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Pakatan Harapan

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Alliance of Hope
Malay namePakatan Harapan
ڤاكتن هارڤن
Chinese name希望联盟
希望聯盟
Tamil nameநம்பிக்கை கூட்டணி
AbbreviationPH
PresidentWan Azizah Wan Ismail
ChairmanAnwar Ibrahim
Deputy President
Founded22 September 2015 (2015-09-22)
Legalised16 May 2018 (2018-05-16)[1]
Preceded byPakatan Rakyat
Headquarters
Newspaper
  • Newspapers:
  • The Rocket
  • RoketKini
  • Suara Keadilan
  • Media Harapan
  • Harapan Daily
  • Kenyalang Tribune
  • Borneo Update
Student wingPakatan Harapan Student Movement
Youth wingPakatan Harapan Youth Movement[2][3]
Women's wingPakatan Harapan Youth Movement[2][3]
Ideology
Political positionCentre-left
Colours  Red and   white
Dewan Negara
5 / 70
Dewan Rakyat
82 / 222
State Legislative Assemblies
198 / 607
Chief minister of states
3 / 13
Election symbol
Pakatan-harapan-logo.svg
Website
pakatanharapan.my
2022 campaign website

The Alliance of Hope (Malay: Pakatan Harapan; abbrev: PH; stylized as HARAPAN) is a Malaysian political coalition consisting of centre-left political parties which was formed in 2015 to succeed the Pakatan Rakyat coalition. It has been the ruling coalition since November 2022 after it formed the coalition government with other political coalitions and parties as a result of the 2022 Malaysian general election, and after it won the 2018 Malaysian general election to February 2020 when it lost power as a result of the 2020 Malaysian political crisis at the federal level for 22 months. The coalition deposed the Barisan Nasional coalition government during the 2018 election, ending its 60-year-long reign (together with its predecessor, Alliance) since independence.

It is currently the largest coalition in the Dewan Rakyat with 82 seats. At the state level, it is the ruling coalition in 7 of the 13 states in the country, Penang, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Pahang, Melaka and Sabah. It also holds two-thirds majorities in the state legislative assemblies of Penang and Selangor, while it rules Perak, Pahang and Melaka in coalition governments with Barisan Nasional (BN) and Sabah with Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS).

The coalition consists of the Democratic Action Party, People's Justice Party, National Trust Party, and United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation. Its main ally is the Malaysian United Democratic Alliance.

The coalition lost its majority in parliament and fell from power in February 2020 when its chairman and then-Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad resigned after 22 months in office (compared to his 22 years as Prime Minister while with UMNO), and the Malaysian United Indigenous Party together with 11 members of parliament from the People's Justice Party left the coalition.[4][5][6]

After the 2022 general election that resulted in a hung parliament, the Alliance of Hope returned to power with a two-thirds majority by forming a coalition government with National Front (BN), Sarawak Parties' Alliance (GPS), Sabah People's Alliance (GRS), Heritage Party (WARISAN), Malaysian People's Party (PBM), Social Democratic Harmony Party (KDM), and independents led by Prime Minister and PH Chairman Anwar Ibrahim. Meanwhile Muhyiddin Yassin's Perikatan Nasional takes the role as the opposition, with 74 seats.

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Abbreviation

Abbreviation

An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev.; NPO, for nil per (by) os (mouth) is an abbreviated medical instruction. It may also consist of initials only, a mixture of initials and words, or words or letters representing words in another language. Some types of abbreviations are acronyms or grammatical contractions or crasis.

2022 Malaysian general election

2022 Malaysian general election

General elections were held in Malaysia on Saturday, 19 November 2022. The prospect of snap elections had been considered high due to the political crisis that had been ongoing since 2020; political instability caused by coalition or party switching among members of Parliament, combined with the fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic, contributed to the resignation of two prime ministers and the collapse of each of their respective coalition governments since the 2018 general elections.

2018 Malaysian general election

2018 Malaysian general election

General elections were held in Malaysia on Wednesday, 9 May 2018. At stake were all 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of parliament. The 13th Parliament was dissolved by Prime Minister Najib Razak on 7 April 2018. It would have been automatically dissolved on 24 June 2018, five years after the first meeting of the first session of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia on 24 June 2013.

Barisan Nasional

Barisan Nasional

The National Front is a political coalition of Malaysia that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of centre-right and right-wing political parties. It is also the third largest political coalition with 30 seats in the Dewan Rakyat after coalition Pakatan Harapan with 82 seats and the coalition Perikatan Nasional with 73 seats.

Alliance Party (Malaysia)

Alliance Party (Malaysia)

The Alliance Party was a political coalition in Malaysia. The Alliance Party, whose membership comprised United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), was formally registered as a political organisation on 30 October 1957. It was the ruling coalition of Malaya from 1957 to 1963, and Malaysia from 1963 to 1973. The coalition became the Barisan Nasional in 1973.

Dewan Rakyat

Dewan Rakyat

The Dewan Rakyat is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament, the federal legislature of Malaysia. The chamber and its powers are established by Article 44 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The Dewan Rakyat sits in the Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur, along with the Dewan Negara, the upper house.

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah, also officially known as the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah Party or for shorts GRS Party is an official registered political coalition and also a single entity political party in Sabah, Malaysia. Datuk Seri Panglima Hajiji Noor is the founder and the inaugural chairman holder of this registered political coalition. This coalition is also registered with constitution that allow Independent politician to join directly without component party and become GRS direct members. The strongholds of the GRS party in terms of people's support are the interior of Sabah, the east coast of Sabah and half of the west coast of Sabah. Since 2020, this coalition is currently the ruling coalition in Sabah.

Hung parliament

Hung parliament

A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures primarily under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no single political party or pre-existing coalition has an absolute majority of legislators in a parliament or other legislature. This situation is also known as a balanced parliament, or as a legislature under no overall control (NOC), and can result in a minority government. The term is irrelevant/almost ubiquitous in multi-party systems and proportional representation systems where it is rare for a single party to hold a majority of the seats.

Gabungan Parti Sarawak

Gabungan Parti Sarawak

The Sarawak Parties Alliance is a Sarawak-based national political alliance in Malaysia. It was established in 2018 by four former Barisan Nasional (BN) component parties operating solely in Sarawak following the federal coalition's defeat in the 2018 Malaysian general election. It is currently the fourth largest political coalition with 23 seats in the Dewan Rakyat, and forms the government in the state of Sarawak.

Heritage Party (Malaysia)

Heritage Party (Malaysia)

The Heritage Party is a multi-racial political party in Malaysia which was rebranded and renamed from the Sabah Heritage Party, a Sabah-based party led by Shafie Apdal formed earlier on 17 October 2016 after its expansion into national level politics at the end of 2021.

Independent politician

Independent politician

An independent or non-partisan politician is a politician not affiliated with any political party or bureaucratic association. There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent.

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar bin Ibrahim is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia since 24 November 2022. He served as the 12th and 16th Leader of the Opposition from August 2008 to March 2015 and again from May 2020 to November 2022. He has also served as Minister of Finance from March 1991 to September 1998 and again since December 2022 and 2nd Chairman of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition since May 2020, 2nd President of the People's Justice Party (PKR) since November 2018 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tambun since November 2022. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and in many other Cabinet positions in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from 1982 until his removal in 1998.

History

Formation

Pakatan Harapan is a direct successor to the three-party Pakatan Rakyat coalition that consisted of the People's Justice Party, the Democratic Action Party and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party. Pakatan Harapan was founded on 22 September 2015, two years after the 2013 general election, due to disagreements and conflicts between PAS and DAP mainly regarding the issue of the implementation of the sharia law, resulting in PAS splitting off from Pakatan Rakyat and the break-up of the coalition on 16 June 2015.[7][8] The dissolution resulted in the formation of a new coalition named Pakatan Harapan, consisting the former Pakatan Rakyat parties, PKR and DAP, and a PAS split-off party, the National Trust Party.[9][10]

On 12 November 2016, a United Malays National Organisation split-off party, the Malaysian United Indigenous Party, founded and led by former Malaysian Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, confirmed that the party was committed to joining the opposition bloc Pakatan Harapan.[11][12] Later, on 13 December, the party formed an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan,[13] and finally on 14 March 2017, BERSATU officially joined Pakatan Harapan as a member party.[14]

2018 general election

On 14 July 2017, the Presidential council line-up was confirmed. A common logo was also introduced with the word "Harapan" with the "A" shaped as a chevron in white on a red background. The logo was initially planned to be used by all participating candidates for the 2018 general election, but the use of the logo and registration of the coalition was denied by the Election Commission.[15] To pursue the coalition's plan to contest under a common logo, Pakatan announced that the PKR logo will be used by all component parties of the coalition as its election symbol in the elections,[16] excluding for DAP who chose to contest under their own party flag in Sabah and Sarawak.[17][18][19]

The coalition secured an electoral pact with the Sabah-based Sabah Heritage Party for the 2018 general election. WARISAN's president, Shafie Apdal, promised that the party would be represented on the federal cabinet if the coalition came to power,[20] adding that through the electoral pact they will only co-operate with Pakatan as an ally, and not joining the pact as a component party since they will only contest in Sabah, not in Peninsular Malaysia.[21] In that election, Pakatan Harapan swept the election and formed the government in a surprise upset overturning the former ruling party UMNO's decades of uninterrupted rule, as the Malay vote was dissatisfied and mainly went to Amanah and popular former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's party Bersatu, while the Chinese vote was solidly behind parties like DAP and PKR. Following the surprise victory of Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN in the general election, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation announced that they have left Barisan Nasional and will form a new Sabah state government with WARISAN and Pakatan Harapan.[22] UPKO and WARISAN are currently both the allies for Pakatan Harapan since both parties are also allied towards each other's in Sabah.[23]

At the state level, due to 2018 general election results the coalition formed the government in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Johor and Sabah.[note 1] Pakatan Harapan also forms a government with a two-thirds majority in the states of Penang, Selangor and Johor.

