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Michaëlle Jean

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Michaëlle Jean
Michaëlle Jean 1 11072007.jpg
Jean in 2007
27th Governor General of Canada
In office
September 27, 2005 – October 1, 2010
MonarchElizabeth II
Prime MinisterPaul Martin
Stephen Harper
Preceded byAdrienne Clarkson
Succeeded byDavid Johnston
3rd Secretary-General of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
In office
January 5, 2015 – January 2, 2019
Preceded byAbdou Diouf
Succeeded byLouise Mushikiwabo
Personal details
Born (1957-09-06) September 6, 1957 (age 65)
Port-au-Prince, Haiti
SpouseJean-Daniel Lafond
EducationUniversité de Montréal (BA, MA)
Signature
WebsiteOfficial website

Michaëlle Jean PC CC CMM COM CD FRCPSC(hon) (French: [mi.ka.ɛl ʒɑ̃]; born September 6, 1957) is a Canadian stateswoman and former journalist who served from 2005 to 2010 as governor general of Canada, the 27th since Canadian Confederation. She is the first Haitian Canadian and black person to hold this office.

Jean was the third secretary-general of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie from 2015 until 2019. She was the first woman to hold the position and held the position until the end of 2018.

Jean was a refugee[1] from Haiti—coming to Canada in 1968—and was raised in the town of Thetford Mines, Quebec. After receiving a number of university degrees, Jean worked as a journalist and broadcaster for Radio-Canada and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), as well as also undertaking charity work, mostly in the field of assisting victims of domestic violence. In 2005, she was appointed governor general by Queen Elizabeth II, on the recommendation of Prime Minister Paul Martin, to replace Adrienne Clarkson as vicereine and she occupied the post until succeeded by David Johnston in 2010. Early in her tenure, comments of hers recorded in some of the film works by her husband, Jean-Daniel Lafond, were construed as supporting Quebec sovereignty and her holding of dual citizenship caused doubt about her loyalties. But Jean denied separatist leanings, renounced her citizenship of France (acquired through her marriage), and eventually became a respected vicereine noted for her attention to the Canadian Forces, Aboriginal Canadians, and the arts, especially youth involvement in them. In 2010, Jean was appointed to a four-year term as the Special Envoy for Haiti for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.[2]

Michaëlle Jean was sworn in as a member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada on September 26, 2012.[3]

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King's Privy Council for Canada

King's Privy Council for Canada

The King's Privy Council for Canada, sometimes called His Majesty's Privy Council for Canada or simply the Privy Council (PC), is the full group of personal consultants to the monarch of Canada on state and constitutional affairs. Practically, the tenets of responsible government require the sovereign or his viceroy, the governor general of Canada, to almost always follow only that advice tendered by the Cabinet: a committee within the Privy Council composed usually of elected members of Parliament. Those summoned to the KPC are appointed for life by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister of Canada, meaning that the group is composed predominantly of former Cabinet ministers, with some others having been inducted as an honorary gesture. Those in the council are accorded the use of an honorific style and post-nominal letters, as well as various signifiers of precedence.

Order of Canada

Order of Canada

The Order of Canada is a Canadian state order and the second-highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada, after the Order of Merit.

Order of Merit of the Police Forces

Order of Merit of the Police Forces

The Order of Merit of the Police Forces is an honour for merit that is, within the Canadian system of honours, the only such fellowship reserved for only members of Canada's various police forces. Created in 2000, the order is administered by the Governor in Council, on behalf of the Canadian monarch. Appointment to the order recognizes conspicuous merit and exceptional service, the level of which is reflected by the organization's three hierarchical grades.

Canadian Forces' Decoration

Canadian Forces' Decoration

The Canadian Forces' Decoration is a Canadian award bestowed upon members of the Canadian Armed Forces who have completed twelve years of military service, with certain conditions. By convention, it is also given to the Governor General of Canada upon his or her appointment as viceroy, which includes the title of Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada. The decoration is awarded to all ranks, who must have a good record of conduct during the final eight years of claimed service.

Governor General of Canada

Governor General of Canada

The governor general of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, currently King Charles III. The King is head of state of Canada and the 14 other Commonwealth realms, but he resides in his oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom. The King, on the advice of his Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry on the Government of Canada in the King's name, performing most of his constitutional and ceremonial duties. The commission is for an indefinite period—known as serving at His Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the usual length of time. Since 1959, it has also been traditional to alternate between francophone and anglophone officeholders—although many recent governors general have been bilingual.

Canadian Confederation

Canadian Confederation

Canadian Confederation was the process by which three British North American provinces, the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, were united into one federation called the Dominion of Canada, on July 1, 1867. Upon Confederation, Canada consisted of four provinces: Ontario and Quebec, which had been split out from the Province of Canada, and the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Over the years since Confederation, Canada has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current number of ten provinces and three territories.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian public broadcaster for both radio and television. It is a federal Crown corporation that receives funding from the government. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are commonly known as CBC and Radio-Canada, respectively.

Domestic violence

Domestic violence

Domestic violence is violence or other abuse that occurs in a domestic setting, such as in a marriage or cohabitation. Domestic violence is often used as a synonym for intimate partner violence, which is committed by one of the people in an intimate relationship against the other person, and can take place in relationships or between former spouses or partners. In its broadest sense, domestic violence also involves violence against children, parents, or the elderly. It can assume multiple forms, including physical, verbal, emotional, economic, religious, reproductive, or sexual abuse. It can range from subtle, coercive forms to marital rape and other violent physical abuse, such as choking, beating, female genital mutilation, and acid throwing that may result in disfigurement or death, and includes the use of technology to harass, control, monitor, stalk or hack. Domestic murder includes stoning, bride burning, honor killing, and dowry death, which sometimes involves non-cohabitating family members.

Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states during her lifetime, and was head of state of 15 of those states at the time of her death. Her reign of 70 years and 214 days was the longest of any British monarch and the longest verified reign of any female monarch in history.

Adrienne Clarkson

Adrienne Clarkson

Adrienne Louise Clarkson is a Hong Kong-born Canadian journalist who served from 1999 to 2005 as Governor General of Canada, the 26th since Canadian Confederation.

David Johnston

David Johnston

David Lloyd Johnston is a Canadian academic, author, and statesman who served from 2010 to 2017 as Governor General of Canada, the 28th since Canadian Confederation. He is the commissioner of the Leaders' Debates Commission and former Colonel of the Regiment for the Royal Canadian Regiment.

Jean-Daniel Lafond

Jean-Daniel Lafond

Jean-Daniel Lafond is a French-born Canadian filmmaker, teacher of philosophy, and the husband to the former Governor General Michaëlle Jean, making him the Viceregal Consort of Canada during her service.

Early life and education

Jean's family hails from Haiti; she was born in Port-au-Prince, baptized at the Holy Trinity Cathedral,[4][5] and spent winters in that city and summers and weekends in Jacmel, her mother's hometown.[6] Though her father worked as principal and teacher for a Protestant independent school in Port-au-Prince, Jean was educated at home, as her parents did not want her swearing allegiance to the then Haitian president, François Duvalier, as all Haitian schoolchildren were required to do.[7]

With her family, Jean fled Haiti to escape Duvalier's regime, under which Jean's father was arrested and tortured in 1965.[7] Jean's father left for Canada in 1967 while she arrived with her mother and sister the following year;[7] the family settled together at Thetford Mines, Quebec.[5][8] Jean's father, however, became increasingly distant and violent, and her parents' marriage eventually fell apart; she, with her mother and sister, then moved to a basement apartment in the Little Burgundy neighbourhood of Montreal.[7][9]

The Catholic University of Milan, where Jean studied languages and literature
The Catholic University of Milan, where Jean studied languages and literature

Jean received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Italian and Hispanic languages and literature from the University of Montreal, and, from 1984 to 1986, taught Italian Studies there, while completing her Master of Arts degree in comparative literature. She then went on with language and literature studies at the University of Florence, the University of Perugia, and the Catholic University of Milan. Besides French and English, Jean is fluent in Spanish, Italian, and Haitian Creole, and can read Portuguese.[8][10]

Concurrent with her studies between 1979 and 1987, Jean coordinated a study on spousal abuse and worked at a women's shelter,[7] which paved the way for her establishment of a network of shelters for women and children across Canada. She also involved herself in organizations dedicated to assisting immigrants to Canada obtain the entry they desired, and later worked for Employment and Immigration Canada and at the Conseil des Communautés culturelles du Québec, where Jean began writing about the experiences of immigrant women.[8] She married French-born, Canadian filmmaker Jean-Daniel Lafond, and the couple adopted as their daughter Marie-Éden, an orphaned child from Jacmel.[11] Through her marriage to Lafond, Jean has two stepdaughters.

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Port-au-Prince

Port-au-Prince

Port-au-Prince is the capital and most populous city of Haiti. The city's population was estimated at 987,311 in 2015 with the metropolitan area estimated at a population of 2,618,894. The metropolitan area is defined by the IHSI as including the communes of Port-au-Prince, Delmas, Cite Soleil, Tabarre, Carrefour and Pétion-Ville.

Holy Trinity Cathedral, Port-au-Prince

Holy Trinity Cathedral, Port-au-Prince

The Holy Trinity Cathedral, Port-au-Prince was the main cathedral in the Episcopal Diocese of Haiti. The building was located in downtown Port-au-Prince at the corner of Ave. Mgr. Guilloux & Rue Pavée. Holy Trinity Cathedral has been destroyed six times, including in the devastating earthquake on January 12, 2010.

Jacmel

Jacmel

Jacmel is a commune in southern Haiti founded by the Spanish in 1504 and repopulated by the French in 1698. It is the capital of the department of Sud-Est, 24 miles southwest of Port-au-Prince across the Tiburon Peninsula, and has an estimated population of 40,000, while the commune of Jacmel had a population of 137,966 at the 2003 Census. The town's name is derived from its indigenous Taíno name of Yaquimel. In 1925, Jacmel was dubbed as the "City of Light," becoming the first in the Caribbean to have electricity.

Independent school

Independent school

An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British English, an independent school usually refers to a school which is endowed, i.e. held by a trust, charity, or foundation, while a private school is one that is privately owned.

François Duvalier

François Duvalier

François Duvalier, also known as Papa Doc, was a Haitian politician of French Martiniquan descent who served as the President of Haiti from 1957 to 1971. He was elected president in the 1957 general election on a populist and black nationalist platform. After thwarting a military coup d'état in 1958, his regime rapidly became more autocratic and despotic. An undercover government death squad, the Tonton Macoute, indiscriminately killed Duvalier's opponents; the Tonton Macoute was thought to be so pervasive that Haitians became highly fearful of expressing any form of dissent, even in private. Duvalier further sought to solidify his rule by incorporating elements of Haitian mythology into a personality cult.

Quebec

Quebec

Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is the largest province by area and the second-largest by population. Much of the population lives in urban areas along the St. Lawrence River, between the most populous city, Montreal, and the provincial capital, Quebec City. Quebec is the home of the Québécois nation. Located in Central Canada, the province shares land borders with Ontario to the west, Newfoundland and Labrador to the northeast, New Brunswick to the southeast, and a coastal border with Nunavut; in the south it borders Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York in the United States.

