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Noble Drew Ali

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Drew Ali
Drew in a long gown with his hand held over his chest
Born
Timothy Drew

January 8, 1886
DiedJuly 20, 1929(1929-07-20) (aged 43)
Cause of deathtuberculosis and bronchopneumonia[1]
Resting placeLincoln Cemetery
SpousePearl Drew Ali & Mary Drew Ali

Timothy Drew,[2] better known as Noble Drew Ali (January 8, 1886 – July 20, 1929), was an American who founded the Moorish Science Temple of America. Considered a prophet by his followers, in 1913 he founded the Canaanite Temple in Newark, New Jersey, before relocating to Chicago, where he gained a following of thousands of converts.[2] Following the murder of a rival Moorish Science Temple leader, Drew Ali was arrested (but never charged) and sent to jail; he died in 1929 shortly after being released.

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Moorish Science Temple of America

Moorish Science Temple of America

The Moorish Science Temple of America is an American national and religious organization founded by Noble Drew Ali in the early twentieth century. He based it on the premise that African Americans are descendants of the Moabites and thus are "Moorish" by nationality, and Islamic by faith. Ali put together elements of major traditions to develop a message of personal transformation through historical education, racial pride and spiritual uplift. His doctrine was also intended to provide African Americans with a sense of identity in the world and to promote civic involvement.

Prophet

Prophet

In religion, a prophet or prophetess is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divine being and is said to speak on behalf of that being, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people. The message that the prophet conveys is called a prophecy.

Newark, New Jersey

Newark, New Jersey

Newark is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County and part of the New York metropolitan area. The city had a population of 311,549 as of the 2020 United States census, making it the nation's 62nd-most populous municipality, after being ranked 73rd in the nation in 2010. It is one of the nation's major air, shipping, and rail hubs.

New Jersey

New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by Delaware Bay and the state of Delaware. At 7,354 square miles (19,050 km2), New Jersey is the fifth-smallest state in land area; but with close to 9.3 million residents, it ranks 11th in population and first in population density. The state capital is Trenton, and the most populous city is Newark. With the exception of Warren County, all of the state's 21 counties lie within the combined statistical areas of New York City or Philadelphia.

Chicago

Chicago

Chicago is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third-most populous in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles. With a population of 2,746,388 in the 2020 census, it is also the most populous city in the Midwestern United States. As the seat of Cook County, the city is the center of the Chicago metropolitan area, one of the largest in the world.

Early life

Several details of Drew Ali's early life are uncertain, as true information became mixed with that of legend by his devout followers.[3] He is believed to have been born Timothy Drew, on January 8, 1886, in North Carolina.[2][4][5][6] Sources differ as to his background and upbringing: one reports he was the orphaned son of two former slaves born in a Cherokee tribe,[6][7] while another describes him as the son of John A. Drew-Quitman, military and political leader of the Cherokee (Coharie) Nation and Eliza Turner-Quitman full blooded Washitaw-Tunica mother.[5][8]

One version of his life, common among members of the Moorish Science Temple, holds that Drew was raised by an abusive aunt, who once threw him into a furnace.[3] This version holds that he left home at 16 and joined a band of Romani people who took him overseas to Egypt, and the Middle East.[3][5] Drew Ali also reportedly worked as a circus magician, or a merchant seaman, before purportedly traveling to Egypt.[6] He never received a formal education, but at some point came into contact with Eastern philosophy.[6]

In 2014, a completely different understanding of Drew Ali's early life was presented with the publication of an article in the online Journal of Race Ethnicity and Religion.[9] The article presented newly compiled evidence, including census records, newspaper ads, newspaper articles, a World War I draft card, and street directory records, to link Noble Drew Ali to one "Thomas Drew," who was born on the same date as "Timothy Drew" but originated from Virginia instead.[9]

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North Carolina

North Carolina

North Carolina is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States. The state is the 28th largest and 9th-most populous of the United States. It is bordered by Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Georgia and South Carolina to the south, and Tennessee to the west. Raleigh is the state's capital and Charlotte is its largest city. The Charlotte metropolitan area, with a population of 2,595,027 in 2020, is the most-populous metropolitan area in North Carolina, the 21st-most populous in the United States, and the largest banking center in the nation after New York City. The Raleigh-Durham-Cary combined statistical area is the second-largest metropolitan area in the state and 32nd-most populous in the United States, with a population of 2,043,867 in 2020, and is home to the largest research park in the United States, Research Triangle Park.

