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Mercedes-Benz O405

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Mercedes-Benz O405
Mercedes-Benz O 405 Viernheim 100 2269.jpg
Mercedes O405 (integral) in Viernheim
Overview
ManufacturerMercedes-Benz
Production1983–2002
AssemblyMannheim, Germany
Body and chassis
ClassComplete bus
Bus chassis
LayoutRear-engine
Doors1, 2 or 3 doors (rigid)
2, 3 or 4 doors (articulated)
Floor typeHigh floor
Low floor
Powertrain
EngineOM447h (157 kW)
OM447h (177 kW)
OM447hII (184 kW)
OM447hLA (184 kW)
Capacity60 to 104 passengers (35 seated to 61 seated)
TransmissionMercedes-Benz W3E110/2.2R
Mercedes-Benz W3E112/2.2R
Mercedes-Benz W4E
Allison B400R
Voith DIWA 851.2
Voith DIWA 864.3
ZF 4HP500
ZF 5HP500
Dimensions
Length11.1 m
11.7 m
12.2 m (rigid)/17.1m, 18.0m (articulated)
Width2.5 m
Chronology
PredecessorMercedes-Benz O305 (single decker and articulated)
SuccessorMercedes-Benz Citaro (O530)
Mercedes-Benz OC500LE

The Mercedes-Benz O405 was a single-decker bus manufactured by Mercedes-Benz from the mid-1980s to the early 2000s as either an integral bus or a bus chassis and was the last VöV SL-II standard bus in production. It was the replacement for the Mercedes-Benz O305 and was widely used in Europe, the United Kingdom, Australia and Singapore with 12,000 produced.

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Standard floor version

O405G
O405G

The step-entrance version was known as the O405. A 3-axle articulated version was also built known as O405G and a trolleybus as the O405T.[1] There were two generations of O405, designated as O405 MkI and O405 MkII. Most of them have their boxy roof dome (slightly arched) with a double-curvature windscreen, separately mounted destination indicator and pantograph system windshield wipers that was used on some buses such as the Dennis Dart, Leyland Lynx, MAN NL262 and the MAN SL202.

O405 Mark I

The O405 Mark I was marketed between mid-1980s and early 1990s. It was unveiled in September 1983.[1] It featured a Mercedes Benz OM447h naturally aspirated engine with outputs of either 157 kW (211 hp) or 184 kW (247 hp). Optionally available was a naturally aspirated compressed natural gas (CNG) engine model M447hG with 150 kW (201 hp) output. The gearbox coupled to the engine was usually the Mercedes-Benz W3E110/2.2R or Mercedes-Benz W4E112/2.2R (the former being able to handle the more powerful 184 kW engine), although there have been other gearboxes such as the ZF 5HP 500 or Allison B300R coupled to the engine.

O405 Mark II

The O405 Mark II was marketed from the early 1990s to the late 1990s and into the early 2000s in some parts of the world. It featured a Mercedes-Benz OM447hA turbocharged engine with an output of 184 kW (247 hp), although some examples feature either a naturally aspirated engine (OM447h-II), a turbocharged engine (OM447hA) or a turbocharged, intercooled engine (OM447hLA). The gearbox coupled to the engine was either the ZF 4HP 500 or 5HP 500, or the Voith D864.3.

From 1994, this chassis was available with the M447hG Euro II 175 kW (235 hp) naturally aspirated compressed natural gas (CNG) engine.

Discover more about Standard floor version related topics

High-floor

High-floor

High-floor describes the interior flooring of commuter vehicles primarily used in public transport such as trains, light rail cars and other rail vehicles, along with buses and trolleybuses. Interior floor height is generally measured above the street surface or above the top of the rail. High-floor designs usually result from packaging requirements: mechanical items such as axles, motors, crankshafts, and/or transmissions, or luggage storage spaces are traditionally placed under the interior floor of these vehicles. The term is used in contrast with low-floor designs, which offer a decreased floor and entry height above the street surface. Since low-floor designs generally were developed after high-floor vehicles, the older high-floor design is sometimes also known as conventional or the “traditional” design.

