I extended the Pallava Kingdom and was one of the greatest sovereigns. Some of the most ornate monuments and temples in southern India, carved out of solid rock, were introduced under his rule. He also wrote the play Mattavilasa Prahasana.[63]

The Pallava kingdom began to gain both in territory and influence and were a regional power by the end of the 6th century, defeating kings of Ceylon and mainland Tamilakkam.[64] Narasimhavarman I and Paramesvaravarman I stand out for their achievements in both military and architectural spheres. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple.

Later Pallavas of the Kadava Line

The kings that came after Paramesvaravarman II belonged to the collateral line of Pallavas and were descendants of Bhimavarman, the brother of Simhavishnu. They called themselves as Kadavas, Kadavesa and Kaduvetti. Hiranyavarman, the father of Nandivarman Pallavamalla is said to have belonged to the Kadavakula in epigraphs.[65] Nandivarman II himself is described as "one who was born to raise the prestige of the Kadava family".[66]

Aiyangar chronology

According to the available inscriptions of the Pallavas, historian S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar proposes the Pallavas could be divided into four separate families or dynasties; some of whose connections are known and some unknown.[67] Aiyangar states

We have a certain number of charters in Prakrit of which three are important ones. Then follows a dynasty which issued their charters in Sanskrit; following this came the family of the great Pallavas beginning with Simha Vishnu; this was followed by a dynasty of the usurper Nandi Varman, another great Pallava. We are overlooking for the present the dynasty of the Ganga-Pallavas postulated by the Epigraphists. The earliest of these Pallava charters is the one known as the Mayidavolu 1 (Guntur district) copper-plates.

Based on a combination of dynastic plates and grants from the period, Aiyangar proposed their rule thus:

Early Pallavas

  • Bappadevan (250–275) – married a Naga of Mavilanga (Kanchi) – The Great Founder of a Pallava lineage
  • Shivaskandavarman I (275–300)
  • Simhavarman (300–320)
  • Bhuddavarman (320–335)
  • Bhuddyankuran (335–340)

Middle Pallavas

  • Visnugopa (340–355) (Yuvamaharaja Vishnugopa)
  • Kumaravisnu I (355–370)
  • Skanda Varman II (370–385)
  • Vira Varman (385–400)
  • Skanda Varman III (400–435)
  • Simha Varman II (435–460)
  • Skanda Varman IV (460–480)
  • Nandi Varman I (480–500)
  • Kumaravisnu II (c. 500–510)
  • Buddha Varman (c. 510–520)
  • Kumaravisnu III (c. 520–530)
  • Simha Varman III (c. 530–537)

Later Pallavas

Later Pallavas of the Kadava Line

Genealogy of Māmallapuram Praśasti

The genealogy of Pallavas mentioned in the Māmallapuram Praśasti is as follows:[41]

  • Vishnu
  • Brahma
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Bharadvaja
  • Drona
  • Ashvatthaman
  • Pallava
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Simhavarman I (c. 275)
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Simhavarman IV (436–c. 460)
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Skandashishya
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Simhavisnu (c. 550–585)
  • Mahendravarman I (c. 571–630)
  • Maha-malla Narasimhavarman I (630–668)
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Paramesvaravarman I (669–690)
  • Rajasimha Narasimhavaram II (690–728)
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Pallavamalla Nandivarman II (731–796)
  • Unknown / undecipherable
  • Nandivarman III (846–869)

Relation with the Cholas

According to historian S. Krishnaswami Aiyengar, the Pallavas were natives of Tondaimandalam and the name Pallava is identical with the word Tondaiyar.[24] Chola Prince Ilandiraiyan is traditionally regarded as the founder of the Pallava dynasty.[25] Ilandiraiyan is referred to in the literature of the Sangam period such as the Pathupattu. In the Sangam epic Manimekalai, he is depected as the son of Chola king Killi and the Naga princess Pilivalai, the daughter of king Valaivanan of Manipallavam. When the boy grew up the princess wanted to send her son to the Chola kingdom. So she entrusted the prince to a merchant who dealt in woolen blankets called Kambala Chetty when his ship stopped in the island of Manipallavam. During the voyage to the Chola kingdom, the ship was wrecked due to rough weather and the boy was lost. He was later found washed ashore with a Tondai twig (creeper) around his leg. So he came to be called Tondaiman Ilam Tiraiyan meaning the young one of the seas or waves. When he grew up the northern part of the Chola kingdom was entrusted to him and the area he governed came to be called Tondaimandalam after him.He was a poet himself and four of his songs are extant even today.[68] He ruled from Tondaimandalam and was known as "Tondaman."[25]