Cherokee

Cherokee

The Cherokee are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in their homelands, in towns along river valleys of what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, edges of western South Carolina, northern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama.

Romani people

Romani people

The Romani, colloquially known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally nomadic itinerants. They live in Europe and Anatolia, and have diaspora populations located worldwide, with significant concentrations in the Americas.

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip of Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast. At approximately 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the 14th-most populated country in the world.

Middle East

Middle East

The Middle East is a geopolitical region commonly encompassing Arabia, Asia Minor, East Thrace, Egypt, Iran, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and the Socotra Archipelago. The term came into widespread usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. The term "Middle East" has led to some confusion over its changing definitions, and has been viewed by some to be discriminatory or too Eurocentric. The region includes the vast majority of the territories included in the closely associated definition of Western Asia, but without the South Caucasus, and additionally includes all of Egypt and all of Turkey.

Eastern philosophy

Eastern philosophy

Eastern philosophy or Asian philosophy includes the various philosophies that originated in East and South Asia, including Chinese philosophy, Japanese philosophy, Korean philosophy, and Vietnamese philosophy; all of these are dominant in East Asia, and Indian philosophy, which are dominant in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, and Mongolia.

Religious formation

Drew Ali reported that during his travels in Egypt, he met a high priest of Egyptian magic. In one version of Drew Ali's biography, the leader saw him as a reincarnation of the founder.[5] In others, he claims that the priest considered him a reincarnation of Jesus, the Buddha, Muhammad and other religious prophets.[5] According to the biography, the high priest trained Ali in mysticism and gave him a "lost section" of the Quran.[5]

This text came to be known as the Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple of America (not to be confused with the Islamic Quran). It is also known as the "Circle Seven Koran" because of its cover, which features a red "7" surrounded by a blue circle. The first 19 chapters are from The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ, published in 1908 by esoteric Ohio preacher Levi Dowling. In The Aquarian Gospel, Dowling described Jesus's supposed travels in India, Egypt, and Palestine during the years of his life which are not accounted for by the New Testament.

Chapters 20 through 45 are borrowed from the Rosicrucian work, Unto Thee I Grant, with minor changes in style and wording. They are instructions on how to live, and the education and duties of adherents.[10]

Drew Ali wrote the last four chapters of the Circle Seven Koran himself. In these he wrote:

The fallen sons and daughters of the Asiatic Nation of North America need to learn to love instead of hate; and to know of their higher self and lower self. This is the uniting of the Holy Koran of Mecca for teaching and instructing all Moorish Americans, etc. The key of civilization was and is in the hands of the Asiatic nations. The Moorish, who were the ancient Moabites, and the founders of the Holy City of Mecca.

Drew Ali used this material to claim Jesus and his followers were Asiatic. ("Asiatic" was the term Drew Ali used for all dark or olive-colored people); he labeled whites as European, although he labeled whites who became a part of the MSTA as "Persians" or "Celts".[11] He suggested that all Asiatics should be allied.[12]

Drew Ali believed that African Americans were all Moors, who he claimed were descended from the ancient Moabites (describing them as belonging to Northwest Africa as opposed to Moab as the name suggests).[13] He claimed that Islam and its teachings are more beneficial to their earthly salvation, and that their 'true nature' had been 'withheld' from them.[5] Male members of the Temple wear a fez or turban as head covering; women wear a turban.[6][5][14]

As Drew Ali began urging the "Moorish-Americans" to become better citizens, he made speeches like, "A Divine Warning By the Prophet for the Nations", in which he urged them to reject derogatory labels, such as "Black," "colored," and "Negro."[5] He urged Americans of all races to reject hate and embrace love. He believed that Chicago would become a second Mecca.

