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Osman Hamdi Bey

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Osman Hamdi Bey
Osman hamdi.jpg
Born
Osman Hamdi

(1842-12-30)30 December 1842
Died24 February 1910(1910-02-24) (aged 67)
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Known forPainter, archaeologist, museographer and writer
Notable workThe Tortoise Trainer

Osman Hamdi Bey (30 December 1842, in Istanbul  – 24 February 1910[1]) was an Ottoman administrator, intellectual, art expert and also a prominent and pioneering painter. He was also an accomplished archaeologist, and is regarded as the pioneer of the museum curator's profession in Turkey. He was the founder of Istanbul Archaeology Museums and of the Istanbul Academy of Fine Arts (Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi in Turkish), known today as the Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts. He was also the first mayor of Kadıköy.

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Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire, also known as the Turkish Empire, was an empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Turkoman tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe and, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Curator

Curator

A curator is a manager or overseer. When working with cultural organizations, a curator is typically a "collections curator" or an "exhibitions curator", and has multifaceted tasks dependent on the particular institution and its mission. In recent years the role of curator has evolved alongside the changing role of museums, and the term "curator" may designate the head of any given division. More recently, new kinds of curators have started to emerge: "community curators", "literary curators", "digital curators" and "biocurators".

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey, officially the Republic of Türkiye, is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq to the southeast; Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest. Cyprus is located off the south coast. Turks form the vast majority of the nation's population and Kurds are the largest minority. Ankara is Turkey's capital, while Istanbul is its largest city and financial centre.

Istanbul Archaeology Museums

Istanbul Archaeology Museums

The Istanbul Archaeology Museums are a group of three archaeological museums located in the Eminönü quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace.

Turkish language

Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Turkish of Turkey, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers. It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus. Significant smaller groups of Turkish speakers also exist in Iraq, Syria, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested the European Union to add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state. Turkish is the 13th most spoken language in the world.

Kadıköy

Kadıköy

Kadıköy, known in classical antiquity and during the Roman and Byzantine eras as Chalcedon, is a large, populous, and cosmopolitan district in the Asian side of Istanbul, Turkey, on the northern shore of the Sea of Marmara. It partially faces the historic city centre of Fatih on the European side of the Bosporus. One of the expensive neighborhood in Istanbul. Kadıköy is also the name of the most prominent neighbourhood of the district, a residential and commercial area that, with its numerous bars, cinemas and bookshops, is the liberal cultural centre of the Anatolian side of Istanbul. Kadıköy became a district in 1928 when it was separated from Üsküdar district. The neighbourhoods of İçerenköy, Bostancı and Suadiye were also separated from the district of Kartal in the same year, and eventually joined the newly formed district of Kadıköy. Its neighbouring districts are Üsküdar to the northwest, Ataşehir to the northeast, Maltepe to the southeast, and Kartal beyond Maltepe.

Early life

Osman Hamdi was the son of Ibrahim Edhem Pasha,[2] an Ottoman Grand Vizier (in office 1877–1878, replacing Midhat Pasha) who was originally a Greek boy from the Ottoman island of Sakız (Chios) orphaned at a very young age[3] following the Chios massacre there.[4] He was adopted by Kaptan-ı Derya (Grand Admiral) Hüsrev Pasha[5] and eventually rose to the ranks of the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire.

Osman Hamdi in his youth
Osman Hamdi in his youth

Osman Hamdi went to primary school in the popular Istanbul quarter of Beşiktaş;[6] after which he studied Law, first in Istanbul (1856) and then in Paris (1860). However, he decided to pursue his interest in painting instead, left the Law program, and trained under French orientalist painters Jean-Léon Gérôme and Gustave Boulanger.[7] During his nine-year stay in Paris, the international capital of fine arts at the time, he showed a keen interest for the artistic events of his day.[8]

His stay in Paris was also marked by the first ever visit by an Ottoman sultan to Western Europe, when Sultan Abdülaziz was invited to the Exposition Universelle (1867) by Emperor Napoleon III. He also met many of the Young Ottomans in Paris, and even though he was exposed to their liberal ideas, he did not participate in their political activities, being the son of an Ottoman pasha who was loyal to the sultan and did not challenge the old absolutist system. Osman Hamdi Bey also met his first wife Marie, a French woman, in Paris when he was a student. After receiving his father's blessings, she accompanied him to Istanbul (Constantinople) when he returned in 1869, where the two got married and had two daughters.

