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Moses Hazen

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Moses Hazen (June 1, 1733 – February 5, 1803) was a brigadier general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Born in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, he saw action in the French and Indian War with Rogers' Rangers. His service included particularly brutal raids, during the Expulsion of the Acadians and the 1759 Battle of Quebec. He was formally commissioned into the British Army, shortly before the war ended, and retired on half-pay outside Montreal, Province of Quebec, where he and Gabriel Christie, another British officer, made extensive land purchases in partnership. During his lifetime he acquired land in Quebec, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York, but lost most of his Quebec land due to litigation, with Christie and the negative effects of the Revolution.

In 1775 he became involved in the American invasion of Quebec early in the American Revolutionary War, and served with the Continental Army, in the 1775 Battle of Quebec. He went on to lead his own regiment, (the 2nd Canadian, also known as "Congress' Own") throughout the war, seeing action in the 1777 Philadelphia campaign and at Yorktown in 1781. He was frequently involved in litigation, both military and civil, and constantly petitioned Congress for compensation of losses and expenses incurred due to the war. He supported similar efforts by men from his regiment who were unable to return to Quebec because of their support for the American war effort.

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Brigadier general (United States)

Brigadier general (United States)

In the United States Armed Forces, a brigadier general is a one-star general officer in the United States Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Space Force.

Continental Army

Continental Army

The Continental Army was the army of the United Colonies representing the Thirteen Colonies and later the United States in the American Revolutionary War. It was formed on June 14, 1775 by a resolution passed by the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia after the war's outbreak. The Continental Army was created to coordinate military efforts of the colonies in the war against the British, who sought to maintain control over the American colonies. General George Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and maintained this position throughout the war.

American Revolutionary War

American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War, also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, was a major war of the American Revolution. Widely considered as the war that secured the independence of the United States, fighting began on April 19, 1775, followed by the Lee Resolution on July 2, 1776, and the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The American Patriots were supported by the Kingdom of France and, to a lesser extent, the Kingdom of Spain and the Dutch Republic, in a conflict taking place in North America, the Caribbean, and the Atlantic Ocean.

French and Indian War

French and Indian War

The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War, which pitted the North American colonies of the British Empire against those of the French, each side being supported by various Native American tribes. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of roughly 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies. The outnumbered French particularly depended on their native allies.

Expulsion of the Acadians

Expulsion of the Acadians

The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation, and the Deportation of the Acadians, was the forced removal, by the British, of the Acadian people from parts of a Canadian-American region historically known as Acadia, between 1755–1764. The area included the present-day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, and the present-day U.S. state of Maine. The Expulsion, which caused the deaths of thousands of people, occurred during the French and Indian War and was part of the British military campaign against New France.

Battle of the Plains of Abraham

Battle of the Plains of Abraham

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec, was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War. The battle, which began on 13 September 1759, was fought on a plateau by the British Army and Royal Navy against the French Army, just outside the walls of Quebec City on land that was originally owned by a farmer named Abraham Martin, hence the name of the battle. The battle involved fewer than 10,000 troops in total, but proved to be a deciding moment in the conflict between France and Britain over the fate of New France, influencing the later creation of Canada.

British Army

British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British Armed Forces along with the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force. As of 2022, the British Army comprises 79,380 regular full-time personnel, 4,090 Gurkhas, and 28,330 volunteer reserve personnel.

Montreal

Montreal

Montreal is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill around which the early city of Ville-Marie is built. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which obtained its name from the same origin as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. The city is 196 km (122 mi) east of the national capital Ottawa, and 258 km (160 mi) southwest of the provincial capital, Quebec City.

Gabriel Christie (British Army officer)

Gabriel Christie (British Army officer)

Gabriel Christie was a British Army General from Scotland, who settled in Montreal after the Seven Years' War. Following the British Conquest of New France, he invested in land and became one of the largest landowners in the British Province of Quebec.

Battle of Quebec (1775)

Battle of Quebec (1775)

The Battle of Quebec was fought on December 31, 1775, between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of Quebec City early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle was the first major defeat of the war for the Americans, and it came with heavy losses. General Richard Montgomery was killed, Benedict Arnold was wounded, and Daniel Morgan and more than 400 men were taken prisoner. The city's garrison, a motley assortment of regular troops and militia led by Quebec's provincial governor, General Guy Carleton, suffered a small number of casualties.

2nd Canadian Regiment

2nd Canadian Regiment

The 2nd Canadian Regiment (1776–1783), also known as Congress' Own or Hazen's Regiment, was authorized on January 20, 1776, as an Extra Continental regiment and raised in the province of Quebec for service with the American Continental Army under the command of Colonel Moses Hazen. All or part of the regiment saw action at Staten Island, Brandywine, Germantown and the Siege of Yorktown. Most of its non-combat time was spent in and around New York City as part of the forces monitoring the British forces occupying that city. The regiment was disbanded on November 15, 1783, at West Point, New York.

