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Mikoyan MiG-29

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MiG-29
VVS 100th IMG 0691 (7727464290) (cropped).jpg
A Russian Air Force MiG-29
Role Air superiority fighter, multirole fighter
National origin Soviet Union
Design group Mikoyan
First flight 6 October 1977
Introduction August 1983
Status In service
Primary users Russian Aerospace Forces
Indian Air Force
Uzbekistan Air and Air Defence Forces
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
Produced 1981–present
Number built 1,600+[1]
Variants Mikoyan MiG-29M
Mikoyan MiG-29K
Mikoyan MiG-35

The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Russian: Микоян МиГ-29; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum) is a twin-engine fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union. Developed by the Mikoyan design bureau as an air superiority fighter during the 1970s, the MiG-29, along with the larger Sukhoi Su-27, was developed to counter new U.S. fighters such as the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle and the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon.[2] The MiG-29 entered service with the Soviet Air Forces in 1983.

While originally oriented towards combat against any enemy aircraft, many MiG-29s have been furnished as multirole fighters capable of performing a number of different operations, and are commonly outfitted to use a range of air-to-surface armaments and precision munitions. The MiG-29 has been manufactured in several major variants, including the multirole Mikoyan MiG-29M and the navalised Mikoyan MiG-29K; the most advanced member of the family to date is the Mikoyan MiG-35. Later models frequently feature improved engines, glass cockpits with HOTAS-compatible flight controls, modern radar and infrared search and track (IRST) sensors, and considerably increased fuel capacity; some aircraft have also been equipped for aerial refueling.

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the militaries of a number of ex-Soviet republics have continued to operate the MiG-29, the largest of which is the Russian Air Force. The Russian Air Force wanted to upgrade its existing fleet to the modernised MiG-29SMT configuration, but financial difficulties have limited deliveries. The MiG-29 has also been a popular export aircraft; more than 30 nations either operate or have operated the aircraft to date. As of 2013, the MiG-29 has been in production by Mikoyan, a subsidiary of United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) since 2006.

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Fighter aircraft

Fighter aircraft

Fighter aircraft are fixed-wing military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat. In military conflict, the role of fighter aircraft is to establish air superiority of the battlespace. Domination of the airspace above a battlefield permits bombers and attack aircraft to engage in tactical and strategic bombing of enemy targets.

Mikoyan

Mikoyan

Russian Aircraft Corporation "MiG", commonly known as Mikoyan and MiG, was a Russian aerospace and defence company headquartered in Begovoy District, Moscow.

Air superiority fighter

Air superiority fighter

An air superiority fighter is a fighter aircraft designed to seize control of enemy airspace by establishing tactical dominance over the opposing air force. Air-superiority fighters are primarily tasked to perform aerial combat against agile, lightly armed aircraft and eliminate any challenge over control of the airspace, although some may have a secondary role for air-to-surface attacks.

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an American twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas. Following reviews of proposals, the United States Air Force (USAF) selected McDonnell Douglas's design in 1969 to meet the service's need for a dedicated air superiority fighter. The Eagle first flew in July 1972, and entered service in 1976. It is among the most successful modern fighters, with over 100 victories and no losses in aerial combat, with the majority of the kills by the Israeli Air Force.

General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force (USAF). Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,600 aircraft have been built since production was approved in 1976. Although no longer being purchased by the U.S. Air Force, improved versions are being built for export customers. In 1993, General Dynamics sold its aircraft manufacturing business to the Lockheed Corporation, which in turn became part of Lockheed Martin after a 1995 merger with Martin Marietta.

Mikoyan MiG-29M

Mikoyan MiG-29M

The Mikoyan MiG-29M is a Russian multirole fighter developed in 2005. It is based on unified platform together with Mikoyan MiG-29K. The predecessor of the MiG-29M was designed by Mikoyan Design Bureau in the Soviet Union during the mid-1980s and was known as "MiG-33" during the 1990s.

Mikoyan MiG-29K

Mikoyan MiG-29K

The Mikoyan MiG-29K is a Russian all-weather carrier-based multirole fighter aircraft developed by the Mikoyan Design Bureau. The MiG-29K was developed in the late 1980s from the MiG-29M. Mikoyan describes it as a 4+ generation aircraft.

Mikoyan MiG-35

Mikoyan MiG-35

The Mikoyan MiG-35 is a Russian multirole fighter that is designed by Mikoyan, a division of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC). Marketed as a 4++ generation jet fighter, it is a further development of the MiG-29M/M2 and MiG-29K/KUB fighters. According to a Russian defense industry source, the Mikoyan MiG-35 is essentially an upgraded variant of the MiG-29KR. Many consider MiG-35 a new name given by Mikoyan for marketing. The first prototype was a modification of the aircraft that previously served as a MiG-29M2 model demonstrator given temporary name MiG-35 but a later prototype was a different model with different equipment that served as the base for the MiG-35 as is known today. Mikoyan first officially presented the MiG-35 internationally during the 2017 Moscow air show; the first two serial production aircraft entered service in 2019.

Glass cockpit

Glass cockpit

A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic (digital) flight instrument displays, typically large LCD screens, rather than the traditional style of analog dials and gauges. While a traditional cockpit relies on numerous mechanical gauges to display information, a glass cockpit uses several multi-function displays driven by flight management systems, that can be adjusted to display flight information as needed. This simplifies aircraft operation and navigation and allows pilots to focus only on the most pertinent information. They are also popular with airline companies as they usually eliminate the need for a flight engineer, saving costs. In recent years the technology has also become widely available in small aircraft.

HOTAS

HOTAS

HOTAS, an acronym of hands on throttle-and-stick, is the concept of placing buttons and switches on the throttle lever and flight control stick in an aircraft's cockpit. By adopting such an arrangement, pilots are capable of performing all vital functions as well as flying the aircraft without having to remove their hands from the controls.

Infrared search and track

Infrared search and track

An infrared search and track (IRST) system is a method for detecting and tracking objects which give off infrared radiation, such as the infrared signatures of jet aircraft and helicopters.

Aerial refueling

Aerial refueling

Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one aircraft to another while both aircraft are in flight. The two main refueling systems are probe-and-drogue, which is simpler to adapt to existing aircraft, and the flying boom, which offers faster fuel transfer, but requires a dedicated boom operator station.

Development

Origins

In the mid–1960s, the United States Air Force (USAF) encountered difficulties over the skies of Vietnam. Supersonic fighter bombers that had been optimized for low altitude bombing, like the F-105 Thunderchief, were found to be vulnerable to older MiG-17s and more advanced MiGs which were much more maneuverable.[3] In order to regain the limited air superiority enjoyed over Korea, the US refocused on air combat using the F-4 Phantom multi-role fighter, while the Soviet Union developed the MiG-23 in response. Towards the end of the 1960s, the USAF started the "F-X" program to produce a fighter dedicated to air superiority, which led to the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle being ordered for production in late 1969.[4]

At the height of the Cold War, a Soviet response was necessary to avoid the possibility of a new American fighter gaining a serious technological advantage over existing Soviet fighters. Thus the development of a new air superiority fighter became a priority.[2] In 1969, the Soviet General Staff issued a requirement for a Perspektivnyy Frontovoy Istrebitel (PFI, roughly "Advanced Frontline Fighter").[5] Specifications were extremely ambitious, calling for long range, good short-field performance (including the ability to use austere runways), excellent agility, Mach 2+ speed, and heavy armament. The Russian aerodynamics institute TsAGI worked in collaboration with the Sukhoi design bureau on the aircraft's aerodynamics.[5]

A Soviet Air Forces MiG-29 parked after a display flight at the Abbotsford Air Show, 1989
A Soviet Air Forces MiG-29 parked after a display flight at the Abbotsford Air Show, 1989

By 1971, however, Soviet studies determined the need for different types of fighters. The PFI program was supplemented with the Perspektivnyy Lyogkiy Frontovoy Istrebitel (LPFI, or "Advanced Lightweight Tactical Fighter") program; the Soviet fighter force was planned to be approximately 33% PFI and 67% LPFI.[6] PFI and LPFI paralleled the USAF's decision that created the "Lightweight Fighter" program and the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon and Northrop YF-17.[7] The PFI fighter was assigned to Sukhoi, resulting in the Sukhoi Su-27, while the lightweight fighter went to Mikoyan. Detailed design work on the resultant Mikoyan Product 9, designated MiG-29A, began in 1974, with the first flight taking place on 6 October 1977. The pre-production aircraft was first spotted by United States reconnaissance satellites in November of that year; it was dubbed Ram-L because it was observed at the Zhukovsky flight test center near the town of Ramenskoye.[8][9]

The workload split between TPFI and LPFI became more apparent as the MiG-29 filtered into front line service with the Soviet Air Forces (Russian: Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily [VVS]) in the mid-1980s. While the heavy, long range Su-27 was tasked with the more exotic and dangerous role of deep air-to-air sweeps of NATO high-value assets, the smaller MiG-29 directly replaced the MiG-23 in the frontal aviation role.

Introduction and improvements

In the West, the new fighter was given the NATO reporting name "Fulcrum-A" because the pre-production MiG-29A, which should have logically received this designation, remained unknown in the West at that time. The Soviet Union did not assign official names to most of its aircraft, although nicknames were common. Unusually, some Soviet pilots found the MiG-29's NATO reporting name, "Fulcrum", to be a flattering description of the aircraft's intended purpose, and it is sometimes unofficially used in Russian service.[10]

The MiG-29B was widely exported in downgraded versions, known as MiG-29B 9-12A and MiG-29B 9-12B for Warsaw Pact and non-Warsaw Pact nations respectively, with less capable avionics and no capability for delivering nuclear weapons.

In the 1980s, Mikoyan developed the improved MiG-29S to use longer range R-27E air-to-air missiles. It added a dorsal 'hump' to the upper fuselage to house a jamming system and some additional fuel capacity. The weapons load was increased to 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) with airframe strengthening. These features were included in new-built fighters and upgrades to older MiG-29s.[11][12]

A Russian Air Force MiG-29UB trainer landing
A Russian Air Force MiG-29UB trainer landing

Refined versions of the MiG-29 with improved avionics were fielded by the Soviet Union, but Mikoyan's multirole variants, including a carrier-based version designated MiG-29K, were never produced in large numbers. Development of the MiG-29K carrier version was suspended for over a decade before being resumed; the type went into service with the Indian Navy's INS Vikramaditya, and Russian Navy's Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carrier. Mikoyan also developed improved versions MiG-29M and MiG-29SMT.[13][14]

There have been several upgrade programmes conducted for the MiG-29. Common upgrades include the adoption of standard-compatible avionics, service life extensions to 4,000 flight hours, safety enhancements, greater combat capabilities and reliability. In 2005, the Russian Aircraft Corporation "MiG" established a unified family of 4++ generation multirole fighters: the aircraft carrier–based MiG-29K, front-line MiG-29M and MiG-35 fighters.

Replacement

On 11 December 2013, Russian deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin revealed that Russia was planning to build a new fighter to replace the MiG-29. The Sukhoi Su-27 and its derivatives were to be replaced by the Sukhoi Su-57, but a different design was needed to replace the lighter MiGs. A previous attempt to develop a MiG-29 replacement, the MiG 1.44 demonstrator, failed in the 1990s. The concept came up again in 2001 with interest from India, but they later opted for a variant of the Su-57. Air Force commanders have hinted at the possibility of a single-engine airframe that uses the Su-57's engine, radar, and weapons primarily for Russian service.[15] This has since been revealed to be the Sukhoi Su-75 Checkmate.

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United States Air Force

United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the air service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. Originally created on 1 August 1907, as a part of the United States Army Signal Corps, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the United States Armed Forces in 1947 with the enactment of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the second youngest branch of the United States Armed Forces and the fourth in order of precedence. The United States Air Force articulates its core missions as air supremacy, global integrated intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control.

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an American twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter aircraft designed by McDonnell Douglas. Following reviews of proposals, the United States Air Force (USAF) selected McDonnell Douglas's design in 1969 to meet the service's need for a dedicated air superiority fighter. The Eagle first flew in July 1972, and entered service in 1976. It is among the most successful modern fighters, with over 100 victories and no losses in aerial combat, with the majority of the kills by the Israeli Air Force.

Cold War

Cold War

The Cold War is a term commonly used to refer to a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc. The term cold war is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported opposing sides in major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in 1945. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

Sukhoi

Sukhoi

The JSC Sukhoi Company is a Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, that designs both civilian and military aircraft. It was founded in the Soviet Union by Pavel Sukhoi in 1939 as the Sukhoi Design Bureau. During February 2006, the Russian government merged Sukhoi with Mikoyan, Ilyushin, Irkut, Tupolev, and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation.

