Get Our Extension

On conducting a special military operation

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Video of the address by Vladimir Putin (with English captions). Minutes after Putin's announcement, the invasion began.

"On conducting a special military operation" (Russian: О проведении специальной военной операции, romanizedO provedenii spetsial'noy voyennoy operatsii) was a televised address by Russian president Vladimir Putin on 24 February 2022, immediately preceding the beginning of the invasion of Ukraine, addressed to the citizens of Russia and Ukraine, and the military personnel of both the Armed Forces of Ukraine and the Russian Armed Forces. The speech was intended to sway public opinion by describing Putin's motivations and goals for the operation. To justify the invasion, Putin falsely claimed that Ukraine was a neo-Nazi state and made references to Article 51 of the UN Charter, referencing self-defense.

Discover more about On conducting a special military operation related topics

Russian language

Russian language

Russian Russian [ˈruskʲɪj jɪˈzɨk] is an East Slavic language mainly spoken across Russia. It is the native language of the Russians, and belongs to the Indo-European language family. It is one of four living East Slavic languages, and is also a part of the larger Balto-Slavic languages. Besides Russia itself, Russian is an official language in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and is used widely as a lingua franca throughout Ukraine, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and to some extent in the Baltic states. It was the de facto language of the former Soviet Union, and continues to be used in public life with varying proficiency in all of the post-Soviet states.

Romanization of Russian

Romanization of Russian

The romanization of the Russian language, aside from its primary use for including Russian names and words in text written in a Latin alphabet, is also essential for computer users to input Russian text who either do not have a keyboard or word processor set up for inputting Cyrillic, or else are not capable of typing rapidly using a native Russian keyboard layout (JCUKEN). In the latter case, they would type using a system of transliteration fitted for their keyboard layout, such as for English QWERTY keyboards, and then use an automated tool to convert the text into Cyrillic.

Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian statesman and political figure. Acting President of the Russian Federation, Chairman of the State Council of the Russian Federation and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. He was the prime minister of Russia from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012, thus having served continuously as either president or prime minister from 1999 onwards. In fact, he has been in charge of Russia since 1999. The level of support for Putin in Russia is over 69 percent.

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War, which began in 2014. The invasion has likely resulted in tens of thousands of deaths on both sides and caused Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II, with an estimated 8 million people being displaced within the country by late May as well as 7.8 million Ukrainians fleeing the country as of 8 November 2022. Within five weeks of the invasion, Russia experienced its greatest emigration since the 1917 October Revolution. The invasion has also caused global food shortages.

Russia

Russia

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering over 17,098,246 square kilometres (6,601,670 sq mi), and encompassing one-eighth of Earth's inhabitable landmass. Russia extends across eleven time zones and shares land boundaries with fourteen countries, more than any other country but China. It is the world's ninth-most populous country and Europe's most populous country, with a population of 146 million people. The country's capital and largest city is Moscow, the largest city entirely within Europe. Saint Petersburg is Russia's cultural centre and second-largest city. Other major urban areas include Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan.

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest European country after Russia, which it borders to the east and northeast. Ukraine covers approximately 600,000 square kilometres (230,000 sq mi). Prior to the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War, it was the eighth-most populous country in Europe, with a population of around 41 million people. It is also bordered by Belarus to the north; by Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; and by Romania and Moldova to the southwest; with a coastline along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov to the south and southeast. Kyiv is the nation's capital and largest city. Ukraine's official and national language is Ukrainian; most people are also fluent in Russian.

Armed Forces of Ukraine

Armed Forces of Ukraine

The Armed Forces of Ukraine, most commonly known in Ukraine as ZSU or anglicized as AFU, are the military forces of Ukraine. All military and security forces, including the Armed Forces, are under the command of the president of Ukraine and subject to oversight by a permanent Verkhovna Rada parliamentary commission. The modern armed forces were formed in 1991 and consisted of three former Soviet Armed Forces military districts stationed in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

Russian Armed Forces

Russian Armed Forces

The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, commonly referred to as the Russian Armed Forces, comprise the military of Russia. In terms of active-duty personnel, they are the world's fifth-largest military force, with at least two million reserve personnel. Their branches consist of the Ground Forces, the Navy, and the Aerospace Forces, as well as three independent arms of service: the Strategic Rocket Forces, the Airborne Forces, and the Special Operations Forces.