Philadelphia campaign

Philadelphia campaign

The Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778) was a British effort in the American Revolutionary War to gain control of Philadelphia, which was then the seat of the Second Continental Congress.

Early life

Moses Hazen was born in Haverhill, a frontier town in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, to an old New England Puritan family. Histories that mention Hazen sometimes indicate that he was Jewish, however a genealogist documents Hazen's lineage to England, where the family name was Hassen.[1][2] Some contemporaries of Hazen seem to have thought he was Jewish; for example, Sergeant James Thompson, in his diary The Fraser’s Highlanders, describes meeting him during the retreat from the Battle of Sainte-Foy: "On the way, I fell in with a Captain Moses Hazen, a jew".[3]

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Haverhill, Massachusetts

Haverhill, Massachusetts

Haverhill is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. Haverhill is located 35 miles north of Boston on the New Hampshire border and about 17 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. The population was 67,787 at the 2020 United States Census.

Province of Massachusetts Bay

Province of Massachusetts Bay

The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a colony in British America which became one of the thirteen original states of the United States. It was chartered on October 7, 1691, by William III and Mary II, the joint monarchs of the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and was based in the merging of several earlier British colonies in New England. The charter took effect on May 14, 1692, and included the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, the Province of Maine, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick; the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the direct successor. Maine has been a separate state since 1820, and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are now Canadian provinces, having been part of the colony only until 1697.

New England

New England

New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick to the northeast and Quebec to the north. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the southwest. Boston is New England's largest city, as well as the capital of Massachusetts. Greater Boston is the largest metropolitan area, with nearly a third of New England's population; this area includes Worcester, Massachusetts, Manchester, New Hampshire, and Providence, Rhode Island.

Battle of Sainte-Foy

Battle of Sainte-Foy

The Battle of Sainte-Foy sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 near the British-held town of Quebec in the French province of Canada during the Seven Years' War. It was a victory for the French under the Chevalier de Lévis over the British army under General Murray. The battle was notably bloodier than the Battle of the Plains of Abraham of the previous September, with 833 French casualties to 1,124 British casualties.

French and Indian War

George Campion's Battle of Sainte-Foy
George Campion's Battle of Sainte-Foy

Hazen was apprenticed to a tanner when the French and Indian War broke out. In 1756, he enlisted with the local militia, which included a number of family members.[4] He first served at Fort William Henry near Lake George, where he probably first met, and may have served under, Robert Rogers of Rogers' Rangers. Rogers eventually recommended him for an officer's commission in a new company of the Rangers; in 1758, after having worked for his brother providing supplies for the British Siege of Louisbourg, he was commissioned as a first lieutenant in John McCurdy's company of the Rangers at Fort Edward.[5] In McCurdy's company, he saw action at Louisbourg, including the initial landings, when the action was quite fierce.[6]

After Louisbourg, the company was stationed first at Fort Frederick (Saint John, New Brunswick), and then at Fort St. Anne, where the company was part of a campaign against Indians and Acadians that had taken refuge there from the ongoing expulsion of the Acadians. These raids were sometimes quite brutal; the company was known to scalp Acadian settlers. In one particularly brutal incident, Hazen was responsible for the scalping of six men, and the burning of four others, along with two women and three children, in a house he set on fire.[7] Joseph Godin dit Bellefontaine, a leader of the local militia and the father of one of the women, claimed that he was forced to witness this event in an attempt to coerce his cooperation with the rangers. (Godin escaped into the woods with two of his grandchildren.)[8] General Jeffery Amherst, who did not hear of the incident until after he had promoted Hazen to captain, noted, "I am sorry that to say what I have since heard of that affair has sullied his merit with me as I shall always disapprove of killing women and helpless children."[9]

In January 1759, Captain McCurdy was killed when a tree felled by one of his men fell on him; Hazen was given command of the company.[7] Later in 1759, his company was at the siege of Quebec, where the company was primarily engaged in scouting and raiding in the countryside; he was away on one of those raids during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. In another notable atrocity that may have involved Hazen's company, a priest and thirty parishioners in a parish near Quebec were killed and scalped.[10]

Hazen also fought at the 1760 Battle of Sainte-Foy, where he was severely wounded in the thigh. He thus missed the final British campaign which saw the capture of Montreal later that year, although his Rangers did take part. In February 1761, he purchased a commission as a first lieutenant in the 44th Regiment of Foot in the British Army. He spent the remainder of the war on garrison duty at Montreal, retiring on half-pay in 1763. General James Murray wrote approvingly of Hazen in 1761, "He discovered so much still bravery and good conduct as would justly entitle him to every military reward he could ask or demand".[11]

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French and Indian War

French and Indian War

The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War, which pitted the North American colonies of the British Empire against those of the French, each side being supported by various Native American tribes. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of roughly 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies. The outnumbered French particularly depended on their native allies.

