Get Our Extension

Montargull (Artesa de Segre)

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Montargull
Village, incorporated to Artesa de Segre
Montargull village
The Montargull village as seen from the Montargull plain
Map of Artesa de Segre municipality within La Noguera county, Catalonia
Map of Artesa de Segre municipality within La Noguera county, Catalonia
CountrySpain
Autonomous community Catalonia
ProvinceLleida
ComarcaNoguera
MunicipalityArtesa de Segre
Incorporated1966
Area
 • Total10 km2 (4 sq mi)
Elevation
550 m (1,800 ft)
Population
 (2013)
 • Total43
Demonym(s)Montargullenc, montargullenca (in Catalan)
Time zoneCentral European Time UTC+01:00
ZIP code
25738
Patronal feastSeptember, the closest weekend to the "Mercè" (Virgin Mary, "Our Lady of Mercy") festival.

Montargull is a scattered village aggregated to the municipality of Artesa de Segre, at La Noguera county, in Catalonia, Spain. It is located at the highway that goes from Artesa de Segre to the Pallars Jussà county. It got its name due to its location on a hill marking the end of the Serra de Comiols, and the start of a plain known by the same name of the village. On this plain there are crops of wheat and barley, favored by a fairly arid mediterranean weather mildened by the proximity of the mountains. The climate is typical from the mid Segre, with orographic features similar to the Central Depression of Catalonia.

Its history is associated with the history of the Montmagastre barony. In the middle ages this barony is merged with the municipality of Anya and, during the 20th century, to the municipality of Artesa de Segre. According to the 2013 Census there were only 43 inhabitants, including the masias of the district. Several vacation homes can be found in the village. Some interesting buildings and landmarks can be found at the district, such as the Santa Maria de Montargull church, nowadays in ruins, prehistorical megaliths and medieval tombs. The building of the old school, closed during the 1960s as a consequence of a school concentration policy of the time, is also preserved. From the upper town a complete view of the Montargull plain can be enjoyed.

Discover more about Montargull (Artesa de Segre) related topics

Artesa de Segre

Artesa de Segre

Artesa de Segre is a municipality in the comarca of the Noguera in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated in the valley of the Segre river, between Ponts and Balaguer. The municipal territory extends as far as the confluence of the Segre with the Boix. The Urgell canal runs through the municipality to the south of the Segre. The municipality is served by the C-1313 road between Balaguer and Ponts, and is linked to Agramunt by the L-302 road.

Catalonia

Catalonia

Catalonia is an autonomous community of Spain, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

Pallars Jussà

Pallars Jussà

Pallars Jussà is a comarca (county) in Catalonia, Spain. It was established as a comarca in 1936, out of the old county of Pallars. The name means "Lower Pallars"; to the northeast and into the mountains is Pallars Sobirà. Its capital and largest municipality is Tremp.

Wheat

Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain that is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the most widely grown is common wheat. The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis.

Barley

Barley

Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago. Globally 70% of barley production is used as animal fodder, while 30% as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.

Anya

Anya

Aanya, Anya or Anja is a given name. The names are feminine in most cultures especially Indian, and unisex in several African and European countries.

Masia

Masia

A masia in Catalan is a type of rural construction common to the east of Spain: Catalonia, Valencian Community, Aragon, Languedoc and Provence. The estate in which the masia is located is called a mas. They are often large but isolated structures, nearly always associated with a family farming or livestock operation.

Summer vacation

Summer vacation

Summer vacation or summer break is a school break in summer between school years and the break in the school academic year. Students are off anywhere between three weeks to three months. Depending on the country and district, staff might be partially or fully excluded.

Toponymy

About the origin of the toponymy Montargull, everybody agrees that is comes from a hybrid word due to the agglutination of a first part, "mont", coming from the latin word "mon, montis" which means mountain, and a second part about which there are several theories. A first theory claims that it comes from "argull", deriving from "Hercules"[1] and therefore "mountain of Hercules". A second theory proposes that it corresponds to "ergull", that is "superb", and it would mean "superb mountain" [2] A last theory proposes that "argull" comes from the Arabic خخروف, «arhúl», meaning sheep, and this would imply "sheep mountain", a world to call those places where herds in transhumance would find grazing on their trip to the Pyrenees.[3]

Discover more about Toponymy related topics

Toponymy

Toponymy

Toponymy, toponymics, or toponomastics is the study of toponyms, including their origins, meanings, usage and types. Toponym is the general term for a proper name of any geographical feature, and full scope of the term also includes proper names of all cosmographical features.

Latin

Latin

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area around present-day Rome, but through the power of the Roman Republic it became the dominant language in the Italian region and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Even after the fall of Western Rome, Latin remained the common language of international communication, science, scholarship and academia in Europe until well into the 18th century, when other regional vernaculars supplanted it in common academic and political usage, and it eventually became a dead language in the modern linguistic definition.

Hercules

Hercules

Hercules is the Roman equivalent of the Greek divine hero Heracles, son of Jupiter and the mortal Alcmena. In classical mythology, Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures.

Transhumance

Transhumance

Transhumance is a type of pastoralism or nomadism, a seasonal movement of livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures. In montane regions, it implies movement between higher pastures in summer and lower valleys in winter. Herders have a permanent home, typically in valleys. Generally only the herds travel, with a certain number of people necessary to tend them, while the main population stays at the base. In contrast, horizontal transhumance is more susceptible to being disrupted by climatic, economic, or political change.

Pyrenees

Pyrenees

The Pyrenees is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly 500 km (310 mi) from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to Cap de Creus on the Mediterranean coast. It reaches a maximum altitude of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) at the peak of Aneto.