Once back in Turkey, he was sent to the Ottoman province of Baghdad as part of the administrative team of Midhat Pasha (the leading political figure and reformer among the Young Ottomans who enacted the First Ottoman Constitution in 1876, Midhat Pasha served as the Grand Vizier between 1876–1877, before being replaced by İbrahim Edhem Pasha, Osman Hamdi Bey's father.)[9] In 1871, Osman Hamdi returned to Istanbul, as the vice-director of the Protocol Office of the Palace. During the 1870s, he worked on several assignments in the upper echelons of the Ottoman bureaucracy. He appointed as the first mayor of Kadıköy in 1875, and stayed in that position for one year.[10]

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Ibrahim Edhem Pasha

Ibrahim Edhem Pasha

Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1819–1893) was an Ottoman statesman, who held the office of Grand Vizier in the beginning of Abdul Hamid II's reign between 5 February 1877 and 11 January 1878. He resigned from that post after the Ottoman chances on winning the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) had decreased. He furthermore served numerous administrative positions in the Ottoman Empire including minister of foreign affairs in 1856, then ambassador to Berlin in 1876, and to Vienna from 1879 to 1882. He also served as a military engineer and as Minister of Interior from 1883 to 1885. In 1876–1877, he represented the Ottoman Government at the Constantinople Conference.

Greeks

Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group and nation indigenous to the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea regions, namely Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.

Chios

Chios

Chios is the fifth largest Greek island, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is "the Mastic Island". Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Chios massacre

Chios massacre

The Chios massacre was a catastrophe that resulted to the death, enslavement, and refuging of about four-fifths of the total population of Greeks on the island of Chios by Ottoman troops, during the Greek War of Independence in 1822. Greeks from neighboring islands had arrived on Chios and encouraged the Chiotes to join their revolt. In response, Ottoman troops landed on the island and killed thousands. The massacre of Christians provoked international outrage across the Western world, and led to increasing support for the Greek cause worldwide.

Kapudan Pasha

Kapudan Pasha

The Kapudan Pasha, was the Grand Admiral of the navy of the Ottoman Empire. He was also known as the Kapudan-ı Derya. Typically, he was based at Galata and Gallipoli during the winter and charged with annual sailings during the summer months. The title of Kapudan Pasha itself is only attested from 1567 onwards; earlier designations for the supreme commander of the fleet include Derya Bey and Re'is Kapudan.

Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha

Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha

Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha was an Ottoman admiral, reformer and statesman, who was Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Navy. He reached the position of Grand Vizier rather late in his career, between 2 July 1839 and 8 June 1840 during the reign of Abdulmejid I. However, during the 1820s, he occupied key administrative roles in the fight against regional warlords, the reformation of the army, and the reformation of Turkish attire. He was one of the main statesmen who predicted a war with the Russian Empire, which would eventually be the case with the outbreak of the Crimean War.

Istanbul

Istanbul

Istanbul, formerly known as Constantinople, is the largest city in Turkey, serving as the country's economic, cultural and historic hub. The city straddles the Bosporus strait, lying in both Europe and Asia, and has a population of over 15 million residents, comprising 19% of the population of Turkey. Istanbul is the most populous European city, and the world's 15th-largest city.

Beşiktaş

Beşiktaş

Beşiktaş is a district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European shore of the Bosphorus strait. It is bordered on the north by Sarıyer and Şişli, on the west by Kağıthane and Şişli, on the south by Beyoğlu, and on the east by the Bosphorus. Directly across the Bosphorus is the district of Üsküdar.

France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a transcontinental country predominantly located in Western Europe and spanning overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Due to its several coastal territories, France has the largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in continental Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain close to 68 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre; other major urban areas include Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, and Nice.

Jean-Léon Gérôme

Jean-Léon Gérôme

Jean-Léon Gérôme was a French painter and sculptor in the style now known as academicism. His paintings were so widely reproduced that he was "arguably the world's most famous living artist by 1880." The range of his oeuvre included historical painting, Greek mythology, Orientalism, portraits, and other subjects, bringing the academic painting tradition to an artistic climax. He is considered one of the most important painters from this academic period. He was also a teacher with a long list of students.

Gustave Boulanger

Gustave Boulanger

Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger was a French figure painter and Academic artist and teacher known for his Classical and Orientalist subjects.

List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire, who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty, ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned an area from Hungary in the north to rebel in the south and from Algeria in the west to Iraq in the east. Administered at first from the city of Söğüt since before 1280 and then from the city of Bursa since 1323 or 1324, the empire's capital was moved to Adrianople in 1363 following its conquest by Murad I and then to Constantinople in 1453 following its conquest by Mehmed II.

