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Milan Stoilov

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Milan Stoilov as a medical cadet.
Milan Stoilov as a medical cadet.

Milan Trajkov Stoilov (Macedonian: Милан Траjков Стоилов, Bulgarian: Милан Трайков Стоилов; 1881–1903) was a socialist revolutionary from the region of Macedonia. According to Macedonian historians, he was a Macedonian activist.[1][2] However according to Bulgarian historians, he is regarded as a Bulgarian revolutionary.[3][4][note 1]

Discover more about Milan Stoilov related topics

Macedonian language

Macedonian language

Macedonian is an Eastern South Slavic language. It is part of the Indo-European language family, and is one of the Slavic languages, which are part of a larger Balto-Slavic branch. Spoken as a first language by around two million people, it serves as the official language of North Macedonia. Most speakers can be found in the country and its diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia. Macedonian is also a recognized minority language in parts of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, and Serbia and it is spoken by emigrant communities predominantly in Australia, Canada and the United States.

Bulgarian language

Bulgarian language

Bulgarian is an Eastern South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria. It is the language of the Bulgarians.

Macedonia (region)

Macedonia (region)

Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its boundaries have changed considerably over time; however, it came to be defined as the modern geographical region by the mid 19th century. Today the region is considered to include parts of six Balkan countries: larger parts in Greece, North Macedonia, and Bulgaria, and smaller parts in Albania, Serbia, and Kosovo. It covers approximately 67,000 square kilometres (25,869 sq mi) and has a population of 4.76 million.

Bulgarians

Bulgarians

Bulgarians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Bulgaria and Southeast Europe.

Biography

Born in Kilkis in the then Ottoman Empire, Stoilov graduated from the town's Bulgarian primary school and junior high school in 1892 and in 1895, respectively.[5] In 1902, he graduated from the Bulgarian Theological Seminary in Constantinople.[2] He moved to Saint Petersburg Military Medical Academy to study medicine the same year.[6] In Saint Petersburg, he participated in the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Circle, which was an offshoot of the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee.[7][8] Stoilov was a member of the Macedonian Scientific and Literary Society and served as its secretary. He was involved in its third official act of the Society, which included documenting minutes of its 29 December 1902 session. [9]

In the next year he left Russia to join the Ilinden Uprising against the Ottomans. In July 1903, he arrived in Sofia and presented himself as a volunteer at the Overseas Representation of the IMARO, from where he was assigned to a detachment going to Ottoman Macedonia under Nikola Dechev.[10] Stoilov became a head of a medical squad. He was killed in fighting in Orizari, near Kočani on 5 September 1903.[11][12][6] According to other reports, he was heavily wounded and captured by the Turks and died in prison in Kočani in 1904.[13] As a socialist-internationalist, he claimеd, he was not going to die for a certain nation or as a patriot, but as a revolutionary fighting for the good of the humanity.[14]

Stoilov also authored "The Kilkis Vampire" ("Кукушкият вампир"), a didactic novel written in Bulgarian.[15][16]

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Kilkis

Kilkis

Kilkis is a city in Central Macedonia, Greece. As of 2011 there were 22,914 people living in the city proper, 28,745 people living in the municipal unit, and 51,926 in the municipality of Kilkis. It is also the capital city of the regional unit of Kilkis.

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire, also known as the Turkish Empire, was an empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Turkoman tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe and, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed the Conqueror.

S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy

S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy

The S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy is a higher education institution of military medicine in Saint Petersburg and the Russian Federation. Senior medical staff are trained for the Armed Forces and conduct research in military medical services.

Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Circle

Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Circle

The Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Circle was founded in St. Petersburg in 1900. Members of it were Bulgarian students in the Russian Empire. Its purpose, according to its founding protocol, was: "To support the Macedonian cause materially and morally and, according to its capabilities, to monitor its development." One of the founders of the circle was Krste Misirkov, who, when he moved to St. Petersburg in 1902, became also its chairman. The circle was in direct contacts with the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee in Bulgaria, to which it reported on its activities. Misirkov presented his motives for the creation of the circle to the chairman of the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee in Sofia as follows: "It is known that there is no Bulgarian who is not interested in the situation and fate of that part of our fatherland, which to this day groans under the yoke of Turkey." In the period 1902-1903, the circle contacted with the Central Committee of the Internal Macedonian Adrianople Revolutionary Organization. Subsequently, the circle grew into the Macedonian-Adrianople Student Society, with its divisions opening in different cities in Russia, where Bulgarian students attended. The club existed until 1906, after which it finally merged with the All-Bulgarian Student Association, ceasing its independent activity.