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Guntur district

Guntur district

Guntur district is one of the twenty six districts in the Coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The administrative seat of the district is located at Guntur, the largest city of the district in terms of area and with a population of 670,073. It has a coastline of approximately 100 km (62 mi) on the right bank of Krishna River, that separates it from Krishna district and NTR district. It is bounded on the south by Bapatla district and on the west by Palnadu district. It has an area of 2,443 km2 (943 sq mi) and with a population of 20,91,075 as per 2011 census of India.

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is a state in the south-eastern coastal region of India. It is the seventh-largest state by area covering an area of 162,975 km2 (62,925 sq mi) and tenth-most populous state with 49,386,799 inhabitants. It is bordered by Telangana to the north-west, Chhattisgarh to the north, Odisha to the north-east, Tamil Nadu to the south, Karnataka to the west and the Bay of Bengal to the east. It has the second longest coastline in India after Gujarat, of about 974 km (605 mi). Andhra Pradesh was the first state to be formed on a linguistic basis in India on 1 October 1953. On 1 November 1956, Andhra State was merged with the Telugu-speaking areas of the Hyderabad State to form Andhra Pradesh. Amaravati serves as the capital with the largest city being Visakhapatnam.

Karnataka

Karnataka

Karnataka is a state in the southwestern region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as Mysore State, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. Its capital and largest city is Bengaluru.

Prakrit

Prakrit

The Prakrits are a group of vernacular Middle Indo-Aryan languages that were used in the Indian subcontinent from around the 3rd century BCE to the 8th century CE. The term Prakrit is usually applied to the middle period of Middle Indo-Aryan languages, excluding earlier inscriptions and the later Pali.

Krishna River

Krishna River

The Krishna River is a river in the Deccan plateau and is the third-longest river in India, after the Ganges and Godavari. It is also the fourth-largest in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganges, Indus and Godavari. The river, also called Krishnaveni, it is 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) long and its length in Maharashtra is 282 kilometres. It is a major source of irrigation in the Indian states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.

Bellary

Bellary

Bellary, officially Ballari, in the eponymous Bellary district, is a city in the state of Karnataka, India. It is 311 km (193 mi) from the state capital of Bangalore, 358 km (222 mi) from Hyderabad, 522 km from Chennai and 761 km from Mumbai, The city is 12 km far from the state border of Andhra Pradesh. The district has 5 taluks and 104 villages.

Simhavarman II

Simhavarman II

Simhavarman II was a ruler of the Pallava Dynasty of Kanchipuram.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit

Sanskrit is a classical language belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had diffused there from the northwest in the late Bronze Age. Sanskrit is the sacred language of Hinduism, the language of classical Hindu philosophy, and of historical texts of Buddhism and Jainism. It was a link language in ancient and medieval South Asia, and upon transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia, East Asia and Central Asia in the early medieval era, it became a language of religion and high culture, and of the political elites in some of these regions. As a result, Sanskrit had a lasting impact on the languages of South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, especially in their formal and learned vocabularies.

A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar

A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar

A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar is a book of history written by Indian historian K. A. Nilakanta Sastri. First published as a book in 1955, revised editions were brought out in 1958, 1966 and the last, just before the author's death in 1975. A History of South India is widely recognized as a classic and was the standard textbook in colleges for teaching South Indian history for over four decades.

Simhavarman I

Simhavarman I

Simhavarman I was the earliest recorded Pallava king. His only inscription was found at Manchikallu Village in Palnadu district of Andhra Pradesh.

Mamallapuram

Mamallapuram

Mamallapuram, also known as Mahabalipuram, is a town in Chengalpattu district in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, best known for the UNESCO World Heritage Site of 7th- and 8th-century Hindu Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram. It is one of the famous tourist sites in India. The ancient name of the place is Thirukadalmallai.