Drew Ali crafted Moorish Science ideology from a variety of sources, a "network of alternative spiritualities that focused on the power of the individual to bring about personal transformation through mystical knowledge of the divine within".[12] In the interwar period in Chicago and other major cities, he used these concepts to preach Moorish pride. His approach appealed to thousands of African Americans who had left severely oppressive conditions in the South through the Great Migration and faced struggles adapting in new urban environments.[12]

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Jesus

Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus Christ or Jesus of Nazareth, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible.

Muhammad

Muhammad

Muhammad ibn Abdullah was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of the world religion of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet divinely inspired to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is believed to be the Seal of the Prophets within Islam. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Mysticism

Mysticism

Mysticism is popularly known as any kind of ecstasy or altered state of consciousness which is given a religious or spiritual meaning, but may refer to becoming one with God or the Absolute. It also refers to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden truths, and to human transformation supported by various practices and experiences.

India

India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia. The nation's capital city is New Delhi.

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip of Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast. At approximately 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the 14th-most populated country in the world.

Palestine (region)

Palestine (region)

Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia. It is usually considered to include Israel and the State of Palestine, though some definitions also include the western half of Jordan.

Moors

Moors

The term Moor, derived from the ancient Mauri, is an exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages.

Moab

Moab

Moab is the name of an ancient Levantine kingdom whose territory is today located in the modern state of Jordan. The land is mountainous and lies alongside much of the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. The existence of the Kingdom of Moab is attested to by numerous archaeological findings, most notably the Mesha Stele, which describes the Moabite victory over an unnamed son of King Omri of Israel, an episode also noted in 2 Kings 3. The Moabite capital was Dibon. According to the Hebrew Bible, Moab was often in conflict with its Israelite neighbours to the west.

Fez (hat)

Fez (hat)

The fez, also called tarboosh, is a felt headdress in the shape of a short cylindrical peakless hat, usually red, and sometimes with a black tassel attached to the top. The name "fez" refers to the Moroccan city of Fez, where the dye to colour the hat was extracted from crimson berries. Despite its name, the original centre of production appears to have been in Tunis, not Fez. The modern fez owes much of its popularity to the Ottoman era.

Colored

Colored

Colored is a racial descriptor historically used in the United States during the Jim Crow Era to refer to an African American. In many places, it may be considered a slur, though it has taken on a special meaning in Southern Africa.

Negro

Negro

In the English language, negro is a term historically used to denote persons considered to be of Black African heritage. The word negro means the color black in both Spanish and in Portuguese, where English took it from. The term can be construed as offensive, inoffensive, or completely neutral, largely depending on the region or country where it is used, as well as the context in which it is applied. It has various equivalents in other languages of Europe.

Mecca

Mecca

Mecca, commonly shortened to Makkah, is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam. It is 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah on the Red Sea, in a narrow valley 277 m (909 ft) above sea level. Its last recorded population was 1,578,722 in 2015. Its estimated metro population in 2020 is 2.042 million, making it the third-most populated city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh and Jeddah. Pilgrims more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj pilgrimage, observed in the twelfth Hijri month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.

Founding the Moorish Science Temple

Attendees of the 1928 Moorish Science Temple Conclave in Chicago. Noble Drew Ali is in white in the front row center.
Attendees of the 1928 Moorish Science Temple Conclave in Chicago. Noble Drew Ali is in white in the front row center.

It is possible that Drew Ali did actually travel to Egypt and Morocco, but historians believe that after leaving North Carolina, he moved to Newark, New Jersey, where he worked as a train expressman.[3] In 1913, Drew Ali formed the Canaanite Temple in Newark.[6][5][15][16] Drew Ali and his followers migrated, while planting congregations in Philadelphia; Washington, D.C., and Detroit. Finally, Drew Ali settled in Chicago in 1925, saying the Midwest was "closer to Islam."[17] The following year he officially registered Temple No. 9.

There he instructed followers not to be confrontational but to build up their people to be respected. In this way, they might take their place in the United States of America by developing a cultural identity that was congruent with Drew Ali's beliefs on personhood.[18] In the late 1920s, journalists estimated the Moorish Science Temple had 35,000 members in 17 temples in cities across the Midwest and upper South.[19]

The ushers of the Temple wore black fezzes. The leader of a particular temple was known as a Grand Sheik, or Governor. Noble Drew Ali was known to have had several wives.[20] According to The Chicago Defender, he claimed the power to marry and divorce at will.[21] The Moorish Science movement was reportedly studied and watched by the Chicago police.