Career

Two portraits by Osman Hamdi Bey of his second wife Marie, who later took the name Naile Hanım.[11] The name of his first wife was also Marie, and both of them were French.[11] From his first wife Marie, whom he met in Paris, he had two daughters named Fatma and Hayriye.[11] From his second wife Marie (Naile Hanım), whom he met in Vienna, he had three daughters named Melek, Leyla and Nazlı, and one son named Edhem.[11]
Two portraits by Osman Hamdi Bey of his second wife Marie, who later took the name Naile Hanım.[11] The name of his first wife was also Marie, and both of them were French.[11] From his first wife Marie, whom he met in Paris, he had two daughters named Fatma and Hayriye.[11] From his second wife Marie (Naile Hanım), whom he met in Vienna, he had three daughters named Melek, Leyla and Nazlı, and one son named Edhem.[11]
Two portraits by Osman Hamdi Bey of his second wife Marie, who later took the name Naile Hanım.[11] The name of his first wife was also Marie, and both of them were French.[11] From his first wife Marie, whom he met in Paris, he had two daughters named Fatma and Hayriye.[11] From his second wife Marie (Naile Hanım), whom he met in Vienna, he had three daughters named Melek, Leyla and Nazlı, and one son named Edhem.[11]

Osman Hamdi exhibited three paintings at the 1867 Paris Exposition Universelle.[9] None seem to have survived today, but their titles were Repose of the Gypsies, Black Sea Soldier Lying in Wait, and Death of the Soldier. An important step in his career was his assignment as the director of the Imperial Museum (Müze-i Hümayun) in 1881. He used his position as museum director to develop the museum and rewrite the antiquities laws and to create nationally sponsored archaeological expeditions. Osman Hamdi focused on building relationships with international institutions, notably the University of Pennsylvania,[12] from which he received an honorary degree in 1894.[13] In 1902, he painted the excavation of Nippur as a gift to the University of Pennsylvania Museum.[14] In 1882, he instituted and became director of the Academy of Fine Arts, which provided Ottomans with training in aesthetics and artistic techniques without leaving the empire.[15] In 1884, he oversaw the promulgation of a Regulation prohibiting historical artifacts from being smuggled abroad (Asar-ı Atîka Nizamnamesi), a giant step in constituting a legal framework of preservation of the antiquities. Representatives or middlemen of 19th-century European Powers routinely smuggled artifacts with historical value from within the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire (which then comprised the geographies of ancient Greek and Mesopotamian civilizations, among others), often resorting to shadily obtained licenses or bribes, to enrich museums in European capitals.

He conducted the first scientific based archaeological researches done by a Turkish team. His digs included sites as varied as the Commagene tomb-sanctuary in Nemrut Dağı in southeastern Anatolia[16] (a top tourist's venue in Turkey and a UNESCO World Heritage Site today, within the Adıyaman Province), the Hekate sanctuary in Lagina in southwestern Anatolia (much less visited, and within the Muğla Province today), and Sidon in Lebanon. The sarcophagi he discovered in Sidon (including the one known as the Alexander Sarcophagus, although this sarcophagus is thought to contain the remains of either Abdalonymus, King of Sidon; or Mazaeus, a Persian noble who was also the governor of Babylon) are considered among the worldwide jewels of archaeological findings. To lodge these, he started building what is today the Istanbul Archaeology Museum in 1881. The museum officially opened in 1891 under his directorship.

Throughout his professional career as museum and academy director, Osman Hamdi continued to paint in the style of his teachers, Gérôme and Boulanger. Yet, he frequently depicted himself and his family members in these paintings, complicating an assumption of a removed orientalist gaze in his work.[17]

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France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a transcontinental country predominantly located in Western Europe and spanning overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Due to its several coastal territories, France has the largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in continental Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain close to 68 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre; other major urban areas include Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, and Nice.

Paris

Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km², making it the 30th most densely populated city in the world in 2020. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of the world's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, gastronomy, and science. For its leading role in the arts and sciences, as well as its very early system of street lighting, in the 19th century it became known as "the City of Light". Like London, prior to the Second World War, it was also sometimes called the capital of the world.

Nippur

Nippur

Nippur was an ancient Sumerian city. It was the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god Enlil, the "Lord Wind", ruler of the cosmos, subject to An alone. Nippur was located in modern Nuffar in Afak, Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq. Occupation at the site extended back to the Uruk period, the Ubaid period, and the Jemdet Nasr period.

Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University

Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University

The Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University is a Turkish public university dedicated to higher education in the fine arts. It is located in the Fındıklı neighbourhood of Beyoğlu, Istanbul, Turkey.

Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycenaean Greek, Dark Ages, the Archaic period, and the Classical period.

Commagene

Commagene

Commagene was an ancient Greco-Iranian kingdom ruled by a Hellenized branch of the Iranian Orontid dynasty that had ruled over Armenia. The kingdom was located in and around the ancient city of Samosata, which served as its capital. The Iron Age name of Samosata, Kummuh, probably gives its name to Commagene.

Anatolia

Anatolia

Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It constitutes the major part of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Turkish Straits to the northwest, the Black Sea to the north, the Armenian Highlands to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the Balkan peninsula of Southeast Europe.

Adıyaman Province

Adıyaman Province

Adıyaman Province is a province in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The capital is Adıyaman. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority.

Sanctuary

Sanctuary

A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine. By the use of such places as a haven, by extension the term has come to be used for any place of safety. This secondary use can be categorized into human sanctuary, a safe place for people, such as a political sanctuary; and non-human sanctuary, such as an animal or plant sanctuary.

Lagina

Lagina

Lagina or Laginia (Λαγινία) was a town in the territory of Stratonicea, in ancient Caria. It contained an important temple of Hecate, at which every year great festivals were celebrated. Tacitus, when speaking of the worship of Trivia among the Stratoniceans, evidently means Hecate.

Muğla Province

Muğla Province

Muğla Province is a province of Turkey, at the country's south-western corner, on the Aegean Sea. Its seat is Muğla, about 20 km (12 mi) inland, while some of Turkey's largest holiday resorts, such as Bodrum, Ölüdeniz, Marmaris and Fethiye, are on the coast in Muğla.

Sidon

Sidon

Sidon known locally as Sayda or Saida, is the third-largest city in Lebanon. It is located in the South Governorate, of which it is the capital, on the Mediterranean coast. Tyre to the south and Lebanese capital Beirut to the north are both about 40 kilometres away. Sidon has a population of about 80,000 within city limits, while its metropolitan area has more than a quarter-million inhabitants.

The Tortoise Trainer

Hamdi's 1906 painting, The Tortoise Trainer, has held the record until 2019 for the most valuable Turkish painting, after being sold for 5 million Turkish liras (approx. US$3.5 million) in December 2004. At the 2004 Artam Antik A.Ç. auction in Istanbul, the Pera Museum and the Turkish Modern Museum fought to acquire the painting, and was ultimately purchased by the Pera Museum. The painting depicts Hamdi's likeness clad in antiquated clothing, training tortoises in a mosque. This choice of subject matter leads many to see this painting as a commentary on Turkey's conflicted national identity.[18] The painting expresses a sarcastic innuendo on the painter's own view of his style of work compared to those of his collaborators and apprentices, and is also a reference to the historical fact of tortoises having been employed for illuminating and decorative purposes, by placing candles on the shell, in evening outings during the Tulip Era in the early 18th century. The painting was acquired by the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation and is currently on display at the Pera Museum in İstanbul, which was established by this foundation. His Girl Reciting Qur'an (1880) broke the record by realizing US$7.8 million at a Bonhams auction in September 2019.[19]

Modern researchers have identified the animals portrayed are Testudo graeca ibera, a variety of the Spur-thighed tortoise. A reproduction of the painting appeared on the cover of the Bibliotheca Herpetologica issue in which the paper about the identification was published.[20]

Historian Edhem Eldem has identified the source of the painting as an engraving of a Korean circus entertainer printed in Le Tour du Monde (1869) which was a popular French travel magazine.[21] The meaning or any symbolic significance of the tortoises is still contested by scholars.

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The Tortoise Trainer

The Tortoise Trainer

The Tortoise Trainer is a painting by Osman Hamdi Bey, with a first version created in 1906 and a second in 1907. Hamdi's painting of an anachronistic historical character attempting to train tortoises is usually interpreted as a satire on the slow and ineffective attempts at reforming the Ottoman Empire.

Turkish lira

Turkish lira

The lira is the official currency of Turkey and Northern Cyprus. One lira is divided into one hundred kuruş.

Innuendo

Innuendo

An innuendo is a hint, insinuation or intimation about a person or thing, especially of a denigrating or a derogatory nature. It can also be a remark or question, typically disparaging, that works obliquely by allusion. In the latter sense the intention is often to insult or accuse someone in such a way that one's words, taken literally, are innocent.