Narasimhavarman I

Narasimhavarman I

Narasimhavarman I was a emperor of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India from 630 CE – 668 CE. He shared his father Mahendravarman I's love of art and completed the work started by Mahendravarman in Mamallapuram. During his reign famous Pancha Rathas Temple was constructed which is Rock Cut Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Other relationships

Pallava royal lineages were influential in the old kingdom of Kedah of the Malay Peninsula under Rudravarman I, Champa under Bhadravarman I and the Kingdom of the Funan in Cambodia.[69] Some historians have claimed the present Pallar caste are descendants of the Pallavas who ruled the Andhra and Tamil countries between the 6th and 9th centuries. Tamil scholar M. Srinivasa Iyengar claimed claimed the Pallars were one of the communities who served often in Pallava armies.[70]

The similarity of the name ending "-varman" of Pallava rulers with that of Hindu kings during the Hindu/Buddhist era of Indonesia such as king Mulavarman of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom, king Purnawarman of the Tarumanagara kingdom, king Adityawarman of the Malayapura kingdom, etc. has been commented upon by historians since discovery.[71] There have been possible high relations and connections of the Hindu kingdoms of Indonesia with the Pallava dynasty and other Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms of India back then.

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History of Kedah

History of Kedah

By around 788 BCE, a large settlement had been established on the northern bank of the Merbok River. The settlement was one of several in the Bujang Valley, covering the Merbok and Muda Rivers, about 1000 square miles. The Merbok settlement was built near the estuary of the tributary river, the Sungai Batu. Around 170 CE groups of Hindu faith arrived at Kedah, joining them soon were peoples from nearby islands and from the northern Mon-Khmer region. At the same time traders from India, Persia and Arab, arrived the brink of the Malacca Strait, using Gunung Jerai the Kedah Peak as marking point. Ancient Kedah covered the areas of Kuala Kedah, Kuala Bara, Kuala Pila and Merpah.

History of Champa

History of Champa

The history of Champa begins in prehistory with the migration of the ancestors of the Cham people to mainland Southeast Asia and the founding of their Indianized maritime kingdom based in what is now central Vietnam in the early centuries AD, and ends when the final vestiges of the kingdom were annexed and absorbed by Vietnam in 1832.

Bhadravarman I

Bhadravarman I

Bhadravarman or Phạm Hồ Đạt, was the king of Champa from 380 to 413. In 380, Bhadravarman, the son or grandson of Fan Fo, took the throne with the regal name Dharmamahārāja Śrī Bhadravarman I, "Great King of the Law Bhadravarman".

Funan

Funan

Funan was the name given by Chinese cartographers, geographers and writers to an ancient Indianized state—or, rather a loose network of states (Mandala)—located in mainland Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE. The name is found in Chinese historical texts describing the kingdom, and the most extensive descriptions are largely based on the report of two Chinese diplomats, Kang Tai and Zhu Ying, representing the Eastern Wu dynasty who sojourned in Funan in the mid-3rd century CE.

Varman (surname)

Varman (surname)

Varman or its variants, Varma, Verma, Varman, Burman or Barman, are surnames that are used in India and southeast Asia.

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and the 14th-largest country by area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres. With over 275 million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth-most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

Mulavarman

Mulavarman

Sri Mulavarman Nala Dewa, was the king of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom located in eastern Borneo around the year 400 CE. What little is known of him comes from the seven Yupa inscriptions found at a sanctuary in Kutai, East Kalimantan. He is known to have been generous to brahmins through the giving of gifts including thousands of cattle and large amounts of gold.

Kutai

Kutai

Kutai is a historical region in what is now known as East Kalimantan, Indonesia on the island of Borneo and is also the name of the native ethnic group of the region, numbering around 300,000 who have their own language known as the Kutainese language which accompanies their own rich history. Today, the name is preserved in the names of three regencies in East Kalimantan province which are the Kutai Kartanegara Regency, the West Kutai Regency and the East Kutai Regency with the major river flowing in the heart of the region known as the Mahakam River. Kutai is known to be the place of the first and oldest Hindu kingdom to exist in East Indies Archipelago, the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom which was later succeeded by the Muslim Kutai Kartanegara Sultanate.

