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Nongdā Lāiren Pākhangba

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Nongda Lairen Pakhangba
"Maker of Manipur"[1]
Ningthou
"Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa" (Ancient Meitei name) and "Nongda Lairen Pakhangba" (Modern Meitei name) of the Meitei king who ascended the throne of the Kangla of Kangleipak in 33 AD.jpg
"Nongta Lailen Pakhangpa" (Ancient Meitei name) and "Nongda Lairen Pakhangba" (Modern Meitei name) of the Meitei king who ascended the throne of the Kangla of Kangleipak (Meitei for 'Manipur' realm) in AD 33
33 AD
Coronation33 AD
SuccessorKhuyoi Tompok
BornUnknown
Diedsee here
ConsortLeima Laisana
Ancient MeiteiNongtā Lāilen Pākhangpa
DynastyNingthouja (Old Manipuri: ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧꯆꯥ, romanized: ningthoucha)
MotherCakha Nuron Piron Yambi[2][3]
ReligionSanamahism

Nongda Lairen Pakhangba (Old Manipuri: ꯅꯣꯡꯇꯥ ꯂꯥꯏꯂꯦꯟ ꯄꯥꯈꯪꯄ, romanized: nongtā lāilen pākhangpa, or Meitei: ꯅꯣꯡꯗꯥ ꯂꯥꯢꯔꯦꯟ ꯄꯥꯈꯪꯕ, romanized: nongdā lāiren pākhangda), was the first Meitei monarch of the Ningthouja dynasty,[4] who ascended the throne of the Kangla of Kangleipak (Manipuri for 'Manipur' realm) in 33 AD,[5][6][7] after the withdrawal of the mainstream powers of the Khabas.[a][8][9] Before the reign of king Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, the clans, or salais were already in existence.[10]

The ancient flag of Kangleipak (Manipur), with the seven colours depicting the seven clan dynasties
The ancient flag of Kangleipak (Manipur), with the seven colours depicting the seven clan dynasties

Nongda Lairen Pakhangba initiated the process of unification of the warring ethnic groups and principalities groups, which led to the formation of Manipur realm, under the political supremacy of the Ningthouja dynasty in the first century AD.[11][12] Nongda Lairen used the title Pakhangba,[4]: 187  and he appears in literature and mythology as a human incarnation of God Pakhangba.[9]: 92 

According to some scholars including Sujit Mukherjee, Nongda Lairen Pakhangba ruled for 21 years, from 33 to 54 AD. The list of Meitei kings was recorded in the Cheitharol Kumbaba, which survives in several versions, the most authentic of which is preserved in the Royal Palace of Manipur.[13] and in the Chada Laihui, which contains information about their parentage and the important events of their reigns.[13]: 64 [14] Coins were issued by Nongda Lairen Pakhangba.[15]

A Sagol Kangjei (polo) match depicted on an Indian stamp.
A Sagol Kangjei (polo) match depicted on an Indian stamp.

A historic Sagol Kangjei (polo) match was organised by Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, which was played by his friends, in the Imphal Polo Ground, the oldest Polo Ground in the world.[16]

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Meitei language

Meitei language

Meitei, also known as Manipuri, is a Tibeto-Burman language of north-eastern India. It is spoken by around 1.8 million people, predominantly in the state of Manipur, but also by smaller communities in the rest of the country and in parts of neighbouring Myanmar and Bangladesh. It is native to the Meitei people, and within Manipur it serves as an official language and a lingua franca. It was used as a court language in the historic Manipur Kingdom and is presently included among the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Ningthouja dynasty

Ningthouja dynasty

The Ningthouja dynasty, also known as Mangang dynasty, comprises the descendants of the kings of Manipur. Ningthouja literally means progeny of King. It has 125 extended families. It was apparently founded by King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in 33 CE.

Manipur

Manipur

Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. It is bounded by the Indian states of Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south and Assam to the west. It also borders two regions of Myanmar, Sagaing Region to the east and Chin State to the south. The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi). Meitei language is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state, spoken natively by the Meiteis and as a lingua franca by the Nagas, Kukis, Zomis and other smaller communities, who speak a variety of Sino-Tibetan languages. Manipur has been at the crossroads of Asian economic and cultural exchange for more than 2,500 years. It connects the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia to Southeast Asia, East Asia, Siberia, regions in the Arctic, Micronesia and Polynesia enabling migration of people, cultures and religions.