Neo-Nazism

Neo-Nazism

Neo-Nazism comprises the post–World War II militant, social, and political movements that seek to revive and reinstate Nazi ideology. Neo-Nazis employ their ideology to promote hatred and racial supremacy, attack racial and ethnic minorities, and in some cases to create a fascist state.

Address

On 24 February 2022, at 5:30 a.m. Moscow Time, state television channels began broadcasting the new address of Russian president Vladimir Putin.[1][2] In this speech, he talked about following points:

Anti-Russia

In his speech, Putin spoke about the impossibility of reaching an agreement with NATO on equal terms and accused the military alliance of expanding to the east.[3] Putin mentioned the enlargement of NATO frequently in his address, calling it "unacceptable", along with the military development of Ukraine. He said: "As NATO expands to the east, with every passing year, the situation for our country is getting worse and more dangerous. Moreover, in recent days the leadership of NATO has been openly talking about the need to speed up, and force the advancement of the alliance's infrastructure to the borders of Russia. In other words, they are doubling down on their position. We can no longer just watch what is happening. It would be absolutely irresponsible on our part."[3]

Putin stated that Ukraine was becoming an "anti-Russia" state, with it being supplied by other NATO members with "the most modern weapons", saying: "Further expansion of the NATO infrastructure and the beginning of military development in Ukraine's territories are unacceptable for us. The problem, of course, is not NATO itself – it is only an instrument of US foreign policy. The problem is that in the territories adjacent to us – territories that were historically ours, I emphasise – an 'anti-Russia' hostile to us is being created, placed under full external control; [it] is intensively settled by the armed forces of NATO countries and is supplied with the most modern weapons."[4]

Announcement of a "special military operation"

Putin later announced the start of a "special military operation" in the Donbas region, citing Article 51 of the UN Charter, the decision of the Federation Council on the use of Russian troops in Ukraine and agreements with the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and Luhansk People's Republic (LPR). He said:

"We have been left no other option to protect Russia and our people, but for the one that we will be forced to use today. The situation requires us to take decisive and immediate action. The people's republics of Donbas turned to Russia with a request for help. ... In this regard, in accordance with Article 51 of Part 7 of the UN Charter, with the sanction of the Federation Council of Russia and in pursuance of the treaties of friendship and mutual assistance ratified by the Federal Assembly on 22 February of this year with the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic, I have decided to conduct a special military operation."[5][4]

Update on Donbas

Days earlier, on 21 February, Russia officially recognised the DPR and the LPR as independent states,[6][7] which were agreements with the DNR and LNR referred to by Putin. They were ratified by the State Duma and the Federation Council. He said the purpose of the "operation" was to "protect the people" in the predominantly Russian-speaking region of Donbas who, according to Putin, "for eight years now, have been facing humiliation and genocide perpetrated by the Kyiv regime".[3][8] Putin said that "all responsibility for possible bloodshed will be entirely on the conscience of the regime ruling on the territory of Ukraine".[9] Putin also stated that Russia sought the "demilitarization and denazification" of Ukraine.[10][11]

Call to the Ukrainian people

Putin called on the Ukrainian military to "immediately lay down their arms and go home", saying: "All servicemen of the Ukrainian army who comply with this requirement will be able to freely leave the combat zone and return to their families. All responsibility for possible bloodshed will be entirely on the conscience of the ruling regime on the territory of Ukraine."[11] Addressing the citizens of Ukraine, he linked Russia's actions with self-defense against the threats created for it and "an even greater disaster than the one that is happening today", saying: "No matter how hard it is, I ask you to understand this and call for interaction in order to turn this tragic page and move forward together."[11]

Putin stated there were no plans to occupy Ukrainian territory and that he supported the right of the peoples of Ukraine to self-determination, saying: "Our plans do not include the occupation of Ukrainian territories. We are not going to impose anything on anyone by force. At the same time, we hear that recently in the West there is talk that the documents signed by the Soviet totalitarian regime, securing the outcome of World War II, should no longer be upheld."[11][4]