Purnawarman

Purnawarman

Purnawarman or Purnavarman is the 5th-century king of Tarumanagara, a Hindu Indianized kingdom, located in modern-day West Java, Jakarta and Banten provinces, Indonesia. Purnawarman reigned during the 5th century, and during his reign he created several stone inscriptions.

Tarumanagara

Tarumanagara

Tarumanagara or Taruma Kingdom or just Taruma is an early Sundanese Indianised kingdom, located in western Java, whose 5th-century ruler, Purnawarman, produced the earliest known inscriptions in Java, which are estimated to date from around 450 CE.

Adityawarman

Adityawarman

Adityawarman was a king of Malayapura Suvarnabhumi, and is the successor of the Mauli dynasty based on central Sumatra. He was the cousin of Jayanegara, king of Majapahit from 1309–1328, and the grandson of Tribhuwanaraja, king of Melayu Kingdom. Adityawarman was awarded the Senior Minister of Majapahit (wreddamantri) and used this authority to launch Majapahit military expansion plans and conquered east coast region in Sumatra. Adityawarman then founded the royal dynasty of Minangkabau in Pagaruyung and presided over the central Sumatra region to take control of the gold trade between 1347 and 1375.

Pagaruyung Kingdom

Pagaruyung Kingdom

Pagaruyung was the seat of the Minangkabau kings of Western Sumatra, though little is known about it. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar regency, located near the town of Batusangkar, Indonesia.

List of feudatories

Source: "Pallava dynasty", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 28th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pallava_dynasty.