Articulated bus

Articulated bus

An articulated bus, also referred to as a banana bus, bendy bus, tandem bus, vestibule bus, wiggle wagon, stretch bus, or an accordion bus, is an articulated vehicle used in public transportation. It is usually a single-decker, and comprises two or more rigid sections linked by a pivoting joint (articulation) enclosed by protective bellows inside and outside and a cover plate on the floor. This allows a longer legal length than rigid-bodied buses, and hence a higher passenger capacity (94–120), while still allowing the bus to maneuver adequately.

Trolleybus

Trolleybus

A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws power from dual overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires, and two trolley poles, are required to complete the electrical circuit. This differs from a tram or streetcar, which normally uses the track as the return path, needing only one wire and one pole. They are also distinct from other kinds of electric buses, which usually rely on batteries. Power is most commonly supplied as 600-volt direct current, but there are exceptions.

Dennis Dart

Dennis Dart

The Dennis Dart is a rear-engined single-decker midibus chassis that was introduced by Dennis Specialist Vehicles of Guildford, England in 1989, replacing the Dennis Domino. Initially built as a high-floor design, In 1996 the low-floor second generation Dennis Dart SLF was launched. In 2001, production of the Dart SLF passed to TransBus International, during which time it was sold as the TransBus Dart SLF; Alexander Dennis took over production in 2004, renaming the product as the Alexander Dennis Dart SLF.

Leyland Lynx

Leyland Lynx

The Leyland Lynx was a stepped-entrance single-decker bus manufactured by Leyland in Workington, England between 1986 and 1992. After the takeover by Volvo, it was succeeded by the Volvo B10B.

MAN NL262

MAN NL262

MAN NL262 (A27) is a low-floor single-decker bus made by MAN from 1992 to 1998. Although predominantly produced for Hong Kong in right-hand drive operated by Citybus, some were made in left-hand drive for the mainland European market, it was still built within the similar MAN NL202. It was succeeded by the MAN Lion's City.

MAN SL202

MAN SL202

The MAN SL202 was a single-decker bus manufactured by MAN in Salzgitter, Germany between 1983 and 1993. It was also available as a chassis for external bodywork.

Horsepower

Horsepower

Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done, usually in reference to the output of engines or motors. There are many different standards and types of horsepower. Two common definitions used today are the mechanical horsepower, which is about 745.7 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts.

Compressed natural gas

Compressed natural gas

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a fuel gas mainly composed of methane (CH4), compressed to less than 1% of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 20–25 megapascals (2,900–3,600 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes.

ZF Friedrichshafen

ZF Friedrichshafen

ZF Friedrichshafen AG, also known as ZF Group, originally Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen, and commonly abbreviated to ZF, is an German car parts maker headquartered in Friedrichshafen, in the south-west German state of Baden-Württemberg. Specialising in engineering, it is primarily known for its design, research and development, and manufacturing activities in the automotive industry. It is a worldwide supplier of driveline and chassis technology for cars and commercial vehicles, along with specialist plant equipment such as construction equipment. It is also involved in rail, marine, defense and aviation industries, as well as general industrial applications. ZF has 241 production locations in 41 countries with approximately 148,000 (2019) employees.

Allison Transmission

Allison Transmission

Allison Transmission is an American manufacturer of commercial duty automatic transmissions and hybrid propulsion systems. Allison products are specified by over 250 vehicle manufacturers and are used in many market sectors including bus, refuse, fire, construction, distribution, military, and specialty applications.

Voith

Voith

The Voith Group [fɔʏ̯t] is a German manufacturer of machines for the pulp and paper industry, technical equipment for hydropower plants and drive and braking systems. The family-owned company, which operates worldwide and has its headquarters in Heidenheim an der Brenz, was founded in 1867.