Warning against intervention

At the end of the address, Putin warned other countries against intervening in the conflict, saying:

"Whoever tries to interfere with us, and even more so to create threats for our country, for our people, should know that Russia's response will be immediate and will lead you to such consequences that you have never experienced in your history. We are ready for any development of events. All necessary decisions in this regard have been made. I hope that I have been heard."[12][11][13]

Aftermath and expansion of "special military operation"

Putin's address was aired during an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council on the situation in Ukraine that began on the evening of 23 February.[14][15] At the meeting itself, Vasily Nebenzya, Russia's representative to the UN, stated: "We are not carrying out aggression against the Ukrainian people, but against the group that seized power in Kyiv."[16]

Within minutes of Putin's announcement, explosions were reported in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odessa, and the Donbas.[17] At about 5 am. Kyiv time, the Russian Aerospace Forces and Russian Navy launched missile and bomb attacks on Ukrainian military facilities. Simultaneously, the Russian Ground Forces entered the territory of Ukraine from several directions, including from the occupied Crimea and from the territory of Belarus, beginning the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[17]

On 20 July, The New York Times reported that Lavrov announced that Russia would respond to the increased military aid being received by Ukraine from abroad as justifying the expansion of the 'special operations' front to include military objectives in both the Zaporizhzhia and Kherson regions.[18]

Discover more about Address related topics

Moscow Time

Moscow Time

Moscow Time is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg. It is the second-westernmost of the eleven time zones of Russia. It has been set to UTC+03:00 without DST since 26 October 2014; before that date it had been set to UTC+04:00 year-round on 27 March 2011.

President of Russia

President of Russia

The president of the Russian Federation is the supreme head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. It is the highest office in Russia.

NATO

NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American. Established in the aftermath of World War II, the organization implemented the North Atlantic Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949. NATO is a collective security system: its independent member states agree to defend each other against attacks by third parties. During the Cold War, NATO operated as a check on the perceived threat posed by the Soviet Union. The alliance remained in place after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and has been involved in military operations in the Balkans, the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa.

Enlargement of NATO

Enlargement of NATO

NATO is a military alliance of twenty-eight European and two North American countries that constitutes a system of collective defense. The process of joining the alliance is governed by Article 10 of the North Atlantic Treaty, which allows for the invitation of "other European States" only and by subsequent agreements. Countries wishing to join must meet certain requirements and complete a multi-step process involving political dialog and military integration. The accession process is overseen by the North Atlantic Council, NATO's governing body. NATO was formed in 1949 with twelve founding members and has added new members eight times. The first additions were Greece and Turkey in 1952. In May 1955, West Germany joined NATO, which was one of the conditions agreed to as part of the end of the country's occupation by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, prompting the Soviet Union to form their own collective security alliance later that month. Following the end of the Franco regime, newly-democratic Spain chose to join NATO in 1982.

Donbas

Donbas

The Donbas or Donbass is a historical, cultural, and economic region in eastern Ukraine. Parts of the Donbas are controlled by Russian separatist groups as a result of the Russo-Ukrainian War: the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic.

Federation Council (Russia)

Federation Council (Russia)

The Federation Council, or Senate, is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. Each of the 89 federal subjects of Russia – consisting of 24 republics, 48 oblasts, nine krais, three federal cities, four autonomous okrugs, and one autonomous oblast – sends two senators to the Council, for a total membership of 170 Senators. In addition, the Constitution also provides for senators from the Russian Federation, which can be no more than thirty, as well as (optionally) former presidents as life senators.

Donetsk People's Republic

Donetsk People's Republic

The Donetsk People's Republic is a disputed entity created by Russia-backed separatists in eastern Ukraine. It began as a breakaway state (2014–2022) and was later annexed by Russia (2022–present). The DPR claims Ukraine's Donetsk Oblast. The city of Donetsk is the contested administrative centre of the region.

Luhansk People's Republic

Luhansk People's Republic

The Luhansk or Lugansk People's Republic is a disputed entity created by Russian-backed separatists in eastern Ukraine. It began as a breakaway state (2014–2022) and was later annexed by Russia (2022–present). The LPR claims Ukraine's Luhansk Oblast. Luhansk is the contested capital city.