Fort William Henry

Fort William Henry

Fort William Henry was a British fort at the southern end of Lake George, in the province of New York. The fort's construction was ordered by Sir William Johnson in September 1755, during the French and Indian War, as a staging ground for attacks against the French position at Fort St. Frédéric. It was part of a chain of British and French forts along the important inland waterway from New York City to Montreal, and occupied a key forward location on the frontier between New York and New France. In 1757, the French general Louis-Joseph de Montcalm conducted a successful siege that forced the British to surrender. The Huron warriors who accompanied the French army subsequently killed many of the British prisoners. The siege and massacre were famously portrayed in James Fenimore Cooper's novel The Last of the Mohicans.

Lake George (lake), New York

Lake George (lake), New York

Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long, narrow oligotrophic lake located at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, in the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of New York. It lies within the upper region of the Great Appalachian Valley and drains all the way northward into Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence River drainage basin. The lake is situated along the historical natural (Amerindian) path between the valleys of the Hudson and St. Lawrence Rivers, and so lies on the direct land route between Albany, New York, and Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The lake extends about 32.2 mi (51.8 km) on a north–south axis, is 187 ft (57 m) deep, and ranges from one to three miles in width, presenting a significant barrier to east–west travel. Although the year-round population of the Lake George region is relatively small, the summertime population can swell to over 50,000 residents, many in the village of Lake George region at the southern end of the lake.

Fort Edward (town), New York

Fort Edward (town), New York

Fort Edward is a town and the county seat of Washington County, New York, United States. The population was 10,205 at the 2011 census. The municipal center complex is on U.S. Route 4 between the villages of Hudson Falls and Fort Edward. When construction of the complex was completed in 1994, most of the administrative offices were moved from the original county seat of Hudson Falls to this location. The town of Fort Edward is part of the Glens Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Fredericton

Fredericton

Fredericton is the capital city of the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The city is situated in the west-central portion of the province along the Saint John River, also known by its Indigenous name of Wolastoq, which flows west to east as it bisects the city. The river is the dominant natural feature of the area. One of the main urban centres in New Brunswick, the city had a population of 63,116 and a metropolitan population of 108,610 in the 2021 Canadian Census. It is the third-largest city in the province after Moncton and Saint John.

Expulsion of the Acadians

Expulsion of the Acadians

The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation, and the Deportation of the Acadians, was the forced removal, by the British, of the Acadian people from parts of a Canadian-American region historically known as Acadia, between 1755–1764. The area included the present-day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, and the present-day U.S. state of Maine. The Expulsion, which caused the deaths of thousands of people, occurred during the French and Indian War and was part of the British military campaign against New France.

Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst

Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst

Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, was a British Army officer and Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in the British Army. Amherst is credited as the architect of Britain's successful campaign to conquer the territory of New France during the Seven Years' War. Under his command, British forces captured the cities of Louisbourg, Quebec City and Montreal, as well as several major fortresses. He was also the first British Governor General in the territories that eventually became Canada. Numerous places and streets are named for him, in both Canada and the United States.

Battle of the Plains of Abraham

Battle of the Plains of Abraham

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec, was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War. The battle, which began on 13 September 1759, was fought on a plateau by the British Army and Royal Navy against the French Army, just outside the walls of Quebec City on land that was originally owned by a farmer named Abraham Martin, hence the name of the battle. The battle involved fewer than 10,000 troops in total, but proved to be a deciding moment in the conflict between France and Britain over the fate of New France, influencing the later creation of Canada.

Battle of Sainte-Foy

Battle of Sainte-Foy

The Battle of Sainte-Foy sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 near the British-held town of Quebec in the French province of Canada during the Seven Years' War. It was a victory for the French under the Chevalier de Lévis over the British army under General Murray. The battle was notably bloodier than the Battle of the Plains of Abraham of the previous September, with 833 French casualties to 1,124 British casualties.

Montreal Campaign

Montreal Campaign

The Montreal Campaign, also known as the Fall of Montreal, was a British three-pronged offensive against Montreal which took place from July 2 to 8 September 1760 during the French and Indian War as part of the global Seven Years' War. The campaign, pitted against an outnumbered and outsupplied French army, led to the capitulation and occupation of Montreal, the largest remaining city in French Canada.

Lieutenant

Lieutenant

A lieutenant is a commissioned officer rank in the armed forces of many nations.

British Army

British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British Armed Forces along with the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force. As of 2022, the British Army comprises 79,380 regular full-time personnel, 4,090 Gurkhas, and 28,330 volunteer reserve personnel.