Geography

The village is located at a sector known as the Mid Segre, characterized by not too steep rocks and lands which are similar to the Central Depression. At the foot of the hill where the village is located there is a wide and welcoming valley, belonging to the erosion plains created by the Segre river and its affluents. This allows for a large variety of crops, and in older times there were orchard trips near to the rivers and creeks. [4]

Montargull and the surrounding district have a climate similar to the Segrià, a Mediterranean climate tending to arid, partially mildened by the proximity of the mountains. Mean temperatures at December and January are between 5 °C (41 °F) and 7 °C (45 °F), while during July and August mean temperature is larger than 20 °C (68 °F). Precipitations amount to about 500 mm annually and 130 mm during summer.[5]

The village is constructed over a hill located between the gorges of Montargull and Les Pletes. It marks the end of the Serra de Comiols mountain range and the beginning of the Montargull valley. It is located at the margin of the L-512 highway going from Artesa de Segre to Tremp, and through the Comiols pass. Montargull's district limits north with the Montamagastre and Comiols districts, east with Anya, south again with Montmagastre and west with Vall-llebrera. At the foot of the Montargull gorge the Montargull creek can be found, which later joins the Tòrrec creek and both drain to the Segre.[6]

The original vegetation is formed mainly by oak trees, alternating with thickets of kermes oaks and black hawthorns. There are also thickets of restharrows and Gypsophila struthium. This primitive vegetation has been substituted since there is human presence by crops and by the planting of pine-trees.[5] The main crops are wheat and barley. There are also pork and chicken farms. There is also partridges, wild rabbits and hares hunting.[6]

Discover more about Geography related topics

Segre (river)

Segre (river)

The Segre is a river tributary to the Ebro with a basin comprising territories across three states: France, Andorra and Spain.

Catalan Central Depression

Catalan Central Depression

The Catalan Central Depression is a natural depression between the Pre-Pyrenees and the Catalan Pre-Coastal Range in Spain. It widens towards the west, linking with the Ebro Depression, Catalan: Depressió de l'Ebre, of which it could be considered an eastern extension. The Catalan Central Depression is about 180 km long with an average width of 50 km.

Segrià

Segrià

Segrià officially in Catalan or Segriá in Spanish is a comarca (county) in the west of Catalonia, Spain, bordering Aragon. As of 2001, over two thirds of its population live in the capital city of Lleida, which is also Catalonia's sixth largest municipality, and remains the most populated comarca in the Lleida province. It takes its name from the river Segre.

Mediterranean climate

Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate, also called dry summer temperate climate Cs, is a temperate climate sub-type, characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common. Mediterranean climate zones are typically located along the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator. The main cause of Mediterranean, or dry summer climate, is the subtropical ridge which extends toward that hemisphere's pole during the summer and migrates toward the equator during the winter due to the seasonal poleward-equatorward variations of temperatures.

Artesa de Segre

Artesa de Segre

Artesa de Segre is a municipality in the comarca of the Noguera in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated in the valley of the Segre river, between Ponts and Balaguer. The municipal territory extends as far as the confluence of the Segre with the Boix. The Urgell canal runs through the municipality to the south of the Segre. The municipality is served by the C-1313 road between Balaguer and Ponts, and is linked to Agramunt by the L-302 road.

Comiols

Comiols

Comiols is a hamlet located in the municipality of Artesa de Segre, in Province of Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain. As of 2020, it has a population of 7.

Anya

Anya

Aanya, Anya or Anja is a given name. The names are feminine in most cultures especially Indian, and unisex in several African and European countries.

Quercus coccifera

Quercus coccifera

Quercus coccifera, the kermes oak, is an oak bush in the Quercus section Cerris. It is native to the Mediterranean region and Northern African Maghreb, south to north from Morocco to France and west to east from Portugal to Cyprus and Turkey, crossing Spain, Italy, Libya, Balkans, and Greece, including Crete. The Kermes Oak was historically important as the food plant of the Kermes scale insect, from which a red dye called crimson was obtained. The etymology of the specific name coccifera is related to the production of red cochineal (crimson) dye and derived from Latin coccum which was from Greek κόκκος, the kermes insect. The Latin -fera means 'bearer'.

Rhamnus lycioides

Rhamnus lycioides

Rhamnus lycioides, the black hawthorn, European buckthorn, or Mediterranean buckthorn, is a shrub up to about 1 metre tall in the buckthorn family, Rhamnaceae. It is found in the Mediterranean region, in southern Europe and northern Africa. Its scientific name lycioides refers to its resemblance to the botanical genus Lycium.

Barley

Barley

Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago. Globally 70% of barley production is used as animal fodder, while 30% as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.

Pork

Pork

Pork is the culinary name for the meat of the domestic pig. It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BCE.

Chicken

Chicken

The chicken is a domesticated junglefowl species, with attributes of wild species such as the grey and the Ceylon junglefowl that are originally from Southeastern Asia. Rooster or cock is a term for an adult male bird, and a younger male may be called a cockerel. A male that has been castrated is a capon. An adult female bird is called a hen and a sexually immature female is called a pullet. Humans now keep chickens primarily as a source of food and as pets. Traditionally they were also bred for cockfighting, which is still practiced in some places.

History

Prehistory and old age

Carved signs at one of the stones of the megaliths at the Montargull plain
Carved signs at one of the stones of the megaliths at the Montargull plain

Despite the fact that there is no direct evidence at Montargull, it is most likely that there was disperse neolithic population. All around the Montsec it is very common to find stone axes, sinks and wedges, and fairly close to Montargull, the "Roureda de Vernet", a place was found where these tools were built,[7] corresponding to the so-called neolithic technique (4500–2500 BCE).

There are also findings in the surroundings from the Bronze Age (2500–1100 BC), like for instance axes collected near Collderat and Tudela, together with ship-shaped mills, collected at the Artesa de Segre Museum collection. Corresponding to the Iberian period (sixth to second century bC), there is the archaeological site of Antona close to Artesa de Segre, as well as graves at several close locations.[8] Right at Montargull two megalithic constructions can be found, and it is uncertain to which culture they belong, but everything seems to show that they should belong to a late prehistoric period.[9]

From the Roman and Visigothic periods there are few vestiges. From the Romans there are several samples[8] all around the district, and it is fairly common to find coins from this era next to Montmagastre.