Basement apartment

Basement apartment

A basement apartment is an apartment located below street level, underneath another structure—usually an apartment building, but possibly a house or a business. Cities in North America are beginning to recognize these units as a vital source of housing in urban areas and legally define them as an accessory dwelling unit or "ADU". Rent in basement apartments is usually much lower than it is in above-ground units, due to a number of deficiencies common to basement apartments. The apartments are usually cramped, and tend to be noisy, both from uninsulated building noises and from traffic on the adjacent street. They are also particularly vulnerable to burglary, especially those with windows at sidewalk level. In some instances, residential use of below-ground space is illegal, but is done anyway in order for the building owner to generate extra income.

Little Burgundy

Little Burgundy

Little Burgundy is a neighbourhood in the South West borough of the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Montreal

Montreal

Montreal is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill around which the early city of Ville-Marie is built. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which obtained its name from the same origin as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. The city is 196 km (122 mi) east of the national capital Ottawa, and 258 km (160 mi) southwest of the provincial capital, Quebec City.

Bachelor of Arts

Bachelor of Arts

Bachelor of arts is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate program in the arts, or, in some cases, other disciplines. A bachelor of arts degree course is generally completed in three or four years, depending on the country and institution.Degree attainment typically takes four years in Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, China, Egypt, Ghana, Greece, Georgia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Mexico, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Scotland, Serbia, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, the United States and Zambia. Degree attainment typically takes three years in Albania, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Caribbean, Iceland, India, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Switzerland, the Canadian province of Quebec, the United Kingdom and most of the European Union. In Bangladesh, three-year BA (associates) courses are also available.

Master of Arts

Master of Arts

A Master of Arts is the holder of a master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is usually contrasted with that of Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree have typically studied subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences, such as history, literature, languages, linguistics, public administration, political science, communication studies, law or diplomacy; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two.

Comparative literature

Comparative literature

Comparative literature is an academic field dealing with the study of literature and cultural expression across linguistic, national, geographic, and disciplinary boundaries. Comparative literature "performs a role similar to that of the study of international relations but works with languages and artistic traditions, so as to understand cultures 'from the inside'". While most frequently practised with works of different languages, comparative literature may also be performed on works of the same language if the works originate from different nations or cultures in which that language is spoken.

Journalism, broadcasting, and film careers

Jean became a reporter, filmmaker, and broadcaster for Radio-Canada in 1988,[4][8] hosting news and affairs programmes such as Actuel, Montréal ce soir, Virages, and Le Point; she was the first person of Caribbean descent to be seen on French television news in Canada.[7] She then moved in 1995 to Réseau de l'information (RDI), Radio-Canada's all-news channel, in order to anchor a number of programmes, Le Monde ce soir, l'Édition québécoise, Horizons francophones, Les Grands reportages, Le Journal RDI, and RDI à l'écoute, for example. Four years later, she was asked by CBC's English language all-news channel, CBC Newsworld, to host The Passionate Eye and Rough Cuts, which both broadcast the best in Canadian and foreign documentary films. By 2004, Jean was hosting her own show, Michaëlle, while continuing to anchor RDI's Grands reportages, as well as acting occasionally as anchor of Le Téléjournal.[8]

Over the same period, Jean made several films with her husband, including the award-winning Haïti dans tous nos rêves ("Haiti in All Our Dreams"),[4] in which she meets her uncle, the poet and essayist René Depestre, who fled from the Duvalier dictatorship into exile in France and wrote about his dreams for Haiti, and tells him Haiti awaits his return. She similarly produced and hosted news and documentary programming for television on both the English and French services of the CBC.[8]

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Le Point (TV series)

Le Point (TV series)

Le Point is a Canadian television newsmagazine series, which aired on Radio-Canada from 1983 to 2006. The program, which aired following Le Téléjournal weeknights, explored the news in depth with interviews and documentary reports.

The Passionate Eye

The Passionate Eye

The Passionate Eye is a Canadian documentary television series—and online playlist—that showcases documentary programming from around the world focusing on topics of news, current affairs, politics, and social issues. Airing on CBC News Network, it has been on-air since 1992, and has had a website since 2002.

Rough Cuts (TV series)

Rough Cuts (TV series)

Rough Cuts was a Canadian television series, which aired on CBC Newsworld. Launched in 1994, the series presents documentary films by new and independent journalists and producers. One of its hosts was Michaëlle Jean, who subsequently served as Governor General of Canada from 2005 to 2010.

Le Téléjournal

Le Téléjournal

Le Téléjournal is the umbrella title used for the television newscasts aired on the Ici Radio-Canada Télé broadcast network. Le Téléjournal has been used since 1970 as the title of the network's flagship newscast, originating from Montreal, Quebec. It is considered the French language equivalent of the English-language CBC's The National.

René Depestre

René Depestre

René Depestre is a Haitian poet and former communist activist. He is considered to be one of the most prominent figures in Haitian literature. He lived in Cuba as an exile from the Duvalier regime for many years and was a founder of the Casa de las Américas publishing house. He is best known for his poetry.

Governor General of Canada

Jean was Canada's first governor general of Caribbean origin; the third woman (after Jeanne Sauvé and Adrienne Clarkson); the fourth youngest (after the Marquess of Lorne, who was 33 years old in 1878; the Marquess of Lansdowne, who was 38 years old in 1883; and Edward Schreyer, who was 43 years old in 1979); the fourth former journalist (after Sauvé, Roméo LeBlanc and Clarkson); and the second after Clarkson to not only have neither a political nor military background, but also to be a visible minority, to break the tradition of Canadian-born governors general, and to be in an interracial marriage. Jean was also the first representative of Queen Elizabeth II to have been born during the latter's reign, and her appointment saw the first child living in Rideau Hall, the official residence, since Schreyer and his young family lived there in the early 1980s.