Drew Ali attended the 1929 inauguration of Illinois Governor Louis Lincoln Emmerson. The Chicago Defender stated that his trip included "interviews with many distinguished citizens from Chicago, who greeted him on every hand."[22] With the growth in its population and membership, Chicago was established as the center of the Moorish Science movement.

Internal split and murder

In early 1929, following a conflict over funds, Claude Green-Bey, the business manager of Chicago Temple No. 1 split from the Moorish Science Temple of America. He declared himself Grand Sheik and took a number of members with him. On March 15, Green-Bey was stabbed to death at the Unity Hall of the Moorish Science Temple, on Indiana Avenue in Chicago.[23]

Drew Ali was out of town at the time, as he was dealing with former Supreme Grand Governor Lomax-Bey (professor Ezaldine Muhammad), who had supported Green-Bey's attempted coup.[24] When Drew Ali returned to Chicago, the police arrested him and other members of the community on suspicion of having instigated the killing. No indictment was sworn for Drew Ali at that time.

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Newark, New Jersey

Newark, New Jersey

Newark is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County and part of the New York metropolitan area. The city had a population of 311,549 as of the 2020 United States census, making it the nation's 62nd-most populous municipality, after being ranked 73rd in the nation in 2010. It is one of the nation's major air, shipping, and rail hubs.

New Jersey

New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by Delaware Bay and the state of Delaware. At 7,354 square miles (19,050 km2), New Jersey is the fifth-smallest state in land area; but with close to 9.3 million residents, it ranks 11th in population and first in population density. The state capital is Trenton, and the most populous city is Newark. With the exception of Warren County, all of the state's 21 counties lie within the combined statistical areas of New York City or Philadelphia.

Philadelphia

Philadelphia

Philadelphia, often called Philly, is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-largest city in the U.S., the second-largest city in both the Northeast megalopolis and Mid-Atlantic regions after New York City, and the 68th-largest city in the world. Since 1854, the city has been coextensive with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the Delaware Valley, the nation's seventh-largest and world's 68th-largest metropolitan region, with 6.245 million residents as of 2020. The city's population as of the 2020 census was 1,603,797, and over 56 million people live within 250 mi (400 km) of Philadelphia.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia, also known as just Washington or simply D.C., is the capital city and federal district of the United States. It is located on the east bank of the Potomac River, which forms its southwestern and southern border with the U.S. state of Virginia, and it shares a land border with the U.S. state of Maryland on its other sides. The city was named for George Washington, a Founding Father and the first president of the United States, and the federal district is named after Columbia, the female personification of the nation. As the seat of the U.S. federal government and several international organizations, the city is an important world political capital. It is one of the most visited cities in the U.S. with over 20 million annual visitors as of 2016.

Detroit

Detroit

Detroit is the largest city in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is also the largest U.S. city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of government of Wayne County. The City of Detroit had a population of 639,111 at the 2020 census, making it the 27th-most populous city in the United States. The metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area, and the 14th-largest in the United States. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music, art, architecture and design, in addition to its historical automotive background. Time named Detroit as one of the fifty World's Greatest Places of 2022 to explore.

Chicago

Chicago

Chicago is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third-most populous in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles. With a population of 2,746,388 in the 2020 census, it is also the most populous city in the Midwestern United States. As the seat of Cook County, the city is the center of the Chicago metropolitan area, one of the largest in the world.

The Chicago Defender

The Chicago Defender

The Chicago Defender is a Chicago-based online African-American newspaper. It was founded in 1905 by Robert S. Abbott and was once considered the "most important" newspaper of its kind. Abbott's newspaper reported and campaigned against Jim Crow-era violence and urged black people in the American South to settle in the north in what became the Great Migration. Abbott worked out an informal distribution system with Pullman porters who surreptitiously took his paper by rail far beyond Chicago, especially to African American readers in the southern United States. Under his nephew and chosen successor, John H. Sengstacke, the paper dealt with racial segregation in the United States, especially in the U.S. military, during World War II. Copies of the paper were passed along in communities, and it is estimated that at its most successful, each copy was read by four to five people.

