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Paisan

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Paisan
Paisaposter.jpg
Directed byRoberto Rossellini
Written by
Produced by
Starring
Narrated byGiulio Panicali
CinematographyOtello Martelli
Edited byEraldo Da Roma
Music byRenzo Rossellini
Distributed by
Release date
  • 10 December 1946 (1946-12-10) (Italy)
[1]
Running time
126 minutes
CountryItaly
Languages
  • Italian
  • English
  • German
Budget56 million Lire[1]
Box office
  • 100 million Lire (Italy)[1]
  • $1 million (US)[2]

Paisan (Italian: Paisà[a]) is a 1946 Italian neorealist war drama film directed by Roberto Rossellini. In six independent episodes, it tells of the Liberation of Italy by the Allied forces during the late stage of World War II.[4] The film premiered at the Venice International Film Festival and received numerous national and international prizes.[1][5]

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Italian language

Italian language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. Together with Sardinian, Italian is the least divergent language from Latin. Spoken by about 85 million people (2022), Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria.

Italian neorealism

Italian neorealism

Italian neorealism, also known as the Golden Age, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class. They are filmed on location, frequently with non-professional actors. They primarily address the difficult economic and moral conditions of post-World War II Italy, representing changes in the Italian psyche and conditions of everyday life, including poverty, oppression, injustice and desperation.

Roberto Rossellini

Roberto Rossellini

Roberto Gastone Zeffiro Rossellini was an Italian film director, producer, and screenwriter. He was one of the most prominent directors of the Italian neorealist cinema, contributing to the movement with films such as Rome, Open City (1945), Paisan (1946), and Germany, Year Zero (1948).

Italian campaign (World War II)

Italian campaign (World War II)

The Italian campaign of World War II, also called the Liberation of Italy following the German occupation in September 1943, consisted of Allied and Axis operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to 1945. The Joint Allied Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) was operationally responsible for all Allied land forces in the Mediterranean theatre and it planned and led the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, followed in September by the invasion of the Italian mainland and the campaign in Italy until the surrender of the German Armed Forces in Italy in May 1945.

Allies of World War II

Allies of World War II

The Allies, formally referred to as the United Nations from 1942, were an international military coalition formed during the Second World War (1939–1945) to oppose the Axis powers, led by Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, and Fascist Italy. Its principal members by 1941 were the United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union, and China.

World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers. World War II was a total war that directly involved more than 100 million personnel from more than 30 countries.

Plot

1st Episode

During the Allied invasion of Sicily, an American patrol makes its way to a village at night. Only one of the Americans speaks Italian. Local girl Carmela, who wants to find the whereabouts of her brother and father, agrees to guide the patrol past a German minefield to the seaside. While one of the patrol, Joe, is assigned to keep an eye on Carmela in a castle ruin, the others inspect the area. Despite the language barrier, Joe starts to overcome Carmela's distance. When he is shot by a German sniper, Carmela hides him in the basement of the building. Upon the discovery that Joe has died, she takes his rifle and starts shooting at the enemy. When the Americans return, they find Joe's body and assume Carmela killed him. The last scene shows the dead Carmela lying at the bottom of the cliffs, having been shot by the German patrol.

2nd Episode

The Allies invade mainland Italy and capture the port of Naples. An orphaned street urchin named Pasquale happens upon Joe, a drunk African-American soldier who is about to become the victim of a robbery. When the police arrive, Pasquale runs away with Joe, who tells him of his war experiences. After Joe falls asleep, Pasquale takes his boots. The next day, Joe, who turns out to be a military policeman, catches Pasquale stealing supplies from a truck. Joe demands his boots back, but when the boy takes him to where he lives, the sight of the squalor causes Joe to leave without them.

3rd Episode

Francesca, a young prostitute in liberated Rome, takes Fred, a drunken American soldier, to the room where she serves her customers. He is not interested in her services and tells her of his futile search for a young woman he met and fell in love with shortly after the liberation of the city six months earlier. As he describes the woman, Francesca realises that she is the woman; both of them have changed so much in the short time that has passed that they do not recognise each other. When Fred falls asleep, Francesca slips out, asking the landlady to give Fred a piece of paper with her address on it when he awakes, and leaves. The next day, Francesca waits in vain for Fred. Fred finds the paper with her address in his pocket, assuming that it is the address of a brothel. He throws the piece of paper away and leaves the city with his unit.