Kha Nganpa

Kha Nganpa

kha Nganpa or Kha Nganba is one of the seven clans of the Meitei people.

Principality

Principality

A principality can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a regnant-monarch with the title of prince and/or princess, or by a monarch with another title considered to fall under the generic meaning of the term prince.

Incarnation

Incarnation

Incarnation literally means embodied in flesh or taking on flesh. It refers to the conception and the embodiment of a deity or spirit in some earthly form. Or the appearance of a god as a human. If capitalized, it is the union of divinity with humanity in Jesus Christ. In its religious context the word is used to mean a god, deity, or divine being in human or animal form on Earth.

Pakhangba

Pakhangba

Pakhangba is a primordial deity, often represented in the serpentine dragon forms, in Meitei mythology and religion. He is present in the heraldry of Manipur kingdom, originated from "Paphal" (ꯄꯥꯐꯜ), the mythical illustrations of the deity belonging to the traditional beliefs of Sanamahism in Manipur. Among the Meiteis, it is believed that the ancestor of one of the clans manifested himself as the Pakhangba.

Sujit Mukherjee

Sujit Mukherjee

Sujit Mukherjee was an Indian writer, translator, literary critic, publisher, teacher and cricketer.

Cheitharol Kumbaba

Cheitharol Kumbaba

Cheitharol Kumbaba, also spelled Cheithalon Kumpapa, is the court chronicle of the kings of Manipur. The oldest extant version was copied in the early 19th century, under Jai Singh, the puppet king installed after the Burmese invasion, as "the former copy was no more available". It is the main source for the list of pre-modern kings of Manipur, tracing the genealogy of the ruling Ningthouja dynasty back to a ruler named Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, said to have ruled for more than a century, from 33–154 CE. It is to the Meiteis what the Buranji is to the Assamese and the Yazawin to the Burmese.

Family

Nongda Lairen Pakhangba's queen consort, Leima Leisana,[18] was a priestess (Meitei: ꯃꯥꯏꯕꯤ, romanized: māibī[19]). According to legend, Leisana and her brother Poireiton had their origin from a distant place in the east. When she and her brother came to the realm of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, they were accompanied by the Poirei people. She brought with her two hundred varieties of fruits and vegetables.[20]

Law and order

The supreme court (Meitei: ꯀꯨꯆꯨ, romanized: kūchū) was established during the reign of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba. It presided over legal both criminal and civil cases. The king was the president of the court, and his nobles and ministers served as its members.[21][17]: 192–195  The Kuchu also handled women's cases. The concept of the liberation of women was already prevalent in that era. The roles of women in their families' decision making processes were significant.[22][23]

Lower courts (Meitei: ꯆꯩꯔꯥꯞ, romanized: cə́irap) were also established.[24]

The Patcha Loishang (women's court) was established during the reign of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba. This court protected the women's rights, privileges, rights. Queen Laisna presided over the court, which dealt with all women related crimes.[25][26][17]: 194–195 

The lallup (corvee) system was established during the reign of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba.[27]

Some scholars asset that under the administration of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, his capital was split into four divisions, or panas: Ahallup; Naharup; Laipham; and Khabam. Others suggest that it is the interpolation, by stating that pana came into existence much later, during the era of King Khagemba.[17]: 192–193 

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Meitei language

Meitei language

Meitei, also known as Manipuri, is a Tibeto-Burman language of north-eastern India. It is spoken by around 1.8 million people, predominantly in the state of Manipur, but also by smaller communities in the rest of the country and in parts of neighbouring Myanmar and Bangladesh. It is native to the Meitei people, and within Manipur it serves as an official language and a lingua franca. It was used as a court language in the historic Manipur Kingdom and is presently included among the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Women's rights

Women's rights

Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide. They formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and the feminist movements during the 20th and 21st centuries. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others, they are ignored and suppressed. They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys.

Interpolation

Interpolation

In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a type of estimation, a method of constructing (finding) new data points based on the range of a discrete set of known data points.