Land development

Hazen's business partner, Gabriel Christie
Hazen's business partner, Gabriel Christie

During the siege of Quebec, Hazen had met Gabriel Christie, then a deputy quartermaster. Christie owned some land in the Richelieu River valley south of Montreal, and wanted to expand his holdings. (Christie later became one of the largest landowners in Quebec.)[12] After the war, Christie and Hazen jointly purchased the seigneuries of Sabrevois and Bleury, located on the east bank of the Richelieu near Fort Saint-Jean. They also leased land on the west side of river from the Baron of Longueuil. These holdings gave them almost exclusive control over the land holdings around Saint-Jean, which is the northernmost navigable point reachable from Lake Champlain.[13]

Christie, who was still in military service, was frequently away from the land, so Hazen developed the land while Christie provided the funding. Hazen constructed a manor house at Iberville, and two mills, and set about selling timber and other business endeavours. In 1765, Hazen was also appointed a deputy land surveyor, and a justice of the peace.[14] As part of his business dealings, he offered General Thomas Gage, then in command of British forces in New York City, facilities and lumber for military use. Gage was uninterested at the time, letting Hazen know that he would keep the offer in mind, if the need for military movements became necessary in the area.[15]

Hazen expanded the business of the seigneuries, but his aggressive development also incurred debts, which caused friction with Christie. In 1770, Christie, unhappy with the debts, eventually demanded an accounting. This ultimately led to a division of the holdings, with Hazen receiving the southern portion of the Bleury seigneurage, styled Bleury-Sud.[16] Hazen and Christie were in and out of court for years afterward over control of these lands; Christie eventually won complete control over those lands after the American Revolution.[17]

In 1762 Hazen's brother John settled Haverhill, New Hampshire, in the far north of that province on the east side of the Connecticut River, and in 1764 Jacob Bayley settled Newbury, in what is now Vermont, across the river from Haverhill. Hazen had shares in both of these settlements; he also acquired land west of the Connecticut River in what is now Bradford, Vermont. It was at this time that the idea of constructing a road from there to Saint-Jean was first raised; this idea surfaced again during the American Revolutionary War, when George Washington authorized construction of what became known as the Bayley Hazen Military Road.[18]

His land developments continued to grow in 1764 when he joined the Saint John River Society, and organization created by a group of military officers for the purpose of developing land along the Saint John River, then in Nova Scotia (now New Brunswick). His coinvestors included Thomas Gage, Frederick Haldimand, William Johnson, and Thomas Hutchinson.[19]

In the fall of 1770 Hazen married Charlotte de la Saussaye, a woman from a good family in Montreal. They settled down near Saint-Jean, where they built a house and began farming.[20]

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Gabriel Christie (British Army officer)

Gabriel Christie (British Army officer)

Gabriel Christie was a British Army General from Scotland, who settled in Montreal after the Seven Years' War. Following the British Conquest of New France, he invested in land and became one of the largest landowners in the British Province of Quebec.

Fort Saint-Jean (Quebec)

Fort Saint-Jean (Quebec)

Fort Saint-Jean is a fort in the Canadian province of Quebec located on the Richelieu River. The fort was first built in 1666 by soldiers of the Carignan-Salières Regiment of France who had travelled to New France to assist the young colony. It was part of a series of forts built along the Richelieu River. Over the years, it was destroyed and rebuilt several times, but it is, after Quebec City, the military site that has been occupied non-stop for the longest time in Canada. The fort is designated as a National Historic Site of Canada, and it currently houses the Royal Military College Saint-Jean. The fort has been continually occupied since 1748, and is the core from which the city of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec grew around. Fort Saint-Jean played a crucial role in the British defense strategy during the 1775 American invasion of the Province of Quebec.

Lake Champlain

Lake Champlain

Lake Champlain is a natural freshwater lake in North America. It mostly lies between the US states of New York and Vermont, but also extends north into the Canadian province of Quebec.

Justice of the peace

Justice of the peace

A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer of a lower or puisne court, elected or appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. In past centuries the term commissioner of the peace was often used with the same meaning. Depending on the jurisdiction, such justices dispense summary justice or merely deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions. Justices of the peace are appointed or elected from the citizens of the jurisdiction in which they serve, and are usually not required to have any formal legal education in order to qualify for the office. Some jurisdictions have varying forms of training for JPs.

New York City

New York City

New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over 300.46 square miles (778.2 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States, and is more than twice as populous as second-place Los Angeles. New York City lies at the southern tip of New York State, and constitutes the geographical and demographic center of both the Northeast megalopolis and the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the United States both by population and by urban landmass. With over 20.1 million people in its metropolitan statistical area and 23.5 million in its combined statistical area as of 2020, New York is one of the world's most populous megacities, and over 58 million people live within 250 mi (400 km) of the city. New York City is a global cultural, financial, entertainment, and media center with a significant influence on commerce, health care and life sciences, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, dining, art, fashion, and sports. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy, and is sometimes described as the capital of the world.