Middle age

The whole county was at the border between the first Catalan counties and the Muslim domination of Catalonia. For instance in 1003 Wadih, a freeman general of Abd-al-Malik, takes control of the Montmagastre fortress (Mumagars) and settles Muslim people there. This domination seems to be short since apparently in 1010 a Catalan expedition departs from this castle towards Córdoba.[10] Once the Muslims start to withdraw, the county starts to be resettled, for instance by Arnau Mir de Tost, who starts the colonization of the lands near to Artesa de Segre in the middle of the eleventh century.[11] In his will he signs various agreements mentioning villages and fortresses around Montargull, such as Montmagastre, Alentorn, Mirandol Vall-llebrera, Grialó, Comiols and Artesa de Segre.[12]

Possibly the first reference in history on Montargull is the confirmation of the possessions of the monastery of Sant Miguel of Montmagastre, by means of a bull signed by Pope Alexander II at Montpellier (Languedoc) in 1162. Between these possessions there was the parish of Montargull.[13] From this moment on and until the end of the Middle Ages the parish remains under the governance of Sant Pere of Ager.[14] There are more references about the village at the end of the Middle Ages, together with other villages, concerning the collection of taxes (delme or onzens), a tax that was started to be collected after the Catalan Courts celebrated at Barcelona in 1365. These taxes were collected to finance the war against Castille. In the proceedings for 1373 for these taxes Montargull is mentioned.[15]

A demographic estimate for the low Middle Ages can be obtained from the hearth taxes that were successively run. Montargull is not mentioned separately from other villages of the county, but the aggregate information can give an idea of the evolution of the population in Montargull. During the 1359–1414 period, for instance, in Anya and Montargull there were 26 fires.[16] During the 1515 hearth tax 60 fires were reported for the whole Anya county, from which 30 belong to the Montmagastre barony, where Montargull was included. As a reference, the total number of fires counted in Artesa de Segre did not arrive to 60.[17]

Some medieval tombs can be found close to the Les Plates ranch, a masia within the district of Montmagastre. It is a funerary monument with medieval slabs.[18]

Modern age

View of the Montargull valley from the square in front of the old school (Plaça de l'estudi)
View of the Montargull valley from the square in front of the old school (Plaça de l'estudi)

During the sixteenth century, the parish of Sant Mary of Montargull, as well as the whole seniority of Artesa de Segre, gets under the governance of the Santa Maria de Montserrat Abbey.[14] It is possible that during this period the current building of the old church, nowadays in ruins, was built, since it has a style from the Renaissance or Barroco period.[19]

Coinciding with the Nueva Planta decrees, there is a Royal Cadastre created in 1716, indicating for Anya and Montargull 35 inhabitants.[20] After the War of the Spanish Succession all the villages from the county remained under the jurisdiction of the Corregimiento of Cervera, and Montargull remained under the jurisdiction of the Count of Santa Coloma.[21] By 1785, the seniority of Montargull belonged to Antònia de Gualteró i Queral.[22] There is no demographic data between 1716 and 1785, but the existing data show that the Mid Segre region did not increase its population significantly, in contrast with the Lleida region in general. For instance for Anya population changes from 35 to 22 inhabitants, and for Artesa de Segre from 80 to 100.[23]

Contemporaneous age

Economics and population

From the beginning of the twentieth century cereal agriculture started to get spread in the Montargull valley, creating a lot of cereal plantations in substitution of the olive trees that were at the valley before. The Diccionario de Madoz, a very comprehensive atlas prepared during the nineteenth century that surveyed every village in Spain, says that at the middle of the nineteenth century there were 15 houses and the church, with 4 neighbours and 25 people living in the village. The total population reported for the whole district is of 75, with 14 electors and 5 delegates, and 6 recruited soldiers (18 to 24 old boys). There are several rural houses (masia) reported: Cal Vedrunya, Cal Massana, Call Llinàs, Cal Malòs and Cal Janot. The crops mentioned are barley, oats, potatoes, wine and oil. Cattle is also mentioned, with cows, porks and sheep. The only industry mentioned is an olive oil mill, and from here there could come a refrain "Montargull té molt orgull, per l'oli que s'hi cull" ("Montargull has a lot of pride, due to the oil that is collected).[24] According to the Madoz dictionary, another important industry was wood burning for the production of coal, which was prepared both at Montargull and Montmagastre. Coal was being exported to Lleida, Balaguer and Agramunt, and was being sold around the district.[25] Total wealth is reported to be 13,935 reales[26] (as a reference, notice that for Artesa de Segre the Madoz dictionary reports 121,170 reales.)[27]

Another reference to trade in Montargull can be found in trade registers of 1799, at an accounting book maintained by the wool merchants Joan Ricart and his brother Cadascó, lo Sardanet (meaning coming from Cerdanya). Entries in pounds from Barcelona can be found for bacon, hemp seeds, beans, oil, wine and other goods.[28]

Towards the end of the nineteenth century it is possible that the village had some houses in bad shape, as some people travelling along describe it.[29] Also, at the beginning of the twentieth century 60 building and 192 inhabitants in fact (and 209 in law) were reported, according to the Geografia General de Catalunya of Francesc Carreras i Candi.[30]

In 1833, during the First Carlist War, Montargull is attacked by guerrilla Carlist parties together with Anya and Baldomar.[31]

Freeway to Pallars Jussà

Entry to Montargull going downhill at the L-512 freeway from Folquer
Entry to Montargull going downhill at the L-512 freeway from Folquer

Towards 1870 the freeway from Artesa de Segre to Tremp was opened. Before the construction of this freeway, communication between La Noguera and Pallars Jussà was very difficult, according to the description of several travellers. For instance the writer from Mallorca Marià Aguiló i Fuster describes a horse trip around the middle of the nineteenth century to collect folk traditions. During this trip he went downhill from Comiols to Artesa de Segre, passing through Folquer and Montargull.[32]

The new freeway replaced a very old road going from Ponts to Isona, going along an old Roman road, as the main connection between La Noguera and Pallars Jussà. Transportation was done by means of stagecoaches, and sometimes they stopped at Montargull. The main transportation company was La Catalana, which later was acquired by the Alsina Graells company.[33] At the beginning of the twentieth century to go from Barcelona to Montargull, first four hours were needed to arrive by train to Tarrega and from there 11 more hours in stagecoach to arrive to Montargull.[34] Before it was reformed, the freeway had a lot of curves and it had to be travelled very slowly. As a reference, the stagecoach took 45 minutes for the six kilometres from Folquer until Montargull.[35] The freeway would still be very difficult to travel and produced a lot of accidents, like for instance the one reported in September 1924 when a neighbour of Montargull dies when his coach tumbles at the 24th kilometer of the freeway between Artesa de Segre and Tremp.[36][37]

The parish of Sant Mary of Montargull

At the end of the nineteenth century, the parish of Montargull was integrated into the Archpriest of Artesa de Segre, which in turn dependent from the Diocese of Lleida. The priest received 800 reals.[38] During the twentieth century the parish of Sant Mary of Montargull would remain, together with the Archpriest of Artesa de Segre, under the jurisdiction of Seu d'Urgell.