Soviet Air Forces

Soviet Air Forces

The Soviet Air Forces were one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces. The Air Forces were formed from components of the Imperial Russian Air Service in 1917, and faced their greatest test during World War II. The groups were also involved in the Korean War, and dissolved along with the Soviet Union itself in 1991–92. Former Soviet Air Forces' assets were subsequently divided into several air forces of former Soviet republics, including the new Russian Air Force. "March of the Pilots" was its song.

General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force (USAF). Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,600 aircraft have been built since production was approved in 1976. Although no longer being purchased by the U.S. Air Force, improved versions are being built for export customers. In 1993, General Dynamics sold its aircraft manufacturing business to the Lockheed Corporation, which in turn became part of Lockheed Martin after a 1995 merger with Martin Marietta.

Northrop YF-17

Northrop YF-17

The Northrop YF-17 is a prototype lightweight fighter aircraft designed by Northrop aviation for the United States Air Force's Lightweight Fighter (LWF) technology evaluation program. The LWF was initiated because many in the fighter community believed that aircraft like the F-15 Eagle were too large and expensive for many combat roles. The YF-17 was the culmination of a long line of Northrop designs, beginning with the N-102 Fang in 1956, continuing through the F-5 family.

Sukhoi Su-27

Sukhoi Su-27

The Sukhoi Su-27 is a Soviet-origin twin-engine supermaneuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi. It was intended as a direct competitor for the large US fourth-generation jet fighters such as the Grumman F-14 Tomcat and McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, with 3,530-kilometre (1,910 nmi) range, heavy aircraft ordnance, sophisticated avionics and high maneuverability. The Su-27 was designed for air superiority missions, and subsequent variants are able to perform almost all aerial warfare operations. It was designed with the Mikoyan MiG-29 as its complement.

Reconnaissance satellite

Reconnaissance satellite

A reconnaissance satellite or intelligence satellite is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.

Ramenskoye, Moscow Oblast

Ramenskoye, Moscow Oblast

Ramenskoye is a town and the administrative center of Ramensky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 46 kilometers (29 mi) southeast of Moscow.

NATO reporting name

NATO reporting name

"NATO reporting names" are a system of code names for military aircraft and other equipment from the former Soviet Union, former Warsaw Pact countries, Russia and China. They provide unambiguous and easily understood English words in a uniform manner in place of the original designations, which either may have been unknown to the Western world at the time or easily confused codes. For example, the Russian bomber jet Tupolev Tu-160 is simply called "Blackjack".

Avionics

Avionics

Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft. Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems, and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to perform individual functions. These can be as simple as a searchlight for a police helicopter or as complicated as the tactical system for an airborne early warning platform.

Design

MiG-29UB of the Swifts aerobatic team
MiG-29UB of the Swifts aerobatic team

Sharing its origins in the original PFI requirements issued by TsAGI, the MiG-29 has broad aerodynamic similarities to the Sukhoi Su-27, but with some notable differences. The MiG-29 has a mid-mounted swept wing with blended leading-edge root extensions (LERXs) swept at around 40°; there are swept tailplanes and two vertical fins, mounted on booms outboard of the engines. Automatic slats are mounted on the leading edges of the wings; they are four-segment on early models and five-segment on some later variants. On the trailing edge, there are maneuvering flaps and wingtip ailerons.[16]

The MiG-29 has hydraulic controls and a SAU-451 three-axis autopilot but, unlike the Su-27, no fly-by-wire control system. Nonetheless, it is very agile, with excellent instantaneous and sustained turn performance, high-alpha capability, and a general resistance to spins. The airframe consists primarily of aluminum with some composite materials, and is stressed for up to 9 g (88 m/s²) maneuvers. The controls have "soft" limiters to prevent the pilot from exceeding g and alpha limits, but the limiters can be disabled manually.[16]

Powerplant and range

RD-33 on display at the Luftwaffenmuseum of the Bundeswehr
RD-33 on display at the Luftwaffenmuseum of the Bundeswehr
A Bangladesh Air Force MiG-29B inflight with its Klimov RD-33 turbofan engines on full afterburner
A Bangladesh Air Force MiG-29B inflight with its Klimov RD-33 turbofan engines on full afterburner

The MiG-29 has two widely spaced Klimov RD-33 turbofan engines, each rated at 50.0 kilonewtons (11,200 lbf) dry and 81.3 kilonewtons (18,300 lbf) in afterburner. The space between the engines generates lift, thereby reducing effective wing loading, hence improving maneuverability. The engines are fed through intake ramps fitted under the leading-edge extensions (LERXs), which have variable ramps to allow high-Mach speeds. Due to their relatively short combustor, the engines produce noticeably heavier smoke than their contemporaries. As an adaptation to rough-field operations, the main air inlet can be closed completely and the auxiliary air inlet on the upper fuselage can be used for takeoff, landing and low-altitude flying, preventing ingestion of ground debris. Thereby the engines receive air through louvers on the LERXs which open automatically when intakes are closed. However the latest variant of the family, the MiG-35, eliminated these dorsal louvers, and adopted the mesh screens design in the main intakes, similar to those fitted to the Su-27.[17]

The MiG-29 has a ferry range of 1,500 km (930 mi) without external fuel tanks, and 2,100 km (1,300 mi) with external tanks.[18] The internal fuel capacity of the original MiG-29B is 4,365 L (960 imp gal; 1,153 US gal) distributed between six internal fuel tanks, four in the fuselage and one in each wing. For longer flights, this can be supplemented by a 1,500 L (330 imp gal; 400 US gal) centreline drop tank and, on later production batches, two 1,150 L (250 imp gal; 300 US gal) underwing drop tanks. In addition, newer models have been fitted with port-side inflight refueling probes, allowing much longer flight times by using a probe-and-drogue system.[19]

Cockpit

MiG-29 cockpit, 1995
MiG-29 cockpit, 1995

The cockpit features a conventional centre stick and left hand throttle controls. The pilot sits in a Zvezda K-36DM ejection seat.

The cockpit has conventional dials, with a head-up display (HUD) and a Shchel-3UM helmet mounted display, but no HOTAS ("hands-on-throttle-and-stick") capability. Emphasis seems to have been placed on making the cockpit similar to the earlier MiG-23 and other Soviet aircraft for ease of conversion, rather than on ergonomics. Nonetheless, the MiG-29 does have substantially better visibility than most previous Soviet jet fighters, thanks to a high-mounted bubble canopy. Upgraded models introduce "glass cockpits" with modern liquid-crystal (LCD) multi-function displays (MFDs) and true HOTAS.

Sensors

The baseline MiG-29B has a Phazotron RLPK-29 radar fire control system which includes the N019 Sapfir 29 look-down/shoot-down coherent pulse-Doppler radar and the Ts100.02-02 digital computer.

MiG-29 nose showing radome and S-31E2 KOLS IRST
MiG-29 nose showing radome and S-31E2 KOLS IRST

The N019 radar was not a new design, but rather a development of the Sapfir-23ML architecture used on the MiG-23ML. During the initial design specification period in the mid-1970s, Phazotron NIIR was tasked with producing a modern radar for the MiG-29. To speed development, Phazotron based its new design on work undertaken by NPO Istok on the experimental "Soyuz" radar program. Accordingly, the N019 was originally intended to have a flat planar array antenna and full digital signal processing, for a detection and tracking range of at least 100 km (62 mi) against a fighter-sized target. Prototype testing revealed this could not be attained in the required timeframe and still fit within the MiG-29's nose. Rather than design a new radar, Phazotron reverted to a version of the Sapfir-23ML's twisted-polarization cassegrain antenna and traditional analog signal processors, coupled with a new NII Argon-designed Ts100 digital computer to save time and cost. This produced a working radar system, but inherited the weak points of the earlier design, plaguing the MiG-29's ability to detect and track airborne targets at ranges available with the R-27 and R-77 missiles.

MiG-29UB on display, showing gunport
MiG-29UB on display, showing gunport

The N019 was further compromised by Phazotron designer Adolf Tolkachev’s betrayal of the radar to the CIA, for which he was executed in 1986. In response to all of these problems, the Soviets hastily developed a modified N019M Topaz radar for the upgraded MiG-29S aircraft. However, VVS was reportedly still not satisfied with the performance of the system and demanded another upgrade. The latest upgraded aircraft offered the N010 Zhuk-M, which has a planar array antenna rather than a dish, improving range, and a much superior processing ability, with multiple-target engagement capability and compatibility with the Vympel R-77 (or RVV-AE).

Armament

Bangladesh Air Force MiG-29B showing its full underbelly. Note the six underwing pylons carrying R-27 and R-73 air-to-air missiles. The centerline fuel tank is seen with an APU exhaust duct.
Bangladesh Air Force MiG-29B showing its full underbelly. Note the six underwing pylons carrying R-27 and R-73 air-to-air missiles. The centerline fuel tank is seen with an APU exhaust duct.

Armament for the MiG-29 includes a single GSh-30-1 30 mm (1.18 in) cannon in the port wing root. This originally had a 150-round magazine, which was reduced to 100 rounds in later variants, which only allows a few seconds of firing before running out of ammo. Original production MiG-29B aircraft cannot fire the cannon when carrying a centerline fuel tank as it blocks the shell ejection port. This was corrected in the MiG-29S and later versions.

Three pylons are provided under each wing (four in some variants), for a total of six (or eight). The inboard pylons can carry either a 1,150 L (250 imp gal; 300 US gal) fuel tank, one Vympel R-27 (AA-10 "Alamo") medium-range air-to-air missile, or unguided bombs or rockets. Some Soviet aircraft could carry a single nuclear bomb on the port inboard station. The outer pylons usually carry R-73 (AA-11 "Archer") dogfight air to air missiles, although some users still retain the older R-60 (AA-8 "Aphid"). A single 1,500 L (330 imp gal; 400 US gal) tank can be fitted to the centerline, between the engines.

The US has supplied AGM-88 HARM missiles to Ukraine. It appears that they are fired from MiG-29s. It was only disclosed after Russian forces showed footage of a tail fin from one of these missiles.[20] U.S. Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Colin Kahl has said this: "I would just point to two things. One, you know, a lot was made about the MiG-29 issue several months ago, not very much has been noticed about the sheer amount of spare parts and other things that we've done to help them actually put more of their own MiG-29s in the air and keep those that are in the air flying for a longer period of time. And then also, in recent PDA [Presidential Drawdown Authority] packages we've included a number of anti-radiation missiles that can be fired off of Ukrainian aircraft. They can have effects on on Russian radars and other things."[21] Soviet era aircraft don't have the computer architecture to accept NATO standard weapons. The interface would be difficult; however with a "crude modification", such as an e-table, it would be possible.[22]

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Swifts (aerobatic team)

Swifts (aerobatic team)

The Swifts is an aerobatic demonstrator team of the Russian Air Force, formed on 6 May 1991. The team currently performs with 6 MiG-29/29UB aircraft.

Sukhoi Su-27

Sukhoi Su-27

The Sukhoi Su-27 is a Soviet-origin twin-engine supermaneuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi. It was intended as a direct competitor for the large US fourth-generation jet fighters such as the Grumman F-14 Tomcat and McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, with 3,530-kilometre (1,910 nmi) range, heavy aircraft ordnance, sophisticated avionics and high maneuverability. The Su-27 was designed for air superiority missions, and subsequent variants are able to perform almost all aerial warfare operations. It was designed with the Mikoyan MiG-29 as its complement.

Swept wing

Swept wing

A swept wing is a wing that angles either backward or occasionally forward from its root rather than in a straight sideways direction.

Leading edge

Leading edge

The leading edge of an airfoil surface such as a wing is its foremost edge and is therefore the part which first meets the oncoming air.

Trailing edge

Trailing edge

The trailing edge of an aerodynamic surface such as a wing is its rear edge, where the airflow separated by the leading edge meets. Essential flight control surfaces are attached here to control the direction of the departing air flow, and exert a controlling force on the aircraft. Such control surfaces include ailerons on the wings for roll control, elevators on the tailplane controlling pitch, and the rudder on the fin controlling yaw. Elevators and ailerons may be combined as elevons on tailless aircraft.

Aileron

Aileron

An aileron is a hinged flight control surface usually forming part of the trailing edge of each wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. Ailerons are used in pairs to control the aircraft in roll, which normally results in a change in flight path due to the tilting of the lift vector. Movement around this axis is called 'rolling' or 'banking'.

Angle of attack

Angle of attack

In fluid dynamics, angle of attack is the angle between a reference line on a body and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving. Angle of attack is the angle between the body's reference line and the oncoming flow. This article focuses on the most common application, the angle of attack of a wing or airfoil moving through air.