Governor of Illinois

Governor of Illinois

The governor of Illinois is the head of government of Illinois, and the various agencies and departments over which the officer has jurisdiction, as prescribed in the state constitution. It is a directly elected position, votes being cast by popular suffrage of residents of the state. The governor is responsible for enacting laws passed by the Illinois General Assembly. Illinois is one of 14 states that does not have a gubernatorial term-limit along with Connecticut, Idaho, Iowa, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, North Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, District of Columbia, Vermont, New Hampshire and Puerto Rico. The governor is commander-in-chief of the state's land, air and sea forces when they are in state service.

Louis Lincoln Emmerson

Louis Lincoln Emmerson

Louis Lincoln Emmerson was an American Republican politician and the twenty-seventh governor of Illinois. He was born in Albion, Illinois on December 27, 1863. After completing his education in the Albion public school system, Emmerson moved to Mount Vernon, Illinois in 1883, and established a career in the mercantile business. He also was influential in the organization of the Mount Vernon Third National Bank, which occurred in 1901. Emmerson entered politics in 1912, as an unsuccessful candidate for state treasurer. However, four years later, he was victorious in his election for secretary of state, an office he held for twelve years. Emmerson won the 1928 Republican gubernatorial nomination by a margin of 63% to 37% over the incumbent governor, the corrupt Len Small, and was sworn into the governorship on January 14, 1929.

Death

Shortly after his release by the police, Drew Ali died at age 43 at his home in Chicago on July 20, 1929.[25] Although the exact circumstances of his death are unknown, the Certificate of Death stated that Noble Drew Ali died from "tuberculosis broncho-pneumonia".[1] Despite the official report, many of his followers speculated that his death was caused by injuries from the police or from other members of the faith.[26]

Others thought it was due to pneumonia. One Moor told The Chicago Defender that "The Prophet was not ill; his work was done and he laid his head upon the lap of one of his followers and passed out."[27][28] His funeral took place on July 25, 1929, with hundreds attending. The services were held at the Pythian Temple in Chicago, followed by the burial at Burr Oak Cemetery in nearby Alsip.[29]

The death of Drew Ali brought out a number of candidates who vied to succeed him. Edward Mealy El stated that he had been declared Drew Ali's successor by Drew Ali himself, while John Givens-El, Drew Ali's chauffeur, declared that he was Drew Ali reincarnated.[30] However, the governors of the Moorish Science Temple of America declared Charles Kirkman-Bey to be the successor to Drew Ali and named him Grand Advisor.[31][6]

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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections show no symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. Around 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kill about half of those affected. Typical symptoms of active TB are chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It was historically referred to as consumption due to the weight loss associated with the disease. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms.

Pneumonia

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung primarily affecting the small air sacs known as alveoli. Symptoms typically include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of the condition is variable.

Knights of Pythias

Knights of Pythias

The Knights of Pythias is a fraternal organization and secret society founded in Washington, D.C., on February 19, 1864. The Knights of Pythias is the first fraternal organization to receive a charter under an act of the United States Congress. It was founded by Justus H. Rathbone, who had been inspired by a play by the Irish poet John Banim about the legend of Damon and Pythias. This legend illustrates the ideals of loyalty, honor, and friendship that are the center of the order.

Burr Oak Cemetery

Burr Oak Cemetery

Burr Oak Cemetery is a cemetery located in Alsip, Illinois, United States, a suburb southwest of Chicago, Illinois. Established in 1927, Burr Oak was one of the few early Chicago cemeteries focused on the needs of the African-American community, it is the final resting place of many black celebrities, including Chicago blues musicians, athletes, and other notables.

Alsip, Illinois

Alsip, Illinois

Alsip is a village in Cook County, Illinois, United States. The population was 19,063 at the 2020 census. It is part of the Chicago metropolitan area.