The school of Montargull

The school of Montargull was working fully at least from the middle of the nineteenth century. It is registered that in 1866 there was a school for boys and it had an endowment of 160 escudos, that the teaching position was vacant,[39] and that the teacher Josep Riart took the teacher post in 1867.[40]

In 1907 the teacher Josep Berenguer Galán takes the post at the school,[41] and in 1912 Arturo Talón Carme becomes the teacher,[42] substituting Rafael Rubio who gets an assignment in Guadalajara. This same year Josep Riart Pascuet becomes the teacher.[43] This teacher, who had been interim teacher for many years before taking the post, stays a long time at the school, and he participates in several activities related to the creation of the Escola Superior De Cultura (Upper School of Culture) with gender-mixed education at Artesa de Segre. In 1927 he is mentioned as collaborating in receiving school camps from Barcelona.[44] After the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic, in 1932 the Montargull school was also of gender-mixed education.[45]

Twentieth century

Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)

As the whole of Catalonia, Montargull remained under the control of the republicans from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936 until almost the end of it at the beginning of 1939. In contrast with other places, at Montargull there was no retaliation against right wing people or the Church, except for hooking off the bells.[46] There were, however, some expropriations in order to support the war front.[47]

During the Spanish Civil War the bells of the church of Montmagastre were hooked off and broken. The sound of the bells of Montmagastre were appreciated at Montargull, since they could be heard perfectly. Following the orders of the authorities, under the threat of a war council, the bells of the church of Sant Mary were also hooked off and dragged tied by ropes to the freeway. Once the war was over, in order to substitute the old bells, an aviation bomb was used, and it remained in use until the collapse of the old church.[19] The use of shell bombs was as church bells was common, and can still be seen at the church of Vernet (Artesa de Segre).[48]

The war front arrives to the Montsec Range in April, 1938, and for some months there are war operations all around the district. Some of the troops would stay overnight at the village when they were moving to Ponts or other places nearby, and there are some reports that the village was quite depopulated at that time.[49] Two of the brigades of the 32nd Division, number 137 and 141, and one brigade of the 26th Division known as the "Durruti Brigade" would develop operations around the Anya district, at that time an independent municipality. The commandment of those troops established an operation center at Cal Tonet of Montargull.[46]

The final offensive on Catalonia started at the beginning of 1939. Montargull is occupied on January 2, 1939, by the 150th Division of the National Army. A report has been found of a soldier of the occupying army, Bonifacio Zamora, who wrote a couple of poems when he was at Montargull in January 1939.[50] Right on January 2 the National Army advances until 9 km from Artesa de Segre. Vall-llebrera is occupied by the 61st Division of the same army, and this division advances along the Segre until arriving in front of Vilves. The next day, January 3, the 150th Division occupies Anya and crosses the river. From then on, and for approximately one month, there is very hard fighting around Artesa de Segre, until the final advance of the National Army towards Barcelona.[51]

Montargull, and other villages and cities in the country, are also remembered by members of the Spanish Republican Army fleeing to France, for instance Aveŀlí Artís-Gener (Tísner), who was a member of the 60th Division of the 8th Body of the Republican Army, who describes the retreat from Cubells, going through the Boada hills, leaving behind Lluçars and Montargull, trying to get closer to the Ripollès country.[52]

Postwar

Carrer Major of Montargull
Carrer Major of Montargull

Once the war was over, several persons of Montargull were imprisoned after being betrayed by a single person. During the 40s the imprisoned people started returning to the village, as they benefited from term exemptions, but there were a couple of cases who remained in jail until the end of the decade.[46]

During the 50s there were still a lot of people living in the village. At each house there were several generations of the same family, and there were a lot of children and young people.[53] Electricity arrived in 1955, simultaneously to Anya and Vall-llebrera.[54] Telephone service had been inaugurated by the Mancomunitat on May 8, 1921, when Artesa de Segre was connected with Vall-llebrera and Montargull.[55]

Towards the end of the 50s the ceiling of the old Sant Mary of Montargull church collapsed, during the patron festival of Montargull. Due to a last-minute problem, the priest could not officiate and this was crucial to avoid some casualties at the collapse. The religious celebrations were held at the school from them on and until the new church was constructed at the end of the 70s.[19]

Once the economic growth is recovered at the beginning of the '60s, after a lot of years of autarchy, Montargull starts experiencing a strong emigration and will end up almost completely depopulated. Furthermore, a lot of residents prefer to move to the larger cities in the county to get closer to the main services (health, education, and others). Starting already at the end of the Civil War a lot of families have moved from the upper part of the village to new houses constructed next to the freeway. Nowadays a lot of the old abandoned houses can still be seen in the former main street of the village, Carrer Major.

Present times

At the end of the 60s the school is closed following the governmental policy of creating county or concentration schools, approved on November 9, 1963.[56] After democracy was restored this policy was reverted and the school could have been reopened, since there was the minimum number of children, but the parents preferred to have their children in a larger school in Artesa de Segre and so the school remained closed.

A the beginning of the 70s drinkable water arrived to Montargull, substituting several wells existing at some houses in the village. Apart from wells, several houses had water tankers to collect rain water, and there are still some of them surviving today. The water arrives to the village through a tube 10 km long, installed by the residents of Montargull themselves with their own hands, and connecting the Fontfreda fountain, located at the gorge of this same name.[57]

The L-512 freeway is reformed during the 80s and acquires its current aspect, widening it and reducing the amount of curves to ease the access to Comiols and Pallars Jussà.