Klimov RD-33

Klimov RD-33

The Klimov RD-33 is a turbofan jet engine for a lightweight fighter jet that is the primary engine for the Mikoyan MiG-29 and CAC/PAC JF-17 Thunder. It was developed in OKB-117 led by S. P. Izotov from 1968 with production starting in 1981. Previous generations of Russian supersonic fighters such as the MiG-21 and MiG-23 used turbojets, but western fighters such as the F-111 and F-4K introduced the use of afterburning turbofans in the 1960s which were more efficient.

Bangladesh Air Force

Bangladesh Air Force

The Bangladesh Air Force (BAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Bangladesh Armed Forces. The Air Force is primarily responsible for air defence of Bangladesh's sovereign territory as well as providing air support to the Bangladesh Army and Bangladesh Navy. Furthermore, the BAF has a territorial role in providing tactical and strategic air transport and logistics capability for the country.

Turbofan

Turbofan

The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion. The word "turbofan" is a portmanteau of "turbine" and "fan": the turbo portion refers to a gas turbine engine which achieves mechanical energy from combustion, and the fan, a ducted fan that uses the mechanical energy from the gas turbine to force air rearwards. Thus, whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the combustion chamber and turbines, in a turbofan some of that air bypasses these components. A turbofan thus can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of these contributing to the thrust.

Afterburner

Afterburner

An afterburner is an additional combustion component used on some jet engines, mostly those on military supersonic aircraft. Its purpose is to increase thrust, usually for supersonic flight, takeoff, and combat. The afterburning process injects additional fuel into a combustor in the jet pipe behind the turbine, "reheating" the exhaust gas. Afterburning significantly increases thrust as an alternative to using a bigger engine with its attendant weight penalty, but at the cost of increased fuel consumption which limits its use to short periods. This aircraft application of "reheat" contrasts with the meaning and implementation of "reheat" applicable to gas turbines driving electrical generators and which reduces fuel consumption.

Lift (force)

Lift (force)

A fluid flowing around an object exerts a force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the force parallel to the flow direction. Lift conventionally acts in an upward direction in order to counter the force of gravity, but it can act in any direction at right angles to the flow.

Operational history

While the MiG-29's true capabilities could only be estimated from the time it first appeared In 1977 until the mid-1980s, a combination of persistent intelligence and increasing access afforded by the Soviet foreign sales effort allowed a true appreciation of its capabilities. Early MiG-29s were very agile aircraft, capable of rivaling the performance of contemporary F-18 and F-16 aircraft. However, their relatively low fuel capacity relegated them to short-range air defense missions. Lacking HOTAS and an inter-aircraft data link, and requiring a very intensive "heads-down" approach to operating cockpit controls, the early MiG-29 denied pilots the kind of situational awareness routinely enjoyed by pilots operating comparable US aircraft. Analysts and Western pilots who flew examples of the MiG-29 thought this likely prevented even very good pilots from harnessing the plane's full combat capability. Later MiG-29s were upgraded to improve their capabilities.[23] The Soviet Union exported MiG-29s to several countries. Because 4th-generation fighter jets require the pilots to have extensive training, air-defense infrastructure, and constant maintenance and upgrades, MiG-29s have had mixed operational history with different air forces.[24]

Soviet Union and successor states

The MiG-29 was first publicly seen in the West when the Soviet Union displayed the aircraft in Finland on 2 July 1986. Two MiG-29s were also displayed at the Farnborough Airshow in Britain in September 1988. The following year, the aircraft conducted flying displays at the 1989 Paris Air Show where it was involved in a non-fatal crash during the first weekend of the show.[25] The Paris Air Show display was only the second display of Soviet fighters at an international air show since the 1930s. Western observers were impressed by its apparent capability and exceptional agility. Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, most of the MiG-29s entered service with the newly formed Russian Air Force.

Russia

The sketch of the MiG-29 performing the super maneuver, the Pugachev's Cobra.
The sketch of the MiG-29 performing the super maneuver, the Pugachev's Cobra.

In July 1993, two MiG-29s of the Russian Air Force collided in mid-air and crashed away from the public at the Royal International Air Tattoo. No one on the ground sustained any serious injuries, and the two pilots ejected and landed safely.[26]

MiG-29SMT at the 2011 MAKS
MiG-29SMT at the 2011 MAKS

The Russian Air Force grounded all its MiG-29s following a crash in Siberia on 17 October 2008.[27] Following a second crash with a MiG-29 in east Siberia in December 2008,[28][29] Russian officials admitted that most MiG-29 fighters in the Russian Air Force were incapable of performing combat duties due to poor maintenance. The age of the aircraft was also an important factor as about 70% of the MiGs were considered to be too old to take to the skies.[30] The Russian MiG-29s have not received updates since the collapse of the Soviet Union. On 4 February 2009, the Russian Air Force resumed flights with the MiG-29.[31] However, in March 2009, 91 MiG-29s of the Russian Air Force required repair after inspections due to corrosion; approximately 100 MiGs were cleared to continue flying at the time.[32][33] The Russian Air Force started an update of its early MiG-29s to the more current MiG-29SMT standard,[18] but financial difficulties prevented delivery of more than three MiG-29 SMT upgrade to the Russian Air Force.[34] Instead, the 35 MiG-29SMT/UBTs rejected by Algeria were bought by the Russian Air Force.[35] Russia placed an order for 16 new-build MiG-29SMTs on 15 April 2014, with delivery expected by 2017.[36]

On 4 June 2015, a MiG-29 crashed during training in Astrakhan.[37] A month later, another MiG-29 crashed near the village of Kushchevskaya in the Krasnodar region with the pilot safely ejecting.[38] A series of accidents in the Russian Air Force that happened in 2015 were caused mostly by overall increase of flights and trainings.[39]

On 20 April 2008, Georgian officials claimed a Russian MiG-29 shot down a Georgian Hermes 450 unmanned aerial vehicle and provided video footage from the ill-fated drone showing an apparent MiG-29 launching an air-to-air missile at it. Russia denies that the aircraft was theirs and says they did not have any pilots in the air that day. Abkhazia's administration claimed its own forces shot down the drone with an L-39 aircraft "because it was violating Abkhaz airspace and breaching ceasefire agreements."[40] UN investigation concluded that the video was authentic and that the drone was shot down by a Russian MiG-29 or Su-27 using a R-73 heat seeking missile.[41]

On 16 July 2014, a Ukrainian Su-25 was shot down, with Ukrainian officials stating that a Russian MiG-29 shot it down using a R-27T missile.[42][43] Russia denied these allegations.[44]

During the first half of September 2017, the Russian Air Force deployed some MiG-29SMT multirole combat aircraft to Khmeimim Airbase, near Latakia, in western Syria, becoming the first time the modernized version of the baseline Fulcrum jet was deployed to take part in the Syrian Air War.[45] The MiG-29SMT were involved in bombing missions and secondary strategic bombers escort duties.[46]

Two Russian MiG-29s operated by Wagner Group crashed near Sirte, Libya on 28 June 2020 and on 7 September 2020.[47]

Ukraine

A Ukrainian MiG-29 in 2018
A Ukrainian MiG-29 in 2018

In April 2014, during the military intervention in Crimea, 45 Ukrainian Air Force MiG-29s and 4 L-39 combat trainers were reportedly captured by Russian forces at Belbek air base. Most of the planes appeared to be in inoperable condition. In May, Russian troops dismantled them and shipped them back to Ukraine. On 4 August 2014, the Ukrainian government stated that a number of them had been put back into service to fight in the war in the east of the country.[48]

During the initial days of the War in Donbas in April 2014, the Ukrainian Air Force deployed some jet fighters over the Donetsk region to perform combat air patrols and show of force flights. Probably due to the limited number of jet fighters available, a MiG-29 belonging to the Ukrainian Falcons display team was spotted armed with a full air-to-air load and performing a low altitude fly by.[49]

In the evening of 7 August 2014, a Ukrainian Air Force MiG-29MU1, bort number 02 Blue, was shot down by an antiaircraft missile fired by pro-Russian rebels near the town of Yenakievo, and exploded in midair. The pilot ejected safely.[50][51][52]

On 17 August 2014, another Ukrainian Air Force MiG-29, bort number 53 White, tasked with air to ground duties against separatists' positions[53] was shot down by pro-Russian rebels in the Luhansk region. The Ukrainian government confirmed the downing. The pilot ejected safely and was recovered by friendly forces.[54][55]

As of 2018, the Lviv State Aircraft Repair Plant began domestically upgrading the MiG-29 to have multirole capability, known as the MiG-29MU2. Development was expected to be completed by 2019 and enter production in 2020.[56] The first upgraded MiG-29 was delivered to the Ukrainian Air Force in July 2020.[57] In August 2020, Ukraine began negotiations with Elbit Systems to help modernize the MiG-29 fleet.

On 29 May 2020, Ukrainian MiG-29s took part in the Bomber Task Force in Europe with American B-1B bombers for the first time in the Black Sea region.[58] In September 2020, B-52 bombers from the 5th Bomb Wing conducted vital integration training with Ukrainian MiG-29s and Su-27s inside Ukraine's airspace.[59][60]

During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Su-27s and MiG-29s were used as air superiority fighters, with ten MiG-29s reported lost on the ground and in the air.[61][62][63][64][65][66][67]

In August 2022, a senior U.S. defense official disclosed that the Ukrainians have successfully integrated the AGM-88 HARM missile onto their "MiG aircraft"[68] with video evidence of AGM-88 missiles fired by upgraded Ukrainian MiG-29s released by the Ukrainian Air Force few days later.[69] For a weapon that relies on digital display to fire, the question of how it has been integrated into the MiG-29’s analogue displays remains unanswered. The footage shows a commercial GPS having been installed along with a tablet of some kind.[70]

On 13 October 2022, a Ukrainian MiG-29 crashed during a combat mission. Its pilot is claimed to have destroyed a Shahed-136 drone with his cannon, and it is believed the debris from the drone collided with the aircraft and forced the pilot to eject. Ukrainian sources claim that the pilot shot down five drones and two cruise missiles shortly before the crash. The downed MiG-29 was wearing a livery similar to that of the Ukrainian Falcons display team. According to the Ukrainian State Bureau of Investigation: "the jet collided with debris from a destroyed drone, which caused massive damage to it to the point where it crashed near a village in northeast Vinnytsia. The pilot managed to eject and is currently receiving treatment in the hospital."[71][72]

Export

India

MiG-29 of the Indian Air Force at Aero India 2009
MiG-29 of the Indian Air Force at Aero India 2009

India was the first international customer of the MiG-29. The Indian Air Force (IAF) placed an order for more than 66 MiG-29s in 1980 while the aircraft was still in its initial development phase. Since its induction into the IAF in 1985, the aircraft has undergone a series of modifications with the addition of new avionics, sub-systems, turbofan engines and radars.[73]

Indian MiG-29s were used extensively during the 1999 Kargil War in Kashmir by the Indian Air Force to provide fighter escort for Mirage 2000s attacking targets with laser-guided bombs.[74]

The MiG-29's good operational record prompted India to sign a deal with Russia in 2005 and 2006 to upgrade all of its MiG-29s for US$888 million. Under the deal, the Indian MiGs were modified to be capable of deploying the R-77/RVV-AE (AA-12 'Adder') air-to-air missile. The missiles had been successfully tested in October 1998 and were integrated into the IAF's MiG-29s. The IAF has also awarded the MiG Corporation another US$900 million contract to upgrade all of its 69 operational MiG-29s. These upgrades will include a new avionics kit, with the N019 radar being replaced by a Phazotron Zhuk-M radar. The aircraft is also being equipped to enhance beyond-visual-range combat ability and for air-to-air refuelling to increase endurance.[75] In 2007, Russia also gave India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) a licence to manufacture 120 RD-33 series 3 turbofan engines for the upgrade.[76] The upgrade will also include a new weapon control system, improved cockpit ergonomics, air-to-air missiles, high-accuracy air-to-ground missiles and guided bombs. The first six MiG-29s will be upgraded in Russia while the remaining 63 MiGs will be upgraded at the HAL facility in India. India also awarded a multi-million-dollar contract to Israel Aircraft Industries to provide avionics and subsystems for the upgrade.[77]

