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Nupe people

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Nupe people
Nupe Bursche, Nigeria, Aquarell Carl Arriens, 1911.jpg
Total population
c. 3.5 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Nigeria
Languages
Nupe
Religion
Related ethnic groups
Gbagyi, Igala, Yoruba, Ebira, Kambari, Kamuku, Bariba, Dukawa and others

The Nupe (traditionally called the Nupawa by the Hausas and Tapa by the neighbouring Yoruba) are an ethnic group native to the Middle Belt of Nigeria. They are the dominant ethnic group in Niger State and a minority in Kwara State. The Nupe are also present in Kogi State and The Federal Capital Territory.[2][3]

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Hausa people

Hausa people

The Hausa are the largest ethnic group in West and Central Africa. They speak the Hausa language, which is the second most spoken language after Arabic in the Afro-Asiatic language family. The Hausa are a diverse but culturally homogeneous people based primarily in the Sahelian and the sparse savanna areas of southern Niger and northern Nigeria respectively, numbering around 54 million people with significant indigenized populations in Benin, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Chad, Sudan, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Togo, Ghana, Eritrea, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Senegal and the Gambia.

Yoruba people

Yoruba people

The Yoruba people are a West African ethnic group that mainly inhabit parts of Nigeria, Benin and Togo. The areas of these countries primarily inhabited by Yoruba are often collectively referred to as Yorubaland. The Yoruba constitute more than 50 million people in Africa, are a few hundred thousand outside the continent, and bear further representation among members of the African diaspora. The vast majority of the Yoruba population is today within the country of Nigeria, where they make up 21% of the country's population according to CIA estimations, making them one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. Most Yoruba people speak the Yoruba language, which is the Niger-Congo language with the largest number of native or L1 speakers.

Ethnic group

Ethnic group

An ethnic group or an ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, religion, or social treatment within their residing area. Ethnicity is sometimes used interchangeably with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from the related concept of races.

Middle Belt

Middle Belt

The Middle Belt is a term used in human geography to designate a belt region stretching across central Nigeria longitudinally and forming a transition zone between Northern and Southern Nigeria. It is composed of the southern half of the defunct Northern Region of Nigeria, now comprising mostly the North Central geopolitical zone, and is characterised by its lack of a clear majority ethnic group. It is also the location of Nigeria's Federal Capital Territory.

Niger State

Niger State

Niger is a state in the North Central region of Nigeria and the largest state in the country. Niger state has three political zones, zone A,B and C. The state's capital is at Minna. Other major cities are Bida, Kontagora and Suleja. It was formed in 1976 when the then North-Western State was divided into Niger State and Sokoto State. It is home to Ibrahim Babangida and Abdulsalami Abubakar, two of Nigeria's former military rulers. The Nupe, Gbagyi, Kamuku, Kambari, Gungawa, Hun-Saare, Hausa and Koro form the majority of numerous indigenous tribes of Niger State.

Kwara State

Kwara State

Kwara State, is a state in Western Nigeria, bordered to the east by Kogi State, to the north by Niger state, and to the south by Ekiti, Osun, and Oyo states, while its western border makes up part of the international border with Benin Republic. Its capital is the city of Ilorin and the state has 16 local government areas.

Kogi State

Kogi State

Kogi State is a state in the North Central region of Nigeria, bordered to the west by the states of Ekiti and Kwara, to the north by the Federal Capital Territory, to the northeast by Nasarawa State, to the northwest by Niger State, to the southwest by the Edo and Ondo states, to the southeast by the states of Anambra and Enugu, and to the east by Benue State. It is the only state in Nigeria to border ten other states. Named for the Hausa word for river (kogi). Kogi State was formed from parts of Benue State, Niger State, and Kwara State on 27 August 1991. The state is nicknamed the "Confluence State" due to the fact that the confluence of the River Niger and the River Benue occurs next to its capital, Lokoja.

History

The Nupe trace their origin to Tsoede who fled the court of Idah and established a loose confederation of towns along the Niger in the 15th century.[4][5] The proximity of Nupe to the Yoruba Igbomina people in the south and to the Yoruba Oyo people in the southwest led to cross-fertilization of cultural influences through trade and conflicts over the centuries.[6]

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Tsoede

Tsoede

Tsoede, also known as Tsudi, Tsade or Edegi or Ichado in Igala language, is a legendary African leader. He was the first person to unite the Nupe people, and is considered the first Etsu Nupe, ruler of the Nupe Kingdom, between the Niger and Kaduna rivers in what is now central Nigeria.

Idah

Idah

Idah is a town in Kogi State, Nigeria, on the eastern bank of the Niger River in the middle belt region of Nigeria. It is the headquarter of the Igala Kingdom, and also a Local Government Area with an area of 36 km2. Idah had a population of 79,815 at the 2006 census.

