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Mate (drink)

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Mate
Mate en calabaza.jpg
Mate in a traditional calabash gourd with a metal bombilla
TypeInfusion, hot
Country of originThe territory of the Guaraní people (present-day Paraguay, the Misiones province of Argentina, southeastern Bolivia, southern Brazil and Uruguay)
IntroducedPre-Columbian era. First European written record by Spanish colonizers in the 15th century

Mate or maté[a] (/ˈmæt/), also known as chimarrão[b] or cimarrón[c], is a traditional South American caffeine-rich infused herbal drink. It is made by soaking dried leaves of the yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in hot water and is traditionally served with a metal straw (bombilla) in a container typically made from a calabash gourd (also called the mate), but also in some areas made from a cattle horn (guampa). A very similar preparation, mate cocido, removes some of the plant material and sometimes comes in tea bags. Today, mate is sold commercially as "yerba mate" in tea bags and as bottled iced tea.

Mate was consumed by the Guaraní and Tupí peoples. Its consumption was exclusive to the natives of Paraguay,[2] more specifically the departments of Amambay and Alto Paraná. Some ethnic groups that consumed it are the Avá, the Mbyá and the Kaiowa, and also, to a lesser extent, other ethnic groups that carried out trade with them, such as the ñandevá, the Taluhet (ancient pampas) and the Qom people (Tobas). It is the national beverage of Argentina,[3] Paraguay and Uruguay and is also consumed in the Bolivian Chaco, Northern and Southern Chile, southern Brazil, Syria (the largest importer in the world) and Lebanon, where it was brought from Paraguay and Argentina by immigrants.[4][5]

Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), ka'a in the Guarani language, contains (among other compounds) the stimulant caffeine. The leaves are dried and chopped or ground to make the coarse powdery preparation called yerba[d] (meaning 'herb'), which is then soaked in hot water.

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Caffeine

Caffeine

Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class. It is mainly used recreationally as a cognitive enhancer, increasing alertness and attentional performance. Caffeine acts by blocking binding of adenosine to the adenosine A1 receptor, which enhances release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Caffeine has a three-dimensional structure similar to that of adenosine, which allows it to bind and block its receptors. Caffeine also increases cyclic AMP levels through nonselective inhibition of phosphodiesterase.

Infusion

Infusion

Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time. An infusion is also the name for the resultant liquid. The process of infusion is distinct from both decoction—a method of extraction involving boiling the plant material—and percolation, in which water is passed through the material.

Bombilla

Bombilla

A bombilla (Spanish), bomba (Portuguese) or massasa (Arabic) is a type of drinking straw, used to drink mate. In metal bombillas, the lower end is perforated and acts as a metal filter which is used to separate the mate infusion from leaves, stems, and other mate debris, and functions in a similar fashion to the perforated metal screen of a teapot. Filters can be removable and can be opened for cleaning, or they may be permanently fixed to the bombilla stem. Bombillas vary in length but a popular length is approximately 7 inches (18 cm) long.

Mate cocido

Mate cocido

Mate cocido, chá mate, kojoi, or yerbiado is an infusion typical of Southern Cone cuisine. It is traditionally prepared by boiling yerba mate in water, then strained and served in cups. It is a bitter tasting beverage, similar to mate but milder, with the same stimulating and nutritional properties. It is also sold in teabags, so it can be prepared like tea.

Iced tea

Iced tea

Iced tea is a form of cold tea. Though it is usually served in a glass with ice, it can refer to any tea that has been chilled or cooled. It may be sweetened with sugar or syrup. Iced tea is also a popular packaged drink that can be mixed with flavored syrup such as lemon, raspberry, lime, passion fruit, peach, orange, strawberry, and cherry.

Guaraní people

Guaraní people

Guarani are a group of culturally-related indigenous peoples of South America. They are distinguished from the related Tupi by their use of the Guarani language. The traditional range of the Guarani people is in present-day Paraguay between the Paraná River and lower Paraguay River, the Misiones Province of Argentina, southern Brazil once as far east as Rio de Janeiro, and parts of Uruguay and Bolivia.

Amambay Department

Amambay Department

Amambay is a department in Paraguay. The capital is Pedro Juan Caballero.