4th Episode

The southern half of Florence is freed, but fierce fighting continues in the other half, across the Arno river, between Italian partisans and the Germans and their fascist allies. All the bridges except the Ponte Vecchio have been blown up, stalling the Allied advance. Nurse Harriet learns that the leader of the partisans, "Lupo", is an artist whom she knew in Florence before the war. She teams up with partisan Massimo, a man desperate for news of his family, and enters the embattled city through the Vasari Corridor. After being held up by a gunfight, Massimo proceeds with his search, while Harriet takes care of a wounded partisan, from whom she hears of Lupo's recent death.

5th Episode

Three American military chaplains are welcomed to stay the night at a Roman Catholic monastery in the Appenine mountains West of Rimini. Captain Bill Martin, who is the only one of the chaplains who speaks Italian, acts as interpreter. The monks are dismayed to learn from Martin that only he is a Catholic; his two colleagues are a Protestant and a Jew. When the guests and their hosts sit down to supper, Martin observes that the monks have nothing on their plates. He inquires and learns that the monks have decided to fast in the hope of gaining the favour of Heaven to convert the other two to their faith. Despite the rule that meals have to be taken in silence, Martin holds a speech in which he expresses his appreciation for having found his peace again which he had believed to be lost in the tribulations of war.

6th Episode

In December 1944, three members of the OSS are operating behind German lines with Italian partisans in the Po delta. They rescue two downed British airmen. On their return to the Italian family who supported them, they find that these have been executed by the Germans. Later, the Allied soldiers and the partisans are captured by the enemy. A German officer explains to the captees his country's motives for the war, and that it will not stop before having achieved world domination. The partisans are summarily executed the next day, and the Allied prisoners shot when they try to interfere. The film closes with a voice-over narration (which opens each episode), stating, "This happened in the winter of 1944. By the beginning of Spring, the war was over."

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Sicily

Sicily

Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. The Strait of Messina divides it from the region of Calabria in Southern Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions and is officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. The region has 5 million inhabitants. Its capital city is Palermo.

Naples

Naples

Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy, after Rome and Milan, with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of 2017. Its province-level municipality is the third-most populous metropolitan city in Italy with a population of 3,115,320 residents, and its metropolitan area stretches beyond the boundaries of the city wall for approximately 20 miles.

Military Police Corps (United States)

Military Police Corps (United States)

The Military Police Corps is the uniformed law enforcement branch of the United States Army. Investigations are conducted by Military Police Investigators under the Provost Marshal General's Office or Special Agents of the United States Army Criminal Investigation Division (USACID).

Rome

Rome

Rome is the capital city of Italy. It is also the capital of the Lazio region, the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, and a special comune named Comune di Roma Capitale. With 2,860,009 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), Rome is the country's most populated comune and the third most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. The Metropolitan City of Rome, with a population of 4,355,725 residents, is the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Its metropolitan area is the third-most populous within Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city. Rome is often referred to as the City of Seven Hills due to its geographic location, and also as the "Eternal City". Rome is generally considered to be the "cradle of Western civilization and Christian culture", and the centre of the Catholic Church.

Florence

Florence

Florence is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2016, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.

Arno

Arno

The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber.

Ponte Vecchio

Ponte Vecchio

The Ponte Vecchio is a medieval stone closed-spandrel segmental arch bridge over the Arno River, in Florence, Italy. The only bridge in Florence spared from destruction during the Second World War, it is noted for the shops built along it; building shops on such bridges was once a common practice. Butchers, tanners, and farmers initially occupied the shops; the present tenants are jewelers, art dealers, and souvenir sellers. The Ponte Vecchio's two neighboring bridges are the Ponte Santa Trinita and the Ponte alle Grazie.