Low-Floor Version: O405N

O405NE
O405NE

The low-floor version of the regular O405 was known as the O405N (or O405GN for the 3-axle articulated version) was released in September 1989, later a further developed version was also built, it was known as the O405N²/O405N2 (or O405GN²/O405GN2 for the 3-axle articulated version).[1] The O405(G)N do not have steps at the entrances and exits, but the seats are mounted on "platforms". The GN2 type addressed this problem. These buses are usually fitted with ZF transmissions, but some are fitted with Voith examples. It has a boxy roof dome (slightly arched) similar to the MAN NL202 and the MAN NL262 with a double-curvature windscreen with a separately mounted destination display just that it has a full low floor layout with seats mounted on platforms.

Discover more about Low-Floor Version: O405N related topics

Low-floor bus

Low-floor bus

A low-floor bus is a bus or trolleybus that has no steps between the ground and the floor of the bus at one or more entrances, and low floor for part or all of the passenger cabin. A bus with a partial low floor may also be referred to as a low-entry bus or seldom a flat-floor bus in some locations.

Articulated bus

Articulated bus

An articulated bus, also referred to as a banana bus, bendy bus, tandem bus, vestibule bus, wiggle wagon, stretch bus, or an accordion bus, is an articulated vehicle used in public transportation. It is usually a single-decker, and comprises two or more rigid sections linked by a pivoting joint (articulation) enclosed by protective bellows inside and outside and a cover plate on the floor. This allows a longer legal length than rigid-bodied buses, and hence a higher passenger capacity (94–120), while still allowing the bus to maneuver adequately.

Voith

Voith

The Voith Group [fɔʏ̯t] is a German manufacturer of machines for the pulp and paper industry, technical equipment for hydropower plants and drive and braking systems. The family-owned company, which operates worldwide and has its headquarters in Heidenheim an der Brenz, was founded in 1867.

MAN NL202

MAN NL202

The MAN NL202 was a low floor single-decker bus built by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge from the late 1980s until 1992. It is derived from the VöV SL-II bus standard. Especially sold in Europe, in particular in Germany, it was replaced by MAN NL262. It was additionally sold in South Australia, in diesel and Compressed natural gas variants, the latter of which continues to be used to this day in significant numbers.

MAN NL262

MAN NL262

MAN NL262 (A27) is a low-floor single-decker bus made by MAN from 1992 to 1998. Although predominantly produced for Hong Kong in right-hand drive operated by Citybus, some were made in left-hand drive for the mainland European market, it was still built within the similar MAN NL202. It was succeeded by the MAN Lion's City.

Low-Entry Version: O405NH

Transperth Volgren bodied O405NH CNG
Transperth Volgren bodied O405NH CNG

The low-entry version of the O405 was called the O405NH chassis which was produced by EvoBus for the Australian market.[1] Much of its popularity with government and private operators alike can be attributed to the popularity of the Mercedes-Benz O405 MkII chassis that it replaced.

The chassis was derived from a combination of the rear modules of an O405 MkII chassis and the front modules of an O405N²/O405GN² chassis. Because of the difference in height between the front and rear modules of the chassis, there are one or more steps leading up from behind the centre door position to a standard O405 floorline. Because the chassis has a horizontally-mounted engine, there's no room for a rear door. This low-entry concept has become very popular in Europe – many integral products using this concept have been released such as the Mercedes-Benz Citaro LE.

Discover more about Low-Entry Version: O405NH related topics

Transperth

Transperth

Transperth is the brand name of the public transport system serving the city and suburban areas of Perth, the state capital of Western Australia. It is managed by the Public Transport Authority (PTA), a state government organisation. Train operations are done by Transperth Train Operations, a division of the PTA. Bus operations are contracted out to Swan Transit, Path Transit and Transdev. Ferry operations are contracted out to Captain Cook Cruises.

Volgren

Volgren

Volgren is an Australian bus and coach body manufacturer.

EvoBus

EvoBus

EvoBus GmbH is a German bus and coach manufacturer headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany and a wholly owned subsidiary of Daimler Truck AG. Its products go to market under the brands Setra or Mercedes-Benz.