Khagemba

Khagemba

King Khagemba, was a monarch from the Kingdom of Kangleipak. He also introduced a new form of polo and new apparel styles. Under his regime he focused on a new form of Manipur and built many markets in different places like the Ema market. During his regime many Chinese workers built bridges and walls.The present-day Kangla gate was also built by captured Chinese workers who taught the Manipuris how to make bricks. He was called "The conqueror of the Chinese" or "Khagemba"(khage-Chinese and ngamba-win over) after defeating the Chinese at the northern border of the kingdom. Also during his time Manipur introduced coins widely in the kingdom. Under his regime there was a migration of muslims into the kingdom and Manipur established good relationships with the Mughal Empire.

Artistic and cultural developments

When Nongda Lairen Pakhangba and his queen consort Laishna were crowned in 33 AD, the ritual song Ougri was sung. The singing of Ougri can supposedly bring either prosperity or ruination to the civilization.[28]: 144–145 [29] It became customary to recite Ougri during the coronation of every Meitei king.[30][31][32] These recitations of the verses, during the royal coronation of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in 33 AD, were recorded in the ancient text, Laisrapham.[28]: 144–145 [33][34][35]: 311–312 

The Mera Hou Chongba was believed to be introduced by Nongda Lairen Pakhangba. It is a festival in which dignitaries from all the ethnic groups assembled together in the Kangla. It is annually celebrated on the 10th day of the Meitei lunar month of Mera (October–November).[17]: 238–239 

During the era of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, a court singer named Leinung Tharuk Asheiba initiated the performance of the traditional musical instrument Pena.[c][36][37]

According to Dr. Yumlembam Gopi, the Ancient Meiteis used to play khung, a playing instrument, prior to the era of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in 33 AD.[38] The khung (Meitei: ꯈꯨꯡ, /kʰuŋ/) is a cone-shaped toy, similar to the top.[39]

The Hiyang Tannaba (transl.boat race of the Hiyang Hiren) festival had been celebrated since the time of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in his kingdom.[40]

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Mera Hou Chongba

Mera Hou Chongba

Mera Hou Chongba or Mera Waayungba or Mera Thaomei Thaanba is the cultural festival of solidarity of Manipur, celebrated by every indigenous ethnic groups, including the Meitei people and the rest of hilly tribes. The day falls on the 15th lunar day of Mera month of the Meitei calendar. The main location for the celebration of the festival is at the Sana Konung, the Royal Palace of Manipur. On this day, all the hill tribes came down to the valley of Imphal, and gather at the Royal Palace, and show their cultural dances and other art forms. The day ends with a grand feast, held together with the Meitei people and the tribes, to show solitude, oness of all the ethnic groups in the region.

Meitei calendar

Meitei calendar

The Meitei calendar or Manipuri calendar or Kangleipak calendar or Maliyapham Palcha Kumshing is a lunar calendar used by the Meitei people of Manipur for their religious as well as agricultural activities. The concept of era in Meitei was first developed by Emperor Maliyafam Palcha, in the year 1397 BC in the kingdom of Kangleipak in present-day Manipur. It is believed that the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th and 7th months of the Meitei calendar were named after Poireiten's agricultural activities. Similar to Georgian calendar, the Meitei calendar also consists of twelve months and seven days but the starting date with the English calendar is different. The new year day known as, Sajibu Cheiraoba is celebrated on the 1st day of the month Sajibu.

Pena (musical instrument)

Pena (musical instrument)

Pena is a mono string instrument falling in the lute category, slightly similar to some of the traditional Indian stringed musical instruments such as Ravanahatha, Ubo or the Kenda. It is the traditional musical instrument of Manipur, used mainly in the Lai Haraoba festival of Sanamahism. Pena playing is becoming a dying art as only 145 active Pena players are reported in Manipur. The Center for Research on Traditional and Indigenous Art (Laihui), an organization headed by renowned Pena player, Khangembam Mangi Singh has mandated vision to revive Pena music.

Meitei language

Meitei language

Meitei, also known as Manipuri, is a Tibeto-Burman language of north-eastern India. It is spoken by around 1.8 million people, predominantly in the state of Manipur, but also by smaller communities in the rest of the country and in parts of neighbouring Myanmar and Bangladesh. It is native to the Meitei people, and within Manipur it serves as an official language and a lingua franca. It was used as a court language in the historic Manipur Kingdom and is presently included among the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Cone

Cone

A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base to a point called the apex or vertex.

