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Nautilida

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Nautilida
Temporal range: Devonian–Recent
Nautilus pompilius.jpg
Nautilus pompilius
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Subclass: Nautiloidea
Order: Nautilida
Agassiz, 1847
Superfamilies

The Nautilida constitute a large and diverse order of generally coiled nautiloid cephalopods that began in the mid Paleozoic and continues to the present with a single family, the Nautilidae which includes two genera, Nautilus and Allonautilus, with six species. All told, between 22 and 34 families and 165 to 184 genera have been recognised, making this the largest order of the subclass Nautiloidea.

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Classification and phylogeny

Current classification

The current classification of the Nautilida, in prevalent use,[1] is that of Bernhard Kummel (Kummel 1964) in the Treatise which divides the Nautilida into five superfamilies, the Aipocerataceae, Clydonautilaceae, Tainocerataceae, and Trigonocerataceae, mostly of the Paleozoic, and the later Nautilaceae. These include 22 families and some 165 or so genera (Teichert and Moore 1964)

Other concepts

Shimansky 1962 (in Kummel 1964) divided the Nautilida into five suborders, the mostly Paleozoic Centroceratina, Liroceratina, Rutoceratina, and Tainoceratina, and the Mesozoic to recent Nautilina. These include superfamilies which are different from those of Kummel (1964) and of less extent. The Centroceratina are comparable to the Trigonocerataceae, the Liroceratina to the Clydonautilaceae, and the Nautilina to the Nautilaceae. The main difference is that the Rutoceratidae are included with the Aipocerataceae of Kummel (1964) in the Rutoceratina. The remaining Tainocerataceae are the Tainoceratina.

Rousseau Flower (1950) distinguished the Solenochilida, Rutoceratida, and Centroceratida, as separate orders, from the Nautilida, derived from the Barrandeocerida, which are now abandoned. Within the Nautilida, he placed 10 families, included in the Nautilaceae and the no longer considered ancestral Clydonautilaceae. Teichert's 1988 classification is an abridged version of Shimansky's and Flower's early schemes.

Derivation and evolution

Both Shimansky and Kummel derive the Nautilida from the Oncocerida with either the Acleistoceratidae or Brevicoceratidae (Teichert 1988) which share some similarities with the Rutoceratidae as the source. The Rutoceratidae are the ancestral family of the Tainocerataceae and of the Nautilida (Kummel 1964) and of Shimansky's and Teichert's Rutoceratina.

The Tainocerataceae gave rise, probably through the ancestral Rutoceratidae, to the Trigonocerataceae and Clydonautiliaceae in the Devonian and to the Aipocerataceae early in the Carboniferous. The Trigonocerataceae, in turn, gave rise late in the Triassic through the Syringonautilidae to the Nautilaceae, which include the Nautilidae, with Nautilus. (Kummel 1964)

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Rutocerina

Rutocerina

The Rutocertina is one of only three suborders in Shimankiy's (1957) classification of the Nautilida, the other two being the Lirocerina and Nautilina. Genera in the Rutocerina are redistributed in the Rutoceratina, Tainoceratina, and Centroceratina. The Lirocerina is redefined as the Liroceratina, and Nautilina.remains as is. In general terms these are similar to the simpler classification proposed by Kümmel 1964, wherein the Nautilida is divided into five superfamilies, the Tainocerataceae, Trigonocerataceae, Clydonautilacea, Aipocerataceae, and Nautilaceae. Shimanskiy's classification involves 34 families, Kümmel's only twenty-seven.

Tainoceratina

Tainoceratina

For a further discussion of this group as in use today, see the superfamily Tainocerataceae

Nautilina

Nautilina

The Nautilina is the last suborder of the Nautilida and the only nautiloids living since the end of the Triassic. The Nautilina, proposed by Shimanskiy, is basically the Nautilaceae of Kummel, 1964, defined by Furnish and Glenister, but differs in omitting two families, the Paracenoceratidae and Pseudonautilidae which instead are placed in the Liroceratina.