Haverhill, New Hampshire

Haverhill, New Hampshire

Haverhill is a town in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 4,585 at the 2020 census. Haverhill includes the villages of Woodsville, Pike, and North Haverhill, the historic town center at Haverhill Corner, and the district of Mountain Lakes. Located here are Bedell Bridge State Park, Black Mountain State Forest, Kinder Memorial Forest, and Oliverian Valley Wildlife Preserve. It is home to the annual North Haverhill Fair, and to a branch of the New Hampshire Community Technical Colleges. The village of North Haverhill is the county seat of Grafton County.

Connecticut River

Connecticut River

The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for 406 miles (653 km) through four states. It rises 300 yards south of the U.S. border with Quebec, Canada, and discharges at Long Island Sound. Its watershed encompasses 11,260 square miles (29,200 km2), covering parts of five U.S. states and one Canadian province, via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers. It produces 70% of Long Island Sound's fresh water, discharging at 18,400 cubic feet (520 m3) per second.

Jacob Bayley

Jacob Bayley

Jacob Bayley was an officer, first serving with the British in the French and Indian War, then later as a brigadier general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.

Bradford, Vermont

Bradford, Vermont

Bradford is a town in Orange County, Vermont, United States. The population was 2,790 at the 2020 census. Bradford is located on the county's eastern border, bordering both the Connecticut River and New Hampshire, and is a commercial center for some of its surrounding towns.

American Revolutionary War

American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War, also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, was a major war of the American Revolution. Widely considered as the war that secured the independence of the United States, fighting began on April 19, 1775, followed by the Lee Resolution on July 2, 1776, and the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The American Patriots were supported by the Kingdom of France and, to a lesser extent, the Kingdom of Spain and the Dutch Republic, in a conflict taking place in North America, the Caribbean, and the Atlantic Ocean.

George Washington

George Washington

George Washington was an American military officer, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continental Congress as commander of the Continental Army, Washington led Patriot forces to victory in the American Revolutionary War and served as president of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, which created and ratified the Constitution of the United States and the American federal government. Washington has been called the "Father of his Country" for his manifold leadership in the nation's founding.

Bayley Hazen Military Road

Bayley Hazen Military Road

The Bayley–Hazen Military Road was a military road that was originally planned to run from Newbury, Vermont, to St. John's, Quebec, not far from Montreal. The southern 54 miles (87 km), running from Newbury to Hazen's Notch near the Canada–United States border, were constructed between 1776 and 1779 during the American Revolutionary War. Portions of the road's route are used by modern roads today.

American Revolutionary War

Continental Army service

At the start of the Revolutionary War, in 1775, Hazen was living on half-pay in Saint-Jean. When Benedict Arnold raided Fort Saint-Jean on May 18, Hazen reported the news of that raid (as well as the capture of Fort Ticonderoga) first to the military authorities in Montreal, and then to Governor Guy Carleton in Quebec, before returning home to consider the consequences the conflict might have on him and his lands.[21]

The American invasion of Quebec arrived near his home at Saint-Jean on September 6. On that day, Hazen met with General Philip Schuyler, explaining to him that Fort Saint-Jean was well-defended and unlikely to be taken by siege, and that the local habitants were unlikely to assist the American effort. This gloomy portrait led Schuyler to consider retreating; but the arrival of additional American troops, and a more optimistic assessment from James Livingston, a grain merchant living near Chambly, encouraged the Americans to renew the attack.[22] Livingston went on to form the 1st Canadian Regiment in November 1775.[23]

Imprisonment and release

On September 17, Brigadier General Richard Montgomery, now commanding the American forces, began to besiege Fort St. Jean. The next day, a detachment of American forces under the command of John Brown arrested Hazen north of the fort. However, a British sortie from the fort forced Brown's men to retreat; Hazen ended up in British hands.[24] Major Charles Preston, the British commander, was mistrustful of Hazen, and sent him to Montreal under the guard of Claude de Lorimier. Brigadier General Richard Prescott, unhappy with Hazen's explanations of his movements, imprisoned him.[25]

He was held in poor conditions for 54 days. Following the fall of Fort St. Jean, the British withdrew from Montreal, transporting prisoners on one of the many ships used in the evacuation. Most of this British fleet was captured by the Americans, who released Hazen and other political prisoners who had supported them. Unhappy with the treatment he received by the British, Hazen joined the American forces, which were on their way to Quebec City. He did this in spite of the fact that the Americans had done significant damage to his estate during the siege, plundering the estate for supplies, and using his house as a barracks.[26]