Post-election

On 16 May 2018, the coalition was officially registered.[24] After winning the power in 2018, the coalition made some efforts in ensuring an independent trial for Najib's corruption charges, an independent anti-corruption commission, and repealing anti-fake news law. On the other hand, other issues such as decentralisation of powers to Sabah and Sarawak, educational reform, issues relating to indigenous people (orang asli), racial equality, and political patronage remained unchanged. Meanwhile, the Pakatan Harapan government was distracted by factional infighting.[25]

On 24 February 2020, Mahathir resigned as the Prime Minister. BERSATU which had 26 MPs, withdrew from the ruling Pakatan Harapan coalition. In addition, 11 MPs from PKR resigned from the party to form an independent bloc. This leaves Pakatan Harapan 37 seats short of the 112 seats needed to form a government. The surprise announcement came amid speculation that Mahathir was attempting to form a new ruling coalition that would exclude his designated successor Anwar Ibrahim.[4][5][6] However, Anwar later clarified to reporters that Mahathir did not orchestrate the act. These events also resulted in the number of Pakatan Harapan coalition member parties returned to the original three.[26]

At the state level, Pakatan Harapan lost control of Johor, Malacca, Perak and Kedah. A few PKR, DAP and AMANAH representatives in the state legislative assemblies quit their party and expressed support for the new government Perikatan Nasional in those four states.[27][28][29][30]

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Pakatan Rakyat

Pakatan Rakyat

The People's Alliance was an informal Malaysian political coalition and successor to Barisan Alternatif (BA). The political coalition was formed by the People's Justice Party (PKR), Democratic Action Party (DAP), and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) on 1 April 2008, after the 12th Malaysian general election, having previously formed the Barisan Alternatif in the 10th general election. On 20 April 2010, the Sarawak National Party (SNAP) officially joined as a member of the Pakatan Rakyat after being expelled from Barisan Nasional, but quit the coalition on 6 May 2011. The DAP declared the coalition "dead" on 16 June 2015, citing the inability of the rest of the alliance to work with PAS, after PAS's congress passed the motion to sever ties with DAP without debate. It was succeeded by Pakatan Harapan and Gagasan Sejahtera.

Democratic Action Party

Democratic Action Party

The Democratic Action Party is a centre-left social democratic political party in Malaysia. As one of four component parties of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition, it formed the federal government after defeating Barisan Nasional in the 2018 Malaysian general election, ending the party's 53 year-long stay in the opposition. However, before the coalition finished its first term, defections from partnering parties caused it to lose power after 22 months, culminating in the 2020 Malaysian political crisis. At the 2022 Malaysian general election, the PH coalition which the DAP was part of was returned to power again, albeit with a smaller majority leading it to form a unity government with political rivals.

Sharia

Sharia

Sharia is a body of religious law that forms a part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam and is based on the sacred scriptures of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations. In the historical course, fiqh sects have emerged that reflect the preferences of certain societies and state administrations on behalf of people who are interested in the theoretical (method) and practical application studies of laws and rules, but sharia has never been a valid legal system on its own. It has been used together with "customary (Urf) law" since Omar or the Umayyads.

National Trust Party (Malaysia)

National Trust Party (Malaysia)

The National Trust Party, is a registered political party in Malaysia advocating a reformist strand of political Islam. The party was founded as the Malaysia Workers' Party before being handed over in August 2015 to Gerakan Harapan Baru, a group of progressive Islamist leaders of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party which lost in the June 2015 party election. This group of Islamists then redefined the Malaysia Workers' Party as an Islamic reformist party on 16 September 2015. The party currently has eight elected Members of Parliament. It is one of the four component parties of the ruling coalition in Malaysia called Pakatan Harapan.

United Malays National Organisation

United Malays National Organisation

The United Malays National Organisation ; abbreviated UMNO or less commonly PEKEMBAR, is a nationalist right-wing political party in Malaysia. As the oldest continuous national political party within Malaysia, UMNO has once been called Malaysia's "Grand Old Party".

Malaysian United Indigenous Party

Malaysian United Indigenous Party

The Malaysian United Indigenous Party, abbreviated BERSATU or PPBM, is a nationalist political party in Malaysia. The party was preceded by the United Indigenous Association of Malaysia. It is a major component party within the Perikatan Nasional coalition and the Barisan Nasional coalition, after the collapse of the Pakatan-led government. BERSATU was approved and fully registered on 14 January 2017 by the Registrar of Societies (ROS) and the use of the BERSATU logo was authorized by the Malaysian Election Commission (SPR). The party held the Prime Ministerial position as well as the majority of positions in the cabinet from May 2020 to August 2021. The party's founding members came from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) and Barisan Nasional rebel group Gabungan Ketua Cawangan Malaysia in 2016.

Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir bin Mohamad is a Malaysian politician, author, and physician who served as the 4th and 7th Prime Minister of Malaysia. He held the office from July 1981 to October 2003 and later from May 2018 to March 2020 for a cumulative total of 24 years, making him the country's longest-serving prime minister. Before becoming premier, he served as Deputy Prime Minister and in other cabinet positions. He was a Member of Parliament for Langkawi from May 2018 to October 2022, Kubang Pasu from August 1974 to March 2004, and Kota Setar Selatan from April 1964 to May 1969. His political career has spanned more than 75 years, from joining protests opposing citizenship policies for non-Malays in the Malayan Union in the 1940s to forming the Gerakan Tanah Air coalition in 2022.

Election Commission of Malaysia

Election Commission of Malaysia

The Election Commission of Malaysia, abbreviated SPR or EC, is a commission set up for ensuring fair and equitable operations in undertaking the elections in Malaysia. Its establishment is mandated by executive order of the former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. The agency falls under the purview of the Prime Minister's Department.

Sabah

Sabah

Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo, in the region of East Malaysia. Sabah has land borders with the Malaysian state of Sarawak to the southwest and Indonesia's North Kalimantan province to the south. The Federal Territory of Labuan is an island just off Sabah's west coast. Sabah shares maritime borders with Vietnam to the west and the Philippines to the north and east. Kota Kinabalu is the region capital city, the economic centre of the region, and the seat of the Sabah region government. Other major towns in Sabah include Sandakan and Tawau. The 2020 census recorded a population of 3,418,785 in the state. It has an equatorial climate with tropical rainforests, abundant with animal and plant species. The state has long mountain ranges on the west side which forms part of the Crocker Range National Park. Kinabatangan River, the second longest river in Malaysia runs through Sabah. The highest point of Sabah, Mount Kinabalu is also the highest point of Malaysia.

Sarawak

Sarawak

Sarawak is a state of Malaysia. The largest among the 13 states, with an area almost equal to that of Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak is located in northwest Borneo Island, and is bordered by the Malaysian state of Sabah to the northeast, Kalimantan to the south, and Brunei in the north. The capital city, Kuching, is the largest city in Sarawak, the economic centre of the state, and the seat of the Sarawak state government. Other cities and towns in Sarawak include Miri, Sibu, and Bintulu. As of the 2020 Malaysia census, the population of Sarawak was 2.45 million. Sarawak has an equatorial climate with tropical rainforests and abundant animal and plant species. It has several prominent cave systems at Gunung Mulu National Park. Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia; Bakun Dam, one of the largest dams in Southeast Asia, is located on one of its tributaries, the Balui River. Mount Murud is the highest point in the state. Sarawak is the only state of Malaysia with a Christian majority.

Shafie Apdal

Shafie Apdal

Datuk Seri Panglima Mohd Sapi bin Apdal is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Semporna since April 1995, State Leader of the Opposition of Sabah since September 2020 and Member of the Sabah State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Senallang since May 2018. He served as the 15th Chief Minister and the State Minister of Finance of Sabah from May 2018 to September 2020, Minister of Rural and Regional Development from April 2009 to July 2015 and Vice-President of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), a component party of the ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition. He has served as the 1st and founding President of Heritage Party (WARISAN), the opposition party that is aligned with the Pakatan Harapan (PH) opposition coalition, since October 2016. He lost the power as Chief Minister of Sabah following the defeat of his coalition WARISAN + in the 2020 state election.

Party-to-party relations

Pakatan Harapan at coalition level doesn't have any allegiance with political internationals. Some of its component parties does, as PKR was recognized as observer party of Liberal International while DAP co-founded the Progressive Alliance. On the aftermath of 15th general election, Anwar Ibrahim received congratulatory message from Ennahda Party of Tunisia.[31] The party previously was present at an event organised by AMANAH in 2015.

Member parties and allied party

Flag Name Ideology Position Leader(s) Seats
contested
2022 result Current
seats
Votes (%) Seats Composition
Member parties
Democratic Action Party Flag.svg
DAP Democratic Action Party
Parti Tindakan Demokratik
Social democracy
Social liberalism
Centre-left Anthony Loke 55 15.61%
40 / 222
40 / 82
Bendera Parti Keadilan Rakyat PKR 4975x2490 px.svg
PKR People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
Liberal democracy
Social liberalism
Centre Anwar Ibrahim 100 15.74%
31 / 222
31 / 82
Parti Amanah Negara Flag.svg
AMANAH National Trust Party
Parti Amanah Negara
Progressivism
Islamic modernism
Centre-left Mohamad Sabu 54 5.70%
8 / 222
8 / 82
United Progressive People of Kinabalu Organisation.jpg
UPKO United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation
Pertubuhan Kinabalu Progresif Bersatu
Sabah regionalism N/A Ewon Benedick 5 0.47%
2 / 222
2 / 82
Allied party
Malaysian United Democratic Alliance.svg
MUDA Malaysian United Democratic Alliance
Ikatan Demokratik Malaysia[32][33]
Youth politics Centre-left Syed Saddiq 6 0.48%
1 / 222
1 / 82

Former member party

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Centre-left politics

Centre-left politics

Centre-left politics lean to the left on the left–right political spectrum but are closer to the centre than other left-wing politics. Those on the centre-left believe in working within the established systems to improve social justice. The centre-left promotes a degree of social equality that it believes is achievable through promoting equal opportunity. The centre-left emphasizes that the achievement of equality requires personal responsibility in areas in control by the individual person through their abilities and talents as well as social responsibility in areas outside control by the person in their abilities or talents.