An Indian Air Force MiG-29UPG
An Indian Air Force MiG-29UPG

In March 2009, the Indian Air Force expressed concern after 90 MiG-29s were grounded in Russia.[78] After carrying out an extensive inspection, the IAF cleared all MiG-29s in its fleet as safe in March 2009.[79] In a disclosure in Parliament, Defence Minister A. K. Antony said the MiG-29 is structurally flawed in that it has a tendency to develop cracks due to corrosion in the tail fin. Russia has shared this finding with India, which emerged after the crash of a Russian Air Force MiG-29 in December 2008. "A repair scheme and preventive measures are in place and IAF has not encountered major problems concerning the issue", Antony said.[80] Despite concerns of Russia's grounding, India sent the first six of its 78 MiG-29s to Russia for upgrades in 2008. The upgrade program will fit the MiGs with a phased array radar (PESA) and in-flight re-fuelling capability.[24]

Indian Air Force MiG-29UPG patrolling the Himalayas
Indian Air Force MiG-29UPG patrolling the Himalayas

In January 2010, India and Russia signed a US$1.2 billion deal under which the Indian Navy would acquire 29 additional MiG-29Ks, bringing the total number of MiG-29Ks on order to 45.[81] The MiG-29K entered service with the Indian Navy on 19 February 2010.[82]

MiG-29K landing on INS Vikramaditya
MiG-29K landing on INS Vikramaditya

The upgrades to Indian MiG-29s will be to the MiG-29UPG standard. This version is similar to the SMT variant but differs by having a foreign-made avionics suite.[83] The upgrade to latest MiG-29UPG standard is in process, which will include latest avionics, Zhuk-ME Radar, engine, weapon control systems, DRDO/DARE developed D-29 electronic warfare system greatly enhancing multi-role capabilities and survivability.[84][85][86] The first three aircraft were delivered in December 2012, over two years behind schedule.[87]

An IAF MiG-29 crashed near Jalandhar in Punjab on 8 May 2020 with its pilot ejected safely after the aircraft failed to respond. A court of inquiry has been ordered in the incident.[88]

In 2020, India ordered 21 MiG-29s at an affordable price. These aircraft will be manufactured from airframes built in late 1980s but never assembled. Mikoyan will upgrade these aircraft before delivery to Indian Air Force. In the process, India becomes the last export customer of the original airframe of MiG-29.[89][90][91] Russia has sent a commercial proposal for 21 MiG-29 aircraft to be refurbished for the Indian Air Force.[92]

Yugoslavia and Serbia

Yugoslavia was the first European country outside the Soviet Union to operate the MiG-29. The country received 14 MiG-29Bs and two MiG-29UBs from the USSR in 1987 and 1988. The MiG-29s were put into service with the 127th Fighter Aviation Squadron, based at Batajnica Air Base, north of Belgrade, Serbia.[93]

Yugoslav MiG-29s saw little combat during the breakup of Yugoslavia, and were used primarily for ground attacks. Several Antonov An-2 aircraft used by Croatia were destroyed on the ground at Čepin airfield near Osijek, Croatia in 1991 by a Yugoslav MiG-29, with no MiG-29 losses.[94] At least two MiG-29s carried out an air strike on Banski Dvori, the official residence of the Croatian Government, on 7 October 1991.[95]

The MiG-29s continued their service in the subsequent Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Because of the United Nations arms embargo against the country, the condition of the MiG-29s worsened as aircraft were not maintained according to rules and general overhaul scheduled for 1996 and 1997 was not conducted.[96]

Six MiG-29s were shot down during the NATO intervention in the Kosovo War, three by USAF F-15s, one by a USAF F-16, and one by a Royal Netherlands Air Force F-16.[97][98] However, one aircraft, according to its pilot, was hit by friendly fire from the ground.[99] Another four were destroyed on the ground.[100] One Argentine source claims that a MiG-29 shot down an F-16 on 26 March 1999,[101] but this kill is disputed, as the F-16C in question was said to have crashed in the US that same day.[102]

A digital representation of a MiG-29B in service with the Air Force of Serbia and Montenegro during Operation Allied Force in 1999.
A digital representation of a MiG-29B in service with the Air Force of Serbia and Montenegro during Operation Allied Force in 1999.

The Air Force of Serbia and Montenegro continued flying its remaining five MiG-29s at a very low rate after the war with one of them crashing on 7 July 2009. In spring 2004, news appeared that MiG-29 operations had ceased, because the aircraft could not be maintained,[94] but later the five remaining airframes were sent to Russia for overhaul. The small Serbian MiG-29 fleet along with other jets were grounded for four months during Summer 2014 due to a battery procurement issue. The Serbian Air Force operates 14 MiG-29s as of 2020 with two more to be added in 2021.[103]

In November 2016, Russia had agreed to donate six of its MiG-29s free of charge, if Serbia would pay the repair costs of $50 million for them.[104] At the end of January 2017, Serbian defense minister Zoran Đorđević said that Belarus also agreed to donate eight of its MiG-29s to Serbia on a no-pay basis.[105] In early October 2017, Russia completed the delivery of all the six MiG-29s. The aircraft were transferred to Serbia on board an Antonov An-124 transport aircraft.[106] On 25 February 2019, Belarus formally handed four MiG-29s to the Serbian military during a ceremony held at the 558th Aircraft Repair Plant in Baranavichy. This increased the Serbian Air Force's fleet to 14 MiG-29s.[107] Serbia plans to spend about €180–230 million on modernization of its entire MiG-29 fleet.[108][109]

Germany

East Germany bought 24 MiG-29s (20 MiG-29As, four MiG-29UBs), which entered service in 1988–1989 in 1./JG3 "Wladimir Komarow" in Preschen in Brandenburg.[110] After the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and reunification of Germany in October 1990, the MiG-29s and other aircraft of the East German Air Forces of the National People's Army were integrated into the West German Luftwaffe.[111] Initially the 1./JG3 kept its designation. In April 1991 both 1./JG3's MiG-29 squadrons were reorganised into the MiG-29 test wing ("Erprobungsgeschwader MiG-29"), which became JG73 "Steinhoff" and was transferred to Laage near Rostock in June 1993.

The Federation of American Scientists claims the MiG-29 is equal to, or better than the F-15C in short aerial engagements because of the Helmet Mounted Weapons Sight (HMS) and better maneuverability at slow speeds.[112] This was demonstrated when MiG-29s of the German Air Force participated in joint DACT exercises with US fighters.[113][114] The HMS was a great help, allowing the Germans to achieve a lock on any target the pilot could see within the missile field of view, including those almost 45 degrees off boresight.[115] However, the German pilots who flew the MiG-29 admitted that while the Fulcrum was more maneuverable at slow speeds than the F-15 Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-14 Tomcat, and F/A-18 Hornet and its Vympel R-73 dogfight missile system was superior to the AIM-9 Sidewinder of the time, in engagements that went into the beyond visual range arena, the German pilots found it difficult to multi-task locking and firing the MiG-29's Vympel R-27 missile (German MiG-29s did not have access to the more advanced Vympel R-77 that equips more advanced MiG-29 versions) while trying to avoid the longer range and advanced search and track capabilities of the American fighters' radars and AIM-120 AMRAAM. The Germans also stated that the American fighters had the advantage in both night and bad weather combat conditions. The Luftwaffe's assessment of the MiG-29 was that the Fulcrum was best used as a point defense interceptor over cities and military installations, not for fighter sweeps over hostile airspace. This assessment ultimately led Germany to not deploy its MiG-29s in the Kosovo War during Operation Allied Force, though Luftwaffe pilots who flew the MiG-29 admitted that even if they were permitted to fly combat missions over the former Yugoslavia they would have been hampered by the lack of NATO-specific communication tools and identification friend or foe systems.[116][117]

Beginning in 1993, the German MiGs were stationed with JG73 "Steinhoff" in Laage near Rostock. During the service in the German Air Force, one MiG-29 ("29+09") was destroyed in an accident on 25 June 1996 due to pilot error. By 2003, German Air Force pilots had flown over 30,000 hours in the MiG-29. In September 2003, 22 of the 23 remaining machines were sold to the Polish Air Force for the symbolic price of 1 per item.[118] The last aircraft were transferred in August 2004.[119] The 23rd MiG-29 ("29+03") was put on display at Laage.[120]

Libya

In 2020 it was reported that MiG-29 aircraft was flown by forces aligned with Khalifa Haftar in Libya.[121] On 11 September 2020, United States Africa Command stated that two MiG-29s, operated by Russian speaking personnel, crashed in Libya due to unknown reasons, the first on 28 June 2020, the second on 7 September 2020.[122] It was announced that MiG-29s and Su-24s are to be delivered to the Libyan air force from Russia.[123]

Peru

MiG-29SE of the Peruvian Air Force
MiG-29SE of the Peruvian Air Force

The Peruvian Air Force acquired 21 MiG-29S fighters from Belarus in 1997, as part of a package that also included 18 Su-25 attack aircraft. The following year an additional 3 MiG-29 aircraft were acquired from Russia. At the same time, Peru contracted with Mikoyan to upgrade 8 aircraft to the MiG-29SMP standard, with an option to upgrade the remainder of the Peruvian inventory. The Peruvian MiG-29s are based at FAP Captain José Abelardo Quiñones González International Airport in northern Peru, equipping Escuadrón Aéreo 612 (Fighter Squadron 612 "Fighting Roosters").[124]

Poland

A Polish Air Force MiG-29 with a USAF F-16.
A Polish Air Force MiG-29 with a USAF F-16.

The first 12 MiG-29s delivered to Poland were nine MiG-29As and three MiG-29UBs in 1989–1990. The aircraft were based at Mińsk Mazowiecki and used by the 1st Fighter Aviation Regiment, which was reorganized in 2001 as 1 Eskadra Lotnictwa Taktycznego (1. elt), or 1st Tactical Squadron (TS). In 1995–1996, 10 used examples were acquired from the Czech Republic (nine MiG-29As, one MiG-29UB). After the retirement of its MiG-23s in 1999, and MiG-21s in 2004, Poland was left for a time with only these 22 MiG-29s in the interceptor role.

Of the 22 MiG-29s Poland received from the German Air Force in 2004, a total of 14 were overhauled and taken into service. They were used to equip the 41st Tactical Squadron (41. elt), replacing its MiG-21s. As of 2008, Poland was the biggest NATO MiG-29 user. Poland had 31 active MiG-29s (25 MiG-29As, six MiG-29UBs) as of 2017.[125] They are stationed with the 1st Tactical Squadron at the 23rd Air Base near Mińsk Mazowiecki and the 41st TS at the 22nd Air Base near Malbork.

There have been unconfirmed reports that Poland has at one point leased a MiG-29 from its own inventory to Israel for evaluation and the aircraft has since been returned to Poland, as suggested by photographs of a MiG-29 in Israeli use. Three Polish MiG-29As were reported in Israel for evaluation between April and May 1997 in the Negev desert. On 7 September 2011, the Polish Air Force awarded a contract to the WZL 2 company to modernise its MiG-29 fleet to be compatible with Polish F-16s.[126]

Four MiG-29s from 1. elt participated in the Baltic Air Policing mission in 2006, while 41. elt aircraft did so in 2008, 2010 and 2012. Polish MiG-29s played the aggressor role in the NATO Tactical Leadership Programme (TLP) joint training program in Albacete in 2011, 2012 and 2013.[127]

On 18 December 2017, a MiG-29 crash-landed in a forest near the 23rd Air Base while performing a landing approach.[128] The pilot did not eject, but survived the crash with minor injuries. This was the first crash of a MiG-29 during its nearly three decades long operational history in the Polish Air Force.[129] On 6 July 2018, another MiG-29 crashed near Pasłęk, with its pilot dying in an ejection attempt. Technical issues are suspected to have played a role in the crash.[130] Another crash followed on 4 March 2019. This time the pilot ejected and survived.[131]

On 8 March 2022, Poland announced a willingness to transfer their operational fleet of MiG-29 aircraft to the US via the Ramstein Air Base, in exchange for aircraft of a similar role and operational capability, with the intent of transferring the MiG-29s to Ukraine to use in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[132]

Iraq

Iraq received a number of MiG-29 fighters and used them to engage Iranian equivalent opponents during the later stages of the Iran–Iraq War.

MiG-29s also saw combat in the 1991 Persian Gulf War with the Iraqi Air Force. Five MiG-29s were shot down by USAF F-15s.[133] Some Russian sources reported that one British Panavia Tornado, ZA467, was shot down in northwestern Iraq by a MiG-29 piloted by Jameel Sayhood.[134][135] UK sources claim this Tornado to have crashed on 22 January on a mission to Ar Rutbah.[136] Other Iraqi air-to-air kills are reported in Russian sources, where the US claims other cases of combat damage, such as a B-52 which the US claims was hit by friendly fire, when an AGM-88 high-speed, anti-radiation missile (HARM) homed on the fire-control radar of the B-52's tail gun; the bomber returned to base and was subsequently renamed "In HARM's Way".[137] It is believed that an F-111 was hit by a missile fired by a MiG-29 but it was able to return to base.[138]

Iraq's original fleet of 37 MiG-29s was reduced to 12 after the Gulf War. One MiG-29 was damaged, and four were evacuated to Iran.[139] The remaining 12 aircraft were withdrawn from use in 1995 because the engines needed to be overhauled but Iraq could not send them off for that work.[140]

After the American-led 2003 invasion of Iraq and disbandment of the Ba'athist Iraqi Army in May of the same year,[141] the remaining Soviet-made and Chinese-made fighters of the Iraqi Air Force had been decommissioned.