Igbomina

Igbomina

The Ìgbómìnà are a subgroup of the Yoruba ethnic group, which originates from the north central and southwest Nigeria. They speak a dialect also called Ìgbómìnà or Igbonna, classified among the Central Yoruba of the three major Yoruba dialectical areas. The Ìgbómìnà spread across what is now southern Kwara State and northern Osun State. Peripheral areas of the dialectical region have some similarities to the adjoining Ekiti, Ijesha and Oyo dialects.

Oyo Empire

Oyo Empire

The Oyo Empire was a powerful Yoruba empire of West Africa made up of parts of present-day eastern Benin and western Nigeria. It grew to become the largest Yoruba-speaking state and rose through the outstanding organizational and administrative skills of the Yoruba people, wealth gained from trade, and a powerful cavalry. The Oyo Empire was one of the most politically important states in the entirety of Western Africa from the mid-17th to the late 18th century, and held sway not only over most of the other kingdoms in Yorubaland, but also over nearby African states, notably the Fon Kingdom of Dahomey in the modern Republic of Benin on its west.

Population and demography

There are probably about 3.5 million Nupes, principally in Niger State. The Nupe language is also spoken in Kwara, Kogi and Federal Capital Territory. They are primarily Muslims, with some Christians and followers of African Traditional Religion. The nupe people have several local traditional rulers. The Etsu Nupe (Bida) is not pure nupe, his great grandfather from his father side is Fulani while the family of his mother was complete nupe. His great grandfather from his father side came to rule Bida in the 1806. They have no present capital, although they were originally based at Rabah and only moved to Bida in the nineteenth century.[7]

Nupe part in Nigeria
Nupe part in Nigeria

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Niger State

Niger State

Niger is a state in the North Central region of Nigeria and the largest state in the country. Niger state has three political zones, zone A,B and C. The state's capital is at Minna. Other major cities are Bida, Kontagora and Suleja. It was formed in 1976 when the then North-Western State was divided into Niger State and Sokoto State. It is home to Ibrahim Babangida and Abdulsalami Abubakar, two of Nigeria's former military rulers. The Nupe, Gbagyi, Kamuku, Kambari, Gungawa, Hun-Saare, Hausa and Koro form the majority of numerous indigenous tribes of Niger State.

Nupe language

Nupe language

Nupe is a Volta–Niger language of the Nupoid branch primarily spoken by the Nupe people of the North Central region of Nigeria. Its geographical distribution stretches and maintains pre-eminence in Niger State as well as Kwara, Kogi, Lagos and the Federal Capital Territory.

Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria)

Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria)

The Federal Capital Territory, commonly known as the FCT, is a federal territory in central Nigeria. Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria, is located in this territory. The FCT was formed in 1976 from parts of the states of old Kaduna, Kwara, Niger, and Plateau states, with the bulk of land mass carved out of Niger state. The Federal Capital Territory is within the North Central region of the country. Unlike other states of Nigeria, which are headed by elected Ggovernors, it is administered by the Federal Capital Territory Administration, headed by a minister, who is appointed by the President.

Bida

Bida

Bida is a Local Government Area in Niger State, Nigeria and a city on the A124 highway which occupies most of the area.

Fula people

Fula people

The Fula, Fulani, or Fulɓe people are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region. Inhabiting many countries, they live mainly in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa, South Sudan, Darfur, and regions near the Red Sea coast in Sudan. The approximate number of Fula people is unknown due to clashing definitions regarding Fula ethnicity. Various estimates put the figure between 25 and 40 million people worldwide.

Traditions, art and culture

The Nupe people have various traditions. Many practices have changed as a result of the movements started by Usman Dan Fodio jihad of the 19th century, but they still hold on to some of their culture. Many Nupe people often have tribal marks on their faces (similar to an old Igala tradition), some to identify their prestige and the family of which they belong as well as for protection, as well as jewellery adornment. But these traditions are dying out in certain areas.

Their art is often abstract. They are well known for their wooden stools with patterns carved onto the surface.[8][9]

The Nupe were described in detail by the ethnographer Siegfried Nadel, whose book, Black Byzantium, remains an anthropological classic.

Examples of Nupe art

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Jihad

Jihad

Jihad is an Arabic word which literally means "striving" or "struggling", especially with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to make personal and social life conform with God's guidance, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, proselytizing, or efforts toward the moral betterment of the Muslim community (Ummah), though it is most frequently associated with war. In classical Islamic law (sharia), the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi circles, spiritual and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad. The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by various insurgent Islamic extremist, militant Islamist, and terrorist individuals and organizations whose ideology is based on the Islamic notion of jihad.