Europe

Europe

Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right because of its great physical size and the weight of its history and traditions. Europe is also considered a subcontinent of Eurasia and it is located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. Comprising the westernmost peninsulas of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Africa and Asia. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and Asia to the east. Europe is commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black Sea and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.

Mercedes-Benz Citaro

Mercedes-Benz Citaro

The Mercedes-Benz Citaro is a single-decker, rigid or articulated bus manufactured by Mercedes-Benz/EvoBus. Introduced in 1997, the Citaro is available in a range of configurations, and is in widespread use throughout Europe and parts of Asia, with more than 55,000 produced by December 2019.

Suburban Version: O407

O407 integral
O407 integral

The suburban version was called O407 (or O407G/O405GÜ for the 3-axle articulated version), It had a single door at the front and a pair in the middle, with all of the seats facing towards the front of the bus. It featured a Mercedes Benz OM447h naturally aspirated engine with output 177 kW (237 hp) and 6-speed manual Mercedes-Benz gearbox.

Orders

Portugal

Castrosua O405N in Portugal
Castrosua O405N in Portugal
  • Camo U1001S
  • Camo Camus
  • Irmãos Mota Atomic UR95 and UR2000
  • Marcopolo Tricana bodies

In 1994, the first batch of O405 buses were delivered to Rodoviária de Lisboa (former Rodoviária Nacional) as the freights L-700 (later replaced by Volvo B10MA in 2003) and L-702. More O405 buses were delivered between 1996 and 2003. The first 2 O405N were delivered in February 2003 as the freights L-533 and L-534, two months later as L-530, L-531, L-532 and L-535. The first O405N2 was delivered in July 2004 as the freight L-511. The first 2 O405G articulated buses were delivered in 2002, as more O405G buses were delivered in 2007 to replace the older Volvo B10MA buses. The first two UR95 O405 buses were delivered in 2004 which came from Vimeca Transportes as freights L-548 and L-549.

Many O405 buses were dropped and scrapped in 2013 to replace the O405N2 Camo Camus, originally from CCFL Carris between 2013 and 2014 and the second-hand Citaros in 2015-16. The only O405 still alive is the freight L-627, while the only O408 is the freight L-581. Some O405 buses changed the RL colors (Example: The O405N2 freight L-540 was originally a yellow RL color, now it changed to blue RL in 2020).

Spain

United Kingdom

Travel Coventry O405GN
Travel Coventry O405GN

A total of 365 O405s were built for operators in the United Kingdom, with Travel West Midlands purchasing 204.[2] A sole O405Gs was bodied by Alexander for Grampian Regional Transport.[3][4]

A total of 204 O405Ns were built for operators in the United Kingdom, with Travel West Midlands purchasing 193.[5] A total of 15 O405GNs were built for operators in the United Kingdom, with Travel West Midlands purchasing 11.[3]

Hong Kong

Discovery Bay Transit Services's Mercedes-Benz O405 in April 2015
Discovery Bay Transit Services's Mercedes-Benz O405 in April 2015

Discovery Bay Transit Services of Hong Kong acquired four O405 single-decker buses between 1995 and 1998, two were fitted with locally-built bodywork by Asia Auto Body Works and the other two had Hispano Carrocera bodywork.[6]

Australia

Sydney Buses took delivery of 247 Pressed Metal Corporation bodied O405s between 1987 and October 1990. The last were retired in early 2016. In January 1997 it received two Ansair bodied O405Ns. It also inherited four Custom Coaches bodied O405s when it purchased North & Western Bus Lines. Between October 1999 and December 2001 it received 300 Custom Coaches bodied CNG O405NHs with the O405NH discontinued after this order.[7]

The 300 Custom Coaches O405NH ordered by State Transit were delivered from Germany as a fully constructed frame and panels were fitted by Custom Coaches, so that as many of these buses could be on the road in time for the Sydney Olympic Games. They can seat 45 passengers and are 12.5 metres long. They have M447hG Euro 2 engines producing 175 kW.