As governor general-designate

On August 4, 2005, it was announced from the Office of the Prime Minister of Canada that Queen Elizabeth II had approved Prime Minister Paul Martin's choice of Jean to succeed Adrienne Clarkson as the Queen's representative. At the time, Martin said of Jean that she "is a woman of talent and achievement. Her personal story is nothing short of extraordinary. And extraordinary is precisely what we seek in a governor generalship—who after all must represent all of Canada to all Canadians and to the rest of the world as well."[12] Almost immediately, there was speculation that Martin had been influenced by the political climate in Ottawa at the time, leading the Prime Minister to deny that rejuvenated popularity for his party in Quebec was a motivating factor in his decision.

Prime Minister Paul Martin, who recommended Jean to Queen Elizabeth II for appointment as the sovereign's viceroy
Prime Minister Paul Martin, who recommended Jean to Queen Elizabeth II for appointment as the sovereign's viceroy

From Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition, the upcoming appointment was met with mostly favourable comments,[n 1] Jean's predecessor applauded the choice, saying that Jean was "an exciting and imaginative choice for Governor General."[15] In her first remarks after this announcement, Jean herself encouraged Canadians to involve themselves in their communities, and stated that she wished to reach out to all Canadians, regardless of their background, and made it a goal to focus especially on Canadian youth and the disadvantaged.

However, by August 11, 2005, reports emerged of a forthcoming piece by René Boulanger for the Quebec sovereigntist publication Le Québécois that would reveal Jean and her husband's support for Quebec independence, citing Lafond's associations with former members of the terrorist organization, the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ),[16] specifically Jacques Rose. Though Boulanger admitted that he was motivated to incite a rejection of Jean by Anglophone Canadians, Gilles Rhéaume, former president of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society, called on the Governor General-Designate to reveal how she voted in Quebec's 1995 referendum on independence,[17][18] and Members of Parliament, as well as some provincial premiers, demanded that Jean and her husband clarify where their sympathies lay.[19] Then, four days after the Prime Minister publicly explained that Jean and her spouse had both undergone thorough background checks by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service,[19][20] there came to light, on August 17, the existence of a documentary in which Jean had been filmed with several hard-line Quebec separatists, all toasting "to independence" after Jean stated: "Independence can't be given, it must be taken."

That same day, Jean responded with a public statement, saying "I wish to tell you unequivocally that both my husband and I are proud to be Canadian and that we have the greatest respect for the institutions of our country. We are fully committed to Canada. I would not have accepted this position otherwise... [We] have never belonged to a political party or the separatist movement," and went on to say that in the documented footage she had been speaking about Haiti, and not Quebec. Martin added on his earlier comments: "There is no doubt in my mind that her devotion to Canada is longstanding and resolute,"[21] though some critics continued to argue that Jean's response had been too vague. By late August, polls showed that there had been a 20% drop in support for the recommendation of Jean as the next governor general, in response to which the Haitian community voiced their support for Jean, even holding special church services in her honour.[22] Jean reaffirmed in late 2010 that the rumours of her separatist sympathies were untrue and revealed that she had been upset by those journalists who she saw as capitalizing on sensationalism, rather than seeking accuracy through investigation, but she had been advised repeatedly not to respond.[23]

The Queen held audience with Jean and her family on September 6, 2005, at Balmoral Castle. Though this type of meeting with a governor general-designate was standard, Jean's was unique in that the presence of her young daughter marked the first time in Elizabeth's reign that her designated viceroy-to-be had brought a child to an audience, which caused some protocol issues.[24] The weekend was informal; for one dinner, coincidentally on the eve of Jean's birthday, the Queen drove Jean and her family to a cottage on the Balmoral estate, where they were joined by Prince Philip and Prince Edward, who, along with the Queen, performed the cooking and washing up. Of it, Jean said "[i]t was probably the best birthday of my life."[24] The commission appointing Jean was issued on September 10 under the royal sign-manual and Great Seal of Canada.[25]

Upon her return to Canada, Jean yet again became a target when the subject of her dual citizenship was raised, in particular the French variety she had obtained through her marriage to the French-born Lafond. A section of the French civil code forbade French citizens from holding government or military positions in other countries,[n 2] yet Jean, as governor general, would hold a governmental position as the representative of Canada's head of state, and, as such, would have a military role carrying out the duties of Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces, as constitutionally vested in the monarch.[26] The French embassy in Ottawa stated that there was "no question" that the law would not be enforced in Jean's case, but, on September 25, two days before her swearing-in, Jean made it public that she had renounced her French citizenship "[in] light of the responsibilities related to the function of Governor General of Canada and Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces" and "France acceded to my request by decree on September 23, 2005."[27][28]

In office

Michaëlle Jean greets concert attendees at the Ottawa Chamber Music Festival at Rideau Hall
Michaëlle Jean greets concert attendees at the Ottawa Chamber Music Festival at Rideau Hall
Governor General Michaëlle Jean and Prime Minister Stephen Harper at the reception for heads of state at the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games
Governor General Michaëlle Jean and Prime Minister Stephen Harper at the reception for heads of state at the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games

At her investiture ceremony in the Senate chamber on September 27, 2005, Jean declared in a speech described as "moving" that "the time of the Two Solitudes that for too long described the character of this country is past," and called for the protection of the environment, the shielding of culture against globalization, and an end to the marginalization of young people. According to one media account, "the pomp and circumstance of Canada's most significant state function were blended with humour, passion and even tears."[29] while The Globe and Mail columnist John Ibbitson reflected the general captivation with the new governor general in the following way:

[H]ere is this beautiful young Canadian of Haitian birth, with a smile that makes you catch your breath, with a bemused older husband by her side, and a daughter who literally personifies our future, and you look at them and you think: Yes, this is our great achievement, this is the Canada that Canada wants to be, this is the Canada that will ultimately make way for different cultural identities.[30]

Echoing her inaugural speech, the motto on the personal coat of arms created for Jean upon taking office as governor general was BRISER LES SOLITUDES, which translates into "breaking down solitudes". One of her first acts as vicereine was then to launch an online chat with Canadians, as part of the larger project of creating within the Governor General's domain name a website dubbed "Citizen Voices: Breaking Down Solitudes", where users could engage each other in discussion forums and prominent individuals could post blog entries. The focus extended beyond simply the relationship between the traditional Two Solitudes of Francophones and Anglophones in Canada to include relations between peoples of all racial, linguistic, cultural, and gender groups.

