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Michele Greco da Valona

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Michele Greco da Valona
Michele greco da valona, madonna col bambino e santi, 1505 (guglionesi, santa maria maggiore) 01.jpg
Madonna col Bambino e Santi(Madonna and Child with Saints)
Born15th Century
Vlorë, Albania
Died16th Century
Known forPainting
MovementAdriatic Renaissance
Italian Renaissance

Michele Greco da Valona was a 15th/16th-century painter from Vlorë, in modern-day southern Albania. Michele represented the Adriatic renaissance. His art was similar to the style of Nicolaus Filantropinó, Fra Angelico, Paolo Uccello, Carlo Crivelli and Vincenzo de Rogata. Several of his works have survived, most notable of which is a controversial triptych featuring the Virgin Mary breastfeeding the people.[1][2][3]

Discover more about Michele Greco da Valona related topics

Vlorë

Vlorë

Vlorë is the third most populous city of the Republic of Albania and seat of Vlorë County and Vlorë Municipality. Located in southwestern Albania, Vlorë sprawls on the Bay of Vlorë and is surrounded by the foothills of the Ceraunian Mountains along the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea Coasts. It experiences a Mediterranean climate, which is affected by the Ceraunian Mountains and the proximity to the Mediterranean Sea.

Nikolaos Philanthropinos

Nikolaos Philanthropinos

Nikolaos Philanthropinos, also known as Nicolaos Philanthropenos and Nicolaus Filantropinó or Philastropino. He was a Greek Byzantine painter. He was active in Crete, Venice, and Constantinople. He was a very famous painter during the onset of the Italian Renaissance, the end of the Palaeologan Renaissance and the beginning of the Greek Renaissance. He worked with Venetian master Nicolaus Storlado. His contemporaries in Crete were Manuel Fokas and Ioannis Pagomenos. He brought the art of Constantinople to Venice and Crete. He influenced both Greek and Italian art. Artists he influenced include: Angelos Akotantos and Andreas Ritzos. He completed some mosaics for St Mark's Basilica in Venice.

Fra Angelico

Fra Angelico

Fra Angelico was a Dominican friar and Italian painter of the Early Renaissance, described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent". He earned his reputation primarily for the series of frescoes he made for his own friary, San Marco, in Florence.

Paolo Uccello

Paolo Uccello

Paolo Uccello, born Paolo di Dono, was an Italian painter and mathematician who was notable for his pioneering work on visual perspective in art. In his book Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, Giorgio Vasari wrote that Uccello was obsessed by his interest in perspective and would stay up all night in his study trying to grasp the exact vanishing point. While his contemporaries used perspective to narrate different or succeeding stories, Uccello used perspective to create a feeling of depth in his paintings. His best known works are the three paintings representing the battle of San Romano, which were wrongly entitled the Battle of Sant'Egidio of 1416 for a long period of time.

Carlo Crivelli

Carlo Crivelli

Carlo Crivelli was an Italian Renaissance painter of conservative Late Gothic decorative sensibility, who spent his early years in the Veneto, where he absorbed influences from the Vivarini, Squarcione, and Mantegna. He left the Veneto by 1458 and spent most of the remainder of his career in the March of Ancona, where he developed a distinctive personal style that contrasts with that of his Venetian contemporary Giovanni Bellini.

History

Very little is known about Greco's background; we only have his signature on four paintings, where he identifies as "Greco da Valona". His ethnic origin is disputed. Vokotopoulos (1997) and Catalano (2019) support a Greek origin,[4][5][6] Murolo (1992) and Koçollari (2018) support an Albanian origin.[7][8] Between the 16th and 20th centuries, there were about a dozen artists who used the adjective Greco. Vokotopoulos claims that during the period that Michele Greco lived, the adjective was undeniably used to denote an ethnic Greek origin, and that it is only from the 17th century onwards that it was also used as a surname.[4] Koçollari claims that the adjective Greco indicates the painter's religious affiliation.[7] He was part of the refugees who migrated to Italy after the rise of the Ottoman Empire. Michele was active in Abruzzo and Molise. He is one of the few artists to have traveled all over Italy.[9]

The Holy Shower
The Holy Shower

He was trained as a Byzantine master. As Michele's career progressed he sheds his Italo-Byzantine style and exhibits a more sophisticated Venetian style. There is also evidence he was influenced by Vincenzo de Rogata. The evidence is in the triptych from the San Bernardino coven in Salerno.[10]