Syria

Syrian Arab Air Force MiG-29s have sometimes encountered Israeli fighter and reconnaissance aircraft. Two Israeli F-15Cs reportedly shot down two MiG-29As on 2 June 1989 under unclear circumstances.[142][143]

Further reports claim that on 14 September 2001 two Syrian Air Force MiG-29s were shot down by two Israeli F-15Cs while the MiGs were intercepting an Israeli reconnaissance aircraft off the coast of Lebanon. However, both Syria and Israel deny that this occurred.[143][144][145]

Syrian MiG-29s entered the Syrian Civil War in late October 2013, attacking Free Syrian Army insurgents with unguided rockets and bombs in Damascus.[146]

A Syrian MiG-29SM crashed on 7 March 2020 near Shayrat Airbase. Marking the first crash of the plane in the Syrian Air Force since 2001. According to avia.pro the aircraft may have been shot down by MANPADS operated by the Syrian Opposition.[147][148]

Sudan

There have been occasional claims regarding the use of Sudanese Air Force MiG-29s against insurgent forces in Darfur. However, whereas Mi-24 combat helicopters as well as Nanchang A-5 or, more recently, Su-25 ground-attack aircraft have been spotted and photographed on Darfurian air fields, no MiG-29s have been observed. On 10 May 2008, a Darfur rebel group, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) mounted an assault on the Sudanese capital. During this action, the JEM shot down a Sudanese Air Force MiG-29 with 12.7 and 14.5 mm (0.500 and 0.571 in) heavy machine gun fire while it was attacking a convoy of vehicles in the Khartoum suburb of Omdurman. The aircraft was piloted by a Russian mercenary. He was killed in action as his parachute did not open after ejecting.[149][150][151] On 14 November 2008 Sudanese Ministry of Defence admitted that Sudan had received 12 MiG-29 from Russia.[152] An anonymous Russian source claimed that the aircraft had been delivered before 2004.[152]

During the brief 2012 South Sudan–Sudan border conflict, on 4 April 2012, Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) claimed the downing of a Sudanese MiG-29 using antiaircraft guns. The Sudan government denied the claim.[153] On 16 April 2012, the SPLA issued a second claim about the downing of a Sudanese MiG-29.[154] It was not clear if this second claim referred to the previous one.

United States

In 1997, the United States purchased 21 Moldovan MiG-29 aircraft under the Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program. Fourteen were MiG-29S models, which are equipped with an active radar jammer in its spine and are capable of being armed with nuclear weapons. Part of the United States’ motive to purchase these aircraft was to prevent them from being sold to Iran.[155] This purchase could also provide the tactical jet fighter communities of the USAF, the USN and the USMC with a working evaluation and data for the MiG-29, and possibly for use in dissimilar air combat training. Such information may prove valuable in any future conflicts and can aid in the design and testing of current and future weapons platforms. In late 1997, the MiGs were delivered to the National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio, though many of the former Moldovan MiG-29s are believed to have been scrapped. Some of these MiG-29s are currently on open display at Nellis AFB, Nevada; NAS Fallon, Nevada; Goodfellow AFB, Texas; and Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.

Others

A MiG-29AS of the Slovak Air Force
A MiG-29AS of the Slovak Air Force

The Korean People's Air Force is believed to operate about 40 MiG-29Bs and MiG-29SEs divided into the 55th and 57th fighter regiments based at Sunchon and Onchon, respectively.[156] A production license was given to North Korea in 1987 and around 15 were produced locally up to the late 1990s.[157] These were first encountered and photographed by the USAF in March 2003 when a pair of KPAF MiG-29s intercepted an USAF RC-135S reconnaissance aircraft.[158][159]

A Cuban MiG-29UB shot down two Cessna 337s belonging to the organisation Brothers to the Rescue in 1996, after the aircraft approached Cuban airspace.[160]

According to some reports, in the 1999 Eritrean-Ethiopian War, a number of Eritrean MiG-29s were shot down by Ethiopian Su-27s piloted by Russian mercenaries.[161] It was reported that local pilots were trained by instructors from those nations.[162] There are also some other reports of Eritrean MiG-29s shooting down two Ethiopian MiG-21s, three MiG-23s.[163] The claim that an Eritrean MiG-29 shot down an Ethiopian Su-25 was later debunked, since the missing Ethiopian Su-25TK was damaged in an accident in May 2000, is actually stored and used for spares at Bishoftu Air Base.

The Bangladesh Air Force (BAF) operates 8 MiG-29s (6B & 2UB).[164]

After the end of the 1994 civil war, newly reunified Yemen inherited several intact MiG-29s, bought by South Yemen a few months earlier.[165] In 1995-1996, Yemen also received two additional jets from Kazakhstan.[166] In 2001, a major arms deal including the purchase of up to 36 upgraded MiG-29s was signed, with deliveries starting in June 2002.[166] Equipped with N019MP radar and an advanced fire control system, they became the most advanced combat aircraft in the Yemeni Air force arsenal. They are compatible with Kh-31P and Kh-29T guided air-to-ground missiles, as well as R-77 air-to-air missiles.[166]

Potential operators and failed bids

Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Finland had a policy of splitting procurement of armaments between western, eastern and domestic suppliers. The MiG-29 was planned to replace the Finnish Air Force's MiG-21 fighters up to 1988, with test flights having been done.[167]

In the second half of the 1980s, the Soviet Union offered the MiG-29 to Libya. The offer was turned down, as the weapons system and radar of the MiG-29 were assessed as similar to those of the MiG-23MLD already in service with the Libyan Arab Air Force. The MiG-29's price was also deemed much too high.[168]

In 1989, Zimbabwe ordered a squadron's worth of MiG-29s to the USSR. Some Air Force of Zimbabwe personnel travelled to Russia for conversion courses, but in 1992 the deal was cancelled, as the geopolitical situation of the region was stabilising.[169]

In December 2008, Russia moved to expand its military influence in the Middle East when it announced it was giving Lebanon 10 fighter jets, that would have been the most significant upgrade of Lebanon's military since the civil war ended almost two decades before. A Russian defence ministry representative said it was giving secondhand MiG-29s to Lebanon for free. This was to be part of a defence cooperation deal that would have included Lebanese military personnel training in Russia.[170] On 29 February 2010, Russia agreed to change the offer to 10 Mi-24 attack helicopters based on a Lebanese request.[171]

In 2021 Russia offered the Argentine Air Force a batch of 15 MiG-29 fighters and another of Su-30 fighters with 12 units and seek also the sale of Yak-130 training jet and Mil Mi-17 helicopters.[172]

Discover more about Operational history related topics

McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet

McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet

The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is an all-weather, twin-engine, carrier-capable, multirole combat aircraft, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft. Designed by McDonnell Douglas and Northrop, the F/A-18 was derived from the latter's YF-17 in the 1970s for use by the United States Navy and Marine Corps. The Hornet is also used by the air forces of several other nations, and formerly by the U.S. Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels.

General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon

The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force (USAF). Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,600 aircraft have been built since production was approved in 1976. Although no longer being purchased by the U.S. Air Force, improved versions are being built for export customers. In 1993, General Dynamics sold its aircraft manufacturing business to the Lockheed Corporation, which in turn became part of Lockheed Martin after a 1995 merger with Martin Marietta.

Finland

Finland

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the south, across from Estonia. Finland covers an area of 338,455 square kilometres (130,678 sq mi) with a population of 5.6 million. Helsinki is the capital and largest city. The vast majority of the population are ethnic Finns. Finnish and Swedish are the official languages, Swedish is the native language of 5.2% of the population. Finland's climate varies from humid continental in the south to the boreal in the north. The land cover is primarily a boreal forest biome, with more than 180,000 recorded lakes.

Farnborough Airshow

Farnborough Airshow

The Farnborough Airshow, officially the Farnborough International Airshow, is a trade exhibition for the aerospace and defence industries, where civilian and military aircraft are demonstrated to potential customers and investors. Since its first show in 1948, Farnborough has seen the debut of many famous planes, including the Vickers VC10, Concorde, the Eurofighter, the Airbus A380, and the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II. At the 1958 show, the RAF's Black Arrows executed a 22-plane formation loop, setting a world record.

Paris Air Show

Paris Air Show

The Paris Air Show is a trade fair and air show held in odd years at Paris–Le Bourget Airport in north Paris, France. Organized by the French aerospace industry's primary representative body, the Groupement des industries françaises aéronautiques et spatiales (GIFAS), it is the largest air show and aerospace-industry exhibition event in the world, measured by number of exhibitors and size of exhibit space, followed by UK's Farnborough Air Show, Dubai Air Show, and Singapore Airshow.

Russian Air Force

Russian Air Force

The Russian Air Force is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merging of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. The modern VVS was originally established on 7 May 1992 following Boris Yeltsin's creation of the Ministry of Defence. However, the Russian Federation's air force can trace its lineage and traditions back to the Imperial Russian Air Service (1912–1917) and the Soviet Air Forces (1918–1991).

Royal International Air Tattoo

Royal International Air Tattoo

The Royal International Air Tattoo (RIAT) is the world's largest military air show, held annually in July, usually at RAF Fairford in Gloucestershire, England in support of The Royal Air Force Charitable Trust. The show typically attracts a total of 150,000 to 200,000 spectators over the weekend.

Ejection seat

Ejection seat

In aircraft, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft in an emergency. In most designs, the seat is propelled out of the aircraft by an explosive charge or rocket motor, carrying the pilot with it. The concept of an ejectable escape crew capsule has also been tried. Once clear of the aircraft, the ejection seat deploys a parachute. Ejection seats are common on certain types of military aircraft.

Siberia

Siberia

Siberia is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of Russia since the latter half of the 16th century, after the Russians conquered lands east of the Ural Mountains. Siberia is vast and sparsely populated, covering an area of over 13.1 million square kilometres (5,100,000 sq mi), but home to merely one-fifth of Russia's population. Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk and Omsk are the largest cities in the region.

Aero L-39 Albatros

Aero L-39 Albatros

The Aero L-39 Albatros is a high-performance jet trainer designed and produced in Czechoslovakia by Aero Vodochody. It is the most widely used jet trainer in the world; in addition to performing basic and advanced pilot training, it has also flown combat missions in a light-attack role. Unusually, the aircraft never received a NATO reporting name.

R-27 (air-to-air missile)

R-27 (air-to-air missile)

The Vympel R-27 is a family of air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force, air forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States and air forces of many other countries as standard medium range air-to-air missile even though they have the more advanced R-77.

Sirte

Sirte

Sirt, also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya. It is located south of the Gulf of Sirte, between Tripoli and Benghazi. It is famously known for its battles, ethnic groups, and loyalty to Muammar Gaddafi. Also due to developments in the First Libyan Civil War, it was briefly the capital of Libya as Tripoli's successor after the Fall of Tripoli from 1 September to 20 October 2011. The settlement was established in the early 20th century by the Italians, at the site of a 19th-century fortress built by the Ottomans. It grew into a city after World War II.