State Duma

State Duma

The State Duma, commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma, is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Federation Council. The Duma headquarters are located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the Supreme Soviet as a result of the new constitution introduced by Boris Yeltsin in the aftermath of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, and approved in a nationwide referendum.

Denazification

Denazification

Denazification was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of the Nazi ideology following the Second World War. It was carried out by removing those who had been Nazi Party or SS members from positions of power and influence, by disbanding or rendering impotent the organizations associated with Nazism, and by trying prominent Nazis for war crimes in the Nuremberg trials of 1946. The program of denazification was launched after the end of the war and was solidified by the Potsdam Agreement in August 1945. The term denazification was first coined as a legal term in 1943 by the U.S. Pentagon, intended to be applied in a narrow sense with reference to the post-war German legal system. However, it later took on a broader meaning.

Self-determination

Self-determination

The right of a people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law, binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms. It states that peoples, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity, have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no interference.

Soviet Union

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, it was nominally a federal union of fifteen national republics; in practice, both its government and its economy were highly centralized until its final years. It was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the city of Moscow serving as its capital as well as that of its largest and most populous republic: the Russian SFSR. Other major cities included Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It was the largest country in the world, covering over 22,402,200 square kilometres (8,649,500 sq mi) and spanning eleven time zones.

Casus belli

NATO expansion

Lawyers comment on the justifications for the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine used by Putin (in Russian)

After the dissolution of the USSR, 14 new countries were admitted to NATO,[19] with four of them sharing a common border with Russia. Ukraine was presented with the prospect of joining NATO in 2008;[20] since then, the process has stalled. During his visit to Russia in mid-February 2022, German Chancellor Olaf Scholz confirmed this status in the foreseeable future. The logistics infrastructure and airfields suitable for strengthening Russian troops were created after the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014.[21] Of particular concern to Russia was the deployment of missile defense systems in Poland. The missile defense system makes it possible to intercept short and medium-range ballistic missiles, but Russia has refused to discuss the control of these weapons.[22]

Article 51 of the UN Charter and agreements with the DPR and LPR

Putin's reference to Article 51 of the UN Charter is regarded by a number of lawyers as incorrect. According to Robert Goldman, a professor at the Washington College of Law, this is "a blatant example of a violation of the central principles of the world order" and the reference to Article 51 of the UN Charter to justify military actions against Ukraine is "as if a rapist accused the victim in aggression".[23] John B. Bellinger III, member of the Council on Foreign Relations, believes that the reference to requests for help from the supposedly sovereign DPR and LPR, neither of which are UN members, does not allow Russia to use Article 51 of the UN Charter, since this article allows one UN member state to protect another member state.[23]

Swiss researcher of international law Nico Krisch argues that Article 51 is the right to self-defense in exceptional cases, mainly when an attack on a country has already been committed or is about to begin. For other situations, there is the UN Security Council and other conflict resolution mechanisms; the blurred threat that Putin sees as NATO cannot justify military action. Krisch recalled that in the early 2000s, when the United States tried to introduce the concept of "preventive self-defense" as justification for the use of military force, most countries opposed such an interpretation, and Russia was among them.[23] Putin's reference to Article 51 of the UN Charter was also rejected by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and UN Secretary-General António Guterres.[24]

Claims about neo-Nazism and genocide

As justification for the invasion of Ukraine, Putin used the image of Ukraine as a neo-Nazi state; according to historians, he exploited genocide and the memories of World War II.[25] Putin's accusations against Ukraine of committing genocide in the Donbas have been widely dismissed as baseless by leading world politicians and experts.[26][27][28] On 24 February, Putin called the "denazification" of Ukraine one of the goals of the invasion and stated that "neo-Nazis seized power in Ukraine".[29] At a meeting of the Security Council of Russia on 25 February, he called the Ukrainian authorities "a gang of drug addicts and neo-Nazis".[30]