Anthony Loke

Anthony Loke

Anthony Loke Siew Fook is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Minister of Transport for the second term in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022 and the first term in the PH administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from May 2018 to the collapse of the PH administration in February 2020, the Member of Parliament (MP) for Seremban since May 2013, Rasah from March 2008 to May 2013 and Member of the Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Chennah since May 2013, Lobak from March 2004 to May 2013. He is a member of the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a component party of the PH coalition. He has served as the 6th Secretary-General of DAP since March 2022, 2nd Parliamentary Leader of DAP from July 2018 to March 2022 and previously as National Organising Secretary of DAP. He also served as State Chairman of the Pakatan Rakyat (PR) opposition coalition of Negeri Sembilan before PH took over power from the Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition of the state in May 2018.

People's Justice Party (Malaysia)

People's Justice Party (Malaysia)

The People's Justice Party is a reformist political party in Malaysia formed on 3 August 2003 through a merger of the party's predecessor, the National Justice Party, with the socialist Malaysian People's Party. The party's predecessor was founded by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail during the height of the Reformasi movement on 4 April 1999 after the arrest of her husband, former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim. In the first election contested by the party in 1999, the party would go on to win five seats in the Dewan Rakyat. However, an election wave for the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition in 2004 reduced the party to just one seat before another election wave in 2008 favoring the opposition increased the party's parliamentary representation to 31 seats as well as forming the government in 5 states, thus triggering the resignation of Prime Minister Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and a lift on the five-year political ban imposed on Anwar Ibrahim on 14 April 2008. The party is the second largest party in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition after the Democratic Action Party (DAP).

Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy is the combination of a liberal political ideology that operates under a representative democratic form of government. It is characterized by elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, a market economy with private property, and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people. To define the system in practice, liberal democracies often draw upon a constitution, either codified or uncodified, to delineate the powers of government and enshrine the social contract. After a period of expansion in the second half of the 20th century, liberal democracy became a prevalent political system in the world.

Centrism

Centrism

Centrism is a political outlook or position involving acceptance or support of a balance of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy while opposing political changes that would result in a significant shift of society strongly to the left or the right.

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar bin Ibrahim is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia since 24 November 2022. He served as the 12th and 16th Leader of the Opposition from August 2008 to March 2015 and again from May 2020 to November 2022. He has also served as Minister of Finance from March 1991 to September 1998 and again since December 2022 and 2nd Chairman of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition since May 2020, 2nd President of the People's Justice Party (PKR) since November 2018 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tambun since November 2022. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and in many other Cabinet positions in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from 1982 until his removal in 1998.

National Trust Party (Malaysia)

National Trust Party (Malaysia)

The National Trust Party, is a registered political party in Malaysia advocating a reformist strand of political Islam. The party was founded as the Malaysia Workers' Party before being handed over in August 2015 to Gerakan Harapan Baru, a group of progressive Islamist leaders of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party which lost in the June 2015 party election. This group of Islamists then redefined the Malaysia Workers' Party as an Islamic reformist party on 16 September 2015. The party currently has eight elected Members of Parliament. It is one of the four component parties of the ruling coalition in Malaysia called Pakatan Harapan.

Progressivism

Progressivism

Progressivism holds that it is possible to improve human societies through political action. As a political movement, progressivism seeks to advance the human condition through social reform based on purported advancements in science, technology, economic development, and social organization. Adherents hold that progressivism has universal application and endeavor to spread this idea to human societies everywhere. Progressivism arose during the Age of Enlightenment out of the belief that civility in Europe was improving due to the application of new empirical knowledge to the governance of society.

Islamic modernism

Islamic modernism

Islamic modernism is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response to the Western cultural challenge" attempting to reconcile the Islamic faith with modern values such as democracy, civil rights, rationality, equality, and progress. It featured a "critical reexamination of the classical conceptions and methods of jurisprudence" and a new approach to Islamic theology and Quranic exegesis (Tafsir). A contemporary definition describes it as an "effort to re-read Islam's fundamental sources—the Qur'an and the Sunna, —by placing them in their historical context, and then reinterpreting them, non-literally, in the light of the modern context."

Mohamad Sabu

Mohamad Sabu

Mohamad bin Sabu, commonly known as Mat Sabu, is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Minister of Agriculture and Food Security in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since November 2022 and Minister of Defence in the PH administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from May 2018 to the collapse of the PH administration in February 2020. He has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Kota Raja since May 2018, Kuala Kedah from November 1999 to March 2004, Kubang Kerian from April 1995 to November 1999 and Nilam Puri from October 1990 to April 1995. He is a member of the National Trust Party (AMANAH), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition. He has also served as the 1st and founding President of AMANAH since September 2015.

Ewon Benedick

Ewon Benedick

Ewon Benedick is a Malaysian politician who has served as Minister of Entrepreneur Development and Cooperative in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022, the Member of Parliament (MP) for Penampang since November 2022 and Member of the Sabah State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Kadamaian since May 2018. He served as State Minister of Rural Development of Sabah in the Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) administration under former Chief Minister Shafie Apdal from May 2018 to the collapse of the WARISAN state administration in September 2020. He is a member of the United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation (UPKO), a component party of the PH coalition. He has served as the 3rd President of UPKO since January 2023. He was also Vice President of UPKO before his promotion to the party presidency in January 2023. He is one of the two UPKO MPs and sole UPKO MLA. He was set to officially take over Wilfred Madius Tangau as the 3rd UPKO president after the UPKO party election in the party triennial delegates convention on 16 October 2022. However on 10 October 2022, the 14th Parliament was dissolved and the 2022 general election was to be held on 19 November 2022, the convention was delayed to 15 January 2023.

Malaysian United Democratic Alliance

Malaysian United Democratic Alliance

The Malaysian United Democratic Alliance is a multi-racial and youth-centric political party in Malaysia formed by Syed Saddiq Syed Abdul Rahman in September 2020.

List of leaders

Chairman

No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Mahathir Mohamad
(b. 1925)
Mahathir Mohamad in 18th Summit of Non-Aligned Movement (cropped).jpg 14 July 2017 24 February 2020 2 years, 225 days BERSATU
2 Anwar Ibrahim
(b. 1947)
Anwar Ibrahim (cropped further).png 14 May 2020 Incumbent 2 years, 259 days PKR

President

No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
(b. 1952)
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, 2019.jpg 14 July 2017 Incumbent 5 years, 198 days PKR

Women Chiefs

No. Name

(Birth–Death)

Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Zuraida Kamaruddin
(b. 1958)
14 August 2017 24 February 2020 2 years, 194 days PKR
2 Chong Eng
(b. 1957)
18 March 2021 12 September 2021 178 days DAP
3 Aiman Athirah Sabu
(b. 1972)
12 September 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 138 days AMANAH

Youth Chiefs

No. Name

(Birth–Death)

Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad
(b. 1982)
Nik Nazmi.jpg 31 October 2017 13 December 2018 1 year, 43 days PKR
2 Syed Saddiq Syed Abdul Rahman
(b. 1992)
Syed Saddiq (cropped).jpg 13 December 2018 24 February 2020 1 year, 73 days BERSATU
3 Shazni Munir Mohd Ithnin [ms]
(1987–2021)
4 March 2021 6 August 2021 155 days AMANAH
4 Howard Lee Chuan How
(b. 1983)
Howard Lee Chuan How.jpg 12 September 2021 29 July 2022 320 days DAP
5 Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen
(b. 1986)
29 July 2022 Incumbent 183 days DAP

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Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir bin Mohamad is a Malaysian politician, author, and physician who served as the 4th and 7th Prime Minister of Malaysia. He held the office from July 1981 to October 2003 and later from May 2018 to March 2020 for a cumulative total of 24 years, making him the country's longest-serving prime minister. Before becoming premier, he served as Deputy Prime Minister and in other cabinet positions. He was a Member of Parliament for Langkawi from May 2018 to October 2022, Kubang Pasu from August 1974 to March 2004, and Kota Setar Selatan from April 1964 to May 1969. His political career has spanned more than 75 years, from joining protests opposing citizenship policies for non-Malays in the Malayan Union in the 1940s to forming the Gerakan Tanah Air coalition in 2022.

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar bin Ibrahim is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia since 24 November 2022. He served as the 12th and 16th Leader of the Opposition from August 2008 to March 2015 and again from May 2020 to November 2022. He has also served as Minister of Finance from March 1991 to September 1998 and again since December 2022 and 2nd Chairman of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition since May 2020, 2nd President of the People's Justice Party (PKR) since November 2018 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tambun since November 2022. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and in many other Cabinet positions in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from 1982 until his removal in 1998.

Wan Azizah Wan Ismail

Wan Azizah Wan Ismail

Wan Azizah binti Wan Ismail is a Malaysian politician who is the spouse of Anwar Ibrahim, the current Prime Minister of Malaysia. She also served as the 12th Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Women, Family and Community Development in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from May 2018 to the collapse of the PH administration during a political crisis in February 2020. She was the first female Deputy Prime Minister, as well as Leader of the Opposition and the highest ever female political officeholder in the history of Malaysia.

Zuraida Kamaruddin

Zuraida Kamaruddin

Datuk Zuraida binti Kamaruddin is a Malaysian politician who formerly served as Minister of Plantation Industries and Commodities in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob, Minister of Housing and Local Government twice in the Perikatan Nasional (PN) administration under former Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin and Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. She was Member of Parliament (MP) for Ampang from March 2008 to November 2022.

Chong Eng

Chong Eng

Chong Eng, is a Malaysian politician who has served as Member of the Penang State Executive Council (EXCO) in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) state administration under Chief Ministers Lim Guan Eng and Chow Kon Yeow and as Member of the Penang State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Padang Lalang since May 2018. She served as Member of Parliament (MP) of for Bukit Mertajam from November 1999 to May 2013 and MLA of Penang for Batu Lancang from April 1995 to November 1999. She is the member, Women Chief and Deputy Secretary-General of the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a component party of the state ruling but federal opposition Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition, she also served as Women Chief of PH from March to September 2021. She is also Deputy Head for Women Parliamentary Caucus and sits as a Standing Order Committee member. She also served in the Women Crisis Center and Community AIDS Service Penang.

Aiman Athirah Sabu

Aiman Athirah Sabu

Raj Munni Sabu more commonly known as Aiman Athirah Al Jundi is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Deputy Minister of Women, Family and Community Development in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Sepang since November 2022. She served as the Senator from August 2018 to August 2021. She is a member of the National Trust Party (AMANAH), a component party of the PH coalition. She has also served as the 3rd Women Chief of PH since September 2021 and 2nd Women Chief of AMANAH since December 2019.