Scarification

Scarification

Scarification involves scratching, etching, burning/branding, or superficially cutting designs, pictures, or words into the skin as a permanent body modification or body art. The body modification can take roughly 6–12 months to heal. In the process of body scarification, scars are purposely formed by cutting or branding the skin by various methods. Scarification is sometimes called cicatrization.

Jewellery

Jewellery

Jewellery (UK) or jewelry (U.S.) consists of decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes. From a western perspective, the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal such as gold often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as glass, shells and other plant materials may be used.

Wood

Wood

Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material – a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots. Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or woodchips or fiber.

Museum of Ethnology, Vienna

Museum of Ethnology, Vienna

The Weltmuseum Wien in Vienna is the largest anthropological museum in Austria, established in 1876. It currently resides in the Hofburg Imperial Palace and houses more than 400,000 ethnographical and archaeological objects from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and America. Since November 2014 the museum was closed due to renovation and was reopened on the 25th of October 2017.

Hood Museum of Art

Hood Museum of Art

The Hood Museum of Art is owned and operated by Dartmouth College, located in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. The first reference to the development of an art collection at Dartmouth dates to 1772, making the collection among the oldest and largest, at about 65,000 objects, of any college or university museum in the United States. The Hood Museum of Art officially opened in the fall of 1985. The original building was designed by Charles Willard Moore and Chad Floyd. In March 2016, the museum closed for a major expansion and renovation designed by Tod Williams Billie Tsien Architects. The museum reopened to the public on January 26, 2019, with more gallery and office spaces as well as a welcoming new atrium. It also added the Bernstein Center for Object Study, which houses three smart object-study rooms, an object-staging room, and curatorial and security offices, all accessible to Dartmouth faculty and students via an entrance set parallel to the doors to the galleries themselves.

Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Los Angeles County Museum of Art

The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits.

Music and Entertainment Industry

Nupe traditional music is sung by the Ningba, or musician(s), while the Enyanicizhi beats the drum. Legendary Nupe singers of memory include people like Hajiya Fatima Lolo[10] Alhaji Nda'asabe, Hajiya Nnadzwa, Hauwa Kulu, Baba-Mini, Ahmed Shata and Ndako Kutigi.

The prime-movers of the Nupe cinema started film-making since the late nineties into the early 2000s. Great Nupe personalities that birthed the idea of producing, acting and directing Nupe dramas/comedies on-screen are Late Sadisu Muhammad DGN,[11] Prince Ahmed Chado, Late Prince Hussaini Kodo, M.B. Yahaya Babs and Jibril Bala Jibril. They are the people who made the move for Nupe dramas to be on-screen and are the founders of the modern-day Nupe Film Industry [12] known as Nupewood.[13] Nupewood has since produced more than a thousand entertaining movies in Nupe space to the millions of Nupe audiences.

Notable Nupe people

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Ahmed Lemu

Ahmed Lemu

Ahmed Lemu, OON, OFR, was a Nigerian Islamic scholar, educationist and jurist, who was the first grand khadi and chief justice of Niger State. He was the founder of Islamic Educational Trust (IET) together with his wife Aisha Lemu and a friend Ashafa Sani Suleiman. He was a member of the Vision 2010 Committee constituted by Sani Abacha, and in 2011 he was appointed as the Chairman of Presidential Committee on Post Election Violence by Goodluck Jonathan to probe the violence which followed the announcement of the 2011 presidential Election results in Northern Nigeria.

Idris Legbo Kutigi

Idris Legbo Kutigi

Idris Legbo Kutigi was a Nigerian lawyer and jurist. He was Attorney General and Commissioner for Justice in Niger State before becoming a high court judge. He joined the Supreme Court of Nigeria in 1992 and served as Chief Justice from 30 January 2007 to 30 December 2009.

Mohammed Umar Bago

Mohammed Umar Bago

Mohammed Umar Bago is a Nigerian politician. He was born in Minna, Niger State, to a Nupe family, He is a member of parliament for Chanchaga, Federal Constituency. He stands with the All Progressives Congress Party. He ran in the 9th National Assembly, contesting for Speaker House of Representatives of Nigeria. He came second to Femi Gbajabiamila.

Muhammad Bima Enagi

Muhammad Bima Enagi

Muhammad Bima Enagi is Nigerian politician, and the senator representing Niger South Senatorial District of Niger State at the 9th National Assembly.

Muhammad Umaru Ndagi

Muhammad Umaru Ndagi

Muhammad Umaru Ndagi is a professor of Arabic Linguistics in the Department of Linguistics and African Languages, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.

Shehu Ahmadu Musa

Shehu Ahmadu Musa

Shehu Ahmadu Musa, GCON, CFR was a public administrator and chieftains holder of Makaman Nupe. He was the Secretary to the Government of the Federation of Nigeria during the Nigerian Second Republic between 1979 and 1983.