The painter's first work is a triptych he painted in 1505. It features the Madonna and Child between Saints John the Baptist and Adam, with a Pietà. The work was done for the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Guglionesi and is now in the Aquila museum. His signature poem at the bottom of the triptych provides some information about the artist.[11]

There are two other paintings in Guglionesi. One is dated 1505 and the other 1508. The earlier painting is the Madonna delle Grazie between Saints Rocco and Sebastiano. This work is very controversial because the Virgin is feeding breast milk to the people. Breast milk is reigning from the heavens. The painting has been featured in the Italian news on countless occasions. The final work dated 1508, featured Madonna between Saints Peter and Paul.[12]

Discover more about History related topics

Rise of the Ottoman Empire

Rise of the Ottoman Empire

The rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended circa 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans, Anatolia, Middle East and North Africa. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the "Proto-Imperial Era". Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords Ghazis and vassals (Beys) to maintain control over their realm. By the middle of the fifteenth century the Ottoman sultans were able to accumulate enough personal power and authority to establish a centralized imperial state, a process which was brought to fruition by Sultan Mehmed II. The conquest of Constantinople in 1453 is seen as the symbolic moment when the emerging Ottoman state shifted from a mere principality into an empire therefore marking a major turning point in its history.

Abruzzo

Abruzzo

Abruzzo is a region of Southern Italy with an area of 10,763 square km and a population of 1.3 million. It is divided into four provinces: L'Aquila, Teramo, Pescara, and Chieti. Its western border lies 80 km (50 mi) east of Rome. Abruzzo borders the region of Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and north-west, Molise to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. Geographically, Abruzzo is divided into a mountainous area in the west, which includes the highest massifs of the Apennines, such as the Gran Sasso d'Italia and the Maiella, and a coastal area in the east with beaches on the Adriatic Sea.

Molise

Molise

Molise is a region of Southern Italy. Until 1963, it formed part of the region of Abruzzi e Molise, alongside the region of Abruzzo. The split, which did not become effective until 1970, makes Molise the newest region in Italy. Covering 4,438 square kilometres (1,714 sq mi), it is the second smallest region in the country after the Aosta Valley, and has a population of 313,348.

Italo-Byzantine

Italo-Byzantine

Italo-Byzantine is a style term in art history, mostly used for medieval paintings produced in Italy under heavy influence from Byzantine art. It initially covers religious paintings copying or imitating the standard Byzantine icon types, but painted by artists without a training in Byzantine techniques. These are versions of Byzantine icons, most of the Madonna and Child, but also of other subjects; essentially they introduced the relatively small portable painting with a frame to Western Europe. Very often they are on a gold ground. It was the dominant style in Italian painting until the end of the 13th century, when Cimabue and Giotto began to take Italian, or at least Florentine, painting into new territory. But the style continued until the 15th century and beyond in some areas and contexts.

Venetian painting

Venetian painting

Venetian painting was a major force in Italian Renaissance painting and beyond. Beginning with the work of Giovanni Bellini and his brother Gentile Bellini and their workshops, the major artists of the Venetian school included Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto (1518–1594), Paolo Veronese (1528–1588) and Jacopo Bassano (1510–1592) and his sons. Considered to give primacy to colour over line, the tradition of the Venetian school contrasted with the Mannerism prevalent in the rest of Italy. The Venetian style exerted great influence upon the subsequent development of Western painting.

Museo Nazionale d'Abruzzo

Museo Nazionale d'Abruzzo

The Museo Nazionale d'Abruzzo is hosted in the Forte Spagnolo of L'Aquila.

Gallery

Source: "Michele Greco da Valona", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 27th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michele_Greco_da_Valona.