Oncocerida

Oncocerida

The Oncocerida comprise a diverse group of generally small nautiloid cephalopods known from the Middle Ordovician to the Mississippian, in which the connecting rings are thin and siphuncle segments are variably expanded. At present the order consists of some 16 families, a few of which, such as the Oncoceratidae, Brevicoceratidae, and Acleistoceratidae contain a fair number of genera each while others like the Trimeroceratidae and Archiacoceratidae are represented by only two or three.

Acleistoceratidae

Acleistoceratidae

The Acleistoceratidae is a family of oncocerids that contains genera characterized by depressed exogastric brevicones and cyrtocones that range from the Middle Silurian to the Middle Devonian. The siphuncle is broadly expanded, and in some actinosiphonate.

Brevicoceratidae

Brevicoceratidae

The Brevicoceratidae is a family of oncocerids that contains genera characterized by exogastric gyrocones, brevicones, and torticones. that tend to develop vestigial actinosiphonate deposits and subtriangular transverse sections. The Brevicoceratidae are derived from Oonoceras (Oncoceratidae) and range from the mid-Silurian to the Upper Devonian.

Rutoceratidae

Rutoceratidae

Rutoceratidae is a family of prototypical nautilids, derived probably from either Brevicoceratidae or Acleistoceratidae of the order Oncocerida early in the Devonian. Rutoceratidae comprise a family within the oncocerid superfamily Tainocerataceae They are generally characterized by cyrtoconic and gyroconic shells, commonly with spines, nodes, or frills, although some included genera are almost orthoconic, and a commonly empty, tubular ventral siphuncle.

Diversity and evolutionary history

The Nautilida are thought to be derived from either of the oncocerid families, Acleistoceratidae or Brevicoceratidae (Kummel 1964; Teichert 1988), both of which have the same sort of shells and internal structure as found in the Devonian Rutocerina of Shimanskiy, the earliest true nautilids. Flower (1950) suggested the Nautilida evolved from the Barrandeocerida, an idea he came later to reject in favor of derivation from the Oncocerida. The idea that the Nautilida evolved from straight-shelled ("Orthoceras") nautiloids, as proposed by Otto Schindewolf in 1942, through transitional forms such as the Ordovician Lituites can be rejected out of hand as evolutionarily unlikely. Lituites and the Lituitidae are derived tarphycerids and belong to a separate evolutionary branch of nautilioids.

The number of nautilid genera increased from the Early Devonian to about 22 in the Middle Devonian. During this time, their shells were more varied than those found in species of living Nautilus, ranging from curved (cyrtoconic), through loosely coiled (gyroconic), to tightly coiled forms, represented by the Rutoceratidae, Tetragonoceratidae, and Centroceratidae.

Nautilids declined in the Late Devonian, but again diversified in the Carboniferous, when some 75 genera and subgenera in some 16 families are known to have lived. Although there was considerable diversity in form, curved and loosely coiled shells are rare or absent, except in the superfamily Aipocerataceae. For the rest, nautilids adapted the standard planispiral shell form, although not all were as tightly coiled as the modern nautilids (Teichert 1988). There was, however, a great diversity in surface ornamentation, cross section, and so on, with some genera, such as the Permian Cooperoceras and Acanthonautilus, developing large lateral spikes (Fenton and Fenton 1958).

Despite again decreasing in diversity in the Permian, nautilids were less affected by the Permian-Triassic extinction than their distant relatives the Ammonoidea. During the Late Triassic there was a tendency in the Clydonautilaceae to develop sutures similar to those of some Late Devonian goniatites. Only a single genus, Cenoceras, with a shell similar to that of the modern nautilus, survived the less severe Triassic extinction, at which time the entire Nautiloidea almost became extinct.

For the remainder of the Mesozoic, nautilids once again flourished, although never at the level of their Paleozoic glory, and 24 genera are known from the Cretaceous. Again, the nautilids were not as affected by the end Cretaceous mass extinction as the Ammonoids that became entirely extinct, possibly because their larger eggs were better suited to survive the conditions of that environment-changing event.

Three families and at least five genera of nautilids are known to have survived this crisis in the history of life. There was a further resurgence during the Paleocene and Eocene, with several new genera, the majority of which had a worldwide distribution. During the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary, the Hercoglossidae and Aturiidae again developed sutures like those of Devonian goniatites. (Teichert 1988, pp. 43–44)

Miocene nautilids were still fairly widespread, but today the order includes only two genera, Nautilus and Allonautilus, limited to the southwest Pacific.