Top

Top

A spinning top, or simply a top, is a toy with a squat body and a sharp point at the bottom, designed to be spun on its vertical axis, balancing on the tip due to the gyroscopic effect.

Hiyang Tannaba

Hiyang Tannaba

Hiyang Tannaba is a traditional boat race ceremony performed in Manipur, India as a part of the religious festival of Lai Haraoba. It is generally organized in the month of November at many places including Thangapat (moat). The boats called Hiyang Hiren are regarded as invested with spiritual powers and the game is associated with religious rites. The Meiteis believe that the worship of the Hiyang Hiren will bring protection from evil spirits.

Hiyang Hiren

Hiyang Hiren

Hiyang Hiren is a traditional royal race boat, used at the Hiyang Tannaba ceremony in the religious festival of Lai Haraoba. The boat is regarded as invested with spiritual powers and is associated with religious rites. The Meitei people, the Pangal people and Meitei Christians believe that the worship of the boat will bring protection from the evils. The Hiyangloi Hanchapa is responsible for making the Hiyang Hiren, which is decorated with the stern (hirubak) the head of the Sangai deer. The boat is around 54 feet long, and its racing ceremony is held annually for two days.

Institutions of medical care

During the reign of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, his younger sister Panthoibi[d], established the ametpa loishang, or office of the masseurs to diagnose and treat diseases (especially boils, abscesses, ulcers). Metpi attended mothers in labour. Metpi laibi were responsible for the treatment of diseases for the Queen and other imperial consorts. They accompanied the king wherever he went.[41]

Death or dethronement

Though almost all the scholars have a consensus on the year of the coronation of King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba as AD 33,[42][43][44] regarding the year of the end of his reign, which maybe either due to his death or due to being abdicated, is still disputed.

Nongda Lairen Pakhangba likely ruled for 21 years, from 33 AD to 54 AD.[45] Some traditional sources claim that he ruled from 33-153 or 154AD.[46][47][48][49][50] According to Anuradha Dutta and Ratna Bhuyan, Nongda Lairen Pakhangba was murdered and his queen Laisana saved their son.[51]

Deification

In traditional Meitei religion

Nongda Lairen Pakhangba was considered a deified ancestor. Some scholars opined that people of later generations wove mythological stories around him. However, some are of the opinion that he was a God living with the human beings and behaving like a normal human.[35]: 16–17 

According to superstitious people, Pakhangba was a demigod, appearing "divine" in daytime and appearing "humanly" in nighttime. With this, the theory of Meitei kings being of "divine origin" started. The identity of the historical king Pakhangba got mingled up with that of the serpentine dragon god Pakhangba of ancient Meitei mythology and religion.[35]: 16 [52]

In Hinduism

With the influence of Hinduism, new mythological tales tainted the identity of King Pakhangba. According to one Hindu tale, Pakhangba was born to Enoog Howba Chonoo, the wife of Babruvahana. According to another, he was the son of Sooprabahoo, son of Babruvahana, son of Arjuna, thereby drawing relationship with the characters in the Mahabharata.[53]

In the 18th century AD, the Vijay Panchali (also called "Bijoy Panchali"), composed by Shantidas Goswami, a Hindu missionary, attempting to erase the history and the culture of Manipur, claiming the land of northeast India's Manipur to be the Manipur of the Mahabharata and Babruvahana to be the father of King Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, identifying him as Yavistha.[28][35]

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Meitei mythology

Meitei mythology

Meitei mythology or Manipuri mythology is a collection of myths, belonging to the religious and cultural traditions of the Meitei people, the predominant ethnic group of Manipur. It is associated with traditional Meitei religion (Sanamahism). Meitei myths are a part of Meitei culture and explain various natural phenomena, how the human civilization developed, and the reasons of many things happening. Most of the Meitei legends are found in the Meitei language texts.

Meitei folklore

Meitei folklore

Meitei folklore is the folklore and mythology of the Meitei people of Manipur, India.

Demigod

Demigod

A demigod or demigoddess is a part-human and part-divine offspring of a deity and a human, or a human or non-human creature that is accorded divine status after death, or someone who has attained the "divine spark". An immortal demigod (-dess) often has tutelary status and a religious cult following, while a mortal demigod (-dess) is one who has fallen or died, but is popular as a legendary hero in various polytheistic religions. Figuratively, it is used to describe a person whose talents or abilities are so superlative that they appear to approach being divine.