Pera Museum

Pera Museum

Pera Museum is an art museum in the Tepebaşı quarter of the Beyoğlu (Pera) district in Istanbul, Turkey, at Meşrutiyet Avenue No. 65 It has a particular focus on Orientalism in 19th-century art.

Bibliotheca Herpetologica

Bibliotheca Herpetologica

Bibliotheca Herpetologica: A Journal of the History and Bibliography of Herpetology is a biannual peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the history of herpetology and its bibliography. It is published by the [International Society for the History and Bibliography of Herpetology]. The journal was established in May 1999 as the International Society for the History and Bibliography of Herpetology Newsletter and Bulletin and obtained its current title in 2005. The editor-in-chief is Christofer J. Bell. The journal is abstracted and indexed in The Zoological Record.

Istanbul

Istanbul

Istanbul, formerly known as Constantinople, is the largest city in Turkey, serving as the country's economic, cultural and historic hub. The city straddles the Bosporus strait, lying in both Europe and Asia, and has a population of over 15 million residents, comprising 19% of the population of Turkey. Istanbul is the most populous European city, and the world's 15th-largest city.

Gebze

Gebze

Gebze is a district in Kocaeli Province, Turkey. It is situated 65 km (30 mi) southeast of Istanbul, on the Gulf of Izmit, the eastern arm of the Sea of Marmara. Gebze is the largest district per population size in the province as of 2020-exceeding İzmit, the provincial capital. Gebze has experienced rapid growth in recent years, from 159,116 residents in 1990 to 392.945 in 2020.

Mount Nemrut

Mount Nemrut

Mount Nemrut or Nemrud is a 2,134-metre-high (7,001 ft) mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC. It is one of the highest peaks in the east of the Taurus Mountains.

Work

Osman Hamdi was a prolific painter and author, whose work dealt with themes of archaeology, travel and folk customs in the Middle East.

Hamdi studied painting in Paris under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme, two prominent artists in the French Orientalist school. Despite being trained by Gérôme and Boulanger, and his reproduction of European orientalist motifs, Hamdi's paintings present Ottoman subjects differently than his contemporaries' works, most notably giving them more active and intellectual roles. Hamdi's status as an Ottoman intellectual causes many to see his use of orientalist motifs as subversive and critical of European orientalism.[22] During his lifetime, his artwork was displayed more frequently in Europe than in Turkey.[23]

From 1880 on, he exhibited in Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Munich and London, and started a Salon in Constantinople. His works bear witness to a patient and conscientious method, and may be considered as documents of art history. He was the first who dared break with the Turkish pictorial tradition.

Among his works are Prophet’s Tomb at Brussa, Miraculous Springs (Paris 1904), Reading the Coran 1890, Theologian (Patrimony of the Austrian Court).

These paintings can be found in private collections and in museums in Vienna, Paris, Liverpool, New York, Berlin and Constantinople (at the Palace of Dolma Bagdsche, at the home of Crown Prince Abdulmedjid).

His painting Reading the Coran has been exhibited at “XI BIENNALE INTERNATIONALE DES ANTIQUAIRES” in Paris in 1982 and at the “FINE ART OF THE NETHERLANDS” at the Waldorf-Astoria in New York in November 1982.

Museums

Berlin “Persian Merchant”, Constantinople “Girl reading” and Liverpool “Young Emir studying”.

Reading the Coran, 1890 by Osman Hamdi Bey
Reading the Coran, 1890 by Osman Hamdi Bey

Select list of publications

  • Les Costumes Populaires de la Turquie en 1873, (Popular Costumes in Turkey in 1873) by Osman Hamdi Bey, Marie de Launay and photographs by Pascal Sébah, Turkey, Commission Impériale Ottomane pour l'Exposition Universelle de Vienne, 1873
  • Un Ottoman en Orient: Osman Hamdi Bey en Irak, 1869-1871 (An Ottoman in the Orient: Osman Hambdi Bey in Iraq) by Osman Hamdi Bey, Rudolf Lindau, Marie de Launay and Edhem Eldem, c. 1871
  • Une Nécropole Royale à Sidon: Fouilles de Hamdy Bey, (A Royal Necropolis in Sidon: Excavations by Hamdy Bey) by Osman Hamdi Bey, Paris, E. Leroux, 1892
  • Le voyage à Nemrud Dağı d'Osman Hamdi Bey et Osgan Efendi (1883): récit de voyage et photographies, (The trip to Nemrud Dağı by Osman Hamdi Bey and Osgan Efendi (1883): travelogue and photographs) by Osman Hamdi Bey, Paris, 1883
  • Le Tumulus de Nemrut-Dagi, (The Nemrut-Dagi Mound), by Osman Hamdi Bey, Constantinople, F. Lœffler, 1883