Discover more about History related topics

Neolithic

Neolithic

The Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, is an Old World archaeological period and the final division of the Stone Age. It saw the Neolithic Revolution, a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. This "Neolithic package" included the introduction of farming, domestication of animals, and change from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to one of settlement.

Axe

Axe

An axe is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood, to harvest timber, as a weapon, and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve.

Vernet (Artesa de Segre)

Vernet (Artesa de Segre)

Vernet is a locality located in the municipality of Artesa de Segre, in Province of Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain. As of 2020, it has a population of 22.

Bronze Age

Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historic period, lasting approximately from 3300 BC to 1200 BC, characterized by the use of bronze, the presence of writing in some areas, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age system proposed in 1836 by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen for classifying and studying ancient societies and history.

Tudela de Segre

Tudela de Segre

Tudela de Segre is a locality located in the municipality of Artesa de Segre, in Province of Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain. As of 2020, it has a population of 67.

Iberians

Iberians

The Iberians were an ancient people settled in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC. They are described in Greek and Roman sources. Roman sources also use the term Hispani to refer to the Iberians.

Megalith

Megalith

A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a prehistoric structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, located widely from Sweden to the Mediterranean sea.

Catalan counties

Catalan counties

The Catalan counties were the administrative Christian divisions of the eastern Carolingian Hispanic Marches and the southernmost part of the March of Gothia in the Pyrenees created after their rapid conquest by the Franks.

Arnau Mir de Tost

Arnau Mir de Tost

Arnau Mir de Tost was a Catalan nobleman of Urgell, the lord of Llordà and viscount of Àger, a major figure in the eleventh-century Reconquista in Catalonia. Arnau is sometimes praised as the "El Cid of the Lands of Lleida" for his foundational role in reestablishing Christian rule in the region to the south of Urgell.

Artesa de Segre

Artesa de Segre

Artesa de Segre is a municipality in the comarca of the Noguera in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated in the valley of the Segre river, between Ponts and Balaguer. The municipal territory extends as far as the confluence of the Segre with the Boix. The Urgell canal runs through the municipality to the south of the Segre. The municipality is served by the C-1313 road between Balaguer and Ponts, and is linked to Agramunt by the L-302 road.

Alentorn

Alentorn

Alentorn is a locality located in the municipality of Artesa de Segre, in Province of Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain. As of 2020, it has a population of 123.

Comiols

Comiols

Comiols is a hamlet located in the municipality of Artesa de Segre, in Province of Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain. As of 2020, it has a population of 7.

Demography

Montargull has had significant population changes over the years, with a maximum at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and another peak at the second quarter of the twentieth century, and a decay due to heavy emigration starting in the 60s:[58][59]

Population evolution (1857–2013)
1857 1888 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1981 1986 1991 2000 2005 2010 2013
231 126 192 157 144 125 93 143 162 150 62 62 76 58 57 56 43

Politics

On June 16, 1965, Montargull gets added to the Artesa de Segre municipality. Before that, it formed a municipal district together with Alentorn, Anya, Montmagastre, Vall-llebrera, Vall-llebrerola, Folquer and Comiols, with the city hall in Anya.[46]

There is a neighbour who officiates as the municipal delegate at the village, and he is considered the major by the rest of neighbours. From these "majors" there are several chronicles such as the one at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War because he hosted another major dismissed by the Republican government,[47] or the one after the war had finished, who due to resentments caused the imprisonment of several neighbours.[46]

Discover more about Politics related topics

Artesa de Segre

Artesa de Segre

Artesa de Segre is a municipality in the comarca of the Noguera in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated in the valley of the Segre river, between Ponts and Balaguer. The municipal territory extends as far as the confluence of the Segre with the Boix. The Urgell canal runs through the municipality to the south of the Segre. The municipality is served by the C-1313 road between Balaguer and Ponts, and is linked to Agramunt by the L-302 road.

Alentorn

Alentorn

Alentorn is a locality located in the municipality of Artesa de Segre, in Province of Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain. As of 2020, it has a population of 123.

Anya

Anya

Aanya, Anya or Anja is a given name. The names are feminine in most cultures especially Indian, and unisex in several African and European countries.

Folquer

Folquer

Folquer is a hamlet located in the municipality of Artesa de Segre, in Province of Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain. As of 2020, it has a population of 5.

Comiols

Comiols

Comiols is a hamlet located in the municipality of Artesa de Segre, in Province of Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain. As of 2020, it has a population of 7.

Spanish Civil War

Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939 between the Republicans and the Nationalists. Republicans were loyal to the left-leaning Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic, and consisted of various socialist, communist, separatist, anarchist, and republican parties, some of which had opposed the government in the pre-war period. The opposing Nationalists were an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives, and traditionalists led by a military junta among whom General Francisco Franco quickly achieved a preponderant role. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets and was variously viewed as class struggle, a religious struggle, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, and between fascism and communism. According to Claude Bowers, U.S. ambassador to Spain during the war, it was the "dress rehearsal" for World War II. The Nationalists won the war, which ended in early 1939, and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975.