Vasari Corridor

Vasari Corridor

The Vasari Corridor is an elevated enclosed passageway in Florence, central Italy, connecting the Palazzo Vecchio with the Palazzo Pitti. Beginning on the south side of the Palazzo Vecchio, it joins the Uffizi Gallery and leaves on its south side, crossing the Lungarno dei Archibusieri, then following the north bank of the River Arno until it crosses the river at Ponte Vecchio. At the time of construction, the corridor had to be built around the Torre dei Mannelli, using brackets, because the tower's owners refused to alter it. The corridor conceals part of the façade of the Church of Santa Felicità. It then snakes its way over rows of houses in the Oltrarno district, becoming narrower, to finally join the Palazzo Pitti. The corridor's full length is approximately one kilometre.

Apennine Mountains

Apennine Mountains

The Apennines or Apennine Mountains are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km (750 mi) along the length of peninsular Italy. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps at Altare. In the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria, the coastal city at the tip of the peninsula. Since 2000 the Environment Ministry of Italy, following the recommendations of the Apennines Park of Europe Project, has been defining the Apennines System to include the mountains of north Sicily, for a total distance of 1,500 kilometres (930 mi). The system forms an arc enclosing the east side of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas.

Rimini

Rimini

Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. It sprawls along the Adriatic Sea, on the coast between the rivers Marecchia and Ausa. It is one of the most notable seaside resorts in Europe with revenue from both internal and international tourism forming a significant portion of the city's economy. It is also near San Marino, a small nation within Italy. The first bathing establishment opened in 1843. Rimini is an art city with ancient Roman and Renaissance monuments, and is also the birthplace of the film director Federico Fellini.

Office of Strategic Services

Office of Strategic Services

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was the intelligence agency of the United States during World War II. The OSS was formed as an agency of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) to coordinate espionage activities behind enemy lines for all branches of the United States Armed Forces. Other OSS functions included the use of propaganda, subversion, and post-war planning.

Po (river)

Po (river)

The Po is the longest river in Italy. It flows eastward across northern Italy starting from the Cottian Alps. The river's length is either 652 km (405 mi) or 682 km (424 mi), if the Maira, a right bank tributary, is included. The headwaters of the Po are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po under the northwest face of Monviso. The Po then extends along the 45th parallel north before ending at a delta projecting into the Adriatic Sea near Venice.

Cast

  • Carmela Sazio as Carmela
  • Robert Van Loon as Joe (first episode)
  • Dots Johnson as Joe (second episode)
  • Alfonsino Bovino as Pasquale (credited as Alfonsino)
  • Maria Michi as Francesca
  • Gar Moore as Fred
  • Harriet White as Harriet
  • Renzo Avanzo as Massimo
  • Giulietta Masina as Major's daughter
  • William Tubbs as Captain Bill Martin
  • Father Vincenzo Carrella as friar guardian
  • Captain Owen Jones as Protestant chaplain
  • Sergeant Elmer Feldman as Jewish chaplain
  • Dale Edmonds as Dale
  • Achille Siviero as Cigolani
  • Roberto Van Loel as German officer
  • Giulio Panicali as narrator

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Production

After the success of Rome, Open City, Rossellini was able to obtain funding from Italian and American investors with the help of producer Rod E. Geiger, who encouraged him to make another film on the Italian resistance movement.[2] Geiger also supplied Rossellini with raw film stock and four American players, Dots Johnson, Gar Moore, Harriet White and Dale Edmonds.[2] The screenplay was based on scripts and stories by Klaus Mann, Marcello Pagliero, Sergio Amidei, Federico Fellini, Alfred Hayes, and Vasco Pratolini.[1] These underwent substantial changes during the writing process, and two additional episodes remained unrealised.[6]

Rossellini's cast consisted of known and unknown professional actors, and of amateurs like Carmela Sazio in the first episode[7] or the friars in the fifth episode.[8] Filming often took place in locations which stood in for the episode's settings: The scenes with American tanks arriving in Rome was shot in Livorno, while many interior shots supposedly set in Florence were shot in Rome.[6] Also, the voices of many actors did not match the required local dialect. Sazio, a Sicilian girl in the script, spoke with Neapolitan accent and had to be dubbed, as did the friars, whose monastery was located near Salerno in the South but supposed to be set in Northern Italy.[8]

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Rome, Open City

Rome, Open City

Rome, Open City is a 1945 Italian neorealist war drama film directed by Roberto Rossellini and co-written by Sergio Amidei, Celeste Negarville and Federico Fellini. Set in Rome in 1944, the film follows a diverse group of characters coping under the Nazi occupation, and centers on a Resistance fighter trying to escape the city with the help of a Catholic priest. The title refers to Rome being declared an open city after 14 August 1943. It forms the first third of Rosselini's "Neorealist Trilogy", followed by Paisan (1946) and Germany, Year Zero (1948).