Nik Nazmi

Nik Nazmi

Nik Nazmi bin Nik Ahmad is a Malaysian politician from the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of presently the Pakatan Harapan (PH) and formerly Pakatan Rakyat (PR) coalition who has served as Minister of Natural Resources, Environment and Climate Change in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Setiawangsa since May 2018. He served as Member of the Selangor State Executive Council (EXCO) in the PR and PH state administrations under former Menteri Besar Azmin Ali from September 2014 to May 2018, Deputy Speaker of the Selangor State Legislative Assembly from June 2013 to September 2014, Member of the Selangor State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Seri Setia from March 2008 to May 2018, Chair of the Defence and Home Affairs Select Committee from December 2019 to March 2020 and Political Secretary to the Menteri Besar of Selangor from March 2008 to June 2010. He has also served as Vice President of PKR since July 2022, 3rd Youth Chief of PKR from August 2014 to November 2018, Communications Director of PKR from August 2010 to September 2013, 1st Youth Chief of PH from October 2017 to December 2018 and State Youth Chief of PKR of Selangor.

Lee Chuan How

Lee Chuan How

Howard Lee Chuan How is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Ipoh Timor since November 2022. He served as Member of the Perak State Executive Council (EXCO) in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) state administration under former Menteri Besar Ahmad Faizal Azumu from May 2018 to the collapse of the PH state administration in March 2020 and Member of the Perak State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Pasir Pinji from May 2013 to November 2022. He is a member of the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a component party of the PH opposition coalition. In DAP, he served as Youth Chief or known as Chief of the DAP youth wing namely Democratic Action Party Socialist Youth (DAPSY) from December 2018 to March 2022 while in PH, he served as its 4th Youth Chief from September 2021 to July 2022 and previously served as its Deputy Youth Chief. He was the 24th President of International Union of Socialist Youth (IUSY).

Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen

Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen

Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen, is a Malaysian politician from the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition. He has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Bandar Kuching since May 2018 and Chair of the Health, Science and Innovation Select Committee since January 2021 and is a member of the Budget Select Committee. He has also served as the Youth Chief or known as the Chief of the Youth Wing namely Democratic Action Party Socialist Youth (DAPSY) since March 2022 and 5th Youth Chief of PH since July 2022. Yii also serves as special assistant to Chong Chieng Jen, Stampin MP.

Leadership structure

Central Leadership Council

Youth Wing (Angkatan Muda Harapan)

  • Youth Chief:
  • Deputy Youth Chiefs:
  • Vice-Youth Chiefs:
  • Youth Secretary:
    • Musaddeq Khalid
  • Deputy Youth Secretary:
    • Omar Mokhtar A Manap
  • Youth Treasurer:
  • Deputy Youth Treasurer:
    • Nur Najihah Muhaimin
  • Youth Communications Director:
    • Muhammad Haziq Azfar Ishak
  • Youth Public Policies Directors:
    • Ong Chun Wei
    • Nadia Fathin Syahira Ahmad Nazri
    • Ammar Atan
  • Youth Mobilization Directors:
    • Umar Khair
    • Abbas Azmi
    • Jason Raj Kirupanantha
  • Youth Elections Directors:

|}

Women's Wing (Wanita Pakatan Harapan)

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Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar bin Ibrahim is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia since 24 November 2022. He served as the 12th and 16th Leader of the Opposition from August 2008 to March 2015 and again from May 2020 to November 2022. He has also served as Minister of Finance from March 1991 to September 1998 and again since December 2022 and 2nd Chairman of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition since May 2020, 2nd President of the People's Justice Party (PKR) since November 2018 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tambun since November 2022. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and in many other Cabinet positions in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from 1982 until his removal in 1998.

Mohamad Sabu

Mohamad Sabu

Mohamad bin Sabu, commonly known as Mat Sabu, is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Minister of Agriculture and Food Security in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since November 2022 and Minister of Defence in the PH administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from May 2018 to the collapse of the PH administration in February 2020. He has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Kota Raja since May 2018, Kuala Kedah from November 1999 to March 2004, Kubang Kerian from April 1995 to November 1999 and Nilam Puri from October 1990 to April 1995. He is a member of the National Trust Party (AMANAH), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition. He has also served as the 1st and founding President of AMANAH since September 2015.

Ewon Benedick

Ewon Benedick

Ewon Benedick is a Malaysian politician who has served as Minister of Entrepreneur Development and Cooperative in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022, the Member of Parliament (MP) for Penampang since November 2022 and Member of the Sabah State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Kadamaian since May 2018. He served as State Minister of Rural Development of Sabah in the Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) administration under former Chief Minister Shafie Apdal from May 2018 to the collapse of the WARISAN state administration in September 2020. He is a member of the United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation (UPKO), a component party of the PH coalition. He has served as the 3rd President of UPKO since January 2023. He was also Vice President of UPKO before his promotion to the party presidency in January 2023. He is one of the two UPKO MPs and sole UPKO MLA. He was set to officially take over Wilfred Madius Tangau as the 3rd UPKO president after the UPKO party election in the party triennial delegates convention on 16 October 2022. However on 10 October 2022, the 14th Parliament was dissolved and the 2022 general election was to be held on 19 November 2022, the convention was delayed to 15 January 2023.

Chong Chieng Jen

Chong Chieng Jen

Chong Chieng Jen, is a Malaysian politician and lawyer who served as the Deputy Minister of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and former Minister Saifuddin Nasution Ismail from July 2018 to the collapse of the PH administration in February 2020. He has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Stampin since May 2018, Bandar Kuching from March 2004 to May 2018 and Member of the Sarawak State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Padungan since December 2021 and Kota Sentosa from May 2006 to December 2021. He served as Leader of the Opposition of Sarawak from June 2013 to November 2020. He is a member, National Vice-Chairman, State Chairman of Sarawak, Branch Chairman of Kuching and Youth Advisor of Sarawak as well as Kuching of the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a component party of the PH opposition coalition.

M. Kulasegaran

M. Kulasegaran

M. Kula Segaran s/o V. Murugeson, commonly referred to as Kula, is a Malaysian politician and barrister who served as the Minister of Human Resources in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under former prime minister Mahathir Mohamad from May 2018 to the collapse of the PH administration in February 2020. He has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Ipoh Barat since March 2004 and Teluk Intan from May 1997 to November 1999. He is a member and vice-chairman of the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a component party of the PH opposition coalition.

Christina Liew

Christina Liew

Datuk Christina Liew is a Hong Kong-born Malaysian politician who has served as the State Minister of Tourism, Culture and Environment of Sabah for the second term in the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS) state administration under Chief Minister Hajiji Noor since January 2023 and the first term in the Heritage Party (WARISAN) state administration under former Chief Minister Shafie Apdal from May 2018 to the collapse of the WARISAN administration in September 2020 as well as Member of the Sabah State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Api-Api since May 2013. She also served as the Deputy Chief Minister in the WARISAN administration under Shafie from May 2018 to September 2020, and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tawau from May 2018 to November 2022. She is a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition and formerly Barisan Alternatif (BA) and Pakatan Rakyat (PR) opposition coalitions. She has served as Vice President of PH since September 2017 and State Chairperson of PH of Sabah since August 2017. She has also served as Member of the Central Leadership Council (MPP) of PKR and Division Chairperson of Kota Kinabalu of PKR since July 2022. She also served as the State Chairperson of PKR of Sabah from October 2016 to her removal from the position in August 2022. She was also the Vice President of PKR. She was a member of the United Sabah Party (PBS) and Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), component parties of the Gagasan Rakyat (GR) and Barisan Nasional (BN) coalitions.

Donald Peter Mojuntin

Donald Peter Mojuntin

Donald Peter Mojuntin is a Malaysian politician from UPKO. He was the Member of Dewan Rakyat for Penampang from 2004 to 2008, the Member of Sabah State Legislative Assembly for Moyog from 2008 to 2013 and was a Senator representing the Sabah State Legislative Assembly from 2018 to 2021.

Adly Zahari

Adly Zahari

Adly bin Zahari is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Deputy Minister of Defence in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim and Minister Mohamad Hasan since December 2022, Member of Parliament for Alor Gajah since November 2022 and Member of the Malacca State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Bukit Katil since May 2018. He served as the 11th Chief Minister of Melaka from May 2018 to March 2020 and State Leader of the Opposition of Melaka from April 2020 to December 2022. He is a member of the National Trust Party (AMANAH), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition. In AMANAH, he has served as its Vice-President since September 2021 and State Chairman of Malacca since August 2017.

Aiman Athirah Sabu

Aiman Athirah Sabu

Raj Munni Sabu more commonly known as Aiman Athirah Al Jundi is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Deputy Minister of Women, Family and Community Development in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Sepang since November 2022. She served as the Senator from August 2018 to August 2021. She is a member of the National Trust Party (AMANAH), a component party of the PH coalition. She has also served as the 3rd Women Chief of PH since September 2021 and 2nd Women Chief of AMANAH since December 2019.

Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen

Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen

Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen, is a Malaysian politician from the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition. He has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Bandar Kuching since May 2018 and Chair of the Health, Science and Innovation Select Committee since January 2021 and is a member of the Budget Select Committee. He has also served as the Youth Chief or known as the Chief of the Youth Wing namely Democratic Action Party Socialist Youth (DAPSY) since March 2022 and 5th Youth Chief of PH since July 2022. Yii also serves as special assistant to Chong Chieng Jen, Stampin MP.

Rafizi Ramli

Rafizi Ramli

Mohd Rafizi bin Ramli is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Minister of Economy in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Pandan from May 2013 to May 2018 and again since November 2022. He is a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of presently the PH and formerly the Pakatan Rakyat (PR) coalitions. He has also served as the 5th Deputy President of PKR since July 2022. He served as Vice-President of PKR from August 2014 to July 2022, Secretary-General of PKR from October 2014 to November 2016 and Strategic Director of PKR from December 2010 to October 2014. He is the founder of both the whistleblower organisation, National Oversight and Whistleblowers Centre (NOW) and the election volunteerism organisation, Invoke Malaysia (INVOKE).