UN Secretary-General António Guterres refused to consider the events in Donbas a genocide. He stated that "genocide is a crime that has a clear definition and should be used in accordance with international law. I think this is not the case."[31] German Chancellor Olaf Scholz called Putin's statement about the genocide "ridiculous".[32] The genocide in Donbas allegation was also rejected by the chairman of the UNESCO Commission on the Prevention of Genocide Alexander Laban Hinton,[8] and political scientist and expert on ultra-right movements Andreas Umland.[33]

The world's leading scholars of the history of World War II, the Holocaust, genocide, and Nazism (Jared McBride, Francine Hirsch, Timothy D. Snyder, Omer Bartov, Christoph Diekman, and others) published a statement in The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles weekly newspaper pointing out the incorrectness of the rhetoric about neo-Nazism and signed by almost 150 historians.[34] The Jewish Journal says that the authors do not intend to idealize the Ukrainian state and society, mentioning certain elements of xenophobia, but nonetheless writes that "There is no Nazi government for Moscow to root out in Kyiv. There has been no genocide of the Russian people in Ukraine. And Russian troops are not on a liberation mission. After the bloody 20th century, we should all have built enough discernment to know that war is not peace, slavery is not freedom, and ignorance offers strength only to autocratic megalomaniacs who seek to exploit it for their personal agendas".[35][36][37] The Washington Post commented that "the rhetoric of the fight against fascism resonates deeply in Russia, which suffered huge losses in the fight against Nazi Germany in World War II".[38]

The far-right nationalist parties failed to win a single seat in the 450-seat Verkhovna Rada.[39] Since 2015, the law "On condemnation of the communist and national-socialist (Nazi) totalitarian regimes in Ukraine and the prohibition of propaganda of their symbols" (Law No. 317-VIII) has been in force on the territory of Ukraine, and there are examples of bringing neo-Nazis to criminal liability.[40] Analysts say Putin greatly exaggerated the scale of the issue, and there is no widespread support for this ideology in the government, military, or electorate.[36][37][38]

Separate criticism of Putin's intention to "denazify" the country came from Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy, who is himself Jewish and has family members and relatives who were victims of the Holocaust.[38] Umland comments that the Russian-speaking Zelenskyy won the 2019 Ukrainian presidential election by a wide margin, while his opponent was a Ukrainian-speaker.[24] Ulrich B. Schmid, professor of Russian culture and society studies at the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland, called Putin's words a "despicable insinuation", and he said that there are no fewer far-right groups in Russia itself than in Ukraine.[24]

The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum issued a strong protest against Putin's accusations of neo-Nazism.[41] The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum noted that the Jewish population of Ukraine suffered greatly in World War II, being almost completely destroyed by Nazi Germany, and expressed support for the Ukrainian people, including thousands of people who survived the Holocaust, and called accusations of alleged genocide in Ukraine called "groundless and blatant".[42]

Threat of using nuclear weapons

Josep Borrell, the EU representative for foreign affairs and security policy,[43] as well as Brookings Institution senior fellow Michael E. O'Hanlon and Associated Press vice president John Daniszewski, assessed Putin's words about a possible response to intervention in the conflict as a threat to use nuclear weapons.[44]

On 27 February, Putin ordered the Minister of Defense to put the strategic deterrence forces into a special mode of combat duty. The reason for this was what he called the "unfriendly actions" of Western countries in the economic sphere, as well as the "aggressive statements" of their leaders.[45]

Discover more about Casus belli related topics

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War, which began in 2014. The invasion has likely resulted in tens of thousands of deaths on both sides and caused Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II, with an estimated 8 million people being displaced within the country by late May as well as 7.8 million Ukrainians fleeing the country as of 8 November 2022. Within five weeks of the invasion, Russia experienced its greatest emigration since the 1917 October Revolution. The invasion has also caused global food shortages.

Olaf Scholz

Olaf Scholz

Olaf Scholz is a German politician who has served as the chancellor of Germany since 8 December 2021. A member of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), he previously served as Vice Chancellor under Angela Merkel and as Federal Minister of Finance from 2018 to 2021. He was also First Mayor of Hamburg from 2011 to 2018 and deputy leader of the SPD from 2009 to 2019.

Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation

Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation

In February and March 2014, Russia invaded and subsequently annexed the Crimean Peninsula from Ukraine. This event took place in the aftermath of the Revolution of Dignity and is part of the wider Russo-Ukrainian War.

Poland

Poland

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called voivodeships, covering an area of 312,696 km2 (120,733 sq mi). Poland has a population of over 38 million and is the fifth-most populous member state of the European Union. Warsaw is the nation's capital and largest metropolis. Other major cities include Kraków, Wrocław, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

John B. Bellinger III

John B. Bellinger III

John Bellinger Bellinger III is an American lawyer who served as the Legal Adviser for the U.S. Department of State and the National Security Council during the George W. Bush administration. He is now a partner at the Washington, D.C. law firm Arnold & Porter, and Adjunct Senior Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations.

Council on Foreign Relations

Council on Foreign Relations

The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an American think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international relations. Founded in 1921, it is a nonprofit organization that is independent and nonpartisan. CFR is based in New York City, with an additional office in Massachusetts. Its membership has included senior politicians, numerous secretaries of state, CIA directors, bankers, lawyers, professors, corporate directors and CEOs, and senior media figures.

Nico Krisch

Nico Krisch

Nico Krisch is a legal scholar, specializing in international law, constitutional theory, and global governance. He is professor at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva. Previously, he was research professor at the ICREA, Institut Barcelona d'Estudis Internacionals, and a Fellow at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin. He has also been a professor of international law at the Hertie School, a senior lecturer at the Law Department of the London School of Economics and Political Science, and a research fellow at Merton College (Oxford), New York University School of Law and the Max Planck Institute for International Law in Heidelberg. He has also been a visiting professor of law at Harvard Law School.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest regional security-oriented intergovernmental organization with observer status at the United Nations. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and free and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations but also in its secretariat in Vienna, Austria, and its institutions.

António Guterres

António Guterres

António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres is a Portuguese politician and diplomat. Since 2017, he has served as secretary-general of the United Nations, the ninth person to hold this title. A member of the Portuguese Socialist Party, Guterres served as prime minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002.

Genocide

Genocide

Genocide is the intentional destruction of a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group—in whole or in part. Raphael Lemkin coined the term in 1944, combining the Greek word γένος with the Latin suffix -caedo.

Security Council of Russia

Security Council of Russia

The Security Council of the Russian Federation is a constitutional consultative body of the Russian president that supports the president's decision-making on national security affairs and matters of strategic interest. Composed of Russia's top state officials and heads of defence and security agencies and chaired by the president of Russia, the SCRF acts as a forum for coordinating and integrating national security policy.

UNESCO

UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace and security through international cooperation in education, arts, sciences and culture. It has 193 member states and 12 associate members, as well as partners in the non-governmental, intergovernmental and private sector. Headquartered at the World Heritage Centre in Paris, France, UNESCO has 53 regional field offices and 199 national commissions that facilitate its global mandate.

Reactions

NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg issued a statement condemning "Russia's reckless and unprovoked attack on Ukraine, which puts at risk countless civilian lives. Once again, despite our repeated warnings and tireless efforts to engage in diplomacy, Russia has chosen the path of aggression against a sovereign and independent country."[46]

US president Joe Biden issued a statement saying that Russia had launched "an unprovoked and unjustified attack" on the Ukrainian people.[47]

In the statement, Biden said: "President Putin has chosen a premeditated war that will bring a catastrophic loss of life and human suffering." He said: "Russia alone is responsible for the death and destruction this attack will bring, and the United States and its Allies and partners will respond in a united and decisive way. The world will hold Russia accountable."[47]

As news of the announcement broke, UN Secretary-General Guterres asked Putin to halt the invasion: "President Putin, stop your troops from attacking Ukraine. Give peace a chance, too many people have already died."[48]

Source: "On conducting a special military operation", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_conducting_a_special_military_operation.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