Pakhangba

Pakhangba

Pakhangba is a primordial deity, often represented in the serpentine dragon forms, in Meitei mythology and religion. He is present in the heraldry of Manipur kingdom, originated from "Paphal" (ꯄꯥꯐꯜ), the mythical illustrations of the deity belonging to the traditional beliefs of Sanamahism in Manipur. Among the Meiteis, it is believed that the ancestor of one of the clans manifested himself as the Pakhangba.

Hinduism

Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion or dharma, a religious and universal order or way of life by which followers abide. As a religion, it is the world's third-largest, with over 1.2–1.35 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known as Hindus. The word Hindu is an exonym, and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, many practitioners refer to their religion as Sanātana Dharma, a modern usage, which refers to the idea that its origins lie beyond human history, as revealed in the Hindu texts. Another endonym is Vaidika dharma, the dharma related to the Vedas.

Babruvahana

Babruvahana

In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Babruvahana is the son of Arjuna, a Pandava prince, and Chitrangada, the princess of Manalura. Babruvahana was adopted as the heir of Manalura by his maternal grandfather and later reigned at the kingdom.

Arjuna

Arjuna

Arjuna, also known as Partha and Dhananjaya, is a character in several ancient Hindu texts, and specifically one of the major characters of the Indian epic Mahabharata. In the epic, he is the third among Pandavas, the five sons of Pandu. The family formed part of the royal line of the Kuru Kingdom. In the Mahabharata War, Arjuna was a key warrior from the Pandava side and slew many warriors including Karna and Bhisma. Before the beginning of the war, his mentor, Krishna, gave him the supreme knowledge of Bhagavad Gita to overcome his moral dilemmas.

Northeast India

Northeast India

Northeast India is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country. It comprises eight states – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim.

In contemporary art and culture

In the Kangla of Imphal, there is an annual Nongda Lairen Pakhangba flag-hoisting ceremony, organised by Nahanong Kanglei Laining Liklam (NKLL). Ceremonies are performed and the Salai Taret Huiyen Lalong Thang-Ta Lup, giving guard of honour, hoists the flag of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba. The ceremony is performed as a way of preserving and promoting the indigenous art and culture of Kangleipak.[54]

Source: "Nongdā Lāiren Pākhangba", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nongdā_Lāiren_Pākhangba.