Over the first two years of her mandate, Jean embarked on the traditional viceregal tours of Canada's provinces and territories. In British Columbia, Jean presented the Grey Cup at the 93rd Canadian Football League championship game; in Iqaluit, Nunavut, she opened the Toonik Tyme Festival, where she donated eighty books in Inuktitut, French, and English to the Centennial Library in commemoration of Queen Elizabeth II's 80th birthday;[31] and, on May 4, 2006, she became the first governor general to address the Alberta legislature. During these tours, Jean also focused strongly on the plight of female victims of violence, meeting with representatives of women's organisations, such as when, in 2007, she participated in a historic private discussion with aboriginal women chiefs and elders at Saskatchewan's Government House.[32] In contrast to her low approval ratings prior to her appointment, crowds were large and welcoming wherever Jean went.[33] Only as her convoy arrived at the National War Memorial for her first Remembrance Day ceremony, on November 11, 2005, were Jean and Lafond greeted with disapproval from an audience, when veterans turned their backs on the Governor General and her consort to show contempt for two people the veterans felt had worked to break up the country they had fought to defend.[34]

Military duties and welcomes overseas

Governor General Michaëlle Jean with then President of Brazil, Lula da Silva, July 11, 2007
Governor General Michaëlle Jean with then President of Brazil, Lula da Silva, July 11, 2007
Jean presiding over Remembrance Day ceremonies in Ottawa, 2007
Jean presiding over Remembrance Day ceremonies in Ottawa, 2007

The viceregal family undertook their first international trip in February 2006, journeying to Italy to attend the closing ceremonies of the 2006 Winter Olympics, meet Italian President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi in Torino, and Pope Benedict XVI at the Vatican. Three months later, Jean attended the investiture of René Préval as President of Haiti, Jean's first visit to her homeland in her capacity as the Queen's representative, and where she was greeted with enthusiasm in Jacmel.[35] At the end of the year, between November 18 and December 11, 2006, Jean then embarked on a trip consisting of state visits to five African countries—Algeria, Mali, Ghana, South Africa, and Morocco—wherein the Governor General encouraged women's rights.[36] She also, in a precedent-breaking move, personally explained on her Citizen Voices website the role of the governor general in undertaking such trips and the reason behind these particular tours throughout Africa,[37] after which she continued to post her observations and feelings on her experiences on the continent. In Mali, where she arrived on November 23, 2006, Jean was greeted by tens of thousands of people lining the highway as her motorcade passed and, in the town of Benieli, she was presented with a goat, replete with a Canadian flag on its collar.[38] Male vendors also gave Canadian journalists gifts to be passed on to Jean, provided that she also be given their telephone numbers.[39] Further, during the South African leg of the tour, then President Thabo Mbeki praised the Queen-in-Council's decision to appoint Jean as governor general, citing it as an example to European countries of how African immigrants could be treated.[40]

Jean embraced her role as acting commander-in-chief, one of her first international duties being a trip, from October 29–30, 2005, to France for the 90th anniversary of the Battle of Vimy Ridge, just after which she returned to Canada for the arrival at Trenton, Ontario, of the bodies of six Canadian soldiers killed in Afghanistan. Jean made on March 8, 2007, her first visit to Canadian troops taking part in the offensive in Afghanistan; she had earlier expressed her desire to go, but Harper advised against such a trip on the grounds of security concerns, the relevance of which were demonstrated when two attacks were made against Canadian soldiers on the same day the Governor General landed in Kabul.[41] Jean had the arrival timed specifically for International Women's Day, stating: "the women of Afghanistan may face the most unbearable conditions, but they never stop fighting for survival. Of course, we, the rest of the women around the world, took too long to hear the cries of our Afghan sisters, but I am here to tell them that they are no longer alone. And neither are the people of Afghanistan." Part of the Governor General's itinerary included meeting with Afghan women, Canadian soldiers, Royal Canadian Mounted Police teams, humanitarian workers, and diplomats.[42]

"Loose cannon" accusation

There was, by early 2007, some perception that Jean's schedule was seemingly thinner than that of her predecessors; an initial explanation of fatigue was further detailed by the Secretary to the Governor General as thyroid problems, and that the vicereine's doctor had advised rest after Jean's previously hectic diary.[43] At the same time, some in the Ottawa Press Gallery opined that Jean had on a few occasions in the previous year overstepped the boundaries of an office that was expected to remain non-partisan; journalist Chantal Hébert said that the Governor General had "been wading uncommonly deep in political territory over the past few months", citing Jean's criticism of Quebec sovereigntists and her expressed support for the mission of Canadian troops in Afghanistan.[44] Further, Michael Valpy penned a piece in The Globe and Mail critiquing Jean for inviting who Valpy described as "potentially politically charged individuals" to post on her Citizen Voices website.[45] Jean had also made, at the roast-like annual National Press Gallery dinner, satirical remarks about Parti Québécois leadership candidate André Boisclair's admitted cocaine use and,[46] in a September 18, 2006 interview regarding a proposed subsidy for Canadians to travel domestically, she commented that Quebecers "are sometimes very disconnected from the rest of Canada" and that their isolation affected Canada's unity. Jean later clarified her opinion by adding that Canadians from all provinces were disconnected from other parts of the country,[47][48] and a September 26 editorial in the Montreal Gazette supported Jean's statements on the divisions between Canada's peoples, saying that supporting national unity was a part of a governor general's mandate;[49] but, the ire of Quebec separatist politicians was not assuaged. Further, the content of a speech by Jean to mark the 25th anniversary of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms was regarded as thinly veiled criticism of her Cabinet's decision to end the Court Challenges Program and,[50] into 2007, it was reported that Jean's staff at Rideau Hall had been systematically removing royal portraits from the walls of the residence. All of this prompted Valpy to reveal that, early in his time as prime minister, Stephen Harper was told by Alex Himelfarb, then the Clerk of the Privy Council: "Prime Minister, your biggest problem is in Rideau Hall," meaning Jean and her potential to be a "loose cannon".[45]