Variants

Original Soviet variants

A squadron of Bulgarian Air Force MiG-29 "Fulcrum-A"
A squadron of Bulgarian Air Force MiG-29 "Fulcrum-A"
MiG-29A (Product 9.12)[173]
Initial production version for Soviet Air Force; entered service in 1983. NATO reporting name is "Fulcrum-A". Variant possessed the Phazotron N019 Rubin radar, OEPS-29 optical-electronic sighting system and helmet mounted sight.
MiG-29A (Product 9.12A)
Export variant of the 9.12 for Warsaw Pact pact countries which included a downgraded RPLK-29E radar, downgraded OEPrNK-29E optoelectronic and navigation systems and older IFF transponders. This variant also lacked the capability to deliver nuclear weapons. Delivered to East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Romania.
MiG-29A (Product 9.12B)
Export variant of the 9.12 for non-Warsaw Pact pact countries which included a further downgraded radar and avionics. Delivered to India, Iraq, Iran, Syria, North Korea, Cuba, Malaysia, Myanmar and Eritrea.
MiG-29UB (Product 9.51)
Twin seat training model. Infrared sensor mounted only, no radar. NATO reporting name is "Fulcrum-B".
MiG-29A (Product 9.13)
Update of the initial production version; entered service in 1986. NATO reporting name is "Fulcrum-C". Variant possessed an enlarged dorsal spine to accommodate a larger No.1 fuel tank and the installation of the L-203BE Gardenyia-1 jammer that was lacking on the initial 9.12 version. This enlarged spine earned the 9.13 version and its successors the nickname of "Fatback".
MiG-29A (Product 9.13B)
Export variant of the 9.13 provided to North Korea, lacking the Gardenyia-1 jammer and possessing downgraded avionics.
MiG-29S (Product 9.13S)
The MiG-29S was an update of the original 9.13 model retaining the NATO reporting code "Fulcrum-C" and featured flight control system improvements; a total of four new computers provided better stability augmentation and controllability with an increase of 2° in angle of attack (AoA). An improved mechanical-hydraulic flight control system allowed for greater control surface deflections. The MiG-29S can carry 1,150 L (250 imp gal; 300 U.S. gal) under wing drop tanks and a centerline tank. The inboard underwing hardpoints allow a tandem pylon arrangement for carrying a larger payload of 4,000 kg (8,800 lb). Overall maximum gross weight was raised to 20,000 kg (44,000 lb). This version also included new avionics and the new Phazotron N019M radar and Built-In Test Equipment (BITE) to reduce dependence on ground support equipment. Development of this version was initiated due to multiple systems being compromised to the West by Phazotron engineer Adolf Tolkachev. This was the final version of the MiG-29 produced before the collapse of the Soviet Union and only limited numbers were produced.

Upgraded variants based on original airframe

MiG-29S (Product 9.12S)
Post Soviet upgrade for older 9.12 variants incorporating the changes developed for version 9.13S.
Mig-29SD (Product 9.12SD)
Export variant of upgraded 9.12S with downgraded versions of radar and avionics.
MiG-29SE (Product 9.13SE)
Export variant of the 9.13S with slightly downgraded N-019ME radar with multiple target tracking ability and RVV-AE (R-77 missile) compatibility. The first export model MiG-29 with underwing drop tanks; the inner underwing pylons can carry over 500 kg (1,100 lb) bombs in side by side tandem pairs. Its weapons mix includes R-27T1, R-27ER1 and R-27ET1 medium-range missiles. The aircraft can be fitted with active ECM systems, weapons guidance aids, improved built-in check and training systems. The MiG-29SE can simultaneously engage two air targets.
MiG-29SM (Product 9.13M)
Similar to the 9.13, but with the ability to carry guided air-to-surface missiles and TV- and laser-guided bombs. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-C".
MiG-29SM (SyAF)
For the Syrian Air Force, and based on the MiG-29SM, except the Syrian MiG-29SM uses the 9.12 airframe. RAC MiG developed a special variant for Syria.[174]
MiG-29G/MiG-29GT
East German MiG-29 / 29UB upgraded to NATO standards, with work done by MiG Aircraft Product Support GmbH (MAPS), a joint venture company form between MiG Moscow Aviation Production Association and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace in 1993.[175]
MiG-29AS/MiG-29UBS
Slovak Air Force performed an upgrade on their MiG-29/-29UB for NATO compatibility. Work is done by RAC MiG and Western firms, starting from 2005. The aircraft now has navigation and communications systems from Rockwell Collins, an IFF system from BAE Systems, new glass cockpit features multi-function LC displays and digital processors and also fitted to be integrate with Western equipment in the future. However, the armaments of the aircraft remain unchanged. 12 out of 21 of the entire MiG-29 fleet were upgraded and had been delivered as of late February 2008.[176]
MiG-29 Sniper
MiG-29 Sniper
MiG-29 Sniper
Upgrade planned for the Romanian Air Force by DASA, Aerostar and Elbit. DASA was responsible for program management,technical support and the test flight program (together with Elbit), Elbit was responsible for developing the avionics package, while Aerostar implemented the upgrades on the aircraft. The first flight occurred on 5 May 2000.[177][178] The upgrades included the installation of a new modular multi role computer based on the MIL-STD-1553B data bus, upgraded western avionics, new radio stations, hybrid navigation system composed of an inertial navigation system and coupled with GPS receiver, identification system, two 152 mm × 203 mm (6.0 in × 8.0 in) MFCDs, a Head-Up Display equipped with UFCP front control panel, new RWR, new HOTAS and new ADC. The addition of a new radar and the integration of western weapons while maintaining Russian ones were also expected.[179] The program halted due to various reasons, along with the retiring of Romanian MiG-29s in 2003, the Romanian Government deciding to further invest in the MiG-21 LanceR program.[180]
A Russian Air Force MiG-29SMT.
A Russian Air Force MiG-29SMT.
MiG-29SMT (Product 9.17)
The MiG-29SMT is an upgrade of first-generation MiG-29s (9.12 to 9.13) using enhancements on the MiG-29M. Additional fuel tanks in a further enlarged spine provide a maximum internal flight range of 2,100 km (1,300 mi). The cockpit has an enhanced HOTAS design, two 152 mm × 203 mm (6.0 in × 8.0 in) colour liquid crystal MFDs and two smaller monochrome LCDs. The MiG-29A lacked an advanced air-to-ground capability, thus the SMT upgrade adds the upgraded Zhuk-ME radar with air-to-ground radar detection and integrates air-to-ground guided weapons.[181] It also has upgraded RD-33 ser.3 engines with afterburning thrust rated at 81 kN (18,000 lbf) each. The weapons load was increased to 4,500 kg (9,900 lb) on six underwing and one ventral hardpoints, with similar weapon choices to the MiG-29M. It can also accommodate non-Russian origin avionics and weapons.[182][183]
MiG-29BM
The MiG-29BM (probably Belarusian Modernised, possibly Bolyshaya Modernizaciya – large modernization) is an upgrade conducted by the ARZ-558 aircraft repair plant in Baranovichi, Belarus. It is a strike variant of the MiG-29 and the Belarusian counterpart to the Russian MiG-29SMT. It includes improvements to weapons, radar, as well as adding non-retractable air-air refueling ability.[184] They entered service in 2003 and it is estimated, that ten or so were modernized to BM standard.[185] The Bangladesh Air Force upgraded its MiG-29Bs similar to BM standard.[186]
MiG-29UBT (Product 9.51T)
SMT standard upgrade for the MiG-29UB. Namely users, Algeria and Yemen.[187][188]
MiG-29UPG
The UPG was a new modification intended for the MiG-29s used by the Indian Air Force. The Indian UPG version is similar to the SMT variant but differs by having a foreign-made avionics suite integrated within it.[83] The weapons suite is the same as the SMT and K/KUB versions.[83] It made its maiden flight on 4 February 2011. The version includes the new Zhuk-M radar, new avionics, an IFR probe, as well as new enhanced RD-33 Series 3 turbofan engines, and the DRDO/DARE D-29 Electronic Warfare System.[84] The modernization is part of a $900 million contract to upgrade the 69 fighter fleet.[189]
MiG-29SMP / MiG-29UBP
The SMP/UBP are upgrades for the Peruvian Air Force MiG-29 fleet. In August 2008 a contract of US$106 million was signed with RAC MiG for this custom SM upgrade of an initial batch of eight MiG-29, with a provision for upgrading all of Peru's MiG-29s.[190] The single-seat version is designated SMP, whereas the twin-seat version is designated UBP. It features an improved ECM suite, avionics, sensors, pilot interface, and a MIL-STD-1553 databus. The interfaces include improved IRST capabilities for enhanced passive detection and tracking as well as better off-boresight launch capabilities, one MFCD and HOTAS.[191] The N019M1 radar, a heavily modified and upgraded digital version of the N019 radar, replaces the standard N010 Zhuk-M of the MiG-29SMT. The upgrade also includes a structural life-extension program (SLEP), overhauled and upgraded engines, and the addition of an in-flight refuelling probe.[192]
MiG-29MU1
A Ukrainian modernization of the MiG-29.[193]
MiG-29MU2
A further Ukrainian modernization of the MiG-29, focused on air to ground munitions.[194]

Second-generation variants with modified airframe

MiG-29M / MiG-33 (Product 9.15)
Advanced multirole variant, with a redesigned airframe, mechanical flight controls replaced by a fly-by-wire system and powered by enhanced RD-33 ser.3M engines. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-E".
MiG-29UBM (Product 9.61)
Two-seat training variant of the MiG-29M. Never built. Effectively continued under the designation 'MiG-29M2'.
MiG-29M2 / MiG-29MRCA
Two-seat version of MiG-29M. Identical characteristics to MiG-29M, with a slightly reduced ferry range of 1,800 km (1,100 mi).[195] RAC MiG presented in various air shows, including Fifth China International Aviation and Aerospace Exhibition (CIAAE 2004),[196] Aero India 2005,[197][198] MAKS 2005.[199] It was once given designation MiG-29MRCA for marketing purpose and now evolved into the current MiG-35.
Russian MiG-29OVT on display
Russian MiG-29OVT on display
MiG-29OVT
The aircraft is one of the six pre-built MiG-29Ms before 1991, later received thrust vectoring engine and fly-by-wire technology. It served as a thrust-vectoring engine testbed and technology demonstrator in various air shows to show future improvement in the MiG-29M. It has identical avionics to the MiG-29M. The only difference in the cockpit layout is an additional switch to turn on vector thrust function. The two RD-133 thrust-vectoring engines, each features unique 3D rotating nozzles which can provide thrust vector deflection in all directions. However, despite its thrust-vectoring, other specifications were not officially emphasized. It is usually used as an aerobatic demonstrator and has been demonstrated along with the MiG-29M2 in various air shows around the world for potential export.[200]
Russian MiG-29M
Russian MiG-29M
MiG-29K at МАК 2007
MiG-29K at МАК 2007
MiG-29K (Product 9.31)
Naval variant based on MiG-29M, the letter "K" stands for "Korabelnogo bazirovaniya" (deck-based). It features folding wings, arrestor gear, and reinforced landing gear. Originally intended for the Admiral Kuznetsov class aircraft carriers, it had received series production approval from the Russian Ministry of Defence but was grounded in 1992 due to shift in military doctrine and financial difficulties.[201] The MiG Corporation restarted the program in 1999. On 20 January 2004, the Indian Navy signed a contract of 12 single-seat MiG-29K and four two-seat MiG-29KUB.[201] Modifications were made for the Indian Navy requirement. Production MiG-29K and MiG-29KUB share a two-seater size canopy. The MiG-29K has radar absorbing coatings to reduce radar signature. Cockpit displays consist of wide HUD and three (seven on MiG-29KUB) colour LCD MFDs with a Topsight E helmet-mounted targeting system. It has a full range of weapons compatible with the MiG-29M and MiG-29SMT.[202] NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-D".
MiG-29KUB (Product 9.47)
Identical characteristic to the MiG-29K but with tandem twin seat configuration. The design is to serve as trainer for MiG-29K pilot and is full combat capable. The first MiG-29KUB developed for the Indian Navy made its maiden flight at the Russian Zhukovsky aircraft test centre on 22 January 2007.[203] NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-D".
MiG-35
A development of the MiG-29M/M2 and MiG-29K/KUB. NATO reporting code is "Fulcrum-F".

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Bulgarian Air Force

Bulgarian Air Force

The Bulgarian Air Force is one of the three branches of the Military of Bulgaria, the other two being the Bulgarian Navy and Bulgarian land forces. Its mission is to guard and protect the sovereignty of Bulgarian airspace, and jointly with the other branches, to protect territorial integrity. The Bulgarian Air Force is one of the oldest air forces in Europe and the world. In recent times it has been actively taking part in numerous NATO missions and exercises in Europe.

Angle of attack

Angle of attack

In fluid dynamics, angle of attack is the angle between a reference line on a body and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving. Angle of attack is the angle between the body's reference line and the oncoming flow. This article focuses on the most common application, the angle of attack of a wing or airfoil moving through air.

Aircraft flight control system

Aircraft flight control system

A conventional fixed-wing aircraft flight control system consists of flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkages, and the necessary operating mechanisms to control an aircraft's direction in flight. Aircraft engine controls are also considered as flight controls as they change speed.

Hardpoint

Hardpoint

A hardpoint is an attachment location on a structural frame designed to transfer force and carry an external or internal load. The term is usually used to refer to the mounting points on the airframe of military aircraft that carry weapons, ordnances and support equipments, and also include hardpoints on the wings or fuselage of a military transport aircraft, commercial airliner or private jet where external turbofan jet engines are often mounted.