Fahmi Fadzil

Fahmi Fadzil

Ahmad Fahmi bin Mohamed Fadzil is a Malaysian politician who has served as Minister of Communications and Digital in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Lembah Pantai since May 2018. He is a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of the PH coalition. He has also served as Information Chief of PKR since July 2022 and served as Communications Director of PKR from September 2013 to July 2022.

Elected representatives

Dewan Negara (Senate)

Senators

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)

Members of Parliament of the 15th Malaysian Parliament

Pakatan Harapan has 82 members in the House of Representatives (with allied parties).

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
 Kedah P015 Sungai Petani Mohammed Taufiq Johari PKR
 Penang P043 Bagan Lim Guan Eng DAP
P045 Bukit Mertajam Steven Sim Chee Keong DAP
P046 Batu Kawan Chow Kon Yeow DAP
P047 Nibong Tebal Fadhlina Sidek PKR
P048 Bukit Bendera Syerleena Abdul Rashid DAP
P049 Tanjong Lim Hui Ying DAP
P050 Jelutong Sanisvara Nethaji Rayer Rajaji Rayer DAP
P051 Bukit Gelugor Ramkarpal Singh DAP
P052 Bayan Baru Sim Tze Tzin PKR
P053 Balik Pulau Muhammad Bakhtiar Wan Chik PKR
 Perak P060 Taiping Wong Kah Woh DAP
P062 Sungai Siput Kesavan Subramaniam PKR
P063 Tambun Anwar Ibrahim PKR
P064 Ipoh Timor Howard Lee Chuan How DAP
P065 Ipoh Barat Kulasegaran Murugeson DAP
P066 Batu Gajah Sivakumar Varatharaju Naidu DAP
P068 Beruas Ngeh Koo Ham DAP
P070 Kampar Chong Zhemin DAP
P071 Gopeng Tan Kar Hing PKR
P076 Teluk Intan Nga Kor Ming DAP
P077 Tanjong Malim Chang Lih Kang PKR
 Pahang P080 Raub Chow Yu Hui DAP
P089 Bentong Young Syefura Othman DAP
 Selangor P096 Kuala Selangor Dzulkefly Ahmad AMANAH
P097 Selayang William Leong Jee Keen PKR
P098 Gombak Amirudin Shari PKR
P099 Ampang Rodziah Ismail PKR
P100 Pandan Mohd Rafizi Ramli PKR
P101 Hulu Langat Mohd Sany Hamzan AMANAH
P102 Bangi Syahredzan Johan DAP
P103 Puchong Yeo Bee Yin DAP
P104 Subang Wong Chen PKR
P105 Petaling Jaya Lee Chean Chung PKR
P106 Damansara Gobind Singh Deo DAP
P107 Sungai Buloh Ramanan Ramakrishnan PKR
P108 Shah Alam Azli Yusof AMANAH
P110 Klang Ganabatirau Veraman DAP
P111 Kota Raja Mohamad Sabu AMANAH
P113 Sepang Raj Munni Sabu AMANAH
 Kuala Lumpur P114 Kepong Lim Lip Eng DAP
P115 Batu Prabakaran Parameswaran PKR
P116 Wangsa Maju Zahir Hassan [ms] PKR
P117 Segambut Hannah Yeoh Tseow Suan DAP
P118 Setiawangsa Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad PKR
P120 Bukit Bintang Fong Kui Lun DAP
P121 Lembah Pantai Fahmi Fadzil PKR
P122 Seputeh Teresa Kok Suh Sim DAP
P123 Cheras Tan Kok Wai DAP
P124 Bandar Tun Razak Wan Azizah Wan Ismail PKR
 Negeri Sembilan P128 Seremban Anthony Loke Siew Fook DAP
P130 Rasah Cha Kee Chin DAP
P132 Port Dickson Aminuddin Harun PKR
 Malacca P135 Alor Gajah Adly Zahari AMANAH
P137 Hang Tuah Jaya Adam Adli Abdul Halim PKR
P138 Kota Melaka Khoo Poay Tiong DAP
 Johor P140 Segamat Yuneswaran Ramaraj PKR
P141 Sekijang Zaliha Mustafa PKR
P142 Labis Pang Hok Liong DAP
P144 Ledang Syed Ibrahim Syed Noh PKR
P145 Bakri Tan Hong Pin DAP
P146 Muar Syed Saddiq Syed Abdul Rahman MUDA
P149 Sri Gading Aminolhuda Hassan AMANAH
P150 Batu Pahat Onn Abu Bakar PKR
P152 Kluang Wong Shu Qi DAP
P158 Tebrau Jimmy Puah Wee Tse PKR
P159 Pasir Gudang Hassan Abdul Karim PKR
P160 Johor Bahru Akmal Nasrullah Mohd Nasir PKR
P161 Pulai Salahuddin Ayub AMANAH
P162 Iskandar Puteri Liew Chin Tong DAP
P163 Kulai Teo Nie Ching DAP
 Sabah P170 Tuaran Wilfred Madius Tangau UPKO
P171 Sepanggar Mustapha Sakmud PKR
P172 Kota Kinabalu Chan Foong Hin DAP
P174 Penampang Ewon Benedick UPKO
P186 Sandakan Vivian Wong Shir Yee DAP
 Sarawak P192 Mas Gading Mordi Bimol DAP
P195 Bandar Kuching Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen DAP
P196 Stampin Chong Chieng Jen DAP
P211 Lanang Alice Lau Kiong Yieng DAP
P212 Sibu Oscar Ling Chai Yew DAP
P219 Miri Chiew Choon Man PKR
Total Kedah (1), Penang (10), Perak (11), Pahang (2), Selangor (16), F.T. Kuala Lumpur (10), Negeri Sembilan (3), Malacca (3), Johor (15), Sabah (5), Sarawak (6)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)