Service in Quebec

Hazen served in the Battle of Quebec, and was one of two men (the other was Edward Antill) sent to report the devastating loss to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia. The Congress, in recognition for his efforts, gave Hazen a commission as a colonel, leading the Continental Army's 2nd Canadian Regiment. (Antill was commissioned the regiment's lieutenant colonel.) The regiment was often referred to as "Hazen's" or "Congress' Own", the latter because the regiment was established by Congress and was not part of any state quotas. Hazen was initially offered a position as brigadier general, but he refused, requesting instead a colonel's commission, and indemnification against losses caused by the conflict. (His property had already been significantly damaged by the American action around St. Jean.) Hazen was fortunate in arriving in Philadelphia before John Duggan, one of Livingston's captains, to whom Benedict Arnold had earlier promised the commission for the 2nd Canadian.[27]

This flag is claimed by some to be the ensign of Hazen's regiment.
This flag is claimed by some to be the ensign of Hazen's regiment.

Hazen and Antill returned to Quebec, where Hazen was stationed at Montreal while Antill recruited men for the regiment.[28] Hazen was briefly in command of the defenses of Montreal for the Americans, from late March to mid-April 1776, when General David Wooster took command of the American forces outside Quebec, and Benedict Arnold assumed command of the Montreal garrison.[29] During the time he was in command, Hazen dispatched Timothy Bedel and 390 men to fortify The Cedars, about 40 miles (64 km) upriver from Montreal; these forces surrendered to a British-Native force during the Battle of The Cedars in May.[30]

Trouble with Arnold

Following Arnold's assumption of command at Montreal, Hazen's regiment was assigned to garrison duty at Fort Chambly. Hazen (and likely his men) were called as reinforcements to assist in the American response to the action at The Cedars. In council, Hazen and Arnold had a heated exchange over what actions to take; in Arnold's opinion, Hazen's behavior bordered on insubordination.[31] Arnold had previously held a high opinion of Hazen, writing that he was "a sensible, judicious officer, and well acquainted with this country".[32]

Mezzotint of Benedict Arnold by Thomas Hart, 1776
Mezzotint of Benedict Arnold by Thomas Hart, 1776

During the American retreat from Quebec in May and June 1776, Hazen and Arnold were embroiled in a dispute that led to charges and counter-charges, courts martial and other hearings, lasting into 1779. At issue were supplies that Arnold had ordered seized from merchants in Montreal and sent to Chambly for eventual shipment south as part of the retreat. Hazen, in charge of the facilities at Chambly, refused to sign for the goods, as he recognized them as the property of friends in Montreal. In the ensuing retreat, most of these goods were plundered and lost.[33] Arnold wanted to immediately court-martial Hazen for failing to follow orders, but the arriving British army delayed any such activity until the army's return to Fort Ticonderoga. Arnold's opinion of Hazen clearly changed; he wrote, "This is not the first or last order Col. Hazen has disobeyed. I think him a man of too much consequence for the post he is in."[34]

Hazen's court martial was held on July 19, 1776; he was honorably acquitted. However, there were irregularities in the proceedings, the judge advocate being the same officer, who had delivered the goods, from Montreal, to Chambly, so he did not testify; Arnold continued to attack Hazen afterwards. In December, 1776, another inquiry was held, and Hazen was again cleared of any wrongdoing. Hazen then countercharged Arnold with the plundering of the Montreal merchants; Arnold was not cleared of these charges until a higher-level inquiry in 1777.[35][36]

Building his regiment

Hazen's regiment, which was significantly reduced in size by the retreat from Quebec,[31] was assigned first to Ticonderoga, and then to Albany, in the summer and fall of 1776, before being ordered to winter quarters at Fishkill, New York. During this time, Hazen continued recruiting, receiving permission from Congress to recruit anywhere in the United States. In the northern states he ran into difficulties, as those states were having trouble filling their own regimental lines; he was often outbid by other recruiters. Antill, who recruited in the central states (primarily New Jersey, Maryland, and Pennsylvania), had greater success.[37] By June 1777, the regiment reached about 700 members, out of an authorized strength of 1,000. The cultural differences between the original Quebec enlistees and the new recruits from the Thirteen Colonies was a regular source of friction within the regiment, and Hazen consequently kept the French-speakers in companies separated from the English-speakers.[38]

Hazen also submitted to Congress a claim for damages to his estate in Quebec. The original bill was for $11,363; Congress paid $2,595 in October 1776.[39]