E. Mealy El

E. Mealy El

Edward Mealy El, often known as E. Mealy El, was an American religious leader who was Prophet Noble Drew Ali's successor as head of the Moorish Science Temple of America. He was appointed the first Assistant Chairman of the Moorish Science Temple of America by Prophet Noble Drew Ali on June 1 of 1927. On August 1 of the same year he received an appointment to General Chairman from the Prophet Drew Ali. In February 1928, Mealy El was made Grand Sheik and Chairman of the Moorish Science Temple of America by appointment of the Prophet Noble Drew Ali. By the close of the first annual convention of the Moorish Science Temple of America Edward Mealy El was promoted to Supreme Grand Sheik of the organization's highest tribunal and executive cabinet, the Supreme Grand Council. In all his appointments, he was unanimously approved by the "Grand Body", or, executive heads of all subordinate temples within the Moorish Science Temple of America. In February 1929, an annual corporation report filed with the Illinois Secretary of State lists Edward Mealy El as President of the Moorish Science Temple of America Inc.

Legacy

Wallace Fard Muhammad, the founder of Nation of Islam, was previously a prominent member of the Moorish Science Temple of America, where he was known as David Ford-El.[32] After Drew Ali's death, he claimed to be the Prophet reincarnated.[33]

When his leadership was largely rejected, he broke away from the Moorish Science Temple, moved to Detroit, and founded the Nation of Islam.[34] Nation of Islam leaders denied any historical connection to the Moorish Science Temple of America, until February 26, 2014, when Louis Farrakhan acknowledged Noble Drew Ali's contribution to the Nation of Islam.[35]

In 1986, the Moroccan Ambassador to the United States officially recognized the Moorish Science Temple's Islamic linkage to Morocco through Drew Ali.[6]

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Wallace Fard Muhammad

Wallace Fard Muhammad

Wallace Dodd Fard, also known as Wallace Fard Muhammad or Master Fard Muhammad, was the founder of the Nation of Islam. He arrived in Detroit in 1930 with an obscure background and several aliases, and taught an idiosyncratic form of Islam to members of the city's black population. In 1934, he disappeared from public record, and Elijah Muhammad succeeded him as leader of the Nation of Islam.

Nation of Islam

Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930. A black nationalist organization, the NOI focuses its attention on the African diaspora, especially on African Americans. While it identifies itself as promoting a form of Islam, its beliefs differ considerably from mainstream Islamic traditions. Scholars of religion characterise it as a new religious movement. It operates as a centralized and hierarchical organization.

Louis Farrakhan

Louis Farrakhan

Louis Farrakhan is an American religious leader, black supremacist, anti-white conspiracy theorist, and former singer who heads the Nation of Islam (NOI). Prior to joining the NOI, he was a calypso singer who used the stage name Calypso Gene. Earlier in his career, he served as the minister of mosques in Boston and Harlem and was appointed National Representative of the Nation of Islam by former NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. He adopted the name Louis X, before being named Louis Farrakhan.

Morocco–United States relations

Morocco–United States relations

Relations between the Kingdom of Morocco and the United States of America date back to the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and specifically since 1777 when the sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah became the first monarch to help the United States. Morocco remains one of America's oldest and closest allies in North Africa, a status affirmed by Morocco's zero-tolerance policy towards Al-Qaeda and their affiliated groups. Morocco also assisted the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency with questioning al-Qaeda members captured in Afghanistan, Iraq, and elsewhere during the administration of 43rd President George W. Bush, who designated the country as a Major non-NATO ally.

Source: "Noble Drew Ali", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noble_Drew_Ali.