Jean carried out the regular ceremonial duties of state, such as dedicating the new Michael Lee-Chin Crystal at the Royal Ontario Museum on June 1, 2007 (following in the footsteps of her predecessor, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, the governor general who opened the first expansion of the museum in 1914),[51] and undertaking a state visit to Brazil, from July 6–15, 2007.[52]

Parliamentary prorogation

In late 2008, the Governor General had to return to Canada in the midst of a state visit in Europe to contend with a parliamentary dispute, as a coalition of three opposition parties in parliament threatened to rescind their confidence in the Cabinet under the leadership of Stephen Harper and subsequently form the government. After two and half hours of deliberation, Jean chose to follow the constitutional precedent of accepting her prime minister's advice, which was to prorogue parliament until late January 2009.[53] At the end of Jean's viceregal tenure, Peter H. Russell, one of the constitutional experts from whom Jean sought advice, disclosed that the Governor General granted the prorogation on two conditions: parliament would reconvene soon and, when it did, the Cabinet would produce a passable budget. This, Russell said, set a precedent that would prevent future prime ministers from advising the prorogation of parliament "for any length of time for any reason."[54] Jean thus prevented the approaching non-confidence vote, as well as a resulting situation wherein she would be required to choose between asking the coalition to form a government or dissolving parliament and dropping the writs, after having a federal election only six weeks earlier.[55] Along with the subsequent prorogation of parliament in December 2009 and the earlier calling of an election in October 2008, Jean was for almost two years part of a controversy in the Canadian media that focused on the constitutional relationships between the governor general and the prime minister or the leaders of the parties in opposition.[56]

Seal meat, new uniforms, and crisis in Haiti

As the representative of Canada's head of state, the Governor General welcomes US President Barack Obama to Canada, February 19, 2009
As the representative of Canada's head of state, the Governor General welcomes US President Barack Obama to Canada, February 19, 2009

During a tour of Nunavut in early 2009, the Governor General again garnered headlines when she participated in a traditional Inuit seal feast at a community festival, gutting a seal that had been recently killed by hunters and consuming a piece of the raw heart. While both her immediate predecessor and Prince Charles had previously partaken in raw seal meat in the Canadian Arctic,[57] Jean's simple act drew attention, both positive and negative, because of its coincidence with the European Parliament's recent ban on the import of Canadian seal products.[58][59] Dining on seal was a traditional aspect of the annual event and it was proper etiquette for the Governor General, as a guest, to take part.[60] When asked by reporters what her motivations were, Jean replied: "Take from that what you will."[61]

A series of state visits followed in 2009, to Norway,[62] Croatia,[63] Greece,[63] and Mexico,[64] as well as another visit to Canadian troops in Afghanistan from September 8–9. In between these diplomatic missions, Jean presided on June 27 over the ceremonies in Halifax, Nova Scotia, for the consecration and presentation of the new Queen's Colour to the Canadian navy; she wore at that time the Commander-in-Chief's naval uniform,[65] marking the revival of a practice that had ceased following the tenure of Ray Hnatyshyn. She, along with Prince Charles, did the same at the 2009 Remembrance Day events in Ottawa, both at that time sporting Canadian army dress uniform.[66] Then, in June 2010, Jean conducted a fleet review in Esquimalt Harbour, to mark the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Royal Canadian Navy.[67]

The vicereine again won plaudits, though not universal,[68] from the media and public for her actions following the earthquake that devastated her native Haiti on January 12, 2010, in which she lost her friend Magalie Marcelin, godmother to Jean's daughter.[5] The Governor General, with her prime minister, Stephen Harper, attended an emergency meeting at the Department of Foreign Affairs and then made a tearful speech, with parts in Haitian Creole, thanking the Cabinet for its swift action and the Canadian media for its coverage, as well as urging strength and courage to Haitians.[69] She later attended a vigil in Montreal and, on January 25, 2010, met at Rideau Hall with Haitian prime minister Jean-Max Bellerive.[70][71] After officially opening the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, on February 12, and the Winter Paralympics a month later,[72][73] the Governor General made a visit to Haiti, from March 8–10, 2010, to observe the devastation and Canadian assistance being meted out there and to meet with President Préval.[74][75]

End of tenure

Jean announced to the press in early 2010 that she would step out of the viceregal role near the end of the traditional, but not official, five-year period.[76] The then official opposition leader, Michael Ignatieff, publicly advocated the extension of Jean's tenure, in doing so breaking the tradition of keeping consultations on the next governor general among the prime minister and opposition party leaders confidential.[77][78] Polls conducted around that time showed that Jean had earned an approval rating of 60%, and a constitutional expert at the University of Toronto called her performance as governor general "superb", though some of her missteps were noted.[79]

Jean (left) with Queen Elizabeth II at Queen's Park, Toronto, July 2010
Jean (left) with Queen Elizabeth II at Queen's Park, Toronto, July 2010

On May 10, 2010, Princess Margriet of the Netherlands presented Jean with a new tulip cultivar named the Michaëlle Jean tulip; with deep maroon petals; it was designed to reflect the Governor General's personal tastes.[80][81][82] This carried on the tradition of Dutch royalty giving tulips as gifts to Canada.