Suleiman Takuma

Suleiman Takuma

Alhaji Suleiman Takuma was a Nigerian Journalist, Public/Civil Servant, Politician, and Businessman. He served as the National Secretary of the now defunct National Party of Nigeria (NPN) and later as a Political Adviser to President Shehu Shagari, the only President from that party. He was also one of the founding members of the United Nigerian Congress (UNC), for which he served as National Administrative Secretary. This was during the regime of the late Gen. Sani Abacha.

Sam Nda-Isaiah

Sam Nda-Isaiah

Samuel Ndanusa Isaiah, commonly known as Sam Nda-Isaiah, was a Nigerian political columnist, pharmacist, entrepreneur and journalist. He was the founder and chairman of the Leadership Newspaper.

Isa Mohammed Bagudu

Isa Mohammed Bagudu

Isa Mohammed Bagudu is a Nigerian politician who was elected to the Nigerian Senate to represent the Niger South constituency in April 1999, and was reelected in April 2003.

Abdulkadir Kure

Abdulkadir Kure

Abdulkadir Kure was a Nigerian politician who served as Governor of Niger State in Nigeria from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2007. He was a member of the People's Democratic Party (PDP). In May 2000, he introduced Sharia law in Niger State.

Aliyu Makama

Aliyu Makama

Aliyu Makama Bida (1905–1980), MHA, CMG, CFR, OBE, CBE, was a Nigerian politician. He was the first Northern Minister of Education and Social Welfare, and later Minister of Finance and Treasurer of the NPC.

Fatima Lolo

Fatima Lolo

Hajiya Fatima Lolo (MON), was a Nigerian singer, songwriter, and historian.

Source: "Nupe people", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nupe_people.

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References
  1. ^ "Nupe" (PDF). National African Language Resource Center. Retrieved 2021-10-04.
  2. ^ Nadel, S. F. (2018), "The Nupe Creed", Nupe Religion, Routledge, pp. 1–37, doi:10.4324/9780429487446-1, ISBN 978-0-429-48744-6, S2CID 240243198
  3. ^ Yahaya, Mohammed Kuta (2003). "The Nupe People of Nigeria". Studies of Tribes and Tribals. 1 (2): 95–110. doi:10.1080/0972639x.2003.11886489. ISSN 0972-639X. S2CID 158674479.
  4. ^ Mason, Michael (1975). "The Tsoede Myth and the Nupe Kinglists: More Political Propaganda?". History in Africa. 2: 101–112. doi:10.2307/3171467. ISSN 0361-5413. JSTOR 3171467. S2CID 154712112.
  5. ^ Lawal, Babatunde, 1942-. Tsoede, Sango, and the Nupe bronzes. OCLC 57969198.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Forde, Cyril Daryll. (1955). The Nupe. OCLC 35809832.
  7. ^ Katcha, Abubakar. (1978). An exploratory demographic study of the Nupe of Niger State : the case of Sakpe village. Australian National University. ISBN 0-909150-60-5. OCLC 5021109.
  8. ^ Nadel, S. F. (2018-09-03). Nupe Religion. doi:10.4324/9780429487446. ISBN 9780429487446. S2CID 240282086.
  9. ^ Nadel, S. F. (Siegfried Frederick), 1903–1956, author. (22 August 2018). Nupe religion. ISBN 978-1-138-59670-2. OCLC 1061313933. {{cite book}}: |last= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Umar, Aliyu. Hajiya Fatima Lolo (traditional singer). OCLC 39524822.
  11. ^ "Nupe Film Industry".
  12. ^ "Nupe film industry is currently heading for the rocks – Yikangi". 9 February 2015.
  13. ^ Perani, Judith (2003). Nupe. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.t063036.
Sources
  • Blench, R.M. (1984) "Islam among the Nupe." Muslim peoples. (ed. 2) Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
  • Forde, D. (1955) The Nupe. pp. 17–52 in Peoples of the Niger-Benue Confluence. IAI, London.
  • Ibrahim, Saidu 1992. The Nupe and their neighbours from the 14th century. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational books.
  • Madugu, George I. (1971) The a construction in Nupe: Perfective, Stative, Causative or Instrumental. In Kim C-W. & Stahlke H. Papers in African Linguistics, I' pp. 81–100. Linguistic Research Institute, Champaign.
  • Perani, J.M. (1977) Nupe crafts; the dynamics of change in nineteenth and twentieth century weaving and brassworking. Ph.D. Fine Arts, Indiana University.
  • Stevens, P. (1966) Nupe woodcarving. Nigeria, 88:21-35.
  • The Nupe People of Nigeria by Mohammed Kuta Yahaya. Nigeria, 95:1-2

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