See also
References
  1. ^ Furseev, Ilya (Илья Фурсеев) (2022-02-24). "Путин выступил с экстренным обращением к гражданам России". РБК (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  2. ^ "'Мы будем стремиться к демилитаризации и денацификации': Путин объявил о начале спецоперации в Украине" ['We will strive for demilitarization and denazification.': Putin announces the start of a special operation in Ukraine]. Новая газета (in Russian). 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  3. ^ a b c "Расшифровка речи Путина о начале военной операции". Бумага (in Russian). 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-03-04. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  4. ^ a b c "'No other option': Excerpts of Putin's speech declaring war". Al Jazeera. 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-03-01. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  5. ^ "Военная операция в Донбассе. Главное". РБК (in Russian). 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  6. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Russia orders troops into rebel-held regions". BBC News. 2022-02-22. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  7. ^ Wamsley, Laurel (2022-02-21). "U.N. leaders condemn Putin after he orders 'peacekeepers' to Ukraine". NPR. Archived from the original on 2022-02-21. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  8. ^ a b Hinton, Alexander (2022-02-25). "Putin's claims that Ukraine is committing genocide are baseless, but not unprecedented". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 2022-03-07. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  9. ^ "Full text: Putin's declaration of war on Ukraine". The Spectator. 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-02-28. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  10. ^ "Ukraine conflict: Russian forces attack from three sides". BBC News. 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Путин объявил о начале военной операции на Украине". ТАСС (in Russian). 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  12. ^ Yeung, Jessie; Renton, Adam; Picheta, Rob; Upright, Ed; Sangal, Aditi; Vogt, Adrienne; Macaya, Melissa; Chowdhury, Maureen (2022-02-24). "Russia attacks Ukraine". CNN News. Archived from the original on 2022-03-07. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  13. ^ Chernenko, Elena (Елена Черненко); Belenkaya, Marianna (Марианна Беленькая) (2022-02-24). "Наступление и наказание". Коммерсантъ (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  14. ^ ""Для военных преступников нет чистилища. Они отправляются прямиком в ад" Прямо во время экстренного заседания Совбеза ООН по Украине Путин объявил войну. Вот что там говорили – почитайте этот исторический документ". Meduza (in Russian). 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-02-25. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  15. ^ "Небензя заявил, что Киев не слышал сигналов о прекращении провокаций против ДНР и ЛНР". ТАСС (in Russian). 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  16. ^ "Небензя заявил, что Россия ведет агрессию против захватившей власть хунты". РИА Новости (in Russian). 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-03-01. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  17. ^ a b Sheftalovich, Zoya (2022-02-24). "Battles flare across Ukraine after Putin declares war". Politico. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  18. ^ Bigg, Matthew Mpoke (2022-07-20). "Russian Invasion of Ukraine: Ukraine News: Kyiv Intensifies Attacks on Russian Positions in South". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  19. ^ Harrington, John (2022-03-07). "The 14 Former Soviet and Soviet-Aligned Republics that Joined NATO after the Cold War". 24/7 Wall St. Archived from the original on 2022-03-07. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  20. ^ Brunnstrom, David; Cornwell, Susan (2008-04-03). "NATO promises Ukraine, Georgia entry one day". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2022-03-07. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  21. ^ Gressel, Gustav (2021-09-21). "Waves of ambition: Russia's military build-up in Crimea and the Black Sea". European Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 2022-03-07. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  22. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2017-05-01). Missile Defense in Russia (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-03-07 – via fas.org.