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Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ a b Perkins, p. 186, as well as other less reputable sources. Perkins cites "Standard Certificate of Death No. 22054, Timothy Drew, issued July 25, 1929, Office of Cook County Clerk, Cook County, Illinois". The certificate was filed by Dr. Clarence Payne-El, who was reportedly at Drew Ali's bedside when he died. See also Scopino.
  2. ^ a b c "Noble Drew Ali | American religious leader". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  3. ^ a b c d "archives.nypl.org – Moorish Science Temple of America collection". archives.nypl.org. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  4. ^ Wilson, p. 15; Gomez, p. 203; Paghdiwala; Gale Group.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Paghdiwala, Tasneem (2007-11-15). "The Aging of the Moors". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h "Noble Drew Ali (1886–1929)". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  7. ^ Wilson, p, 15.
  8. ^ Gomez and Paghdiwala give both versions.
  9. ^ a b Abdat, Fathie "Before the Fez-Life and Times of Drew Ali", Journal of Race Ethnicity and Religion, Vol 5, No 8, August 2014 [1]
  10. ^ Ghaneabassiri, Kambiz (2010). A History of Islam in America: From the New World to the New World Order. Cambridge University Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0521614870.
  11. ^ Home, Stewart (1997). Mind Invaders: A Reader in Psychic Warfare, Cultural Sabotage and Semiotic Terrorism. Profile Books Ltd. ISBN 9781852425609.
  12. ^ a b c Nance, Susan. (2002) "Mystery of the Moorish Science Temple: Southern Blacks and American Alternative Spirituality in 1920s Chicago" Archived 2012-04-15 at the Wayback Machine, Religion and American Culture 12, no. 2 (Summer): 123–166, accessed 29 Aug 2009
  13. ^ Yusuf Nuruddin (2000). "African-American Muslims and the Question of Identity: Between Traditional Islam, African Heritage, and the American Way". In Hadda, Yvonne Yazbeck; Esposito, John L. (eds.). Muslims on the Americanization Path?. Oxford University Press. p. 223. ISBN 9780198030928. Retrieved 10 April 2018. Hence it is in the Moorish Science Temple that we encounter fables about the "ancient Moabite kingdom now known as Morocco, which existed in northwest Amexem. which is now known as northwest Africa."
  14. ^ "moorish science temple of america los angeles - Google Search". www.google.com.
  15. ^ Paghdiwala, p. 23.
  16. ^ Paghdiwala
  17. ^ Wilson, p. 29.
  18. ^ Gomez, Michael A. (2005) Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas, Cambridge University Press, p. 219, accessed 29 Aug 2009
  19. ^ Chicago Tribune, May 14, 1929.
  20. ^ Chicago Tribune (1929) and Chicago Defender (1929).
  21. ^ Chicago Defender (1929).
  22. ^ Chicago Defender, January 1929.
  23. ^ Chicago Tribune
  24. ^ Gale.
  25. ^ "Drew Ali, "Prophet" of Moorish Cult, Dies Suddenly". Chicago Defender. July 27, 1929. p. 1 – via ProQuest.
  26. ^ McCloud, p. 18; Wilson, p. 35. The Chicago Defender, whose news articles had turned critical, said that "it is believed that the ordeal of the trial together with the treatment he received at the hands of police in an effort to obtain true statements are directly responsible for the illness which precipitated his death" (July 27, 1929).
  27. ^ Quoted by Paghdiwala, p. 24. Also quoted by Nance (2002, p. 659, note 84) with a reference to "Cult Leader Dies; Was in Murder Case", Chicago Defender, July 27, 1929.
  28. ^ "Hold Final Rites for Moorish Chief", Chicago Defender, August 3, 1929, page 3.
  29. ^ "Drew Ali Laid to Rest". The Chicago Defender. 1929-07-25. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  30. ^ The story of Givens fainting appears, among other places, in Gomez, p. 273.
  31. ^ McCloud, p. 18. Gardell, p. 45.
  32. ^ Prashad, p. 109.
  33. ^ Ahlstrom (p. 1067), Abu Shouk (p. 147), Hamm (p. 14), and Lippy (p. 214) all state that Fard claimed to be, or was considered by many Moors to be, the reincarnation of Drew Ali. According to Turner (p. 92), Ford El, also known as Abdul Wali Farad Muhammad Ali, unsuccessfully challenged Drew Ali in Newark in 1914.
  34. ^ Ahlstrom (p. 1067), Lippy (p. 214), Miyakawa (p. 12).
  35. ^ "Saviours' Day 2014 Keynote Address: 'How Strong Is Our Foundation; Can We Survive?'". www.finalcall.com. Retrieved 2017-09-17.