Summaries of Jean's time as the Queen's representative emerged by mid-2010; Jean was regarded as having fulfilled the role in an admirable, though not perfect, fashion. It was noted that she used the office, her speaking abilities, and photogenic nature to Canada's advantage, promoting freedom, human rights, and urban youth, and to bring attention to socio-economic problems in the country's north.[7] She was commended for her dedication to the arts, Aboriginal Canadians, the Armed Forces, and her outreach to Haiti following the earthquake there, but critiqued for specific incidents, such as referring to herself as Canada's head of state and making public comments that skirted the political.[83][84][85] Her ability to personally connect with those she met was also noted, as well as her frequent displays of emotion; commentators dubbed her the empathizer-in-chief.[23]

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Interracial marriage

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Monarchy of Canada

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II

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Ottawa

Ottawa

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Post-viceregal life

In the weeks before Jean's departure from the viceregal office, the Cabinet announced that the Michaëlle Jean Foundation would be established by the federal Crown-in-Council to focus on promoting education, culture, and creativity among youth from rural, northern, and/or poor communities in Canada.[86] It was also reported that the Secretary-General of the United Nations would be appointing Jean to act as special envoy to Haiti for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, with an aim to fight poverty and illiteracy and raise international funds.[87][88] She was on November 8, 2010, appointed for a four-year term.[89][90] Although the position's office is located in Paris, France, Jean opted to remain in Canada and base herself out of space provided by the University of Ottawa and rented by the Michaëlle Jean Foundation.[23] In early 2011, Jean made a call for the overhaul of Haiti's education system, as "the cornerstone of the impoverished nation's future prosperity."[91] Also that year, it was announced that Jean had been appointed as Chancellor of the University of Ottawa; she began her term on February 1, 2012,[92][93] and stepped down in 2015.[10]

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Michaëlle Jean Foundation

Michaëlle Jean Foundation

The Michaëlle Jean Foundation is an independent non-profit organization established by former Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean upon her retirement from that position in 2010. Its aim is to collaborate with other Canadian organizations across Canada to work with disadvantaged youth and effect change in their communities through the arts. The co-presidents of the foundation are Michaëlle Jean and her husband Jean-Daniel Lafond who also serves as CEO.

Secretary-General of the United Nations

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Paris

Paris

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University of Ottawa

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Secretary-General of La Francophonie

Secretary-General of La Francophonie Abdou Diouf, in April 2011, appointed Jean as the Grand Témoin de la Francophonie for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, England, with the task of promoting the French language and ensuring compliance by the London Olympic Organising Committee with rule 24 of the Olympic Charter, which gives French the status of an official language of the Olympic Games.[94]

In 2014, the Canadian federal government, along with the provincial governments of Quebec and New Brunswick, as well as the government of Haiti endorsed Jean's candidacy to be Diouf's successor as Secretary-General of La Francophonie. On November 30, 2014, the representatives of governments of the 57-member organization[95] chose Jean for the position by consensus after the four other candidates withdrew.[96]

Her four-year mandate began January 5, 2015,[97][98] and she has since promoted democratic procedures[99]—particularly in respect to elections in the Central African Republic, Niger, Comoros, and Benin—education, and the rights of women and girls.[100][101][102]

Jean sought a mandate for a second four-year term at the 2018 Francophonie Summit in Armenia, however, France and eventually Canada supported the consensus candidate, Rwandan foreign minister Louise Mushikiwabo. Jean has been criticized for expenses such as spending $500,000 to renovate her Paris apartment, a $50,000 bill for four nights at Manhattan's Waldorf-Astoria hotel, the acquisition of a $20,000 piano and the $1-million price tag for a youth-engagement program carried out aboard the replica of a historic 18th century ship, the Hermione.[103]

Jean was defeated in her bid for a second term when the 2018 Francophonie summit held in Armenia agreed, by consensus, to elect Rwandan foreign minister Louise Mushikiwabo as secretary-general. Jean's term in office ended on January 2, 2019.[104][105]

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French frigate Hermione (2014)

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Chancellor of St. Paul's University College

Jean was named to succeed Jean Paul Gladu as chancellor of St. Paul's University College in late October 2020. The school, which is affiliated with the University of Waterloo, offers programs in Indigenous Studies, International Development, Canadian Studies and Human Rights while also being home to the Waterloo Indigenous Student Centre, the Student Refugee Program, and GreenHouse, a nationally-recognized social enterprise incubator.

Head of the Fédération haïtienne de football

Jean was given the mandate to revive Haitian soccer. She will be at the head of the Federation until 2022 and will try to straighten it out after a sex scandal involving the former president. Jean and her three colleagues will notably have to organize the election of the next FHF executive committee. None of them will be eligible for the vacancies.[106]

Honours

Ribbon bars of Michaëlle Jean


Appointments

Medals
Awards
Foreign honours

Honorary military appointments

Honorary degrees

Honorific eponyms

Awards

  • Michaëlle Jean and Jean-Daniel Lafond Endowment Fund for Social Communication Studies[142]
  • Michaëlle Jean Emergency Hunger Relief Award[143]