State No. Parliamentary

constituency

No. State Constituency Member Party
 Perlis P02 Kangar N8 Indera Kayangan Gan Ay Ling [ms] PKR
 Kedah P05 Jerlun N3 Kota Siputeh Salmee Said AMANAH
P08 Pokok Sena N11 Derga Tan Kok Yew DAP
P09 Alor Setar N12 Suka Menanti Zamri Yusuf PKR
N13 Kota Darul Aman Teh Swee Leong DAP
P10 Kuala Kedah N16 Kubang Rotan Mohd Asmirul Anuar Aris AMANAH
N17 Pengkalan Kundor Ismail Salleh AMANAH
P12 Jerai N22 Gurun Johari Abdul PKR
P14 Merbok N25 Bukit Selambau Summugam Rengasamy PKR
P15 Sungai Petani N28 Bakar Arang Ooi Tze Min PKR
P18 Kulim-Bandar Baharu N35 Kulim Yeo Keng Chuan [ms] PKR
 Penang P41 Kepala Batas N3 Pinang Tunggal Ahmad Zakiyuddin Abdul Rahman PKR
P42 Tasek Gelugor N6 Telok Ayer Tawar Mustapha Kamal Ahmad [ms] PKR
P43 Bagan N7 Sungai Puyu Phee Boon Poh DAP
N8 Bagan Jermal Soon Lip Chee DAP
N9 Bagan Dalam Satees Muniandy DAP
P44 Permatang Pauh N11 Permatang Pasir Muhammad Faiz Mohamed Fadzil AMANAH
N12 Penanti Norlela Ariffin PKR
P45 Bukit Mertajam N13 Berapit Heng Lee Lee DAP
N14 Machang Bubok Lee Khai Loon [ms; zh] PKR
N15 Padang Lalang Chong Eng DAP
P46 Batu Kawan N16 Perai Ramasamy Palanisamy DAP
N17 Bukit Tengah Gooi Hsiao Leung PKR
N18 Bukit Tambun Goh Choon Aik PKR
P47 Nibong Tebal N19 Jawi H'ng Mooi Lye DAP
N20 Sungai Bakap Amar Pritpal Abdullah PKR
P48 Bukit Bendera N22 Tanjong Bunga Zairil Khir Johari DAP
N23 Air Putih Lim Guan Eng DAP
N24 Kebun Bunga Jason Ong Khan Lee PKR
N25 Pulau Tikus Chris Lee Chun Kit DAP
P49 Tanjong N26 Padang Kota Chow Kon Yeow DAP
N27 Pengkalan Kota Gooi Zi Sen DAP
N28 Komtar Teh Lai Heng DAP
P50 Jelutong N29 Datok Keramat Jagdeep Singh Deo DAP
N30 Sungai Pinang Lim Siew Khim DAP
N31 Batu Lancang Ong Ah Teong DAP
P51 Bukit Gelugor N32 Seri Delima Syerleena Abdul Rashid DAP
N33 Air Itam Joseph Ng Soon Seong DAP
N34 Paya Terubong Yeoh Soon Hin DAP
P52 Bayan Baru N35 Batu Uban Kumaresan Aramugam PKR
N36 Pantai Jerejak Saifuddin Nasution Ismail PKR
N37 Batu Maung Abdul Halim Hussain PKR
P53 Balik Pulau N38 Bayan Lepas Azrul Mahathir Aziz AMANAH
N39 Pulau Betong Mohd.Tuah Ismail [ms] PKR
 Perak P60 Taiping N17 Pokok Assam Ong Seng Guan DAP
N18 Aulong Teh Kok Lim DAP
P62 Sungai Siput N22 Jalong Loh Sze Yee DAP
P63 Tambun N24 Hulu Kinta Muhamad Arafat Varisai Mahamad PKR
P64 Ipoh Timur N25 Canning Jenny Choy Tsi Jen DAP
N26 Tebing Tinggi Abdul Aziz Bari DAP
N27 Pasir Pinji Goh See Hua DAP
P65 Ipoh Barat N28 Bercham Ong Boon Piow DAP
N29 Kepayang Nga Kor Ming DAP
N30 Buntong Thulsi Thivani Manogaran DAP
P66 Batu Gajah N31 Jelapang Cheah Pou Hian DAP
N32 Menglembu Chaw Kam Foon DAP
N33 Tronoh Steven Tiw Tee Siang DAP
P68 Bruas N37 Pantai Remis Wong May Ing DAP
N38 Astaka Jason Ng Thien Yeong DAP
P70 Kampar N41 Malim Nawar Bavani Veraiah DAP
N42 Keranji Angeline Koo Haai Yen DAP
N43 Tualang Sekah Mohd Azlan Helmi PKR
P71 Gopeng N44 Sungai Rapat Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin AMANAH
N45 Simpang Pulai Wong Chai Yi PKR
N46 Teja Sandrea Ng Shy Ching PKR
P75 Bagan Datuk N54 Hutan Melintang Wasanthee Sinnasamy PKR
P76 Teluk Intan N55 Pasir Bedamar Woo Kah Leong DAP
P77 Tanjong Malim N57 Sungkai Sivanesan Achalingam DAP
 Pahang P78 Cameron Highlands N1 Tanah Rata Ho Chi Yang DAP
P80 Raub N7 Tras Tengku Zulpuri Shah Raja Puji DAP
P82 Indera Mahkota N13 Semambu Chan Chun Kuang PKR
P83 Kuantan N14 Teruntum Sim Chon Siang [ms] PKR
P88 Temerloh N30 Mentakab Woo Chee Wan DAP
P89 Bentong N33 Bilut Lee Chin Chen DAP
N34 Ketari Thomas Su Keong Siong DAP
P90 Bera N38 Triang Leong Yu Man DAP
 Selangor P92 Sabak Bernam N2 Sabak Ahmad Mustain Othman PKR
P93 Sungai Besar N4 Sekinchan Ng Suee Lim DAP
P94 Ulu Selangor N6 Kuala Kubu Baharu Lee Kee Hiong DAP
P95 Tanjong Karang N9 Permatang Rozana Zainal Abidin [ms] PKR
P96 Kuala Selangor N10 Bukit Melawati Juwairiya Zulkifli PKR
N11 Ijok Idris Ahmad (politician) PKR
P97 Selayang N14 Rawang Chua Wei Kiat [ms] PKR
N15 Taman Templer Mohd Sany Hamzan AMANAH
P98 Gombak N16 Sungai Tua Amirudin Shari PKR
N18 Hulu Kelang Saari Sungib AMANAH
P100 Pandan N21 Pandan Indah Izham Hashim AMANAH
P101 Ulu Langat N23 Dusun Tua Edry Faizal Eddy Yusof DAP
P102 Bangi N25 Kajang Hee Loy Sian PKR
N26 Sungai Ramal Mazwan Johar AMANAH
N27 Balakong Wong Siew Ki DAP
P103 Puchong N28 Seri Kembangan Ean Yong Hian Wah [ms; zh] DAP
N29 Seri Serdang Siti Mariah Mahmud AMANAH
P104 Subang N30 Kinrara Ng Sze Han DAP
N31 Subang Jaya Michelle Ng Mei Sze DAP
P105 Petaling Jaya N32 Seri Setia Halimey Abu Bakar PKR
N33 Taman Medan Syamsul Firdaus Mohamed Supri PKR
N34 Bukit Gasing Rajiv Rishyakaran DAP
P106 Damansara N35 Kampung Tunku Lim Yi Wei DAP
N36 Bandar Utama Jamaliah Jamaluddin DAP
N37 Bukit Lanjan Elizabeth Wong PKR
P107 Sungai Buloh N38 Paya Jaras Mohd.Khairuddin Othman PKR
N39 Kota Damansara Shatiri Mansor [ms] PKR
P108 Shah Alam N40 Kota Anggerik Najwan Halimi PKR
N41 Batu Tiga Rodziah Ismail PKR
P109 Kapar N42 Meru Mohd. Fakhrulrazi Mohd. Mokhtar PKR
P110 Klang N45 Bandar Baru Klang Teng Chang Khim DAP
N46 Pelabuhan Klang Azmizam Zaman Huri PKR
N47 Pandamaran Leong Tuck Chee [zh] DAP
P111 Kota Raja N48 Sentosa Gunaraj George [ms] PKR
N49 Sungai Kandis Mohd.Zawawi Ahmad Mughni PKR
N50 Kota Kemuning Ganabatirau Veraman DAP
P112 Kuala Langat N52 Banting Lau Weng San [ms; zh] DAP
N53 Morib Hasnul Baharuddin AMANAH
P113 Sepang N54 Tanjong Sepat Borhan Aman Shah PKR
N56 Sungai Pelek Ronnie Liu Tian Khiew DAP
 Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu N1 Chennah Anthony Loke Siew Fook DAP
N4 Kelawang Bakri Sawir AMANAH
P127 Jempol N8 Bahau Teo Kok Seong DAP
P128 Seremban N9 Lenggeng Suhaimi Kassim [ms] AMANAH
N10 Nilai Arul Kumar Jambunathan DAP
N11 Lobak Chew Seh Yong [ms] DAP
N12 Temiang Ng Chin Tsai [ms] DAP
N13 Sikamat Aminuddin Harun PKR
N14 Ampangan Mohamad Rafie Ab. Malek PKR
P129 Kuala Pilah N18 Pilah Mohamad Nazaruddin Sabtu PKR
P130 Rasah N20 Labu Ismail Ahmad PKR
N21 Bukit Kepayang Nicole Tan Lee Koon DAP
N22 Rahang Mary Josephine Pritam Singh DAP
N23 Mambau Yap Yew Weng [ms] DAP
N24 Seremban Jaya Gunasekaren Palasamy DAP
P131 Rembau N25 Paroi Mohd Taufek Abd Ghani AMANAH
P132 Port Dickson N29 Chuah Yek Diew Ching [ms] PKR
N30 Lukut Choo Ken Hwa DAP
N33 Sri Tanjung Ravi Munusamy PKR
P133 Tampin N36 Repah Veerapan Superamaniam DAP
 Malacca P137 Hang Tuah Jaya N16 Ayer Keroh Kerk Chee Yee DAP
N17 Bukit Katil Adly Zahari AMANAH
P138 Kota Melaka N19 Kesidang Seah Shoo Chin DAP
N20 Kota Laksamana Low Chee Leong DAP
N22 Bandar Hilir Leng Chau Yen DAP
 Johor P140 Segamat N2 Jementah Ng Kor Sim DAP
P144 Ledang N10 Tangkak Ee Chin Li DAP
P145 Bakri N12 Bentayan Ng Yak Howe DAP
N13 Simpang Jeram Salahuddin Ayub AMANAH
P150 Batu Pahat N23 Penggaram Gan Peck Cheng DAP
P152 Kluang N28 Mengkibol Chew Chong Sin DAP
P158 Tebrau N41 Puteri Wangsa Amira Aisya MUDA
P159 Pasir Gudang N42 Johor Jaya Liow Cai Tung DAP
P160 Johor Bahru N45 Stulang Chen Kah Eng DAP
P161 Pulai N46 Perling Liew Chin Tong DAP
P162 Iskandar Puteri N48 Skudai Marina Ibrahim DAP
P163 Kulai N51 Bukit Batu Arthur Chiong Sen Sern [ms] PKR
N52 Senai Wong Bor Yang DAP
 Sabah P169 Kota Belud N11 Kadamaian Ewon Benedick UPKO
P171 Sepanggar N18 Inanam Peto Galim PKR
P172 Kota Kinabalu (Jesselton) N19 Likas Tan Lee Fatt DAP
N20 Api-Api Christina Liew PKR
N21 Luyang Phoong Jin Zhe DAP
P174 Penampang N25 Kapayan Jannie Lasimbang DAP
P186 Sandakan N56 Tanjong Papat Frankie Poon DAP
 Sarawak P195 Bandar Kuching N09 Padungan Chong Chieng Jen DAP
N10 Pending Violet Yong Wui Wui DAP
Total Perlis (1), Kedah (10), Penang (33), Perak (24), Pahang (8), Selangor (40), Negeri Sembilan (20), Malacca (5), Johor (13), Sabah (7), Sarawak (2)

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Members of the Dewan Negara, 15th Malaysian Parliament

Members of the Dewan Negara, 15th Malaysian Parliament

The following is the list of members of the Dewan Negara (Senate) of the 15th Malaysian Parliament. 26 out of 70 senators, i.e. two senators for each state, are elected by their respective State Legislative Assembly for three-year term. The other 44, including four senators representing Federal Territories, are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong also for three-year term.

Fuziah Salleh

Fuziah Salleh

Fuziah binti Salleh is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Deputy Minister of Domestic Trade and Living Costs in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim and Minister Salahuddin Ayub as well as Senator since December 2022. She served as the Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister's Department in charge of religious affairs in the PH administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and former Minister Mujahid Yusof Rawa from July 2018 to the collapse of the PH administration in February 2020 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Kuantan from March 2008 to November 2022. She is a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of the PH coalition. She also served as the Women Chief of PKR from July 2020 to July 2022 and Vice President of PKR from November 2010 to August 2014 as well as the State Chairperson of PH of Pahang from March 2019 to September 2022.

Ahmad Azam Hamzah

Ahmad Azam Hamzah

Ahmad Azam bin Hamzah is a Malaysian politician who is one of the members of the Dewan Negara, 14th Malaysian Parliament from Negeri Sembilan since 15 August 2022. He is honoured with the Negeri Sembilan Loyalty Degree. He is associated with the People's Justice Party.

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 15th Malaysian Parliament

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 15th Malaysian Parliament

This is a list of the members of the Dewan Rakyat of the 15th Parliament of Malaysia.

Dewan Rakyat

Dewan Rakyat

The Dewan Rakyat is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament, the federal legislature of Malaysia. The chamber and its powers are established by Article 44 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The Dewan Rakyat sits in the Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur, along with the Dewan Negara, the upper house.

Kedah

Kedah

Kedah, also known by its honorific Darul Aman and historically as Queda, is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over 9,000 km2, and it consists of the mainland and the Langkawi islands. The mainland has a relatively flat terrain, which is used to grow rice, while Langkawi is an archipelago, most of which are uninhabited islands.

Bagan (federal constituency)

Bagan (federal constituency)

Bagan is a federal constituency in North Seberang Perai District, Penang, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1959.