Macedonian Scientific and Literary Society

Macedonian Scientific and Literary Society

The Macedonian Scientific and Literary Society, sometimes called Slavic-Macedonian Scholarly and Literary Society was an organization of Macedonian Slavs in Russia in the first decades of the twentieth century. Its aim was the creation of an independent Macedonia, encompassing the entire geographic region of Macedonia, according to maps drawn by the society itself. Its founders were Dimitrija Čupovski and his brother Nace Dimov. Other founders include Stefan Dedov and Dijamandija Mišajkov. The organization's secretary was Milan Stoilov, a medical student in Saint Petersburg.

Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising

Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising

The Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising, or simply the Ilinden Uprising of August - October 1903, was an organized revolt against the Ottoman Empire, which was prepared and carried out by the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization, with the support of the Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee. The name of the uprising refers to Ilinden, a name for Elijah's day, and to Preobrazhenie which means Transfiguration. Some historians describe the rebellion in the Serres revolutionary district as a separate uprising, calling it the Krastovden Uprising, because on September 14 the revolutionaries there also rebelled. The revolt lasted from the beginning of August to the end of October and covered a vast territory from the eastern Black Sea coast to the shores of Lake Ohrid.

Foreign Representation of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization

Foreign Representation of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization

The Foreign Representation was an organizational institution of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO). It was established in Ottoman Thessaloniki at the Congress of the IMRO in 1896. Its aim was to keep in touch the Central Committee there with the foreign representatives in Sofia, through who to inform the Bulgarian authorities about the situation in the region of Macedonia and Adrianople Thrace. The office was responsible to build and manage the illegal border crossings from Bulgaria to the Ottoman Empire for the transfer of weapons, munitions, money and literature. Its task was also to maintain contacts with the Supreme Macedonian Committee and with the Bulgarian society, and to seek support for the Liberation movement. In addition to this activity, the foreign representatives were obliged to maintain contacts with the diplomatic representatives in Bulgaria and to inform them about the situation in Macedonia and Adrianople areas. This Institution was set up in Sofia, and acted in parallel with the Central Committee until 1924. The representatives were appointed by the CC. This institution was closed at the IMRO Congress in Simitli in 1928.

Nikola Dechev

Nikola Dechev

Nikola Dechev was a Bulgarian revolutionary, a member of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, leader of several detachments active in the region of the town of Veles, Macedonia.

Orizari, Kočani

Orizari, Kočani

Orizari is a village in the municipality of Kočani, North Macedonia. It used to be a municipality of its own. The name of the school in Orizari is Krste Petkov Misirkov.

Kočani

Kočani

Kočani is a town in the eastern part of North Macedonia, situated around 100 kilometres (62 mi) east from Skopje. It has a population of 28,330 and is the seat of the Kočani Municipality.

Proletarian internationalism

Proletarian internationalism

Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is the perception of all communist revolutions as being part of a single global class struggle rather than separate localized events. It is based on the theory that capitalism is a world-system and therefore the working classes of all nations must act in concert if they are to replace it with communism.

Bulgarian language

Bulgarian language

Bulgarian is an Eastern South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria. It is the language of the Bulgarians.

Source: "Milan Stoilov", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan_Stoilov.