In Western Australia, Transperth took delivery of their O405NHs between 1999 and 2003 with 48 natural gas and 349 diesel buses delivered including the six for Perth CAT services before being replaced by its successor, the OC500LE.

Other customers of the O405s included Busways, Quince's Scenicruisers and Westbus, Clarks Bus Service and Surfside Buslines.

Serbia

In 2000, the city of Berlin donated Mercedes Benz O405, O405G and O405N. The O405G was scrapped in 2012, the O405N in 2017, and the O405 in 2019 along with the FAP A-537 bus that was on the same chassis.

Singapore

Walter Alexander-bodied Mercedes-Benz O405 as operated by SBS Transit
Walter Alexander-bodied Mercedes-Benz O405 as operated by SBS Transit
Mercedes benz O405GN2 in Barcelona, bodied by Castrosúa.
Mercedes benz O405GN2 in Barcelona, bodied by Castrosúa.

Singapore Bus Services ordered 700 Mercedes-Benz O405 to replace its first batch of Mercedes-Benz OF1413s between 1990 and 1992. They were bodied by Alexander PS and Duple Metsec (OAC (original air-con) and NAC (non-aircon)). The non air-con buses were later converted to air-con buses in 1998–99.

All were withdrawn from 1 March 2008 to 3 June 2011 with all replaced by Scania K230UB. A few O405s were shipped to Thailand and were rebodied whereas the rest of them were scrapped; one unit, SBS468K, was converted into a "Molly" mobile library registered as XD2037B by the National Library Board but has since been replaced by an ex-SBS Transit Volvo B10M in 2012.[8]

Trans-Island Bus Services bought Mercedes-Benz O405 with Hispano Carrocera (both with and without air-con, although the latter was retrofitted with air-con later on) and Volgren CR221 bodies to replace the ageing Hino RK176, Nissan Diesel U31F and Hino HT228KA from 1994 to 1999.[9] All Mercedes-Benz O405 with Hispano Carrocera bodywork had been retired by 25 September 2016. The Volgren-bodied O405s on the other hand were used as permanent training buses, only fully retiring by late February 2017. TIBS also procured various batches of bendy buses (Hispano Mark 1, Hispano Mark 2, Pininfarina-designed Hispano Habit and Volgren CR221) bodies between 1996 and 2004. All buses were retired on 1st December 2020, in line with LTA's directive of removing non-wheelchair accessible buses from revenue service.[10][11]

Russia

  • GolAZ (Golitsynskii avtobusnyi zavod) produced model O405 (АКА-5225) and O405G (АКА-6226)

Thailand

Mercedes-Benz O405CNG as operated by BMTA
Mercedes-Benz O405CNG as operated by BMTA
Mercedes-Benz O405G as operated by BMTA
Mercedes-Benz O405G as operated by BMTA

In 1993, BMTA Bought Mercedes Benz O405CNG about 38 buses. The O405CNG was scrapped in 20XX.

In 1995, BMTA Bought Mercedes Benz O405G about 52 buses. The O405G was scrapped in 20XX.

Bulgaria

Eridantrans EOOD bought many busses for the 260-line to Gorna Banya. They experienced hard turbulence on the Tsar Boris III avenue, but remained unbroken.

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Tata Hispano

Tata Hispano

Tata Hispano Motors Carrocera, S.A., based in Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain, was one of the largest manufacturers of bus and coach cabins in Europe. It was a wholly owned subsidiary of the India-based Tata Motors. Tata Motors acquired control of the company in 2005, after purchasing a 21% stake in the company. In 2009, it acquired the remaining 79% from Investalia SA.

National Express West Midlands

National Express West Midlands

National Express West Midlands (NXWM) is a bus operator in the West Midlands that operates services in Birmingham, Dudley, Sandwell, Walsall, Wolverhampton, and Solihull, as well as limited routes outside of the general area of Birmingham, such as the X1 to Coventry, or the 144A to Bromsgrove. NXWM is a subsidiary of National Express.