Lim Guan Eng

Lim Guan Eng

Lim Guan Eng is a Malaysian politician and accountant from the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition who has served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Bagan, Member of the Penang State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Air Putih since March 2008 and 5th National Chairman of DAP since March 2022. He served as the 4th Secretary-General of DAP from September 2004 to March 2022, Minister of Finance in the PH administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from May 2018 until the collapse of the PH administration in February 2020, 4th Chief Minister of Penang from March 2008 to May 2018 and MP for Kota Melaka from August 1986 to November 1999.

Bukit Mertajam (federal constituency)

Bukit Mertajam (federal constituency)

Bukit Mertajam is a federal constituency in Central Seberang Perai District, Penang, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1974.

Batu Kawan (federal constituency)

Batu Kawan (federal constituency)

Batu Kawan is a federal constituency in South Seberang Perai District and Central Seberang Perai District, Penang, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 2004.

Chow Kon Yeow

Chow Kon Yeow

Chow Kon Yeow is a Malaysian politician who has served as 5th Chief Minister of Penang since May 2018, Member of the Penang State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Padang Kota since March 2008 and Member of Parliament (MP) for Tanjong from November 1999 to May 2013 and again from May 2018 to November 2022. He is a member, National Vice Chairman and State Chairman of Penang of the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition governing the state.

Fadhlina Sidek

Fadhlina Sidek

Fadhlina binti Sidek is a Malaysian politician and lawyer who has served as the Minister of Education in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Nibong Tebal since November 2022. She served as a Senator from September 2021 to her resignation in November 2022. She is a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of the PH coalition. She has also served as the Women Chief of PKR since July 2022. She is also the first female Minister of Education.

Pakatan Harapan state governments

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Negeri Sembilan Menteri Besar Aminuddin Harun PKR Sikamat
 Penang Chief Minister Chow Kon Yeow DAP Padang Kota
 Selangor Menteri Besar Amirudin Shari PKR Sungai Tua

Pakatan Harapan also forms the state governments of Pahang, Perak and Melaka in coalition with Barisan Nasional, and the state government of Sabah in coalition with Gabungan Rakyat Sabah, following the formation of the federal unity government (Kerajaan Perpaduan) in the aftermath of the 15th general election of November 2022.

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Penang Deputy Chief Minister I Ahmad Zakiyuddin Abdul Rahman PKR Pinang Tunggal
 Penang Deputy Chief Minister II Ramasamy Palanisamy DAP Perai
State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Negeri Sembilan Speaker Zulkefly Mohamad Omar AMANAH Non-MLA
 Negeri Sembilan Deputy Speaker Ravi Munusamy PKR Sri Tanjung
 Pahang Deputy Speaker Lee Chin Chen DAP Bilut
 Penang Speaker Law Choo Kiang PKR Non-MLA
 Penang Deputy Speaker Amar Pritpal Abdullah PKR Sungai Bakap
 Perak Deputy Speaker Jenny Choy Tsi Jen DAP Canning
 Selangor Speaker Ng Suee Lim DAP Sekinchan
 Selangor Deputy Speaker Hasnul Baharuddin AMANAH Morib

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Negeri Sembilan

Negeri Sembilan

Negeri Sembilan is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south.

Aminuddin Harun

Aminuddin Harun

Dato' Seri Aminuddin bin Harun is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 11th Menteri Besar of Negeri Sembilan since May 2018 and Member of the Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Sikamat since March 2008. He is a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition. He has served as Vice President of PKR since July 2022 and is also State Chairman of PH and PKR of Negeri Sembilan.

Penang

Penang

Penang (Malay: Pulau Pinang, [pi.naŋ] is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait. It has two parts: Penang Island, where the capital city, George Town, is located, and Seberang Perai on the Malay Peninsula. They are connected by Malaysia's two longest road bridges, the Penang Bridge and the Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Bridge; the latter is also the second longest oversea bridge in Southeast Asia. The second smallest Malaysian state by land mass, Penang, is bordered by Kedah to the north and the east, and Perak to the south.

Chow Kon Yeow

Chow Kon Yeow

Chow Kon Yeow is a Malaysian politician who has served as 5th Chief Minister of Penang since May 2018, Member of the Penang State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Padang Kota since March 2008 and Member of Parliament (MP) for Tanjong from November 1999 to May 2013 and again from May 2018 to November 2022. He is a member, National Vice Chairman and State Chairman of Penang of the Democratic Action Party (DAP), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition governing the state.

Padang Kota (state constituency)

Padang Kota (state constituency)

Padang Kota is a state constituency in Penang, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Penang State Legislative Assembly since 1974. It covers George Town's historic city centre, including its old administrative core and the central business district (CBD) at Beach Street.

Selangor

Selangor

Selangor, also known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 Malaysian states. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south, and the Strait of Malacca to the west. Selangor surrounds the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, both of which were previously part of it.

Amirudin Shari

Amirudin Shari

Dato' Seri Amirudin bin Shari is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 16th Menteri Besar of Selangor since June 2018, Member of Parliament (MP) for Gombak since November 2022 and Member of the Selangor State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Sungai Tua since May 2018 and for Batu Caves from March 2008 to May 2018. He also served as Member of the Selangor State Executive Council (EXCO) from September 2014 to his promotion to the Menteri Besarship in June 2018. He is a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of the state and federal coalition of Pakatan Harapan (PH). He has also served as the Vice-President of PKR since July 2022 and State Chairman of PH of Selangor since March 2020 as well as of Pahang since September 2022.

Pahang State Legislative Assembly

Pahang State Legislative Assembly

The Pahang State Legislative Assembly is the unicameral state legislature of the Malaysian state of Pahang. It is composed of 42 members representing single-member constituencies throughout the state.

Perak State Legislative Assembly

Perak State Legislative Assembly

The Perak State Legislative Assembly is the unicameral state legislature of the Malaysian state of Perak. It is composed of 59 members representing single-member constituencies throughout the state. Elections are held no more than five years apart, along with elections to the federal parliament and other state assemblies.

Barisan Nasional

Barisan Nasional

The National Front is a political coalition of Malaysia that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of centre-right and right-wing political parties. It is also the third largest political coalition with 30 seats in the Dewan Rakyat after coalition Pakatan Harapan with 82 seats and the coalition Perikatan Nasional with 73 seats.

Sabah State Legislative Assembly

Sabah State Legislative Assembly

The Sabah State Legislative Assembly is a part of the legislature of Sabah, Malaysia, the other being the governor of Sabah. The assembly meets at the Sabah State Legislative Assembly Building at Likas in the state capital of Kota Kinabalu.

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah, also officially known as the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah Party or for shorts GRS Party is an official registered political coalition and also a single entity political party in Sabah, Malaysia. Datuk Seri Panglima Hajiji Noor is the founder and the inaugural chairman holder of this registered political coalition. This coalition is also registered with constitution that allow Independent politician to join directly without component party and become GRS direct members. The strongholds of the GRS party in terms of people's support are the interior of Sabah, the east coast of Sabah and half of the west coast of Sabah. Since 2020, this coalition is currently the ruling coalition in Sabah.

Ministerial posts

Portfolio Office bearer Party Constituency
Prime Minister and

Minister of Finance

Dato' Seri Anwar Ibrahim MP PH (PKR) Tambun
Minister of Economy Mohd. Rafizi Ramli MP PH (PKR) Pandan
Minister of Home Affairs Dato' Seri Saifuddin Nasution Ismail PH (PKR) Senator
Minister of Education Fadhlina Sidek MP PH (PKR) Nibong Tebal
Minister of Transport Anthony Loke Siew Fook MP PH (DAP) Seremban
Minister of Agriculture and Food Security Mohamad Sabu MP PH (AMANAH) Kota Raja
Minister of Health Dr. Zaliha Mustafa MP PH (PKR) Sekijang
Minister of Local Government Development Nga Kor Ming MP PH (DAP) Teluk Intan
Minister of Youth and Sports Hannah Yeoh Tseow Tsuan MP PH (DAP) Segambut
Minister of Human Resources Sivakumar Varatharaju Naidu MP PH (DAP) Batu Gajah
Minister of Domestic Trade and Living Costs Dato' Seri Salahuddin Ayub MP PH (AMANAH) Pulai
Minister of Entrepreneurship Development and Cooperative Datuk Ewon Benedick MP MLA PH (UPKO) Penampang
Minister of Science and Technology Chang Lih Kang MP PH (PKR) Tanjong Malim
Minister of Natural Resources, Environment and Climate Change Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad MP PH (PKR) Setiawangsa
Minister of Digital Communication Ahmad Fahmi Mohamed Fadzil MP PH (PKR) Lembah Pantai

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Prime Minister of Malaysia

Prime Minister of Malaysia

The prime minister of Malaysia is the head of government of Malaysia. The prime minister directs the executive branch of the federal government. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints as the prime minister a member of Parliament (MP) who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs; this person is usually the leader of the party winning the most seats in a general election.

Minister of Finance (Malaysia)

Minister of Finance (Malaysia)

The Minister of Finance is the head of the Ministry of Finance of the Government of Malaysia. One of the senior posts in the Cabinet of Malaysia, the finance minister is responsible for determining the fiscal policy and managing national budget of the government.

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar bin Ibrahim is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia since 24 November 2022. He served as the 12th and 16th Leader of the Opposition from August 2008 to March 2015 and again from May 2020 to November 2022. He has also served as Minister of Finance from March 1991 to September 1998 and again since December 2022 and 2nd Chairman of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition since May 2020, 2nd President of the People's Justice Party (PKR) since November 2018 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tambun since November 2022. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and in many other Cabinet positions in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from 1982 until his removal in 1998.

Dewan Rakyat

Dewan Rakyat

The Dewan Rakyat is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament, the federal legislature of Malaysia. The chamber and its powers are established by Article 44 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The Dewan Rakyat sits in the Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur, along with the Dewan Negara, the upper house.

Rafizi Ramli

Rafizi Ramli

Mohd Rafizi bin Ramli is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Minister of Economy in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Pandan from May 2013 to May 2018 and again since November 2022. He is a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of presently the PH and formerly the Pakatan Rakyat (PR) coalitions. He has also served as the 5th Deputy President of PKR since July 2022. He served as Vice-President of PKR from August 2014 to July 2022, Secretary-General of PKR from October 2014 to November 2016 and Strategic Director of PKR from December 2010 to October 2014. He is the founder of both the whistleblower organisation, National Oversight and Whistleblowers Centre (NOW) and the election volunteerism organisation, Invoke Malaysia (INVOKE).