Rod E. Geiger

Rod E. Geiger

Rod E. Geiger (1915–2000) was an American movie producer and director, Instrumental for his contributions to Italian Neorealism, working with Federico Fellini and Roberto Rossellini. Credited in the book "The Adventures of Roberto Rossellini, by Tag Gallagher" as the man who more than any single individual was to make Rossellini and the new Italian cinema famous around the world. He was also known for his marriage to Katja of Sweden, a Swedish fashion designer.

Italian resistance movement

Italian resistance movement

The Italian resistance movement is an umbrella term for the Italian resistance groups who fought the occupying forces of Nazi Germany and the fascist collaborationists of the Italian Social Republic during the Second World War in Italy from 1943 to 1945. As an anti-fascist movement and organisation, La Resistenza opposed Nazi Germany, as well as Nazi Germany's Italian puppet state regime, the Italian Social Republic, which was created by the Germans following the Nazi German invasion and military occupation of Italy by the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS from September 1943 until April 1945.

Film stock

Film stock

Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation. It is recorded on by a movie camera, developed, edited, and projected onto a screen using a movie projector. It is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast and resolution of the film. The emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a very short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change, proportional to the amount of light absorbed by each crystal. This creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be chemically developed into a visible photograph. In addition to visible light, all films are sensitive to X-rays and high-energy particles. Most are at least slightly sensitive to invisible ultraviolet (UV) light. Some special-purpose films are sensitive into the infrared (IR) region of the spectrum.

Klaus Mann

Klaus Mann

Klaus Heinrich Thomas Mann was a German writer and dissident. He was the son of Thomas Mann, a nephew of Heinrich Mann and brother of Erika Mann, with whom he maintained a lifelong close relationship, and Golo Mann. He is well known for his 1936 novel, Mephisto.

Marcello Pagliero

Marcello Pagliero

Marcello Pagliero was an Italian film director, actor, and screenwriter.

Sergio Amidei

Sergio Amidei

Sergio Amidei was an Italian screenwriter and an important figure in Italy's neorealist movement.

Federico Fellini

Federico Fellini

Federico Fellini was an Italian film director and screenwriter known for his distinctive style, which blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness. He is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time. His films have ranked highly in critical polls such as that of Cahiers du Cinéma and Sight & Sound, which lists his 1963 film 8+1⁄2 as the 10th-greatest film.

Alfred Hayes (writer)

Alfred Hayes (writer)

Alfred Hayes was a British-born screenwriter, television writer, novelist, and poet, who worked in Italy and the United States. His well-known poem about "Joe Hill" was set to music by Earl Robinson, and performed by Pete Seeger, Joan Baez and many other artists.

Vasco Pratolini

Vasco Pratolini

Vasco Pratolini was an Italian writer of the 20th century. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature three times.

Livorno

Livorno

Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of 158,493 residents in December 2017. It is traditionally known in English as Leghorn.

Salerno

Salerno

Salerno is an ancient city and comune in Campania and is the capital of the namesake province. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea. In recent history the city hosted Victor Emmanuel III, the King of Italy, who moved from Rome in 1943 after Italy negotiated a peace with the Allies in World War II, making Salerno the capital of the "Government of the South" and therefore provisional government seat for six months. Some of the Allied landings during Operation Avalanche occurred near Salerno. Today Salerno is an important cultural and economic centre in Campania and Italy.