Selected paintings

Paintings at the Pera Museum, Istanbul

Paintings at museums outside Turkey

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Gustave Boulanger

Gustave Boulanger

Gustave Clarence Rodolphe Boulanger was a French figure painter and Academic artist and teacher known for his Classical and Orientalist subjects.

Jean-Léon Gérôme

Jean-Léon Gérôme

Jean-Léon Gérôme was a French painter and sculptor in the style now known as academicism. His paintings were so widely reproduced that he was "arguably the world's most famous living artist by 1880." The range of his oeuvre included historical painting, Greek mythology, Orientalism, portraits, and other subjects, bringing the academic painting tradition to an artistic climax. He is considered one of the most important painters from this academic period. He was also a teacher with a long list of students.

Sidon

Sidon

Sidon known locally as Sayda or Saida, is the third-largest city in Lebanon. It is located in the South Governorate, of which it is the capital, on the Mediterranean coast. Tyre to the south and Lebanese capital Beirut to the north are both about 40 kilometres away. Sidon has a population of about 80,000 within city limits, while its metropolitan area has more than a quarter-million inhabitants.

Mount Nemrut

Mount Nemrut

Mount Nemrut or Nemrud is a 2,134-metre-high (7,001 ft) mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC. It is one of the highest peaks in the east of the Taurus Mountains.

The Tortoise Trainer

The Tortoise Trainer

The Tortoise Trainer is a painting by Osman Hamdi Bey, with a first version created in 1906 and a second in 1907. Hamdi's painting of an anachronistic historical character attempting to train tortoises is usually interpreted as a satire on the slow and ineffective attempts at reforming the Ottoman Empire.

Türbe

Türbe

Türbe is the Turkish word for "tomb". In Istanbul it is often used to refer to the mausolea of the Ottoman sultans and other nobles and notables.

Külliye

Külliye

A külliye is a complex of buildings associated with Turkish architecture centered on a mosque and managed within a single institution, often based on a waqf and composed of a madrasa, a Dar al-Shifa ("clinic"), kitchens, bakery, Turkish bath, other buildings for various charitable services for the community and further annexes. The term is derived from the Arabic word kull "all".

Gebze

Gebze

Gebze is a district in Kocaeli Province, Turkey. It is situated 65 km (30 mi) southeast of Istanbul, on the Gulf of Izmit, the eastern arm of the Sea of Marmara. Gebze is the largest district per population size in the province as of 2020-exceeding İzmit, the provincial capital. Gebze has experienced rapid growth in recent years, from 159,116 residents in 1990 to 392.945 in 2020.

Alte Nationalgalerie

Alte Nationalgalerie

The Alte Nationalgalerie is a listed building on the Museum Island in the historic centre of Berlin, Germany. The gallery was built from 1862 to 1876 by the order of King Frederick William IV of Prussia according to plans by Friedrich August Stüler and Johann Heinrich Strack in Neoclassical and Renaissance Revival styles. The building's outside stair features a memorial to Frederick William IV. Currently, the Alte Nationalgalerie is home to paintings and sculptures of the 19th century and hosts a variety of tourist buses daily. As part of the Museum Island complex, the gallery was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999 for its outstanding architecture and its testimony to the development of museums and galleries as a cultural phenomenon in the late 19th century.

Berlin

Berlin

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.6 million inhabitants make it the European Union's most populous city, according to population within city limits. One of Germany's sixteen constituent states, Berlin is surrounded by the State of Brandenburg and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. Berlin's urban area, which has a population of around 4.5 million, is the second most populous urban area in Germany after the Ruhr. The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has around 6.2 million inhabitants and is Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

Musée d'Orsay

Musée d'Orsay

The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the Left Bank of the Seine. It is housed in the former Gare d'Orsay, a Beaux-Arts railway station built between 1898 and 1900. The museum holds mainly French art dating from 1848 to 1914, including paintings, sculptures, furniture, and photography. It houses the largest collection of Impressionist and post-Impressionist masterpieces in the world, by painters including Berthe Morisot, Claude Monet, Édouard Manet, Degas, Renoir, Cézanne, Seurat, Sisley, Gauguin, and van Gogh. Many of these works were held at the Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume prior to the museum's opening in 1986. It is one of the largest art museums in Europe.