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Notes
  1. ^ According to Russian researcher Dmitri Labauri, both Bulgarian and Macedonian historians have created two different views on the early 20th century Slavic Macedonian student emigration in Russia, to which Stoilov belonged. Bulgarian historians mainly emphasize the activities of the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Circle, while Macedonian historians focus on the Slavic-Macedonian Scientific and Literary Society. For more see: Мемуары Христо Шалдева как источник по истории болгарских студенческих объединений в России в начале XX в. (Уральский государственный университет, Екатеринбург) в Россия - Болгария: векторы взаимопонимания. XVIII-XXI вв. Российско-болгарские научные дискуссии. Ритта Петровна Гришина (отв. редактор); Институт славяноведения РАН, Москва 2010, стр. 166-167
References
  1. ^ Ристовски, Блаже (1989). Портрети и процеси од македонската литературна и национална историја (in Macedonian). Култура. p. 26.
  2. ^ a b Istorija: spisanie na Sojuzot na društvata na istoričarite na SR Makedonija, Sojuz na društvata na istoričarite na Republike Makedonija, 1975, str. 69.
  3. ^ Коста Църнушанов, Македонизмът и съпротивата на Македония срещу него. Университетско изд-во "Св. Климент Охридски", 1992, стр. 59; 61.
  4. ^ Танчев, Иван. Македонският компонент при формирането на българската интелигенция с европейско образование (1878 – 1912). Македонски преглед XXIV (3). 2001. с. 59.
  5. ^ Блаже Ристовски, Наце Д. Димов: 1876-1916, Македонска академија на науките и уметностите, 1973, стр. 16.
  6. ^ a b "Милан Стоилов". 30 January 2019.
  7. ^ Ристовский, Блаже. Димитрий Чуповский и македонское национальное сознание, ОАО Издательство „Радуга“, Москва, 1999, с. 47.
  8. ^ Те носели името „Таен македоно - одрински кръжок“ в дадения град и били в пряка връзка със Софийския върховен комитет, от когото приемали директиви, а сами му докладвали за своята дейност. For more see: Коста Църнушанов, Македонизмът и съпротивата на Македония срещу него. Университетско изд-во "Св. Климент Охридски", 1992, стр. 53.
  9. ^ The minutes contain the ethnic borders of Macedonia, a thank-you to the Slavonic Charitable Society for providing its salon as meeting space, and a decision that a book be written with words in Macedonian, Bulgarian, Serbian, and Russian. The latter initiative was to "show to the Russian public that Macedonian was no closer to Bulgarian or Serbian than to the Russian language." For more see: Blaže Ristovski (2008). Macedonia and the Macedonian People. p. 202. ISBN 9789989887000. The third official act of the Society was the brief original minutes of its “regular session” of December 29, 1902, taken by the Society’s secretary, Milan Stoilov, when its Administration was constituted. This document contains the following points: “the borders of Macedonia” on its ethnic territory were defined; it was decided “to thank the Sl[avonic] Ch[aritable] Society as it has allowed our society to hold meetings in their salon” (which was still another official acknow- ledgement of Macedonian national individuality at the Slavic level), and finally, with regard to the question of the individuality of Macedonian in comparison with other Slavonic languages, it was concluded that its members should write down characteristic Macedonian words in a book with pages divided into four sections: Macedonian, Bulgarian, Serbian and Russian, to show to the Russian public that Macedonian was no closer to Bulgarian or Serbian than to the Russian language.
  10. ^ Манол Пандевски, Македонија на Балканот: XIV-XX историски координати, Мисла, 1990, ISBN 8615001626, стр. 265.
  11. ^ Dimitar Vlahov (1970). Мемоари. Nova Makedonija. p. 14.
  12. ^ Istorija. Sojuz. 1970. p. 61.
  13. ^ Исторически преглед, Том 45 Сътрудници Българско историческо дружество, Институт за история (Българска академия на науките), 1989, стр. 77.
  14. ^ Известия на Института за литература, Том 4, (Българска академия на науките), 1956, стр. 121.
  15. ^ Tushe Vlahov (1969). Кукуш и неговото историческо минало. Второ допълнено издание (PDF). p. 164.
  16. ^ В кукушката библиотека се намираше в ръкопис дидактическата повест „Кукушкият вампир“, написана и илюстрирана от загиналия през 1903 г. революционер - интернационалист Милан Стоилов. Книгата бичуваше пиянството и прекомерната употреба на мастика. For more see: Известия на Института за литература, Том 4, (Българска академия на науките), 1956, стр. 126.

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