Release

Paisan premiered at the Venice International Film Festival on 18 September 1946 and was released in Italian cinemas on 10 December the same year.[1] It was released in the US by Mayer-Burstyn in an English subtitled version running 90 minutes in 1947.[2][9]

A restored version of the film was released in the US on Blu-ray and DVD by The Criterion Collection in 2010.[10]

Reception and legacy

Although awarded at the Venice International Film Festival and by the Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists, the film's initial reception in Italy was mixed for political and religious reasons.[8] Internationally, it received unanimous critical acclaim.[8] French critic André Bazin chose it as the key film to demonstrate the importance of Italian neorealism, emphasising its grasp of reality through an amalgam of documentary technique and fiction.[8] Bosley Crowther of The New York Times titled it "a milestone in the expressiveness of the screen" which achieves a "tremendous naturalness" through its actuality photography and casting of unknowns.[11] Paisan received numerous prizes in the US (including the New York Film Critics Circle Award),[1] Belgium,[1] Japan[5] and Switzerland.[5] Contrary to the prevalent opinion, film theorist Rudolf Arnheim questioned the exaltation of the monks and their intolerance towards the non-catholic chaplains in the monastery episode,[12] a view which was shared by critics Robert Warshow and, later, Pio Baldelli.[13]

Film historians and critics who pointed out the film's importance in later years include Jóse Luis Guarner, who titled it "a masterpiece of neorealism as well as one of the peaks of film history,"[14] Robin Wood,[14] Dave Kehr[15] and Richard Brody.[16] Martin Scorsese listed it among the "39 Essential Foreign Films for a Young Filmmaker",[17] and Gillo Pontecorvo credited Paisan as the film which convinced him to become a director himself.[18] On the other hand, reviewers like Tony Rayns and Allan James Thomas, although acknowledging its status in film history, remarked upon the film's sentimentality[19] and a lack of thematic coherence and causality regarding its content.[7]

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Nastro d'Argento

Nastro d'Argento

The Nastro d'Argento, also known by its translated name Silver Ribbon, is an Italian film award awarded each year since 1946 by the Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists. It is the oldest Italian film award, given every year at the Teatro Antico in Taormina (Sicily).

André Bazin

André Bazin

André Bazin was a renowned and influential French film critic and film theorist.

Bosley Crowther

Bosley Crowther

Francis Bosley Crowther Jr. was an American journalist, writer, and film critic for The New York Times for 27 years. His work helped shape the careers of many actors, directors and screenwriters, though his reviews, at times, were perceived as unnecessarily mean. Crowther was an advocate of foreign-language films in the 1950s and 1960s, particularly those of Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De Sica, Ingmar Bergman, and Federico Fellini.

Actuality film

Actuality film

The actuality film is a non-fiction film genre that, like the documentary film, uses footage of real events, places, and things. Unlike the documentaries, actuality films are not structured into a larger argument, picture of the phenomenon or coherent whole. In practice, actuality films preceded the emergence of the documentary. During the era of early cinema, actualities—usually lasting no more than a minute or two and usually assembled together into a program by an exhibitor—were just as popular and prominent as their fictional counterparts. The line between "fact" and "fiction" was not as sharply drawn in early cinema as it would become after the documentary came to serve as the predominant non-fiction filmmaking form. An actuality film is not like a newspaper article so much as it is like the still photograph that is published along with the article, with the major difference being that it moves. Apart from the traveling actuality genre, actuality is one film genre that remains strongly related to still photography.

Rudolf Arnheim

Rudolf Arnheim

Rudolf Arnheim was a German-born writer, art and film theorist, and perceptual psychologist. He learned Gestalt psychology from studying under Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Köhler at the University of Berlin and applied it to art.

Robert Warshow

Robert Warshow

Robert Warshow (1917–1955) was an American author associated with the New York Intellectuals. He is best known for his criticism of film and popular culture for Commentary and The Partisan Review. Born in New York City and raised in its Bronx borough, he graduated from the University of Michigan in 1938. He briefly wrote for The New Leader before being stationed in Washington, D.C. as a member of the Army Signal Corps during World War II.

Robin Wood (critic)

Robin Wood (critic)

Robert Paul Wood – known as Robin Wood – was an English film critic and educator who lived in Canada for much of his life. He wrote books on the works of Alfred Hitchcock, Howard Hawks, Satyajit Ray, Ingmar Bergman, Michelangelo Antonioni, and Arthur Penn. Wood was a longtime member - and co-founder, along with other colleagues at Toronto's York University - of the editorial collective which publishes CineACTION!, a film theory magazine. Wood was also York professor emeritus of film.