Built-in test equipment

Built-in test equipment

Built-in test equipment (BITE) for avionics primarily refers to passive fault management and diagnosis equipment built into airborne systems to support maintenance processes. Built-in test equipment includes multimeters, oscilloscopes, discharge probes, and frequency generators that are provided as part of the system to enable testing and perform diagnostics.

Adolf Tolkachev

Adolf Tolkachev

Adolf Georgiyevich Tolkachev was a Soviet electronics engineer who provided key documents to the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) between 1979 and 1985. Working at the Soviet radar design bureau Phazotron as one of the chief designers, Tolkachev gave the CIA complete detailed information about such projects as the R-23, R-24, R-33, R-27, and R-60, S-300 missile systems; fighter-interceptor aircraft radars used on the MiG-29, MiG-31, and Su-27; and other avionics. He was executed as a spy in 1986.

Laser-guided bomb

Laser-guided bomb

A laser-guided bomb (LGB) is a guided bomb that uses semi-active laser guidance to strike a designated target with greater accuracy than an unguided bomb. First developed by the United States during the Vietnam War, laser-guided bombs quickly proved their value in precision strikes of difficult point targets. These weapons use on-board electronics to track targets that are designated by laser, typically in the infrared spectrum, and adjust their glide path to accurately strike the target. Since the weapon is tracking a light signature, not the object itself, the target must be illuminated from a separate source, either by ground forces, by a pod on the attacking aircraft, or by a separate support aircraft.

German Air Force

German Air Force

The German Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Bundeswehr, the armed forces of Germany. The German Air Force was founded in 1956 during the era of the Cold War as the aerial warfare branch of the armed forces of then West Germany. After the reunification of West and East Germany in 1990, it integrated parts of the air force of the former German Democratic Republic, which itself had been founded in 1956 as part of the National People's Army. There is no organizational continuity between the current German Air Force and the former Luftwaffe of the Wehrmacht founded in 1935, which was completely disbanded in 1945/46 after World War II. The term Luftwaffe that is used for both the historic and the current German air force is the German-language generic designation of any air force.

Identification friend or foe

Identification friend or foe

Identification, friend or foe (IFF) is an identification system designed for command and control. It uses a transponder that listens for an interrogation signal and then sends a response that identifies the broadcaster. IFF systems usually use radar frequencies, but other electromagnetic frequencies, radio or infrared, may be used. It enables military and civilian air traffic control interrogation systems to identify aircraft, vehicles or forces as friendly and to determine their bearing and range from the interrogator. IFF is used by both military and civilian aircraft. IFF was first developed during World War II, with the arrival of radar, and several friendly fire incidents.

Aerostar

Aerostar

Aerostar S.A. is an aeronautical manufacturing company based in Bacău, Romania.

MIL-STD-1553

MIL-STD-1553

MIL-STD-1553 is a military standard published by the United States Department of Defense that defines the mechanical, electrical, and functional characteristics of a serial data bus. It was originally designed as an avionic data bus for use with military avionics, but has also become commonly used in spacecraft on-board data handling (OBDH) subsystems, both military and civil, including use on the James Webb space telescope. It features multiple redundant balanced line physical layers, a (differential) network interface, time-division multiplexing, half-duplex command/response protocol, and can handle up to 31 Remote Terminals (devices); 32 is typically designated for broadcast messages. A version of MIL-STD-1553 using optical cabling in place of electrical is known as MIL-STD-1773.

Radar warning receiver

Radar warning receiver

Radar warning receiver (RWR) systems detect the radio emissions of radar systems. Their primary purpose is to issue a warning when a radar signal that might be a threat is detected, like a fighter aircraft's fire control radar. The warning can then be used, manually or automatically, to evade the detected threat. RWR systems can be installed in all kind of airborne, sea-based, and ground-based assets such as aircraft, ships, automobiles, military bases. This article is focused mainly on airborne military RWR systems; for commercial police speed detection radar RWR systems, see radar detector.

Operators

MiG-29B of the Belarusian Air Force
MiG-29B of the Belarusian Air Force
MiG-29B of the Myanmar Air Force
MiG-29B of the Myanmar Air Force
 Algeria
 Azerbaijan
 Bangladesh
  • Bangladesh Air Force – 6 MiG-29Bs and 2 MiG-29UBs in service as of 2021. Four MiG-29Bs were upgraded for life extension in Belarus, the plan is to upgrade the rest in 2021-2022.[208]
 Belarus
 Bulgaria
 Chad
 Cuba
 Eritrea
 India
 Iran
 Kazakhstan
 Mongolia
 Myanmar
 North Korea
 Peru
 Poland
 Russia
 Serbia
  • Serbian Air Force and Air Defence – 14 MiG-29s (5 MiG-29Аs, 3 MiG-29Bs, 3 MiG-29Ss, 3 MiG-29UBs) in inventory as of 2022, 11 of which are modernized to the advanced MiG-29SMT standards while 3 (MiG-29UB) are used as a conversion trainer.[220]
 Sudan
 Syria
 Turkmenistan
 Ukraine
 United States
  • Used by private defense contractor Air USA for adversary training services.[225]
 Uzbekistan

Former operators

  •  Czechoslovakia – Received 18 MiG-29s and two MiG-29UB aircraft. Although six were capable of delivering nuclear weapons, the necessary equipment for this was removed as per the CFE treaty. All passed onto successor states.
  •  Czech Republic – Inherited nine MiG-29 and one MiG-29UB. All sold to Poland in 1995 in exchange for 11 W-3A Sokol helicopters. Replaced with Saab JAS 39 Gripen.
  •  East Germany – 24 absorbed into the West German Air Force upon reunification.
  •  Germany – One crashed, one on display, 22 sold to Poland in 2003 for 22€ (26.02$).[226]
  •  Hungary – 28 in inventory as of January 2011.[227] Reportedly stored outside.[228] The last fighter was retired in December 2010,[229] at which point only 4 aircraft were still in operational condition.[228] In 2011 the Hungarian government intended to sell six MiG-29B and two MiG-29UB aircraft. Replaced with JAS 39 Gripen but kept in reserve if needed.[230] In October 2017, the Hungarian Air Force announced that 23 MiG-29s were to be auctioned off including engines and spare parts in November.[231] The online auction had a reservation price of €8.7 million and failed to attract any bidders. This might have been because of an agreement between Hungary and Russia requiring the manufacturer's (Russia's) approval to transfer ownership of the aircraft.[228]
  •  Iraq – Received 37 MiG-29s during Saddam Hussein's era; these were destroyed or written off and some were flown to Iran.
  •  Israel – Leased from Poland in 1997.[232][233]
  • Malaysia Malaysia – Malaysia retired 16 MiG-29s in 2017 for lack of spare parts and engine problem.[234][235][236]
  •  Moldova – Not operational,[205] six MiG-29S in storage. In the 1990s, a total of six were sold to the US for type evaluation testing.[237][238]
  •  Romania – 17 MiG-29A and five MiG-29UB were delivered from 1989,[239] 1 MiG-29S received from Moldova in 1992.[240] Retired in 2003.
  •  Serbia and Montenegro – Inherited from Yugoslavia, six destroyed in 1999.[241]
  •  Slovakia – 10 MiG-29ASs and 1 MiG-29UBS were in service as of 2021.[209] These aircraft were upgraded by the Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG and Western companies in 2007 and 2008 to fulfill the NATO requirements,[242][243] and were maintained by Russian military technicians at Sliač Air Base.[244] They were officially withdrawn from service on 27 August 2022.[245] Slovakia's Foreign Minister Rastislav Káčer has said that his country is prepared to transfer their fleet of MiG-29s to Ukraine. He said: "We have not yet handed [Ukraine] the MiG-29s. But we are ready to do it. We are talking with our NATO partners about how to do it,” and such a package would involve “several thousand” missiles.[246][247]
  •  South Yemen – Received between 6 and 12 MiG-29s from either Moldova and Russia, or Moldova only, in 1994.[248]
  •  Soviet Union – Passed on to successor states.
  •  Yemen – 24 in service as of January 2017.[221] All grounded because of civil war. Many were destroyed on the ground during the Saudi-led Operation Decisive Storm in 2015.[249]
  •  Yugoslavia – 14 MiG-29 and 2 MiG-29UB, passed on to Serbia and Montenegro.[241]

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List of Mikoyan MiG-29 operators

List of Mikoyan MiG-29 operators

This is a list of Mikoyan MiG-29 operators.

Bangladesh Air Force

Bangladesh Air Force

The Bangladesh Air Force (BAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the Bangladesh Armed Forces. The Air Force is primarily responsible for air defence of Bangladesh's sovereign territory as well as providing air support to the Bangladesh Army and Bangladesh Navy. Furthermore, the BAF has a territorial role in providing tactical and strategic air transport and logistics capability for the country.

Belarusian Air Force

Belarusian Air Force

The Air Force and Air Defence Forces of the Republic of Belarus is the air force of the Armed Forces of Belarus, formed in 1992 from the 26th Air Army of the Soviet Air Forces which had been serving in the Byelorussian SSR.

Bulgarian Air Force

Bulgarian Air Force

The Bulgarian Air Force is one of the three branches of the Military of Bulgaria, the other two being the Bulgarian Navy and Bulgarian land forces. Its mission is to guard and protect the sovereignty of Bulgarian airspace, and jointly with the other branches, to protect territorial integrity. The Bulgarian Air Force is one of the oldest air forces in Europe and the world. In recent times it has been actively taking part in numerous NATO missions and exercises in Europe.

Chadian Air Force

Chadian Air Force

The Chadian Air Force is the aviation branch of the Chad National Army. It was formed in 1961 as the Chadian National Flight/Squadron.

Myanmar Air Force

Myanmar Air Force

The Myanmar Air Force, known until 1989 as the Burmese Air Force, is the aerial branch of Myanmar's armed forces, the Tatmadaw. The primary mission of the Myanmar Air Force (MAF) since its inception has been to provide transport, logistical, and close air support to the Myanmar Army in counter-insurgency operations. It is mainly used in internal conflicts in Myanmar, and, on a smaller scale, in relief missions, especially after the deadly Cyclone Nargis of May 2008. Since the military coup in February 2021, Myanmar Air Force aircraft have been used in airstrikes on villages.

Algeria

Algeria

Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in North Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia; to the east by Libya; to the southeast by Niger; to the southwest by Mali, Mauritania, and Western Sahara; to the west by Morocco; and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. It is considered part of the Maghreb region of North Africa. It has a semi-arid geography, with most of the population living in the fertile north and the Sahara dominating the geography of the south. Algeria covers an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), making it the world's tenth largest nation by area, and the largest nation in Africa, being more than 200 times as large as the smallest country in the continent, The Gambia. With a population of 44 million, Algeria is the ninth-most populous country in Africa, and the 32nd-most populous country in the world. The capital and largest city is Algiers, located in the far north on the Mediterranean coast.

Algerian Air Force

Algerian Air Force

The Algerian Air Force (AAF) is the aerial arm of the Algerian People's National Army.

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the South Caucasus region and is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south. Baku is the capital and largest city.

Azerbaijani Air Forces

Azerbaijani Air Forces

Azerbaijani Air Forces and Air Defence often referred to as the Azerbaijani Air Force is the air force and air defence force of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi). Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world, and shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's political, financial and cultural centre. Chittagong, the second-largest city, is the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal. The official language is Bengali, one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family.

Belarus

Belarus

Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe. It is bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Covering an area of 207,600 square kilometres (80,200 sq mi) and with a population of 9.2 million, Belarus is the 13th-largest and the 20th-most populous country in Europe. The country has a hemiboreal climate and is administratively divided into seven regions. Minsk is the capital and largest city.

Aircraft on display

Czech Republic

Germany

  • 29+03 – MiG-29G on display at the Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr in Berlin.[120] This airframe is the only remaining German MiG-29 in Germany. It was previously on display in Laage before being moved to the Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr in 2006 as part of the exhibition "50 Jahre Luftwaffe".[251][252]

Hungary

  • One MiG-29B is on display with other older MiG planes and helicopters at The RepTár Museum of Szolnok, Hungary.[253]

India

Latvia

  • 9-52 – MiG-29UB on display at the Riga Aviation Museum in Riga. This airframe is the second MiG-29UB prototype. After 213 test flights around Moscow between 23 August 1982 and 10 April 1986, it was disassembled and parts of the wings and tails were re-used in prototype (9–16). The remains were shipped to Riga Military Aviation Engineers High School, and later handed over to the Riga Aviation Museum in 1994, where it is currently displayed.[255] The remains of this prototype is in a very bad condition, with open fuselage panels and a partly broken canopy.[256]

Poland

Romania

MiG-29 Sniper on display
MiG-29 Sniper on display

Russia

First prototype MiG-29 on display at the Central Air Force Museum in Monino.
First prototype MiG-29 on display at the Central Air Force Museum in Monino.
  • On display at the Central Air Force Museum in Monino. Painted as "Blue 01".[260] This airframe is the first prototype MiG-29.[261]
  • On display at the Central Air Force Museum in Monino. Painted as "Blue 03".[262]
  • On display at the Central Air Force Museum in Monino. Painted as "Blue 70".[263]
  • On display at the Central Air Force Museum in Monino. Painted as "Blue 51".[264]
  • On display at the Central Air Force Museum in Monino. Painted as "Blue 18". This airframe is a MiG-29KVP.[265]
  • 2960705560 – On display at the Museum of the Great Patriotic War in Moscow. Painted as "Blue 26".[266]
  • On display at the Vadim Zadorozhny Technical Museum in Khimki. Painted as "Blue 04".[267]
  • On display at the Central Armed Forces Museum in Moscow. Painted as "Red 02".[268]

Slovakia

United States

MiG-29 on display in McMinnville, Oregon.
MiG-29 on display in McMinnville, Oregon.