Paris

Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km², making it the 30th most densely populated city in the world in 2020. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of the world's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, gastronomy, and science. For its leading role in the arts and sciences, as well as its very early system of street lighting, in the 19th century it became known as "the City of Light". Like London, prior to the Second World War, it was also sometimes called the capital of the world.

Family

Bust and memorial plaque to Osman Hamdi Bey made by Yervant Voskan located at the Istanbul Archaeology Museums
Bust and memorial plaque to Osman Hamdi Bey made by Yervant Voskan located at the Istanbul Archaeology Museums

Discover more about Family related topics

Yervant Voskan

Yervant Voskan

Yervant Voskan was an Ottoman painter, sculptor, instructor, and administrator. He is the first known sculptor in modern Turkish sculpture history and as the first sculpture teacher at the Sanay-i Nefise he educated the first generation of Turkish sculptors.

Istanbul Archaeology Museums

Istanbul Archaeology Museums

The Istanbul Archaeology Museums are a group of three archaeological museums located in the Eminönü quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace.

Istanbul University

Istanbul University

Istanbul University is a prominent public research university located in Istanbul, Turkey.

Grand National Assembly of Turkey

Grand National Assembly of Turkey

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey, usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament, is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the National Campaign. This constitution had founded its pre-government known as 1st Executive Ministers of Turkey in May 1920. The parliament was fundamental in the efforts of Mareşal Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1st President of the Republic of Turkey, and his colleagues to found a new state out of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire.

Turkey

Turkey

Turkey, officially the Republic of Türkiye, is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq to the southeast; Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest. Cyprus is located off the south coast. Turks form the vast majority of the nation's population and Kurds are the largest minority. Ankara is Turkey's capital, while Istanbul is its largest city and financial centre.

Numismatics

Numismatics

Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, medals and related objects.

Sedad Hakkı Eldem

Sedad Hakkı Eldem

Sedad Hakkı Eldem, was a Turkish architect and one of the pioneers of nationalized modern architecture in Turkey.

Cemal Reşit Rey

Cemal Reşit Rey

Cemal Reşit Rey was a Turkish composer, pianist, script writer and conductor. He was well known for a string of successful and popular Turkish-language operettas for which his brother Ekrem Reşit Rey (1900–1959) wrote the librettos.

Documentary films

  • Osman Hamdi Bey: Kaplumbağa Terbiyecisi ("Osman Hamdi Bey: The Tortoise Trainer") is a 2012 documentary film about the life and works of Osman Hamdi Bey, directed by Umut Hacıfevzioğlu.[27]

Source: "Osman Hamdi Bey", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osman_Hamdi_Bey.