Architectonic and artistic heritage

Megaliths of the Pla of Montargull

41°58′16.68″N 1°06′08.69″E / 41.9713000°N 1.1024139°E / 41.9713000; 1.1024139

Megaliths of the Pla of Montargull
Megaliths of the Pla of Montargull

Two megalithic constructions can be found at the Montargul district probably corresponding to the recent prehistory. To arrive to them, an unpaved road behind the last houses in the village has to be taken and arrive to the cemetery. After about one km, and after passing in front of a farm on the left side of the road, the first deviation to the left has to be taken. Twenty meters on this road on the left side of the road, a field has to be crossed for about 50 meters. The megaliths can be found directly at the margin of the forest behind this field.[9]

There are two megalithic constructions next to each other and they are quite hidden by vegetation. One of them has a quadrangular basis with different stone blocks planted in the ground. The interior has about 4 square meters. All stones are in their original place except one which is fallen. The second construction has also a quadrangular basis but the composing stones are smaller than in the first construction. One of the stones of this second set has a carved inscription. From the walls forming the closure of this structure only three can be seen. Based on the status of the whole construction and the easiness of access it can be inferred that it has suffered several plunders.[9]

Medieval tombs of Les Pletes

41°59′16.01″N 1°06′30.23″E / 41.9877806°N 1.1083972°E / 41.9877806; 1.1083972

Medieval tombs of Les Pletes
Medieval tombs of Les Pletes

It can be reached taking the L-512 freeway between Montargull and Folquer and approximately 1 km from Montargull on an exit to the right of the freeway which says "Masia Les Pletes". Once the entrance of the Masia has been reached, the tombs can be found on a road starting from this entrance at about 100 m. It is funerary monument from the Middle Ages. The necropolis is composed by several flat stones distributed as a rectangle.[18]

Old church of Santa Maria de Montargull

Church of Santa Maria de Montargull in 2014
Church of Santa Maria de Montargull in 2014

The building of the old church of Santa Maria de Montargull was constructed during the Renaissance period, probably during the sixteenth century, under the dominion of the Montserrat Monastery, and was dedicated to Saint Mary. Nowadays it lost the ceiling and all the ornaments from the front wall have been plundered.[14] Furthermore, both the entrance and interior are full of brambles and other vegetation.[19]

New parochial church of Santa Maria de Montargull

New church of Santa Maria de Montargull
New church of Santa Maria de Montargull

The new parochial church was constructed in 1968. It is also dedicated to Saint Mary, and it follows the same style as the church of Artesa de Segre (both designed by the same architect, Isidre Puig i Boada). Folquer and Comiols depend from this parish. It is located next to the freeway at the first entrance to the village arriving from Artesa de Segre.[60]

The masias from the Montargull Plain

The Montargull Plain is an extension at the end of the Comiols range, where several masias can be found at the margin of various crops. Nowadays also pork and chicken farms can be found. The masias existing today are: Cal Benjamín, Canterrers, Cal Gironet, Cal Janot, Cal Massana, Cal Mingo, Cal Miquel, Cal Sardanet, Cal Serra and Cal Xollat.[61]

School of Montargull

School of Montargull
School of Montargull

The schoolf of Montgargull, known at the village by "l'estudi" (the study place), is located at a building with a carved stone in the front wall were "1635" can be read. It is a two-story building with stone walls. At the ground floor there is the classroom, where classes were held for children in primary school age. The first floor is where the teacher lived. The school was closed following the concentration policy promoted by Francoist Spain at the beginning of the 60s.[56] Nowadays the building is used for social gatherings of the village.

The old school is located at Plaça de l'Estudi, a square with a complete view of the Montargull Plain. The square was reconstructed in 1997, but it collapsed after floods close to Christmas of the same year. The square was reconstructed again in 2005.[62]

The cross of the Holy Mission of 1965

41°58′12.63″N 1°05′40.90″E / 41.9701750°N 1.0946944°E / 41.9701750; 1.0946944

Cross of the Holy Mission of 1965 at Montargull
Cross of the Holy Mission of 1965 at Montargull

This cross can be found at the road starting at the back of the village, at the first turn after the entrance to the cemetery. It is a simple iron cross where "1965" can be read, without the "1" that is broken. Its construction can be attributed to the "Holy Missions" ("Santes Missions") celebrated after the Spanish Civil War. Several testimonies in the form of crosses and monuments can be found at different cities and villages across Catalonia. Some of these crosses have been catalogued as symbols of Francoist Spain.[63] The main goal of the Holy Missions was to reinforce the Catholic faith, and they received the support of Francoist Spain,[64] like for instance the holy missions celebrated in Artesa de Segre in 1964, conducted by Claretian priests.[65] Several activities were performed led by missionaries, lasting between one and three days, including ways of the cross, messes and processions. As a reminder of the celebration, they would construct a cross at some relevant place of the village, like the one that can be found in Montargull.

Discover more about Architectonic and artistic heritage related topics

Folquer

Folquer

Folquer is a hamlet located in the municipality of Artesa de Segre, in Province of Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain. As of 2020, it has a population of 5.

Middle Ages

Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Necropolis

Necropolis

A necropolis is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek νεκρόπολις nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead".

Renaissance

Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an effort to revive and surpass ideas and achievements of classical antiquity. It occurred after the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages and was associated with great social change. In addition to the standard periodization, proponents of a "long Renaissance" may put its beginning in the 14th century and its end in the 17th century.

Artesa de Segre

Artesa de Segre

Artesa de Segre is a municipality in the comarca of the Noguera in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated in the valley of the Segre river, between Ponts and Balaguer. The municipal territory extends as far as the confluence of the Segre with the Boix. The Urgell canal runs through the municipality to the south of the Segre. The municipality is served by the C-1313 road between Balaguer and Ponts, and is linked to Agramunt by the L-302 road.

Comiols

Comiols

Comiols is a hamlet located in the municipality of Artesa de Segre, in Province of Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain. As of 2020, it has a population of 7.

Masia

Masia

A masia in Catalan is a type of rural construction common to the east of Spain: Catalonia, Valencian Community, Aragon, Languedoc and Provence. The estate in which the masia is located is called a mas. They are often large but isolated structures, nearly always associated with a family farming or livestock operation.

Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain, or the Francoist dictatorship, was the period of Spanish history between 1939 and 1975, when Francisco Franco ruled Spain after the Spanish Civil War with the title Caudillo. After his death in 1975, Spain transitioned into a democracy. During this time period, Spain was officially known as the Spanish State.

Christmas

Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which historically in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many countries, is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians, as well as culturally by many non-Christians, and forms an integral part of the holiday season organized around it.

Catalonia

Catalonia

Catalonia is an autonomous community of Spain, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

Culture

Nowadays the most important cultural celebration is the Patronal Feast (Festa Major) of Montargull, which is celebrated during the closest week to September 24, which is Our Lady of Mercy Festival day (Mercè).[66] At the main altar of the Santa Maria de Montargull church the Assumption can be found, and in the old days the patronal celebration was on 15 August (Saint Mary's day). Since long ago the patronal celebration was changed because it coincided with the mowing and the beating of the crops. Nowadays, the patronal celebration is close to Our Lady of Mery festival day, in September.