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Notes
  1. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 146, map XIV.2 (e). ISBN 0226742210.
  2. ^ Vaidya C.V., Medieval History of Hindu India Volume 1, pg.281
  3. ^ A Manual of the Kistna District, in the Presidency of Madras
  4. ^ Ancient Jaffna: Being a Research Into the History of Jaffna from Very Early Times to the Portuguese Period, C. Rasanayagam, p.241, Asian Educational Services 1926
  5. ^ The journal of the Numismatic Society of India, Volume 51, p.109
  6. ^ Alī Jāvīd and Tabassum Javeed. (2008). World heritage monuments and related edifices in India, p.107 [1]
  7. ^ Gabriel Jouveau-Dubreuil, The Pallavas, Asian Educational Services, 1995 - Art, Indic - 86 pages, p. 83
  8. ^ Past and present: Manasara (English translation), 14 May 2020
  9. ^ South Indian History Congress. (17 February 1980), Proceedings of the First Annual Conference, vol. 1, The Congress and The Madurai Kamaraj University Co-op Printing Press
  10. ^ N. Ramesan, Copper Plate Inscriptions of the State Museum, Volume 3, Issues 28-29 of Arch. series, Government of Andhra Pradesh, 1960, p. 55
  11. ^ Gautam Sengupta, Suchira Roychoudhury, Sujit Som, Past and present: ethnoarchaeology in India, Pragati Publications in collaboration with Centre for Archaeological Studies and Training, Eastern India, 2006, p. 133{{citation}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ ValaiTamil. "Pallava, பல்லவம் Tamil Agaraathi, tamil-english dictionary, english words, tamil words". ValaiTamil. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  13. ^ "Pallavas". tamilnation.org. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  14. ^ "About Tamil Nadu | Tamil Nadu Government Portal". www.tn.gov.in. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
  15. ^ a b c Sathianathaier 1970, pp. 255–256.
  16. ^ Aiyangar & Nilakanta Sastri 1960, pp. 315–316: "This view, which till recently was no more than an intelligent guess, seems to gain support from a Prakrit Brahmi inscription recently discovered in the Palnad taluk of the Guntur district. In spite of its mutilated condition, it clearly mentions Sihavamma Simhavarman I of the Palava dynasty and Bharadaya gotta... This is the earliest Pallava inscription so far known."
  17. ^ Rama Rao 1967, pp. 47–48: "The Manchikallu Prakrt inscription mentions a Simhavamma or Simhavarman of the Pallava family and the Bharadvaja gotra and registers gifts made by him after performing Santi and Svastyayana for his victory and increase of strength."
  18. ^ Aiyangar & Nilakanta Sastri 1960, pp. 315–316.
  19. ^ Subramanian, K. R. (1989) [1932], Buddhist Remains in Andhra and the History of Andhra Between 225 and 610 A.D., Asian Educational Services, p. 71, ISBN 978-81-206-0444-5
  20. ^ Gopalachari, K. (1957), "The Satavahana Empire", in K. A. Nilakanta Sastri (ed.), A Comprehensive History of India, II: The Mauryas and Satavahanas 325 SC.-AD 300, Calcutta: Indian History Congress/Orient Longman, pp. 296–297, note 1: "The Andhradesa of our period was limited in the north by Kalinga and in the east by the sea; in the south it did not extend far beyond the northern part of the Nellore district (the Pallava Karmarashtra), in the west it extended far into the interior."
  21. ^ Aiyangar & Nilakanta Sastri 1960, pp. 314–316: "There is much in favour of the thesis that the Pallavas rose into prominence in the service of the Satavahanas in the south-eastern division of their empire, and attained independence when that power declined."
  22. ^ Aiyangar & Nilakanta Sastri 1960, pp. 314–316.
  23. ^ Sathianathaier 1970, p. 256: "S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar regards the Pallavas as the feudatories of the Satavahanas—officers and governors of the south-eastern part of their empire, equates the term Pallava with the terms Tondaiyar and Tondaman (people and rulers of Tonda-mandalam), and says that, after the fall of the Satavahana Empire, those feudatories 'founded the new dynasty of the Pallavas, as distinct from the older chieftains, the Tondamans of the region.'"
  24. ^ a b T. V. Mahalingam. Kāñcīpuram in early South Indian history. Asia Pub. House, 1969. p. 22.
  25. ^ a b c Ramaswamy 2007, p. 80.
  26. ^ a b Sircar 1970, pp. 275–276.
  27. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 2004, p. 120.
  28. ^ Stein, Burton (2016). "Book Reviews : Kancipuram in Early South Indian History, by T. V. Mahalingam (Madras : Asia Publishing House, 1969), pp. vii-243". The Indian Economic & Social History Review. 7 (2): 317–321. doi:10.1177/001946467000700208. ISSN 0019-4646. S2CID 144817627.: "...the rather well argued and plausible stand that the Palavas were indigenous to the central Tamil plain, Tondaimandalam..."
  29. ^ Sircar, Dines Chandra (1935), The Early Pallavas, Calcutta: Jitendra Nath De, pp. 5–6: "There can hardly be any doubt that this Aruvanadu between the Northern and Southern Pennars is the Arouarnoi of Ptolemy's Geography. This Arouarnoi is practically the same as the Kanci-mandala, i.e. the district round Kanci."
  30. ^ Aiyangar, S. K. (1928), "Introduction", in R. Gopalan (ed.), History of the Pallavas of Kanchi, University of Madras, pp. xi–xii: "... River South Pennar where began the division known as Aruvānādu, which extended northwards along the coast almost as far as the Northern Pennar."
  31. ^ Sathianathaier 1970, pp. 256–257.