First Aberdeen

First Aberdeen

First Aberdeen is the main bus company operator in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is a subsidiary of FirstGroup.

Discovery Bay

Discovery Bay

Discovery Bay (DB) is a resort town on Lantau Island, Hong Kong. It consists of mixed, primarily residential, development, in particular upmarket residential development and private and public recreational facilities, including garden houses, low-, mid- and high-rise residential developments, a 27-hole golf course, an ice rink, a 262-berth marina, two clubhouses, the first private manmade beach in Hong Kong, international schools, two shopping malls and the largest oceanfront alfresco dining area in Hong Kong.

State Transit Authority

State Transit Authority

The State Transit Authority of New South Wales, also referred to as State Transit, was an agency of the Government of New South Wales operating bus services in Sydney. Superseding the Urban Transit Authority in 1989, it was also responsible for the provision of ferry services in Sydney until 2004 and bus and ferry services in Newcastle until 2017. It ceased trading after 2 April 2022 with its remaining operations to be contracted out by Transport for NSW to replacement operators.

Pressed Metal Corporation

Pressed Metal Corporation

Pressed Metal Corporation was an Australian automotive body building and assembly operation based in New South Wales.

Ansair

Ansair

Ansair was an Australian bus bodybuilder owned by Ansett Transport Industries and later the Clifford Corporation.

North & Western Bus Lines

North & Western Bus Lines

North & Western Bus Lines was an Australian bus company operating route bus services and charter coaches in Sydney.

Compressed natural gas

Compressed natural gas

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a fuel gas mainly composed of methane (CH4), compressed to less than 1% of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 20–25 megapascals (2,900–3,600 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes.

Natural gas vehicle

Natural gas vehicle

A natural gas vehicle (NGV) is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). Natural gas vehicles should not be confused with autogas vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), mainly propane, a fuel with a fundamentally different composition.

Busways

Busways

Busways is an Australian bus company operating services in Sydney, and in the Central Coast, Great Lakes, Mid North Coast regions of New South Wales and Adelaide. It is the largest privately owned bus operator in Australia.

Quince's Scenicruisers

Quince's Scenicruisers

Quince's Scenicruisers is a bus and coach charter operator in Melbourne, Australia.

Replacement

Production of the Mercedes-Benz O405 ended in 2001 when the last articulated buses were delivered to Trans-Island Bus Services. The Mercedes-Benz O405 / O405N series was superseded by the Citaro, and the O405NH was superseded by the OC500LE.[1]

Source: "Mercedes-Benz O405", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-Benz_O405.

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References
  1. ^ a b c d e The Mercedes-Benz O405 Range Buses Worldwide issue 214 July 2019 pages 30–33
  2. ^ Mercedes-Benz O405 Bus Lists on the Web
  3. ^ a b Mercedes-Benz O405G / O405GN Bus Lists on the Web
  4. ^ Top spec artic by Walter Alexander Commercial Motor 6 February 1992 page 16
  5. ^ Mercedes-Benz O405N Bus Lists on the Web
  6. ^ Chan, C. Y. Danny (June 2012). Hong Kong Bus Files: Mercedes-Benz O 305/O405 Bus. Northcord International. ISBN 978-962-920-040-4.
  7. ^ State Transit Authority Bus Australia
  8. ^ [1] SGBuses.com
  9. ^ Yung, Stanley (2013). The Fleet Directory of Singapore Buses. BSI Hobbies (HK). ISBN 962-8414-87-9.
  10. ^ LTA official website Land Transport Authority
  11. ^ "Land Transport Guru: All public buses are Wheelchair Accessible from 1 December 2020". 12 December 2020.
External links

Media related to Mercedes-Benz O 405 at Wikimedia Commons
Media related to Mercedes-Benz O 405 N at Wikimedia Commons
Media related to Mercedes-Benz O 405 NH at Wikimedia Commons

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