Geographic locations

Schools

Flora

Arms

Coat of arms of Michaëlle Jean
Michaëlle Jean full heraldic achievement.svg
Notes
Just prior to her installation as Governor General, Jean was granted a personal coat of arms that depicted her Haitian roots.
Adopted
September 1, 2005
Crest
A sea shell Or entoured by a chain its ends broken Sable
Escutcheon
Sable a sand dollar ensigned by the Royal Crown Or
Supporters
Two Simbis Or queued and crined Sable each sounding a sea shell Or
Compartment
Issuant from barry wavy Or and Sable set before a rocky mound proper growing thereon to the dexter a palm tree and to the sinister a pine tree Or
Motto
BRISER LES SOLITUDES (Eliminating isolation)
Orders
The ribbon and insignia of a Companion of the Order of Canada.
DESIDERANTES MELIOREM PATRIAM (They desire a better country)
Symbolism
The shield shows a sand dollar, a special talisman for Jean, and the Crown symbolising her viceregal authority. The shell in a broken chain refers to Albert Mangonès' sculpture in Port-au-Prince, Le Marron Inconnu, which depicts an escaped slave blowing a sea shell to call to arms his fellow enslaved people; this symbolises Jean's ancestors' escape from slavery. The two Simbis are Haitian Vodou water spirits with the power to calm rough seas and give wisdom; they stand in before a rocky terrain upon which are rooted a palm tree—a Haitian symbol of peace—and a pine tree—representative of the natural riches of Canada.[146]

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Order of La Pléiade

Order of La Pléiade

The Order of La Pléiade is an honorary order of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. It recognizes people who particularly distinguished themselves in the service of its ideals of cooperation and friendship, promoting the role of the French language in their own countries or in the world. It was created in 1976 on initiative of the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie.

Order of Canada

Order of Canada

The Order of Canada is a Canadian state order and the second-highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada, after the Order of Merit.

Order of Military Merit (Canada)

Order of Military Merit (Canada)

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Order of Merit of the Police Forces

Order of Merit of the Police Forces

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Royal Military College of Canada

Royal Military College of Canada

The Royal Military College(s) of Canada, abbreviated in English as RMC and in French as CMR, is a military academy and, since 1959, a degree-granting university of the Canadian Armed Forces. It was established in 1874 and conducted its first classes on June 1, 1876. Presently, it is the only federal institution in Canada with degree-granting powers; the Government of Ontario empowered RMC to confer degrees in the arts, science, and engineering through The Royal Military College of Canada Degrees Act, 1959. Programs are offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels, both on campus as well as through the college's distance learning programme via the Division of Continuing Studies.

Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

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Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan

Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan

The Commemorative Medal for the Centennial of Saskatchewan also called the Saskatchewan Centennial Medal is a commemorative medal struck to celebrate the first 100 years since Saskatchewan's entrance into Canadian Confederation.

Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal

Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal

The Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal or The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Medal was a commemorative medal created in 2012 to mark the 60th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession in 1952. There are four versions of the medal: one issued by the United Kingdom, another by Canada, the third for the Caribbean realms of Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and the fourth issued by Papua New Guinea. The ribbons used with the Canadian and British versions of the medal are the same, while the ribbon of the Caribbean and the Papua New Guinean medal differ slightly. The different iterations of the medal were presented to tens of thousands of recipients throughout the Commonwealth realms in the jubilee year.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian public broadcaster for both radio and television. It is a federal Crown corporation that receives funding from the government. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are commonly known as CBC and Radio-Canada, respectively.

Amnesty International

Amnesty International

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Montreal

Montreal

Montreal is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill around which the early city of Ville-Marie is built. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which obtained its name from the same origin as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. The city is 196 km (122 mi) east of the national capital Ottawa, and 258 km (160 mi) southwest of the provincial capital, Quebec City.

Prix Gémeaux

Prix Gémeaux

The Prix Gémeaux or Gémeaux Awards honour achievements in Canadian television and digital media that is broadcast in French. It has been sponsored by the Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television since 1987. Introduced as a French-language equivalent to the Gemini Awards, the Canadian Academy's former presentation for English-language television, it remains separate from the contemporary Canadian Screen Awards despite being presented by the same parent organization.

Source: "Michaëlle Jean", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michaëlle_Jean.

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Notes
  1. ^ Stephen Harper, then the leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition as head of the Conservative Party, offered his congratulations and said that Jean's life story "serves as a great example to many Canadians. I know Mme Jean will serve Canada in a dignified, viceregal fashion."[13] Jack Layton, leader of the New Democratic Party, said that he wished Jean and her family well, and that he looked "forward to seeing a family again in Rideau Hall, which is fitting for the first Governor-General [sic] of a new century", and went on to say that Jean "knows well the value of the peacekeeping operations that give Canadians so much pride.[14] Bloc Québécois leader Gilles Duceppe expressed disappointment at Jean for deciding to "accept a position... within an institution that is not democratic."
  2. ^ Article 23-8 of the Napoleonic code allows the French government to ask French citizens to leave the foreign service or lose French nationality in 15 days to two months.
References
  1. ^ "Jean, Michaëlle". The UN Refugee Agency. Retrieved June 11, 2010.
  2. ^ "Michaëlle Jean begins UN job – CBC News". Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  3. ^ Privy Council Office. "Information Resources > Members of the Queen's Privy Council > Current Alphabetical List > J". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on February 15, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
  4. ^ a b c Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Role and Responsibilities > The Governor General and Her Spouse > Governor General Michaëlle Jean". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
  5. ^ a b c Panetta, Alexander (March 8, 2010). "Governor General Michaëlle Jean in quake-ravaged Haiti: 'You are not alone'". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on March 11, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
  6. ^ Wyatt, Nelson (January 18, 2010). "Canadian troops will focus aid on town with deep ties to GG Michaëlle Jean". Canada East. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Azzi, Stephen. "The Canadian Encyclopedia". In Marsh, James Harley (ed.). Biography > Governors General of Canada > Jean, Michaëlle. Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada. Archived from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Indepth > Governor General Michaëlle Jean". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. October 11, 2005. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
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External links
Government offices
Preceded by Governor General of Canada
2005–2010
Succeeded by
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by Secretary General of the La Francophonie
2015–2019
Succeeded by
Academic offices
Preceded by Chancellor of the University of Ottawa
2012–2015
Succeeded by
Order of precedence
Preceded byas former governor general Canadian order of precedence Succeeded byas former governor general
Categories

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