  32. ^ H.V. Nanjundayya; L.K. Anathakrishna (1988). The Mysore tribes and castes, Vol 4. Mysore, Mysore University. p. 30. OCLC 830766457. The following extract from the Census Report of Madras for 1891, gives them a higher status than they usually claim :— “They (the Kurubas) are the modern representatives of the ancient Kurumbas or Pallavas, who were once so powerful, throughout South India, but very little trace of their greatness now remains.
  33. ^ Dhere, Ramchandra Chintaman (2011). Rise of a Folk God: Vitthal of Pandharpur, South Asia Research. Feldhaus, Anne (trans.). Oxford University Press. p. 243. ISBN 978-0-19977-764-8. The history of South India shows clearly that all the southern royal dynasties who arose from pastoralist, cowherd groups gained Kshatriya status by claiming to be Moon lineage Kshatriyas, by taking Yadu as their ancestor, and by continually keeping alive their pride in being 'Yadavas'. Many dynasties in South India, from the Pallavas to the Yadavarayas, were originally members of pastoralist, cowherd groups and belonged to Kuruba lineages.
  34. ^ Rapson, Edward James (1897). Indian Coins-Numismatics. K.J. Trübner. p. 37.
  35. ^ Vaidya C.V., History of Medieval Hindu India, pg.281
  36. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 25, 145. ISBN 0226742210.
  37. ^ Rev. H Heras, SJ (1931) Pallava Genealogy: An attempt to unify the Pallava Pedigrees of the Inscriptions, Indian Historical Research Institute
  38. ^ KR Subramanian. (1989). Buddhist remains in Āndhra and the history of Āndhra between 224 & 610 A.D, p.106-109
  39. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999), Ancient Indian History And Civilization, New Age International, p. 445, ISBN 9788122411980
  40. ^ Marilyn Hirsh (1987) Mahendravarman I Pallava: Artist and Patron of Māmallapuram, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 48, Number 1/2 (1987), pp. 109-130
  41. ^ a b Rabe, Michael D (1997). "The Māmallapuram Praśasti: A Panegyric in Figures". Artibus Asiae. 57 (3/4): 189–241. doi:10.2307/3249929. JSTOR 3249929.
  42. ^ Heras, Henry. Studies In Pallava History. B G Paul And Co Madras. pp. 19, 20.
  43. ^ a b c Venkayya, V (April 1911). "Velurpalaiyam Plates of Nandivarman III". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 43: 521–524. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00041617. JSTOR 25189883. S2CID 163316246.
  44. ^ Rajan K. (Jan-Feb 2008). Situating the Beginning of Early Historic Times in Tamil Nadu: Some Issues and Reflections, Social Scientist, Vol. 36, Number 1/2, pp. 40-78
  45. ^ Heras, p 38
  46. ^ a b c Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p.92
  47. ^ Kulke and Rothermund, pp121–122
  48. ^ Hemanth, Ungal Anban (3 January 2021). "History of Bodhidharma — Mysteries & Secrets (Indian Pallava Prince)". Lessons from History. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  49. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, pp412–413
  50. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, The Rosen Publishing Group, p. 399, ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8
  51. ^ a b "Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram". UNESCO.org. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  52. ^ "Advisory body evaluation" (PDF). UNESCO.org. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  53. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, p139
  54. ^ Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, Dist. Kanchipuram Archived 29 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Archaeological Survey of India (2014)
  55. ^ Burton Stein (1980), Peasant state and society in medieval South India, Oxford University Press, pp. 63–64
  56. ^ a b c Burton Stein (1980), Peasant state and society in medieval South India, Oxford University Press, p. 70
  57. ^ a b Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p.91
  58. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p.91–92
  59. ^ a b Aiyangar, S. Krishnaswami (2003), "Early History Of The Pallavas", Some Contributions Of South India To Indian Culture, Cosmo Publications (15 July 2003), ISBN 978-8170200062
  60. ^ Moraes, George M. (1995), The Kadamba Kula: A History of Ancient and Mediaeval Karnataka, Asian Educational Services, p. 6, ISBN 9788120605954
  61. ^ Arunkumar, R. (2014), "Political History of Ancient South India" (PDF), Caste system in ancient South India, Gulbarga University/Shodhganga, hdl:10603/28091
  62. ^ Kulke and Rothermund, p.120
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sen, Sailendra (2013), A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, Primus Books, pp. 41–42, ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4
  64. ^ Kulke and Rothermund, p111
  65. ^ a b c V. Ramamurthy, History of Kongu, Volume 1, International Society for the Investigation of Ancient Civilization, 1986, p. 172
  66. ^ Eugen Hultzsch, South Indian Inscriptions, Volume 12, Manager of Publications, 1986, p. viii
  67. ^ S.Krishnaswami Aiyangar. Some Contributions Of South India To Indian Culture. Early History of the Pallavas
  68. ^ Sastri 1961, p. 126.
  69. ^ Cœdès, George (1 January 1968), The Indianized States of South-East Asia, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 9780824803681
  70. ^ Venkatasubramanian 1986, p. 35.
  71. ^ VOGEL, J. Ph. (1918). "The Yupa Inscriptions of King Mulavarman, from Koetei (East Borneo)". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië. 74 (1/2): 167–232. ISSN 1383-5408. JSTOR 20769898.
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