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Oncocerida

Oncocerida

The Oncocerida comprise a diverse group of generally small nautiloid cephalopods known from the Middle Ordovician to the Mississippian, in which the connecting rings are thin and siphuncle segments are variably expanded. At present the order consists of some 16 families, a few of which, such as the Oncoceratidae, Brevicoceratidae, and Acleistoceratidae contain a fair number of genera each while others like the Trimeroceratidae and Archiacoceratidae are represented by only two or three.

Acleistoceratidae

Acleistoceratidae

The Acleistoceratidae is a family of oncocerids that contains genera characterized by depressed exogastric brevicones and cyrtocones that range from the Middle Silurian to the Middle Devonian. The siphuncle is broadly expanded, and in some actinosiphonate.

Brevicoceratidae

Brevicoceratidae

The Brevicoceratidae is a family of oncocerids that contains genera characterized by exogastric gyrocones, brevicones, and torticones. that tend to develop vestigial actinosiphonate deposits and subtriangular transverse sections. The Brevicoceratidae are derived from Oonoceras (Oncoceratidae) and range from the mid-Silurian to the Upper Devonian.

Devonian

Devonian

The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic era, spanning 60.3 million years from the end of the Silurian, 419.2 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon, England, where rocks from this period were first studied.

Orthoceras

Orthoceras

Orthoceras is a genus of extinct nautiloid cephalopod restricted to Middle Ordovician-aged marine limestones of the Baltic States and Sweden. This genus is sometimes called Orthoceratites. Note it is sometimes misspelled as Orthocera, Orthocerus or Orthoceros.

Otto Schindewolf

Otto Schindewolf

Otto Heinrich Schindewolf was a German paleontologist who studied the evolution of corals and cephalopods.

Lituites

Lituites

Lituites is an extinct nautiloid genus from the Middle Ordovician and type for the Lituitidae that in some more recent taxonomies has been classified with the orthocerids and listed under the order Lituitida. Fossils have been found in New York, Argentina, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, and China.

Lituitidae

Lituitidae

The Lituitidae are a family of evolved tarphycerids characterized by a long orthoconic section that follows a coiled juvenile portion at the apex, along with a generally tubular siphuncle, which like that of the barrandeocerids is composed of thin connecting rings.

Centroceratidae

Centroceratidae

The Centroceratidae is the ancestral family of the Trigonoceratoidea and of the equivalent Centroceratina; extinct shelled cephalopods belonging to the order Nautilida

Carboniferous

Carboniferous

The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 million years ago. The name Carboniferous means "coal-bearing", from the Latin carbō ("coal") and ferō, and refers to the many coal beds formed globally during that time.

Permian

Permian

The Permian is a geologic period and stratigraphic system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic Period 251.9 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic Era; the following Triassic Period belongs to the Mesozoic Era. The concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the region of Perm in Russia.

Cooperoceras

Cooperoceras

Cooperoceras is a genus of Tainoceratid nautiloid cephalopod molluscs within the superfamily Tainocerataceae, characterized by and evolute shell with an open, perforate, umbilicus, sinuous ribs at maturity, and recurved hollow spines along the ventro-lateral shoulders. The flanks and venter are flattened, the flanks converge on the dorsum, the venter has a shallow median groove. The suture is with rounded ventral and lateral lobes. The siphuncle is small, tubular, and subcentral.

Source: "Nautilida", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2021, November 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nautilida.

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References
  • Fenton and Fenton (1958), The Fossil Book (Doubleday & Co., Garden City, New York).
  • Kümmel, B. (1964) "Nautilida" in Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part K. Mollusca 3. (Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press).
  • Moore, Lalicker and Fischer, (1952) Invertebrate Fossils, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, Toronto, London.
  • Teichert, T. (1988) "Main Features of Cephalopod Evolution", in The Mollusca vol. 12, Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods, ed. by M.R. Clarke & E.R. Trueman, Academic Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
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