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References and notes
  1. ^ Bloom, Jonathan; Blair, Sheila (14 May 2009). Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. Oxford University Press. p. 80. ISBN 9780195309911.
  2. ^ Shaw, Wendy M. K. (12 June 2003). Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire. University of California Press. p. 2003. ISBN 0-520-23335-2. (Osman Hamdi)…His father, Ibrahim Edhem, was born in the Greek Orthodox village of Sakiz. After being captured as a prisoner of war during a village revolt, he was sold as a slave to the chief naval officer, Kaptan-ı Derya Hüsrev Pasha, the head of the Ottoman Navy, who would also soon serve as vizier to the sultan.
  3. ^ Shankland, David (2004). Archaeology, anthropology, and heritage in the Balkans and Anatolia: the life and times of F.W. Hasluck, 1878–1920. Isis Press. p. 125. ISBN 975-428-280-3. Osman Hamdi Bey's father, Edhem Pasha (ca. 1818–1893) was a high official of the Empire. A Greek boy captured on Chios after the 1822 massacres, he was acquired and brought up by Hüsrev Pasha, who sent him to Paris in 1831 in order to acquire a western education.
  4. ^ Littell, Eliakim (1888). The Living age. The Living Age Co. p. 614. OCLC 10173561. Edhem Pasha was a Greek by birth, pure and unadulterated, having when an infant been stolen from the island of Chios at the time of the great massacre there
  5. ^ "Kaplumbağa Terbiyecisi", Osman Hamdi Bey'in Romanı, Emre Can, Kapı Yayınları, 2008, pp 200–201
  6. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; "Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire...".
  7. ^ Wendy M.K. Shaw, Possessors and Possessed: Museums, Archaeology, and visualisation of history in the late Ottoman Empire. University of California Press 2003, p. 98 ISBN 0-520-23335-2
  8. ^ Bloom J. and Blair, S., The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture, Oxford University Press, 2009 Vol. 3, p.361
  9. ^ a b W. Shaw, p. 98
  10. ^ "Kadıköy'ün İlk Şehremini Osman Hamdi Bey Ölümünün 100. Yılında Saygıyla Anıldı" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d "Aşık olduğu iki kadının adı da Marie'ydi...", Posta.com.tr, 11 October 2010.
  12. ^ Çelik, Zeynep (2016). About Antiquities: Politics of Archaeology in the Ottoman Empire. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 62–63.
  13. ^ Osman Hamdi Bey & Amerikalılar : arkeoloji, diplomasi sanat = Osman Hamdi Bey & the Americans : archaeology, diplomacy, art. Holod, Renata., Ousterhout, Robert G. İstanbul. 2011. p. 32. ISBN 9789759123895. OCLC 769236334.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  14. ^ "Expedition Magazine | Nippur and Hamdi Bey". www.penn.museum. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  15. ^ W. Shaw, p. 99
  16. ^ "Le Tumulus de Nemroud-Dagh : voyage, description, inscriptions ... | 1886 - Collections patrimoniales numérisées de Bordeaux Montaigne". 1886.u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr (in French). Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  17. ^ Holod, Renata, Ousterhout, Robert (2011). Osman Hamdi Bey & Amerikalılar : Arkeoloji, Diplomasi, Sanat = Osman Hamdi Bey & the Americans : Archaeology, Diplomacy, Art. İstanbul: Pera Müzesi. p. 23. ISBN 9789759123895. OCLC 1030061364.
  18. ^ Ari, Nisa (January 2015). "The Purchase on Modernity: The Turkish National Narrative and Osman Hamdi Bey's The Tortoise Trainer". Thresholds. 43: 178–235. doi:10.1162/thld_a_00067. ISSN 1091-711X. S2CID 57569272.
  19. ^ Block, Fang (26 September 2019). "'Young Woman Reading' Nets £6.3M, an Auction Record for Osman Hamdi Bey". Barron's.
  20. ^ Bettelheim, Matthew P. and Ertan Taskavak. 2006. "The Tortoise and the Tulip – Testudo graeca ibera and Osman Hamdi's The Tortoise Trainer". Bibliotheca Herpetologica. 6(2): pp 11–15. The paper is mentioned, and the magazine cover is shown, at ISHBH publication list
  21. ^ Eldem, Edhem (1 January 2012). "Making Sense of Osman Hamdi Bey and His Paintings". Muqarnas Online. 29 (1): 339–383. doi:10.1163/22118993-90000189. ISSN 0732-2992.
  22. ^ Çelik, Zeynep (15 November 2002), "Speaking Back to Orientalist Discourse", Orientalism's Interlocutors, Duke University Press, pp. 19–41, doi:10.1215/9780822383857-002, ISBN 9780822383857
  23. ^ Eldem, Edhem (1 January 2012). "Making Sense of Osman Hamdi Bey and His Paintings". Muqarnas Online. 29 (1): 339–383. doi:10.1163/22118993-90000189. ISSN 0732-2992.
  24. ^ ""NAZLI'NIN DEFTERİ, OSMAN HAMDİ BEY'İN ÇEVRESİ" SERGİSİ ANAMED'DE AÇILIYOR". aktuelarkeoloji.com.tr. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  25. ^ "Kızı Nazlı'nın defterinden Osman Hamdi Bey'in dostları". ZAMAN. 28 April 2014. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  26. ^ "Geneanet Ancestry". Geneanet.
  27. ^ Osman Hamdi Bey: Kaplumbağa Terbiyecisi, Filmeks, 18 April 2012, archived from the original on 19 December 2021, retrieved 18 March 2016
Biography
  • Kaplumbağa Terbiyecisi, Osman Hamdi Bey'in Romanı, Emre Can, Kapı Yayınları, 2008.
  • L'ammaestratore di Istanbul, Elettra Stamboulis & Gianluca Costantini, Comma 22, 2008.
  • L'ammaestratore di Istanbul, Elettra Stamboulis & Gianluca Costantini, Giuda Edizioni, 2013.
  • P. & V. BERKO, “Peinture Orientaliste - Orientalist Painting”, Knokke-Heist Belgium, 1982.
External links

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