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Notes
  1. ^ Padma Shri awardee scholar Ningthoukhongjam Khelchandra mentioned it in the page 37 of his article "Sources of the History of Manipur", quoting information from ancient texts including but not limited to the “Pakhangba Laihui” and the “Panthoibi Khongul”.
  2. ^ This is mentioned in the ancient Meitei text Chengleiron.
  3. ^ This fact was published in the article "Pena music in Manipuri culture", written by "State Kala Akademi" and "Sahitya Akademi" awardee Dr. Makhonmani Mongsaba.
  4. ^ The younger sister of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba is eponymous with Meitei goddess Panthoibi because "Panthoibi" is a female given name of the Meiteis.
References
  1. ^ Minahan, James B. (2012-08-30). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 242. ISBN 978-1-59884-660-7. A gifted ruler, Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, who established the kingdom, is known as the maker of Manipur.
  2. ^ International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics: IJDL. Original from: University of California, Berkeley. Department of Linguistics, University of Kerala. 2011. p. 160.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  3. ^ Jadavpur Journal of Comparative Literature. Contributor: Jadavpur University. Dept. of Comparative Literature. Original from: the University of California. 2005. p. 146.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  4. ^ a b Bhattacharyya, Rituparna (2022-07-29). Northeast India Through the Ages: A Transdisciplinary Perspective on Prehistory, History, and Oral History. Taylor & Francis. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-000-62390-1.
  5. ^ Sanajaoba, Naorem (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
  6. ^ Division, Publications. India 2021: A Reference Annual. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. p. 83. ISBN 978-93-5409-120-9.
  7. ^ Noni, Arambam; Sanatomba, Kangujam (2015-10-16). Colonialism and Resistance: Society and State in Manipur. Routledge. pp. 231–232. ISBN 978-1-317-27066-9.
  8. ^ Singh, Dr Th Suresh (2014-06-02). The Endless Kabaw Valley: British Created Visious Cycle of Manipur, Burma and India. p. 28. ISBN 978-93-84318-00-0. Quoting 'Pakhangba Laihui, “Panthoibi Khongul” etc., scholar Khelchandra stated in his article "Sources of the History of Manipur" at page 37 stated that the Khaba dynasty ruled in Manipur before 1st Century AD before Nongda-Lairen Pakhangba, the 1st recognized King of Kangla, ascended the throne in 33 AD.
  9. ^ a b Tarapot, Phanjoubam (2003). Bleeding Manipur. Har-Anand Publications. p. 92. ISBN 978-81-241-0902-1.
  10. ^ International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics: IJDL. Original from: University of California, Berkeley. Department of Linguistics, University of Kerala. 2011. p. 159.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  11. ^ phanjoubam, p. 96.
  12. ^ Homen Thangjam (2021-05-19). Manipur KCDO Silver Jubilee Souvenir 2021. pp. 15–16.
  13. ^ a b Mukherjee, Sujit (1998). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. Orient Blackswan. p. 75. ISBN 978-81-250-1453-9.
  14. ^ Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo. Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. p. 605. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.
  15. ^ Singh, P. Gunindra (1983). Manipuri Numismatics. Original from: the University of Virginia. Mutua Museum. p. 2.
  16. ^ Devi, Khwairakpam Renuka (2011). "Representation of the Pre-Vaishnavite Culture of the Meiteis: "Cheitharol Kumpapa" of Manipur". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. JSTOR. 72: 501–508. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44146744. Retrieved 2022-09-17.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Hareshwar Goshwami (2004). History of the People of Manipur (Revised ed.). London: Yaol Publishing. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-9993057-0-3.
  18. ^ Ray, Asok Kumar; Chakraborty, Satyabrata (2008). Society, Politics, and Development in North East India: Essays in Memory of Dr. Basudeb Datta Ray. p. 79. ISBN 978-81-8069-572-8.
  19. ^ Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary (Meaning of "Maibi")". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2022-09-15.
  20. ^ Mehrotra, Deepti Priya (2009-07-08). Burning Bright Irom Sharmila. Penguin UK. p. 37. ISBN 978-81-8475-153-6.
  21. ^ Rao, V. Venkata (1991). A Century of Government and Politics in North East India, 1874-1980: Manipur. Original from: the University of Virginia. S. Chand. p. 234.
  22. ^ Singh, Moirangthem Kirti (1998). Recent Researches in Oriental Indological Studies: Including Meiteilogy. Original from: the University of Michigan. Parimal Publications. p. 146.
  23. ^ Chakravarty, Kalyan Kumar (1994). Bhāratīya Parivāra: Manushya Ke Astitva Ke Lie Vaikalpika Soca. Indirā Gāndhī Rāshṭrīya Mānava Saṅgrahālaya. p. 191.
  24. ^ The Quarterly Review of Historical Studies. Institute of Historical Studies. University of Michigan. 1999. p. 30.