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References
  1. ^ Abbate, Francesco (1997). History of Art in Southern Italy Volume 3. Rome, Italy: Progetti Donzelli. p. 366. ISBN 9788879896535.
  2. ^ Rosa, Lucia Gualdo (1982). The humanists and the Otranto War texts of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Bari, Italy: Edizioni Dedalo. pp. 95–96. ISBN 9788822060051.
  3. ^ Hatzidakis & Drakopoulou 1997, p. 192.
  4. ^ a b Vokotopoulos 1997, pp. 143–144: "Καμιὰ δεκαριὰ καλλιτέχνες, ἀπὸ τὸν 16ο μέχρι τὸν 20ὸ αἰώνα, φέρουν τὸ παρωνύμιο Greco. Μερικὲς φορές – π.χ. στὴν περίπτωση τοῦ Δομηνίκου Θεοτοκοπούλου καὶ πρωίμων ζωγράφων, ὅπως τοῦ Giovanni Greco, ποὺ δούλευε τὸ 1529 στὸ Cividale, πρόκειται ἀναντίρρητα γιὰ ἐπίθετο δηλωτικὸ καταγωγῆς. Στὰ παραδείγματα τοῦ 17ου αἰ. καὶ τὰ μεταγενέστερα ἔχομε ἀντιθέτως νὰ κάνομε μὲ οἰκογενειακὸ ἐπώνυμο. Στὴν περίπτωση τοῦ ζωγράφου μας ἡ ὀνομασία Greco δηλώνει προφανῶς τὴν καταγωγή του. Πρόκειται γιὰ μετανάστη ποὺ δὲν ἔχει ἀκόμη τελείως ἀφομοιωθεῖ, ὅπως δείχνουν ἡ ἀναγραφὴ τῶν ὀνομάτων ἑλληνικὰ καὶ τοῦ ἔτους ἐπίσης ἑλληνικά, καὶ μάλιστα ἀπὸ κτίσεως κόσμου, καὶ στὸ τέλος λατινικῶν ἐπιγραφῶν. [...] ἀναγράφει φαρδιὰ πλατιὰ τὴν πατρίδα του: De Lavelona. Ἔτσι ἦταν γνωστὴ κατὰ τὸν ὄψιμο Μεσαίωνα καὶ τὴν Ἀναγέννηση – παράλληλα μὲ τὴν ὀνομασία Valona, ποὺ ἐπεκράτησε – ἡ Αὐλών, στὴν σημερινὴ Ἀλβανία, τὴν ὁποία ἄλλωστε κατὰ διαστήματα εἶχαν καταλάβει οἱ Βενετοί. Ἐπὶ πλέον χαρακτηρίζει τὸν ἑαυτό του ὡς Ἕλληνα, [...]. Ὁ Μιχαήλ, Ἕλληνας ἀπὸ τὴν Αὐλώνα, μετανάστευσε ὅπως τόσοι ἄλλοι συμπατριῶτες του στὴν Ἰταλία, [...]."
  5. ^ Catalano 2011, p. 18: "Di questo maestro non abbiamo altro che la firma sulle quattro opere realizzate tra Vasto (Chieti) e Guglionesi (Campobasso) nel giro di qualche mese, tra il gennaio e il settembre 1505, orgogliosamente rivendicate al proprio nome con l'indicazione precisa del luogo d'origine e una informazione sull'appartenenza etnica. Quel «Greco», infatti, più che un cognome va verosimilmente inteso come un riferimento alla nazionalità: «greco» era detto a quel tempo, chiunque provenisse dalle terre dell'Epiro e parlasse quella lingua."
  6. ^ Catalano 2019, p. 137: "Michele pare apparire quasi dal nulla sulla sponda italiana dell'Adriatico, ove lascia la sua firma su quattro opere datate tra la fine del 1504 e l'estate del 1505, rivendicando la sua identità di greco e la città di origine, l'albanese Valona: [...]"
  7. ^ a b "PROF. IRAKLI KOÇOLLARI". 1library.co. Retrieved 2023-01-22.
  8. ^ Murolo, Luigi (1992). Le muse fra i negozi: letteratura e cultura in un centro dell'italia meridionale. Culture regionali d'Italia: Saggi e testi. Vol. 15. Bulzoni. p. 64. ISBN 9788871194851. Fatto si è , comunque , che accertata l'origine slava del culto locale per S. Nicola di Bari - quella autoctona , al contrario , si muove nella tradizione agostiniana di S. Nicola di Tolentino - , incontriamo una singolare coincidenza con la provenienza albanese del maestro del trittico di Cona di Mare ( Michele Greco , infatti , ribadisce nella firma i suoi natali di Velona – Valona , in Albania - ) : e che l'artista – anch'egli , come si nota , d'oltreadriatico - possa scegliere iconograficamente il tema agiografico tipico della colonia slava vastese , sembra esprimere una chiara adesione alla sensibilità religiosa dei suoi vicini conterranei immigrati, senza di-menticare peraltro l'enorme diffusione del culto in ambito abruzzese e molisano
  9. ^ Abbate, 1997, p. 366
  10. ^ Abbate, 1997, p. 366
  11. ^ Abbate, 1997, p. 366
  12. ^ Abbate, 1997, p. 366
Bibliography

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