Philadelphia campaign

The Brandywine battlefield today
The Brandywine battlefield today

In May 1777, Hazen's regiment was ordered to join the main army at Princeton, where it was active in the Philadelphia campaign as part of John Sullivan's brigade. Some of Hazen's companies (but not Hazen himself) participated in the Battle of Staten Island; in this action, Antill was captured.[38] Hazen's command during the Battle of Brandywine included the northern (right) end of the American line; this position was one of those flanked by the British in their attack. Hazen made an early report indicating the presence of British troops on the American flank that turned out to be the main British thrust. His report was dismissed by General Sullivan, who wrote, after receiving other reports, that "Colo. Hazen's Information must be wrong."[40] To Sullivan's detriment, the other reports were wrong, and Hazen's was correct; the British flanking maneuver was instrumental in the American loss of the battle.[40] Hazen's regiment lost 4 officers and 73 men in the battle.[41] In the Battle of Germantown, Hazen commanded a brigade that included in addition to his own regiment, the 2nd, 4th, and 6th Maryland Regiments.[42] They formed part of Sullivan's column when it marched on the town; his regiment lost 3 officers and 19 men in the engagement.[43]

Bayley-Hazen Road proposed

Hazen, ever since his return to the United States in 1776, had maintained a constant stream of communications with Congress, primarily on the subject of Canada.[44] In January 1778, these communications bore some fruit, when, with French assistance, planning for an invasion of Canada began. Hazen was assigned the job of deputy quartermaster for this operation. However, the planning was hampered by supply and staffing difficulties, and never got off the ground. It was ultimately cancelled by Congress in March 1778.[45]

This failure did not deter Hazen from offering a new route for invading Canada. This route went from Newbury, where Hazen owned land and knew the area, to Saint Francis, Quebec. On July 12, Hazen departed Newbury to scout the route. By July 25, he had returned to White Plains; the effort was abandoned for the time being because the manpower was needed in the New York area. Plans for possible attacks against Quebec based on routes departing from the Newbury area were again contemplated in the fall of 1778, but Washington continued to resist the idea.[46]

Construction work on the road

In the spring and summer of 1779, Hazen's regiment and that of Timothy Bedel worked on construction of the Bayley Hazen Military Road, once again with the eventual goal of launching an invasion. Part of the road, between Newbury and Peacham had been constructed in 1776 by Jacob Bayley.[47] Hazen supervised the development of the road up to what is now called Hazens Notch in northern Vermont. Work was discontinued on the road in August after word was received that the British were preparing a military force at Saint-Jean to attempt capture of the construction crew. General Washington had never intended to send an invasion along this route; the entire works was a ruse to divert British attention, and deter them from launching an invasion.[48] Washington wrote to Congress that the work "was for the purpose of exciting jealousies at Quebec and at the Enemy's posts on the St. lawrence, and of making a diversion in favor of the late expedition under general Sullivan ... this very happily succeeded".[49]

Service around New York

Hazen and his regiment spent the winter at Washington's main encampment in Morristown, New Jersey. There Hazen was again involved in litigation; he was rejected for service on a court martial considering charges against Benedict Arnold due to their previous confrontations, and he also opened complaints of supply mismanagement during the summer's roadbuilding activities. A detailed review of the army in the spring of 1780 by Baron von Steuben led to the recommendation that the regiments of Hazen and Livingston be merged, as Livingston's had shrunk to 103 men. Hazen and Livingston had a political tussle over seniority; although Hazen lost the claim to seniority, he ended up in command of the combined regiment.[50]

In January 1780 the regiment was involved in a failed attack on Staten Island; word of the operation leaked to the British. Hazen's regiment was then transferred to the brigade of Enoch Poor. By the time the transfer was effected, Hazen was given command of the entire brigade, although repeated requests he had made for promotion to brigadier general were rejected. During the summer the brigade was relocated to the West Point area. While en route, Hazen allowed his men to stop for water, breaking the army column. Von Steuben ordered Hazen's arrest for this transgression of military discipline. Hazen was acquitted, and promptly countercharged von Steuben with behavior unbecoming an officer and gentleman; von Steuben apologized.[51]

Hazen's regiment was garrisoned opposite West Point that fall when British Major John André was captured and General Arnold defected. One hundred of Hazen's men, including his nephew, Benjamin Mooers, witnessed André's hanging.[52]

Some of Hazen's troops were involved in the storming of redoubt#10 at the Siege of Yorktown.
Some of Hazen's troops were involved in the storming of redoubt#10 at the Siege of Yorktown.

On June 29, 1781, Hazen was finally promoted to brigadier general and assigned command of a brigade under Lafayette during the siege of Yorktown. Hazen's brigade served on the right of the line, and was deeply involved in the October 14 battles for the redoubts.[53]

After the British surrender, Hazen and his unit were given prisoner guard duty at Lancaster, Pennsylvania.[54] While stationed there, an international diplomatic situation, known as the "Asgill Affair", developed that threatened the peace treaty between the newly independent U.S. and Britain.[55] Following a series of retributive executions between patriots and loyalists, Washington, in May 1782, instructed Hazen that a British captain should be executed in retaliation for the execution of patriot captain Joshua Huddy, who was hanged at the direction of loyalist Richard Lippincott.[56][57] On May 27, 1782, Hazen carried out Washington's order. Charles Asgill was chosen from amongst 13 British captains by the drawing of lots. The selection was a violation of the terms of the Yorktown surrender, which protected prisoners of war from acts of retaliation.[55][58] Asgill's situation drew the attention of Queen Marie Antoinette; Washington received a letter from the French Foreign Minister, comte de Vergennes, making it clear that this course of action would be unacceptable to the French Crown.[55][58][59] Due in large part to this intervention, Asgill was released to return to England in November 1782.[55][56]