Due to the reduction of the inhabitants of the village, a lot of celebrations and cultural activities were abandoned. For instance on the 9 May the Our Lady of the Rosary celebration was held, honouring Saint Gregory. At Holy Week a procession was held until the Vedrenya Sanctuary, [67] located at the Montmagastre district.

One of the biggest cultural celebrations that were held was Carnival. During the 1950s, Montargull's Carnival was considered one of the main attractions in the district. Celebrations started on Sunday morning with the young people in the village decorating a cart pulled by oxen with bells that went to receive the Carnival King (Rei Carnestoltes). On Sunday there was also a ball to celebrate the start of the celebrations, which lasted three days. On Monday people would go hunting and there was a collection called La Plega, a collection though all the houses and masias in procession with an accordionist hired for the whole three days of the celebration. On Tuesday, with the results of the hunt and the collection, there was a popular lunch. This is the only tradition kept nowadays on Sunday. The celebration finished with a speed on the platform for the musicians.[68]

Discover more about Culture related topics

Assumption of Mary

Assumption of Mary

The Assumption of Mary is one of the four Marian dogmas of the Catholic Church. Pope Pius XII defined it in 1950 in his apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus as follows: We proclaim and define it to be a dogma revealed by God that the immaculate Mother of God, Mary ever virgin, when the course of her earthly life was finished, was taken up body and soul into the glory of heaven.

Our Lady of the Rosary

Our Lady of the Rosary

Our Lady of the Rosary, also known as Our Lady of the Holy Rosary, is a Marian title.

Gregory Thaumaturgus

Gregory Thaumaturgus

Gregory Thaumaturgus or Gregory the Miracle-Worker, also known as Gregory of Neocaesarea, was a Christian bishop of the 3rd century. He has been canonized as a saint in the Catholic and Orthodox Churches.

Holy Week

Holy Week

Holy Week is the most sacred week in the liturgical year in Christianity. In Eastern Churches, which includes Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic and Eastern Lutheran traditions, Holy Week occurs the week after Lazarus Saturday and starts on the evening of Palm Sunday. In the denominations of the Western Christianity, which includes the Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, Moravianism, Anglicanism, Methodism and Reformed Christianity, it begins with Palm Sunday and concludes on Easter Sunday. For all Christian traditions it is a moveable observance. In Eastern Rite Churches, Holy Week starts after 40 days of Lent and two transitional days, namely Saturday of Lazarus and Palm Sunday. In the Western Christian Churches, Holy Week falls on the last week of Lent or Sixth Lent Week.

Carnival

Carnival

Carnival is a Catholic festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent. The main events typically occur during February or early March, during the period historically known as Shrovetide. Carnival typically involves public celebrations, including events such as parades, public street parties and other entertainments, combining some elements of a circus. Elaborate costumes and masks allow people to set aside their everyday individuality and experience a heightened sense of social unity. Participants often indulge in excessive consumption of alcohol, meat, and other foods that will be forgone during upcoming Lent. Traditionally, butter, milk, and other animal products were not consumed "excessively", rather, their stock was fully consumed as to reduce waste. This festival is known for being a time of great indulgence before Lent, with drinking, overeating, and various other activities of indulgence being performed. For example, Pancakes, donuts, and other desserts are prepared and eaten for a final time. During Lent, animal products are eaten less, and individuals have the ability to make a Lenten sacrifice, thus giving up a certain object or activity of desire.

Notable citizens

Felip Comabella i Guimet

Felip Comabella i Guimet (Montargull, May 13, 1841 – Barcelona, May 9, 1901) was a very well-known pharmacist. The Comabella drugstore managed by himself, his son and his grandson until 1946, was one of the most famous modernist buildings in Catalonia.[69]

Geroni Riart i Bernaus

Geroni Riart i Bernaus was born in 1844 at Montargull and emigrated to South-America where he married Gregoria Vera from Paraguay. Geroni was the son of Josep Riart and Maria Antònia Bernaus of Cal Massana, where the Riart family lived since at least 1750.[70] His third son, Luis Alberto Riart, was provisional president of Paraguay from March 17, 1924, until August 15 of the same year. He was a lawyer, and acted as Minister of Commerce, two-time Minister of Interior, Minister of War and Chancellor of the Republic of Paraguay.[70]

Discover more about Notable citizens related topics

Felip Comabella i Guimet

Felip Comabella i Guimet

Felip Comabella i Guimet was a very well-known pharmacist. In 1885 he presented products developed by himself in the Exposition in Anwerp, 1885, and he obtained a gold medal. In 1895 he joined the Royal Academy of Medicine of Catalonia. He had also been nominated commander and knight of the Order of Isabella the Catholic. He had married Concepció Maluqer i Porta.

Barcelona

Barcelona

Barcelona is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the fifth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, the Ruhr area, Madrid, and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, and bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of which is 512 metres high.

Modernism

Modernism

Modernism is both a philosophical and arts movement that arose from broad transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The movement reflected a desire for the creation of new forms of art, philosophy, and social organization which reflected the newly emerging industrial world, including features such as urbanization, architecture, new technologies, and war. Artists attempted to depart from traditional forms of art, which they considered outdated or obsolete. The poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it New" was the touchstone of the movement's approach.

Luis Alberto Riart

Luis Alberto Riart

Luis Alberto Riart was a Paraguayan politician and President of Paraguay from 17 March 1924 until 15 August 1924.

Paraguay

Paraguay

Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay, is a landlocked country in South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. It has a population of seven million, nearly three million of whom live in the capital and largest city of Asunción, and its surrounding metro. Although one of only two landlocked countries in South America, Paraguay has ports on the Paraguay and Paraná rivers that give exit to the Atlantic Ocean, through the Paraná-Paraguay Waterway.

Source: "Montargull (Artesa de Segre)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montargull_(Artesa_de_Segre).