Airworthy

  • N29UB – MiG-29UB owned by Jared Isaacman.[282] It was previously owned by the Flying Heritage Collection in Everett, Washington. The aircraft was obtained from Eastern Europe in early 2009. The aircraft has an FAA approved maintenance program and is flyable.[283]
  • N129XX[284] – MiG-29UB owned by Air USA and located at the Quincy Regional Airport in Quincy, Illinois. This aircraft was purchased by Don Kirlin from Kyrgyzstan.[285] It is available for contract training and flight testing.[286]
  • Two MiG-29UBs in flying condition were offered for sale from Eastern Europe in spring 2009. These aircraft come from the same source as the flyable aircraft owned by the Historic Flight Foundation.[287]

Discover more about Aircraft on display related topics

Prague

Prague

Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, and the historical capital of Bohemia. On the Vltava river, Prague is home to about 1.3 million people. The city has a temperate oceanic climate, with relatively warm summers and chilly winters.

Berlin

Berlin

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.7 million inhabitants make it the European Union's most populous city, according to population within city limits. One of Germany's sixteen constituent states, Berlin is surrounded by the State of Brandenburg and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. Berlin's urban area, which has a population of around 4.5 million, is the second most populous urban area in Germany after the Ruhr. The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has around 6.2 million inhabitants and is Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

Nashik

Nashik

Nashik is a city in the northern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Situated on the banks of river Godavari, Nashik is the third largest city in Maharashtra, after Mumbai and Pune. Nashik is well known for being one of the Hindu pilgrimage sites of the Kumbh Mela, which is held every 12 years. Nashik is located about 190 km north of state capital Mumbai. The city is called the "Wine Capital of India" as more than half of India's vineyards and wineries are located here. Around 90% of all Indian wine comes from the Nashik Valley.

Pune

Pune

Pune, also known as Poona, is one of the most important industrial and educational hubs of India, with an estimated population of 7.4 million as of 2020. As of 2021, Pune Metropolitan Region is the largest in Maharashtra by area, with a geographical area of 7,256 sq km. It has been ranked "the most liveable city in India" several times. Pune is also considered to be the cultural and educational capital of Maharashtra. Along with the municipal corporation area of PCMC, PMC and the three cantonment towns of Camp, Khadki, and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR).

Polish Aviation Museum

Polish Aviation Museum

The Polish Aviation Museum is a large museum of historic aircraft and aircraft engines in Kraków, Poland. It is located at the site of the no-longer functional Kraków-Rakowice-Czyżyny Airport. This airfield, established by Austria-Hungary in 1912, is one of the oldest in the world. The museum opened in 1964, after the airfield closed in 1963. Has been scored as eighth world's best aviation museum by CNN.

Kraków

Kraków

Kraków, or Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, the city dates back to the seventh century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town with Wawel Royal Castle was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1978, one of the world's first sites granted the status.

Polish Air Force

Polish Air Force

The Polish Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Polish Armed Forces. Until July 2004 it was officially known as Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej. In 2014 it consisted of roughly 16,425 military personnel and about 475 aircraft, distributed among ten bases throughout Poland.

Bucharest

Bucharest

Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania. It is described as the cultural, financial, entertainment, and media center in Romania with a significant influence in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. It is also an influence in education, tourism, research, technology, health care, art, fashion, sports, and politics in Romania. It is located in the southeast of the country, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. It is also one of the most populated cities of the European Union (EU) within city limits and the most populated capital in South-Eastern Europe. It was the capital of Wallachia from 1659 to 1859 and the capital of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia from 1859 to 1881.

Central Air Force Museum

Central Air Force Museum

The Central Air Force Museum is an aviation museum in Monino, Moscow Oblast, Russia. A branch of the Central Armed Forces Museum, it is one of the world's largest aviation museums, and the largest for Soviet aircraft, with a collection including 173 aircraft and 127 aircraft engines on display. The museum also features additional displays, including Cold War-era American espionage equipment, weapons, instruments, uniforms, artwork, and a library containing books, films, and photos is also accessible to visitors.

Monino

Monino

Monino is an urban locality in Shchyolkovsky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 23 kilometers (14 mi) east of Moscow. Population: 22,821 (2010 Census); 20,017 (2002 Census); 18,582 (1989 Census).

Khimki

Khimki

Khimki is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, 18.25 kilometres northwest of central Moscow, and immediately beyond the Moscow city boundary.

Central Armed Forces Museum

Central Armed Forces Museum

The Central Armed Forces Museum also known as the Museum of the Soviet Army, is located in northern Moscow, Russia, near the Red Army Theater.

Specifications (MiG-29)

Drawing of MiG-29 (Russian Air Force)
Drawing of MiG-29 (Russian Air Force)

Data from Mikoyan,[288] airforce-technology.com,[289] deagel.com,[290] Business World[291]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 17.32 m (56 ft 10 in)
  • Wingspan: 11.36 m (37 ft 3 in)
  • Height: 4.73 m (15 ft 6 in)
  • Wing area: 38 m2 (410 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 11,000 kg (24,251 lb)
  • Gross weight: 14,900 kg (32,849 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 18,000 kg (39,683 lb)
  • Fuel capacity: 3,500 kg (7,716 lb) internal
  • Powerplant: 2 × Klimov RD-33 afterburning turbofan engines, 49.42 kN (11,110 lbf) thrust each [292] dry, 81.58 kN (18,340 lbf) with afterburner

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 2,450 km/h (1,520 mph, 1,320 kn) at high altitude
  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.3+
  • Range: 1,430 km (890 mi, 770 nmi) with maximum internal fuel[293]
  • Combat range: 700–900 km (430–560 mi, 380–490 nmi) with 2 x R-27s, 4 x R-73s at high altitude[294]
  • Ferry range: 2,100 km (1,300 mi, 1,100 nmi) with 1× drop tank
  • Service ceiling: 18,000 m (59,000 ft)
  • g limits: +9
  • Rate of climb: 330 m/s (65,000 ft/min) [295]
  • Wing loading: 403 kg/m2 (83 lb/sq ft)
  • Thrust/weight: 1.09

Armament

Avionics

Discover more about Specifications (MiG-29) related topics

Klimov RD-33

Klimov RD-33

The Klimov RD-33 is a turbofan jet engine for a lightweight fighter jet that is the primary engine for the Mikoyan MiG-29 and CAC/PAC JF-17 Thunder. It was developed in OKB-117 led by S. P. Izotov from 1968 with production starting in 1981. Previous generations of Russian supersonic fighters such as the MiG-21 and MiG-23 used turbojets, but western fighters such as the F-111 and F-4K introduced the use of afterburning turbofans in the 1960s which were more efficient.

Afterburner

Afterburner

An afterburner is an additional combustion component used on some jet engines, mostly those on military supersonic aircraft. Its purpose is to increase thrust, usually for supersonic flight, takeoff, and combat. The afterburning process injects additional fuel into a combustor in the jet pipe behind the turbine, "reheating" the exhaust gas. Afterburning significantly increases thrust as an alternative to using a bigger engine with its attendant weight penalty, but at the cost of increased fuel consumption which limits its use to short periods. This aircraft application of "reheat" contrasts with the meaning and implementation of "reheat" applicable to gas turbines driving electrical generators and which reduces fuel consumption.

30 mm caliber

30 mm caliber

30 mm caliber is a specific size of popular autocannon ammunition. Such ammunition includes NATO standard 30×113mmB and 30×173mm, Soviet 30×155mmB, 30×165mm, and 30×210mmB, Yugoslav 30×192mm, Anglo-Swiss 30×170mm, and Czechoslovak 30×210mm rounds which are widely used around the world.

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1

The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1 is a 30 mm autocannon designed for use on Soviet and later Russian military aircraft, entering service in the early 1980s. Its current manufacturer is the Russian company JSC Izhmash. The name GSH-30-1 is formed from the surnames of the designers Gryazev (Грязев) and Shipunov (Шипунов), the caliber of 30 mm and the single-barrel design of the gun itself.

Autocannon

Autocannon

An autocannon, automatic cannon or machine cannon is a fully automatic gun that is capable of rapid-firing large-caliber armour-piercing, explosive or incendiary shells, as opposed to the smaller-caliber kinetic projectiles (bullets) fired by a machine gun. Autocannons have a longer effective range and greater terminal performance than machine guns, due to the use of larger/heavier munitions, but are usually smaller than tank guns, howitzers, field guns or other artillery. When used on its own, the word "autocannon" typically indicates a non-rotary weapon with a single barrel. When multiple rotating barrels are involved, such a weapon is referred to as a "rotary autocannon" or occasionally "rotary cannon", for short.

R-27 (air-to-air missile)

R-27 (air-to-air missile)

The Vympel R-27 is a family of air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force, air forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States and air forces of many other countries as standard medium range air-to-air missile even though they have the more advanced R-77.

Air-to-air missile

Air-to-air missile

An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft. AAMs are typically powered by one or more rocket motors, usually solid fueled but sometimes liquid fueled. Ramjet engines, as used on the Meteor, are emerging as propulsion that will enable future medium-range missiles to maintain higher average speed across their engagement envelope.

R-60 (missile)

R-60 (missile)

The Molniya R-60 is a short-range lightweight infrared homing air-to-air missile designed for use by Soviet fighter aircraft. It has been widely exported, and remains in service with the CIS and many other nations.

Astra (missile)

Astra (missile)

Astra is an Indian family of all weather beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile, developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation. The missile is capable of engaging targets at varying ranges from a distance of 500 m (0.31 mi) up to 110 km (68 mi). Astra Mk-1 has been integrated with Indian Air Force's Sukhoi Su-30MKI and will be integrated with Dassault Mirage 2000, HAL Tejas and Mikoyan MiG-29 in the future. Limited series production of Astra Mk-1 missiles began in 2017.

Indian Air Force

Indian Air Force

The Indian Air Force (IAF) is the air arm of the Indian Armed Forces. Its complement of personnel and aircraft assets ranks as the third most powerful air force in the world. Its primary mission is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during armed conflicts. It was officially established on 8 October 1932 as an auxiliary air force of the British Empire which honoured India's aviation service during World War II with the prefix Royal. After India gained independence from United Kingdom in 1947, the name Royal Indian Air Force was kept and served in the name of Dominion of India. With the government's transition to a Republic in 1950, the prefix Royal was removed.

AGM-88 HARM

AGM-88 HARM

The AGM-88 HARM is a tactical, air-to-surface anti-radiation missile designed to home in on electronic transmissions coming from surface-to-air radar systems. It was originally developed by Texas Instruments as a replacement for the AGM-45 Shrike and AGM-78 Standard ARM system. Production was later taken over by Raytheon Corporation when it purchased the defense production business of Texas Instruments.

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War, which began in 2014. The invasion has caused tens of thousands of deaths on both sides and Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II. About 8 million Ukrainians were displaced within their country by late May, and more than 7.9 million fled the country by 3 January 2023.

Notable appearances in media

Source: "Mikoyan MiG-29", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikoyan_MiG-29.

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See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References

Notes

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  2. ^ a b Gordon and Davison 2005, p. 9.
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  6. ^ Gordon and Davison 2005, pp. 8–9.
  7. ^ Correll, John T. "The Reformers." Air Force Magazine Online, February 2008, pp. 7–9. Archived 26 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Lake World Air Power Journal Volume 36 Spring 1999, pp. 110–111.
  9. ^ Lambert 1993, p. 238.
  10. ^ Zuyev, A. and Malcolm McConnell. Fulcrum: A Top Gun Pilot's Escape from the Soviet Empire. Clayton, Victoria, Australia: Warner Books, 1993. ISBN 0-446-36498-3.
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Bibliography

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