During the winter of 1781–82 Hazen also took time off for personal business. Among his dealings was a partnership with Timothy Bedel to acquire land along the military road they had built in Vermont.[54]

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Benedict Arnold

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Capture of Fort Ticonderoga

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Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester

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James Livingston (American Revolution)

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After the war

After the war, General Hazen, unable to return to Quebec, received a grant of land in northern New York. He was active for many years on behalf of the men who served under him and their families, especially those that originally came from Quebec, in their quest for compensation for their losses.[60] Hazen was also an original member of the Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati.[61] He also continued his litigious ways—he was involved in an ongoing string of legal actions until his death. He died in 1803 in Troy, New York where he was buried. His nephew, Benjamin Mooers, was ultimately responsible for untangling many of Hazen's affairs.[62]

On May 26, 1828, Congress authorized a payment of $3,998.81 to Hazen's heirs in compensation for the half-pay lost to him when he joined the American forces.[63]

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Legacy

Source: "Moses Hazen", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_Hazen.

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Notes
  1. ^ Everest, pp. 1–2
  2. ^ Stanley, p. 28
  3. ^ "The Battalion". Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
  4. ^ Everest, p. 3
  5. ^ Everest, pp. 4–5
  6. ^ Everest, p. 6
  7. ^ a b Everest, pp. 6–7
  8. ^ Brymner (1906), Volume 2, p. 140
  9. ^ Everest, p. 8
  10. ^ Everest, p. 9
  11. ^ Everest, pp. 11–14
  12. ^ Noel, p. 13
  13. ^ Everest, p. 17
  14. ^ Everest, p. 18
  15. ^ Everest, p. 19
  16. ^ Noel, p. 18
  17. ^ Noel, p. 32
  18. ^ Everest, pp. 22–23
  19. ^ Everest, p. 24
  20. ^ Everest, pp. 21–22
  21. ^ Everest, p. 29
  22. ^ Stanley, pp. 39–40
  23. ^ Smith, p. 86
  24. ^ Stanley, p. 41
  25. ^ Everest, p. 32
  26. ^ Everest, pp. 32–33
  27. ^ Everest, pp. 35–36
  28. ^ Everest, p. 38
  29. ^ Everest, p. 39
  30. ^ Everest, p. 41
  31. ^ a b Everest, p. 42
  32. ^ Everest, p. 40
  33. ^ Everest, pp. 42–43
  34. ^ Everest, p. 43
  35. ^ Everest, pp. 44–45
  36. ^ Martin, p. 243
  37. ^ Everest, pp. 47–48
  38. ^ a b Everest, p. 52
  39. ^ Everest, pp. 48–49
  40. ^ a b Buchanan, p. 242
  41. ^ Everest, pp. 53–54
  42. ^ McGuire, p. 69
  43. ^ Everest, p. 55
  44. ^ Everest, p. 48
  45. ^ Everest, pp. 58–59
  46. ^ Everest, pp. 60–61
  47. ^ Wells, pp. 86–87
  48. ^ Wells, p. 87
  49. ^ Everest, p. 74
  50. ^ Everest, pp. 75–79
  51. ^ Everest, p. 80
  52. ^ Everest, pp. 81–83
  53. ^ Everest, pp. 94–95
  54. ^ a b Everest, p. 97
  55. ^ a b c d Henriques, Chpt. 4
  56. ^ a b "Asgill Affair". The Digital Encyclopedia of George Washington. Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. Retrieved January 23, 2023.
  57. ^ Wright, Mary Ellen (January 26, 2020). "Lancaster history journal publishes 233-year-old letter about mistreatment of British officer". LancasterOnline. Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 23, 2023.
  58. ^ a b Ammundsen, Anne (June 2021). "Truth will ultimately prevail where pains is taken to bring it to light - George Washington". Metropolitan: The Journal of the London Westminster & Middlesex Family History Society. 7 (3 (170)): 124–130. ISSN 1359-8961.
  59. ^ Everest, pp. 100–101
  60. ^ Everest, pp. 116–125
  61. ^ Metcalf, Bryce (1938). Original Members and Other Officers Eligible to the Society of the Cincinnati, 1783-1938: With the Institution, Rules of Admission, and Lists of the Officers of the General and State Societies. Strasburg, VA: Shenandoah Publishing House, Inc. p. 158.
  62. ^ Everest, pp. 142–163
  63. ^ Everest, p. 170
References
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