Dave Kehr

Dave Kehr

David Kehr is an American museum curator and film critic. For many years a critic at the Chicago Reader and the Chicago Tribune, he later wrote a weekly column for The New York Times on DVD releases. He later became a curator within the department of film at the Museum of Modern Art.

Richard Brody

Richard Brody

Richard Brody is an American film critic who has written for The New Yorker since 1999.

Martin Scorsese

Martin Scorsese

Martin Charles Scorsese is an American film director, producer, screenwriter and actor. He is the recipient of many major accolades, including an Academy Award, a Grammy Award, three Emmy Awards, four British Academy Film Awards, two Directors Guild of America Awards, an AFI Life Achievement Award and the Kennedy Center Honor in 2007. Five of his films have been inducted into the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant".

Gillo Pontecorvo

Gillo Pontecorvo

Gilberto Pontecorvo Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian filmmaker associated with the political cinema movement of the 1960s and 1970s. He is best known for directing the landmark war docudrama The Battle of Algiers (1966), which won the Golden Lion at the 21st Venice Film Festival, and earned him Oscar nominations for Best Director and Best Original Screenplay.

Tony Rayns

Tony Rayns

Antony Rayns is a British writer, commentator, film festival programmer and screenwriter. He wrote for the underground publication Cinema Rising before contributing to the Monthly Film Bulletin from the December 1970 issue until its demise in 1991. He has written for the British Film Institute's magazine Sight & Sound since the 1970s, and also contributed extensively to Time Out and to Melody Maker in the late 1970s.

Source: "Paisan", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paisan.

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Notes
  1. ^ "Paisan" or "paisà" was a term used by Italians and American servicemen during the liberation of Italy, derived from the Italian "paisano", referring to a person from one's own hometown or country, but also to a friend[3] or "buddy".[2]
References
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wagstaff, Christopher (2007). Italian Neorealist Cinema: An Aesthetic Approach. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802097613.
  2. ^ a b c d e Balio, Tino (2010). The Foreign Film Renaissance on American Screens, 1946–1973. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 47–49. ISBN 9780299247942.
  3. ^ Bondanella, Peter E. (2004). Hollywood Italians: Dagos, Palookas, Romeos, Wise Guys, and Sopranos. Continuum. p. 36. ISBN 9780826415448.
  4. ^ Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey, ed. (1996). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford University Press. p. 438. ISBN 9780198742425.
  5. ^ a b c "Paisa". MUBI. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  6. ^ a b Bondanella, Peter (1993). The Films of Roberto Rossellini. Cambridge University Press. pp. 64–82.
  7. ^ a b Thomas, Allan James (July 2009). "Paisà". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d e MacCabe, Colin (26 January 2010). "Paisan: More Real Than Real". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  9. ^ "Catalog of Copyright Entries: Motion Pictures and Filmstrips". Catalog of Copyright Entries: Third Series. Copyright Office, The Library of Congress. January–June 1949. p. 89.
  10. ^ "Paisan". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  11. ^ Crowther, Bosley (30 March 1948). "'Paisan,' Italian Importation, Tops Four Openings -- Two Other Foreign Films Seen". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  12. ^ Biltereyst, Daniel; Treveri Gennari, Daniela, eds. (2015). "Triple Alliance for Catholic Neorealism". Moralizing Cinema: Film, Catholicism, and Power. Taylor & Francis. p. 182. ISBN 9781315883823.
  13. ^ Carrera, Alessandro (2018). Fellini's Eternal Rome: Paganism and Christianity in the Films of Federico Fellini. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 9781474297615.
  14. ^ a b Wakeman, John (1987). World Film Directors, Volume 2. The H. W. Wilson Company. p. 962.
  15. ^ Dave Kehr (26 October 1985). "Paisan". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  16. ^ Brody, Richard (25 January 2010). "The Ex-Axis". The New Yorker. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  17. ^ "Martin Scorsese Creates a List of 39 Essential Foreign Films for a Young Filmmaker". Open Culture. 15 October 2014. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  18. ^ Marrone, Gaetana; Somigli, Luca; Puppa, Paolo, eds. (2007). Encyclopedia of Italian Literary Studies, Volume 1. Routledge. p. 1474.
  19. ^ Time Out Film Guide (Seventh Edition 1999 ed.). Penguin Books. 1998.
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