  25. ^ Ray, Asok Kumar; Chakraborty, Satyabrata (2008). Society, Politics, and Development in North East India: Essays in Memory of Dr. Basudeb Datta Ray. p. 79. ISBN 978-81-8069-572-8.
  26. ^ Banerjee, Paula (2008-06-10). Women in Peace Politics. SAGE Publishing India. p. 155. ISBN 978-93-5280-098-8. Laisna, the wife of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, who came to the throne in Kangla of 33 AD. She presided over the Patcha, or the women's court, that dealt with women related crimes.
  27. ^ Bengal, Past & Present: Journal of the Calcutta Historical Society. Original from: the University of Virginia. The Society. Contributor: Calcutta Historical Society. 1999. p. 83.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  28. ^ a b c The Oxford anthology of writings from North-East India. Volume 2, Poetry and essays. Internet Archive. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press. 2011. pp. 148–149. ISBN 978-0-19-806749-8.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  29. ^ Paniker, K. Ayyappa (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections (Assamese-Dogri). Sahitya Akademi. pp. 329–331. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5.
  30. ^ Roy, Jyotirmoy (1973). History of Manipur. Original from: the University of Michigan. Eastlight Book House. p. 177.
  31. ^ Ahluwalia, B. K. (1984). Social Change in Manipur. Original from: the University of Michigan. Cultural Publishing House. p. 53.
  32. ^ Traditional Performing Arts of North-East India. Assam Academy for Cultural Relations. 1990. pp. 154–155.
  33. ^ Glimpses of Manipuri Language, Literature, and Culture. Original from: the University of Michigan. Manipuri Sahitya Parishad. Manipuri Language and Literature Sub-Committee. 1970. p. 14.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  34. ^ Siṃha, Niṃthaukhoṃjama Khelacandra (1975). Manipuri Language: Status and Importance. Original from: the University of Michigan. N. Tombi Raj Singh. p. 51. The recital of this verse on the occasion of coronation of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba in 33 A.D. is recorded in the work Laisrapham.
  35. ^ a b c d Northeast India a Reader. Routledge. 2018-01-01. pp. 315–316.
  36. ^ Devi, Dr Yumlembam Gopi. Glimpses of Manipuri Culture. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-359-72919-7.
  37. ^ Devi, Dr Yumlembam Gopi. Glimpses of Manipuri Culture. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-359-72919-7.
  38. ^ Devi, Dr Yumlembam Gopi. Glimpses of Manipuri Culture. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-359-72919-7.
  39. ^ Sharma, H. Surmangol (2006). "Learners' Manipuri-English dictionary (Meaning of "Khung")". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2022-09-15.
  40. ^ Rastogi, Priyanka (2019-05-13). Early Sunrise, Early Sunset: Tales of a Solo Woman Traveler Across North East and East India. Partridge Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-5437-0523-2.
  41. ^ Palicica, Maria; Raţă, Georgeta (2011-09-22). Academic Days of Timişoara: Social Sciences Today. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-4438-3401-8.
  42. ^ Verghese, B. G. (1996). India's Northeast Resurgent: Ethnicity, Insurgency, Governance, Development. Konark Publishers. p. 113. ISBN 978-81-220-0455-7.
  43. ^ Nepram, Binalakshmi (2002). South Asia's Fractured Frontier: Armed Conflict, Narcotics and Small Arms Proliferation in India's North East. Mittal. p. 74. ISBN 978-81-7099-863-1.
  44. ^ Laishram, Dhanabir (2007). North-East in Benthic Zone. Akansha Publishing House. p. 82. ISBN 978-81-8370-114-3.
  45. ^ Mukherjee, Sujit (1998). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. Orient Blackswan. p. 75. ISBN 978-81-250-1453-9.
  46. ^ Social Action. Indian Social Institute. 1995. p. 374.
  47. ^ Basanta, Ningombam (2008). Modernisation, Challenge and Response: A Study of the Chakpa Community of Manipur. Akansha Publishing House. p. 177. ISBN 978-81-8370-152-5.
  48. ^ Gangte, Priyadarshni M. (2008). Customary Laws of Meitei and Mizo Societies of Manipur. Akansha Publishing House. pp. 91, 121. ISBN 978-81-8370-130-3.
  49. ^ Singh, N. Tombi (1975). Manipur and the Mainstream. Chitrebirentombichand Khorjeirup. p. 50.
  50. ^ Nayar, V. K. (2005). Crossing the Frontiers of Conflict in the North East and Jammu and Kashmir: From Real Politik to Ideal Politik. Shipra Publications. p. 47. ISBN 978-81-7541-218-7.
  51. ^ Dutta, Anuradha; Bhuyan, Ratna (2008). Women and Peace: Chapters from Northeast India. Akansha Publishing House. p. 34. ISBN 978-81-8370-126-6. The exploits of royal ladies like Laisana, queen to Nongda Lairen Pakhangba, the first ruler of Manipur (A.D. 33), when the king was murdered is still remembered. She is credited to have saved the prince.
  52. ^ Birajit, Soibam (2014-12-01). Meeyamgi Kholao: Sprout of Consciousness. ARECOM (Advanced Research Consortium, Manipur). p. 83.
  53. ^ Hodson, T. C. (Thomas Callan) (1908). The Meitheis. Duke University Libraries. London, D. Nutt. p. 5.
  54. ^ "Nongda Lairen Pakhangba flag hoisted : 11th oct18 ~ E-Pao! Headlines". e-pao.net. Retrieved 2022-09-16.
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