Pandan (federal constituency)

Pandan (federal constituency)

Pandan is a federal constituency in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 2004.

Minister of Home Affairs (Malaysia)

Minister of Home Affairs (Malaysia)

The current position for Malaysian Minister of Home Affairs is hold by Saifuddin Nasution Ismail since 3 December 2022. The minister is supported by the Deputy Ministers of Home Affairs. The Minister administers the portfolio through the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Saifuddin Nasution Ismail

Saifuddin Nasution Ismail

Datuk Seri Saifuddin Nasution bin Ismail is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Minister of Home Affairs in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim as well as Senator since December 2022. He also served as the Minister of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs in the PH administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from July 2018 to the collapse of the PH administration in February 2020. He served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Kulim-Bandar Baharu from May 2018 to November 2022 and for Machang from March 2008 to May 2013 as well as Member of the Penang State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Pantai Jerejak since May 2018 and MLA of Kedah for Lunas from November 2000 to March 2004. He is a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of the PH opposition coalition. He has also served as the Secretary-General of PKR from January 2010 to his resignation in October 2014 and again since November 2016 as well as Secretary-General of PH since March 2020.

Minister of Education (Malaysia)

Minister of Education (Malaysia)

The current Malaysian Minister of Education is Fadhlina Sidek since 3 December 2022. The minister is supported by the Deputy Ministers of Education. The minister administers the portfolio through the Ministry of Education.

Fadhlina Sidek

Fadhlina Sidek

Fadhlina binti Sidek is a Malaysian politician and lawyer who has served as the Minister of Education in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim since December 2022 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Nibong Tebal since November 2022. She served as a Senator from September 2021 to her resignation in November 2022. She is a member of the People's Justice Party (PKR), a component party of the PH coalition. She has also served as the Women Chief of PKR since July 2022. She is also the first female Minister of Education.

Nibong Tebal (federal constituency)

Nibong Tebal (federal constituency)

Nibong Tebal is a federal constituency in South Seberang Perai District, Penang, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1974.

Minister of Transport (Malaysia)

Minister of Transport (Malaysia)

The current Malaysian Minister of Transport is hold by Anthony Loke since 3 December 2022. The minister is supported by Deputy Minister of Transport who was on vacancy since 24 November 2022. The Minister administers the portfolio through the Ministry of Transport.

General election results

Election Total seats won Seats contesed Total votes Voting Percentage Outcome of election Election leader
2018
122 / 222
222 5,615,822 45.56% Increase53 seats; Governing coalition (2018–2020)
later Opposition coalition (2020–2022)
Mahathir Mohamad
2022
82 / 222
220 5,801,327 37.46% Decrease41 seats; Governing coalition with Barisan Nasional, Gabungan Parti Sarawak and Gabungan Rakyat Sabah Anwar Ibrahim

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Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir bin Mohamad is a Malaysian politician, author, and physician who served as the 4th and 7th Prime Minister of Malaysia. He held the office from July 1981 to October 2003 and later from May 2018 to March 2020 for a cumulative total of 24 years, making him the country's longest-serving prime minister. Before becoming premier, he served as Deputy Prime Minister and in other cabinet positions. He was a Member of Parliament for Langkawi from May 2018 to October 2022, Kubang Pasu from August 1974 to March 2004, and Kota Setar Selatan from April 1964 to May 1969. His political career has spanned more than 75 years, from joining protests opposing citizenship policies for non-Malays in the Malayan Union in the 1940s to forming the Gerakan Tanah Air coalition in 2022.

2022 Malaysian general election

2022 Malaysian general election

General elections were held in Malaysia on Saturday, 19 November 2022. The prospect of snap elections had been considered high due to the political crisis that had been ongoing since 2020; political instability caused by coalition or party switching among members of Parliament, combined with the fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic, contributed to the resignation of two prime ministers and the collapse of each of their respective coalition governments since the 2018 general elections.

Barisan Nasional

Barisan Nasional

The National Front is a political coalition of Malaysia that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of centre-right and right-wing political parties. It is also the third largest political coalition with 30 seats in the Dewan Rakyat after coalition Pakatan Harapan with 82 seats and the coalition Perikatan Nasional with 73 seats.

Gabungan Parti Sarawak

Gabungan Parti Sarawak

The Sarawak Parties Alliance is a Sarawak-based national political alliance in Malaysia. It was established in 2018 by four former Barisan Nasional (BN) component parties operating solely in Sarawak following the federal coalition's defeat in the 2018 Malaysian general election. It is currently the fourth largest political coalition with 23 seats in the Dewan Rakyat, and forms the government in the state of Sarawak.

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah, also officially known as the Gabungan Rakyat Sabah Party or for shorts GRS Party is an official registered political coalition and also a single entity political party in Sabah, Malaysia. Datuk Seri Panglima Hajiji Noor is the founder and the inaugural chairman holder of this registered political coalition. This coalition is also registered with constitution that allow Independent politician to join directly without component party and become GRS direct members. The strongholds of the GRS party in terms of people's support are the interior of Sabah, the east coast of Sabah and half of the west coast of Sabah. Since 2020, this coalition is currently the ruling coalition in Sabah.

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar bin Ibrahim is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia since 24 November 2022. He served as the 12th and 16th Leader of the Opposition from August 2008 to March 2015 and again from May 2020 to November 2022. He has also served as Minister of Finance from March 1991 to September 1998 and again since December 2022 and 2nd Chairman of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition since May 2020, 2nd President of the People's Justice Party (PKR) since November 2018 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tambun since November 2022. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and in many other Cabinet positions in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from 1982 until his removal in 1998.

State election results

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis Kedah Kelantan Terengganu Penang Perak Pahang Selangor Negeri Sembilan Malacca Johor Sabah Sarawak Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2016
10 / 82
2018
3 / 15
18 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
37 / 40
29 / 59
9 / 42
51 / 56
20 / 36
15 / 28
36 / 56
29 / 60
241 / 587
2020
32 / 73
2021
5 / 28
5 / 28
2021
2 / 82
2 / 62
2022
12 / 56
12 / 50
2022
1 / 15
24 / 59
8 / 42
33 / 115
2023
0 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
0 / 40
0 / 56
0 / 36

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Perlis State Legislative Assembly

Perlis State Legislative Assembly

The Perlis State Legislative Assembly is the state legislature of the Malaysian state of Perlis. It is a unicameral institution, consisting of a total of 15 lawmakers representing single-member constituencies throughout the state.

Kedah State Legislative Assembly

Kedah State Legislative Assembly

The Kedah State Legislative Assembly is the state legislature of the Malaysian state of Kedah. It is a unicameral institution, consisting of a total of 36 lawmakers representing single-member constituencies throughout the state.

Kelantan State Legislative Assembly

Kelantan State Legislative Assembly

The Kelantan State Legislative Assembly is the unicameral state legislature of the Malaysian state of Kelantan. It consists of 45 members representing single-member constituencies throughout the state. Elections are held no more than five years apart.

Penang State Legislative Assembly

Penang State Legislative Assembly

The Penang State Legislative Assembly is the legislature of the Malaysian state of Penang. It is a unicameral institution, consisting of a total of 40 elected lawmakers representing single-member constituencies throughout Penang. The state legislature, whose members are called State Assemblymen, convenes at the Penang State Assembly Building in Penang's capital city of George Town. The Penang State Executive Council, the executive branch of the Penang state government, is drawn from among the State Assemblymen.

Perak State Legislative Assembly

Perak State Legislative Assembly

The Perak State Legislative Assembly is the unicameral state legislature of the Malaysian state of Perak. It is composed of 59 members representing single-member constituencies throughout the state. Elections are held no more than five years apart, along with elections to the federal parliament and other state assemblies.

Pahang State Legislative Assembly

Pahang State Legislative Assembly

The Pahang State Legislative Assembly is the unicameral state legislature of the Malaysian state of Pahang. It is composed of 42 members representing single-member constituencies throughout the state.

Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly

Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly

The Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly is the state legislature of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. It consists of 36 members who represent single-member constituencies throughout the state. Elections are held no more than five years apart, and are usually conducted simultaneously with elections to the federal parliament and other state assemblies. It is unicameral.

Malacca State Legislative Assembly

Malacca State Legislative Assembly

The Malacca State Legislative Assembly is the unicameral legislature of the Malaysian state of Malacca. It is composed of 28 members who are elected from single-member constituencies throughout the state. Elections are held no more than five years apart, along with elections to the federal parliament and other state assemblies.

Johor State Legislative Assembly

Johor State Legislative Assembly

The Johor State Legislative Assembly is the unicameral legislature of the Malaysian state of Johor. It is composed of 56 members who are elected from single-member constituencies throughout the state. Elections are held no more than five years apart, along with elections to the federal parliament and other state assemblies.

Sabah State Legislative Assembly

Sabah State Legislative Assembly

The Sabah State Legislative Assembly is a part of the legislature of Sabah, Malaysia, the other being the governor of Sabah. The assembly meets at the Sabah State Legislative Assembly Building at Likas in the state capital of Kota Kinabalu.

Sarawak State Legislative Assembly

Sarawak State Legislative Assembly

The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly is the legislative chamber of the unicameral legislature of the Malaysian state of Sarawak; the Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Sarawak forms the other part of the legislature. The Assembly is modelled after the traditions of the Westminster parliamentary system, which originates from the practices of the British Parliament. The executive branch of government is drawn from the elected members of the Assembly. The State Legislative Assembly sits at the Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Building located in Petra Jaya in Kuching, the state capital.

2022 Malaysian general election

2022 Malaysian general election

General elections were held in Malaysia on Saturday, 19 November 2022. The prospect of snap elections had been considered high due to the political crisis that had been ongoing since 2020; political instability caused by coalition or party switching among members of Parliament, combined with the fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic, contributed to the resignation of two prime ministers and the collapse of each of their respective coalition governments since the 2018 general elections.

Source: "Pakatan Harapan", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 28th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakatan_Harapan.

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Notes
  1. ^ The state government of Sabah was formed with a confidence and supply agreement with WARISAN and UPKO.
References
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