References

  • Ali, Noble Prophet Drew (1928), Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple of America
  • Abdat, Fathie Ali (2014) "Before the Fez- Life and Times of Drew Ali 1886–1924", Journal of Race, Ethnicity and Religion, 5: 1–39.
  • Abu Shouk, Ahmed I. (1997) "A Sudanese Missionary to the United States", Sudanic Africa, 9:137–191.
  • Ahlstrom, Sydney E. (2004) A Religious History of the American People, 2nd ed., Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10012-4.
  • Blakemore, Jerome; Yolanda Mayo; Glenda Blakemore (2006) "African-American and Other Street Gangs: A Quest of Identity (Revisted)", Human Behavior in the Social Environment from an African-American Perspective, Letha A. See, ed., The Haworth Press ISBN 978-0-7890-2831-0.
  • Chicago Defender (1929) "Drew Ali, 'Prophet' of Moorish Cult, Dies Suddenly", July 27, 1929, page 1.
  • Chicago Tribune (May 1929) "Cult Head Took Too Much Power, Witnesses Say", May 14, 1929.
  • Chicago Tribune (September 1929) "Seize 60 After So. Side Cult Tragedy", September 26, 1929, p. 1.
  • Gale Group, "Timothy Drew", Religious Leaders of America, 2nd ed., 1999, Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale, 2007.
  • Gardell, Mattias (1996) In the Name of Elijah Muhammad. Duke University Press, ISBN 978-0-8223-1845-3.
  • Henry Louis Gates Jr., Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham (2004). African American Lives. OUP USA. p. 18. ISBN 978-0195160246. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  • Gomez, Michael A. (2005) Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-84095-3.
  • Hamm, Mark S. (2007) Terrorist Recruitment in American Correctional Institutions: An Exploratory Study of Non-Traditional Faith Groups Final Report, U.S. Department of Justice, December 2007, Document No.: 220957.
  • The Hartford Courant (1930) "Religious Cult Head Sentenced For Murder", April 19, 1930, p. 20.
  • Lippy, Charles H. (2006) Faith in America: Changes, Challenges, New Directions, Praeger Publishers, ISBN 978-0-275-98605-6.
  • Main, Frank (2006) Chicago Sun-Times, June 25, 2006, p. A03.
  • McCloud, Aminah (1994) African American Islam, Routledge.
  • Miyakawa, Felicia M. (2005) Five Percenter Rap: God Hop's Music, Message, and Black Muslim Mission, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, ISBN 978-0-253-21763-9.
  • Nance, Susan. (2002) "Respectability and Representation: The Moorish Science Temple, Morocco and Black Public Culture in 1920s Chicago", American Quarterly 54, no. 4 (December): 623–659.
  • Nash, Jay Robert (1993) World Encyclopedia of Organized Crime, Da Capo Press, ISBN 978-0-306-80535-6.
  • Nashashibi, Rami (2007) "The Blackstone Legacy, Islam, and the Rise of Ghetto Cosmopolitanism", Souls, Volume 9, Issue 2 April 2007, pages 123–131.
  • Paghdiwala, Tasneem (2007), "The Aging of the Moors", Chicago Reader, November 15, 2007, Vol 37 No 8.
  • Perkins, William Eric (1996) Droppin' Science: Critical Essays on Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture, Temple University Press.
  • Prashad, Vijay (2002) Everybody Was Kung Fu Fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and the Myth of Cultural Purity, Beacon Press, ISBN 0-8070-5011-3.
  • Scopino Jr., A. J. (2001) "Moorish Science Temple of America", in Organizing Black America: An Encyclopedia of African American Associations, Nina Mjagkij, ed., Garland Publishing, p. 346.
  • Shipp, E.R. (1985) "Chicago Gang Sues to Be Recognized as Religion", New York Times, Dec 27, 1985, p. A14.
  • Turner, Richard Brent (2003) Islam in the African-American Experience, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-21630-3.
  • The Washington Post (1929), "Three Deaths Laid to Fanatical Plot", September 27, 1929, p. 2.
  • Wilson, Peter Lamborn (1993) Sacred Drift: Essays on the Margins of Islam, City Lights Books, ISBN 0-87286-275-5.

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