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

References
  1. ^ Bofarull i Terrades 2002.
  2. ^ De Borja Moll i Casanovas 1959, p. 45.
  3. ^ Balanyà i Abadia 1993, p. 216.
  4. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 21.
  5. ^ a b Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 24.
  6. ^ a b Madoz 1845, p. 525.
  7. ^ Maluquer de Motes 1983.
  8. ^ a b "Museu del Montsec d'Artesa de Segre" (in Catalan). Retrieved September 15, 2014.
  9. ^ a b c Direcció General del Patrimoni Cultural de la Generalitat de Catalunya. "Megàlits del Pla de Montargull". Pat.mapa: arquitectura (in Catalan).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  10. ^ Bramon Planas 1998, p. 304.
  11. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 93.
  12. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 77-78.
  13. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 165.
  14. ^ a b c Direcció General del Patrimoni Cultural de la Generalitat de Catalunya. "Santa Maria de Montargull" (in Catalan). Pat.mapa: arquitectura. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  15. ^ Morelló i Baget 1997, p. 916, footnote 15.
  16. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 162.
  17. ^ Iglésies 1998, p. 62.
  18. ^ a b Ajuntament d'Artesa de Segre 2009.
  19. ^ a b c d Canyelles 2004.
  20. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 261.
  21. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 292.
  22. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 316.
  23. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 313.
  24. ^ "Glossari, termes de refranys catalans" (in Catalan). 2011-10-21. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  25. ^ Madoz 1850, p. 308.
  26. ^ Madoz 1848, p. 525.
  27. ^ Madoz 1845, p. 603.
  28. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 467.
  29. ^ "Excursió a la Pobla de Segur i sa comarca" (PDF). Butlletí del Centre Excursionista de Catalunya (in Catalan) (Any iX, Núm 50): 66. 1897. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  30. ^ Rocafort i Sansó 1918.
  31. ^ Santirso 1995, p. 334.
  32. ^ Massot i Muntaner 2002, p. 31.
  33. ^ "Una diligència de La Catalana a l'Hostal de Baix de Folquer l'any 1902" (in Catalan). Històries del transport a Catalunya. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
  34. ^ "De Barcelona a la Pobla de Segur". Butlletí del Centre Excursionista de Catalunya (in Catalan) (Any XV, Núm 331). 1903. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  35. ^ "Excursions" (PDF). L'Excursionista (in Catalan) (Any XII, Núm.131): 287. 1889. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
  36. ^ "Crónica de Provincias: Lérida" (pdf). La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona: 13. September 5, 1924. ISSN 1133-4835. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  37. ^ "Catalunya: Lleida" (PDF). La Publicitat (in Catalan). Barcelona: 6. September 9, 1924. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  38. ^ Lladonosa i Pujol 1990, p. 381.
  39. ^ "Crónica local. Escuelas incompletas de niños". El Principado (in Spanish). Barcelona (10): 220. August 18, 1866. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  40. ^ "Crónica local". El Principado (in Spanish). Barcelona (15): 353. January 15, 1867. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  41. ^ "D'instrucció". Poble Català (in Catalan) (749): 1. March 6, 1908. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  42. ^ "Instrucción pública" (PDF). La Publicidad (in Spanish): 5. June 28, 1912. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  43. ^ "De instrucción pública" (pdf). La Vanguardia (in Spanish): 4. June 17, 1915. ISSN 1133-4835. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  44. ^ "Montclar de Doncell. Colonias escolares" (pdf). La Vanguardia (in Spanish). September 4, 1932. ISSN 1133-4835. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  45. ^ "Vida docente. Información local. Escuelas vacantes" (pdf). La Vanguardia (in Spanish). September 4, 1932. ISSN 1133-4835. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  46. ^ a b c d e Sánchez i Agustí 2001.
  47. ^ a b Joan Serra (July 17, 2011). "Memòria dual Antònia Marsà i Melcior Solans". Diari Ara (in Catalan). Retrieved November 20, 2014.
  48. ^ Canyelles 2003.
  49. ^ Moré i Fluvià 1992, p. 15.
  50. ^ Zamora 1940, p. 106.
  51. ^ Maluquer i Wahl 1982.
  52. ^ Antoni Llagostera Fernández. "Retirada de Catalunya el 1939 al Ripollès / 17". Scriptorium Ripollès (in Catalan). Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  53. ^ Jové i Serra 2011.
  54. ^ "Notas de la región" (pdf). La Vanguardia (in Spanish): 40. September 11, 1955. ISSN 1133-4835. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  55. ^ "De la Mancomunidad" (pdf). La Vanguardia (in Spanish): 4. May 20, 1921. ISSN 1133-4835. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  56. ^ a b Feu i Gelis 2005.
  57. ^ Cabré i Puig 2003, p. 95.
  58. ^ Arjona i Sales et al. 2003, p. 22.
  59. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística (2014). "Nomenclátor: Población del Padrón Continuo por Unidad Poblacional" (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  60. ^ Ajuntament d'Artesa de Segre. "Montargull" (in Catalan). Retrieved November 24, 2014.
  61. ^ Ajuntament d'Artesa de Segre (January 2009). "Masies i cases rurals de Montargull" (PDF) (in Catalan). Retrieved September 18, 2014.
  62. ^ Diari Oficial de la Generalitat de Catalunya & September 23, 2004, p. 17787.
  63. ^ Generalitat de Catalunya. "Memorial Democràtic" (in Catalan). Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  64. ^ Mayordomo 2010.
  65. ^ Canyelles 2005.
  66. ^ Ajuntament d'Artesa de Segre. "Festes i tradicions del municipi" (in Catalan). Retrieved September 10, 2014.
  67. ^ Canyelles 2004, p. 19.
  68. ^ Jové 2014.
  69. ^ Valentí Pons (April 12, 2014). "Barcelona – Farmàcia Comabella". Modernisme de dins i fora de Catalunya. Blogs d'El Punt – Avui (in Catalan). Retrieved September 20, 2014.
  70. ^ a b Portal Guaraní. "Luis A. Riart" (in Spanish). Retrieved September 10, 2014.
Bibliography

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.