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Monorchism

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Monorchism
SpecialtyMedical genetics Edit this on Wikidata

Monorchism (also monorchidism) is the state of having only one testicle within the scrotum.

Terminology

An individual having monorchism can be referred to as monorchid.

Causes

This can be due to:

  • One testicle not descending into the scrotum during normal embryonic or fetal development (3–4% of 'normal' live births), also known as undescended testis or cryptorchidism. In this case the testis is within the abdominal cavity, somewhere along the normal route of descent – most commonly, within the inguinal canal. Such a testis has an increased risk of malignancy.
  • One testicle may disappear during development (the so-called vanishing testis) due to some intrauterine insult. This is thought to be most likely vascular, such as testicular torsion.
  • One testicle may have been surgically removed through orchiectomy.
  • One testicle may be injured.

Discover more about Causes related topics

Embryo

Embryo

An embryo is an initial stage of development of a multicellular organism. In organisms that reproduce sexually, embryonic development is the part of the life cycle that begins just after fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. The resulting fusion of these two cells produces a single-celled zygote that undergoes many cell divisions that produce cells known as blastomeres. The blastomeres are arranged as a solid ball that when reaching a certain size, called a morula, takes in fluid to create a cavity called a blastocoel. The structure is then termed a blastula, or a blastocyst in mammals.

Fetus

Fetus

A fetus or foetus is the unborn offspring that develops from an animal embryo. Following embryonic development the fetal stage of development takes place. In human prenatal development, fetal development begins from the ninth week after fertilization and continues until birth. Prenatal development is a continuum, with no clear defining feature distinguishing an embryo from a fetus. However, a fetus is characterized by the presence of all the major body organs, though they will not yet be fully developed and functional and some not yet situated in their final anatomical location.

Cryptorchidism

Cryptorchidism

Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testis, is the failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum. The word is from Greek κρυπτός 'hidden' and ὄρχις 'testicle'. It is the most common birth defect of the male genital tract. About 3% of full-term and 30% of premature infant boys are born with at least one undescended testis. However, about 80% of cryptorchid testes descend by the first year of life, making the true incidence of cryptorchidism around 1% overall. Cryptorchidism may develop after infancy, sometimes as late as young adulthood, but that is exceptional.

Inguinal canal

Inguinal canal

The inguinal canals are the two passages in the anterior abdominal wall of humans and animals which in males convey the spermatic cords and in females the round ligament of the uterus. The inguinal canals are larger and more prominent in males. There is one inguinal canal on each side of the midline.

Malignancy

Malignancy

Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

Blood vessel

Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the human body. These vessels transport blood cells, nutrients, and oxygen to the tissues of the body. They also take waste and carbon dioxide away from the tissues. Blood vessels are needed to sustain life, because all of the body's tissues rely on their functionality.

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord twists, cutting off the blood supply to the testicle. The most common symptom in children is sudden, severe testicular pain. The testicle may be higher than usual in the scrotum and vomiting may occur. In newborns, pain is often absent and instead the scrotum may become discolored or the testicle may disappear from its usual place.

Orchiectomy

Orchiectomy

Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both testicles are removed. The surgery is performed as treatment for testicular cancer, as part of surgery for transgender women, as management for advanced prostate cancer, and to remove damaged testes after testicular torsion. Less frequently, orchiectomy may be performed following a trauma, or due to wasting away of the testis or testes.

Notable cases

Due to testicular cancer

Due to injury

Due to cryptorchidism

Unknown

Discover more about Notable cases related topics

Lance Armstrong

Lance Armstrong

Lance Edward Armstrong is an American former professional road racing cyclist. Regarded as a sports icon for winning the Tour de France seven consecutive times from 1999 to 2005 after recovering from testicular cancer, he was later stripped of all his titles when an investigation found that he had used performance-enhancing drugs over his career.

Frank Church

Frank Church

Frank Forrester Church III was an American politician and lawyer. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as a United States senator from Idaho from 1957 until his defeat in 1981. As of 2022, he is the longest serving Democratic senator from the state as he is the only Democrat from the state who has served more than two terms in the Senate. He was a prominent figure in American foreign policy, and established a reputation as a member of the party's liberal wing.

1976 United States presidential election

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The 1976 United States presidential election was the 48th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 1976. Democrat Jimmy Carter of Georgia defeated incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford from Michigan by a narrow victory of 297 electoral college votes to Ford's 240. This is the most recent presidential election, and the first since 1920, in which all four major-party candidates for president and vice-president eventually became the presidential nominee for their party.

Canadians

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John Kruk

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Australia

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Brazil

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Bobby Moore

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Jimmy White

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Monorchism in nonhuman animals

Although extremely rare, monorchism has been observed to be characteristic of some animal species, notably in beetles.[21]

Source: "Monorchism", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monorchism.

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