  23. ^ a b c Avetisyan, Anush (Ануш Аветисян); Shakhov, Dmitry (Дмитрий Шахов) (2022-03-01). "Россия нарушила ряд международных законов, начав войну в Украине". Голос Америки (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-03-02. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  24. ^ a b c Weber, Joscha (Йоша Вебер); von Hein, Matthias (Маттиас фон Хайн); Grunau, Andrea (Андреа Грунау); Theise, Eugen (Евгений Тейзе); Ivanova, Alexandra (Александра Иванова) (2022-03-02). "Как Путин оправдывает вторжение в Украину. Фактчекинг DW". DW (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-03-03. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  25. ^ "Мемориалы жертвам Холокоста осудили действия Путина и его риторику". BBC News Русская служба (in Russian). 2022-03-02. Archived from the original on 2022-03-05. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  26. ^ "US accuses Moscow of creating Ukraine invasion pretext with 'genocide' claims". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 2022-02-16. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  27. ^ Fisher, Max (2022-02-19). "Putin's Baseless Claims of Genocide Hint at More Than War". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  28. ^ "Russia using false genocide claims as pretext for Ukraine invasion: US". South China Morning Post. Reuters. 2022-02-17. Archived from the original on 2022-03-08. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  29. ^ "Россия начала "военную операцию" на Украине". BBC News Русская служба (in Russian). 2022-02-24. Archived from the original on 2022-02-25. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  30. ^ "Военная операция на Украине. Главное". РБК (in Russian). 2022-02-25. Archived from the original on 2022-02-25. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  31. ^ "The UN Secretary General said that the Russian military in the "DPR" and "LPR" cannot be considered peacekeepers". Perild. 2022-02-23. Archived from the original on 2022-03-07. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  32. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Vladimir Putin address fact-checked". BBC News. 2022-02-22. Archived from the original on 2022-03-07. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  33. ^ Weber, Joscha; Grunau, Andrea; von Hein, Matthias; Theise, Eugen (2022-02-25). "Fact check: Do Vladimir Putin's justifications for going to war against Ukraine add up?". DW. Archived from the original on 2022-02-25. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  34. ^ Tabarovsky, Izabella; Finkel, Eugene (2022-02-27). "Statement on the War in Ukraine by Scholars of Genocide, Nazism and World War II". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 2022-03-04. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  35. ^ "Путин называет украинских лидеров нацистами, а события в Донбассе – геноцидом. Это неправда Заявление исследователей нацизма, геноцида, Холокоста и Второй мировой". Meduza (in Russian). 2022-03-01. Archived from the original on 2022-03-02. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  36. ^ a b Li, David K.; Allen, Jonathan; Siemaszko, Corky (2022-02-25). "Putin using false 'Nazi' narrative to justify Russia's attack on Ukraine, experts say". NBC News. Archived from the original on 2022-02-25. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  37. ^ a b "Putin says he is fighting a resurgence of Nazism. That's not true". NBC News. Archived from the original on 2022-03-06. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  38. ^ a b c Berger, Miriam (2022-02-25). "Putin says he will 'denazify' Ukraine. Here's the history behind that claim". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2022-03-03. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  39. ^ "Результаты внеочередных выборов народных депутатов Украины 2019". Украинская правда (in Russian). 2019-07-21. Archived from the original on 2022-03-09. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  40. ^ "Что не так с тезисом "у власти в Украине фашисты"? Фактчек Би-би-си". BBC News Русская служба (in Russian). 2022-03-03. Archived from the original on 2022-03-03. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  41. ^ Haltiwanger, John (2022-02-24). "Auschwitz museum says Russia's war in Ukraine is an 'act of barbarity that will be judged by history'". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  42. ^ "О проведении специальной военной операции", Википедия (in Russian), 2022-03-07, archived from the original on 2022-03-16, retrieved 2022-03-07
  43. ^ "Боррель назвал заявление Путина в защиту России безответственным". РИА Новости (in Russian). 2022-02-28. Archived from the original on 2022-03-03. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  44. ^ Daniszewski, John (2022-02-26). "Putin waves nuclear sword in confrontation with the West". AP News. Archived from the original on 2022-03-03. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  45. ^ Chernenko, Elena (Елена Черненко) (2022-02-28). "Приказательное выступление". Коммерсантъ (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-03-02. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  46. ^ Isachenkov, Vladimir; Litvinova, Dasha; Karmanau, Yuras; Heintz, Jim (2022-02-24). "Russia Attacks Ukraine as a Defiant Putin Warns the U.S. and NATO Not to Interfere". Time. Archived from the original on 2022-03-08. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  47. ^ a b Hodge, Nathan; Lister, Tim; Kottasová, Ivana; Regan, Helen (2022-02-24). "Russia launches military attack on Ukraine with reports of explosions and troops crossing border". CNN. Archived from the original on 2022-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  48. ^ Lakshman, Sriram (2022-02-24). "Security Council reacts to Putin announcement of 'Special Operation' in Eastern Ukraine". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 2022-03-09. Retrieved 2022-03-08.

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.