Alto Paraná Department

Alto Paraná Department

Alto Paraná is a department in Paraguay. The capital is Ciudad del Este.

Mbyá Guaraní people

Mbyá Guaraní people

The Mbyá, also called Mbyá Guaraní, are a branch of the Guaraní people who live in South America, across a wide territory that ranges through Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.

Guarani-Kaiowá

Guarani-Kaiowá

Guarani-Kaiowás are an indigenous people of Paraguay, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul and northeastern Argentina. In Brazil, they inhabit Ñande Ru Marangatu, an area of tropical rainforest. This was declared a reservation in October 2004. Marcos Verón, a leader of this people was beaten to death in January 2003.

Gran Chaco

Gran Chaco

The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated, hot and semiarid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina, and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region. This land is sometimes called the Chaco Plain.

Lebanon

Lebanon

Lebanon, officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is located between Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus lies to its west across the Mediterranean Sea; its location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland has contributed to its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious diversity. It is part of the Levant region of the Middle East. Lebanon is home to roughly five million people and covers an area of 10,452 square kilometres (4,036 sq mi), making it the second smallest country in continental Asia. The official language of the state is Arabic, while French is also formally recognized; the Lebanese Arabic is used alongside Modern Standard Arabic throughout the country.

Accessories

The metal straw is known as a bombilla or bomba and is traditionally made of silver. Modern straws are typically made of nickel silver, stainless steel, or hollow-stemmed cane. The bombilla functions both as a straw and as a sieve. The submerged end is flared, with small holes or slots that allow the brewed liquid in, but block the chunky matter that makes up much of the mixture. A modern bombilla design uses a straight tube with holes or a spring sleeve to act as a sieve.[6]

The container the mate is served in is also known as mate.[e] It is commonly made from calabash gourd but may also be made out of other materials.

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Bombilla

Bombilla

A bombilla (Spanish), bomba (Portuguese) or massasa (Arabic) is a type of drinking straw, used to drink mate. In metal bombillas, the lower end is perforated and acts as a metal filter which is used to separate the mate infusion from leaves, stems, and other mate debris, and functions in a similar fashion to the perforated metal screen of a teapot. Filters can be removable and can be opened for cleaning, or they may be permanently fixed to the bombilla stem. Bombillas vary in length but a popular length is approximately 7 inches (18 cm) long.

Silver

Silver

Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

Nickel silver

Nickel silver

Nickel silver, Maillechort, German silver, Argentan, new silver, nickel brass, albata, alpacca, is a copper alloy with nickel and often zinc. The usual formulation is 60% copper, 20% nickel and 20% zinc. Nickel silver does not contain the element silver. It is named for its silvery appearance, which can make it attractive as a cheaper and more durable substitute. It is also well suited for being plated with silver. A naturally occurring ore composition in China was smelted into the alloy known as paktong or baitong (白銅). The name "German Silver" refers to the artificial recreation of the natural ore composition by German metallurgists. All modern, commercially important, nickel silvers contain significant amounts of zinc and are sometimes considered a subset of brass.

Stainless steel

Stainless steel

Stainless steel or SST metal, is an alloy of iron that is resistant to rusting and corrosion. It contains at least 11% chromium and may contain elements such as carbon, other nonmetals and metals to obtain other desired properties. Stainless steel's resistance to corrosion results from the chromium, which forms a passive film that can protect the material and self-heal in the presence of oxygen.

Cane (grass)

Cane (grass)

Cane is any of various tall, perennial grasses with flexible, woody stalks from the genera Arundinaria, and Arundo

Sieve

Sieve

A sieve, fine mesh strainer, or sift, is a device for separating wanted elements from unwanted material or for controlling the particle size distribution of a sample, using a screen such as a woven mesh or net or perforated sheet material. The word sift derives from sieve.

History

Lithograph of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, a 19th-century ruler of Paraguay, with a mate and its bombilla
Lithograph of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, a 19th-century ruler of Paraguay, with a mate and its bombilla

Mate was first consumed by the indigenous Guaraní who live in what is now Paraguay, southeastern Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay,[1][7][8][9][10] and was also spread by the Tupí people who lived in neighbouring areas. After, it was commercialised to part of southern Brazil and northeast Argentina, mostly some areas that were Paraguayan territory before the Paraguayan War. Therefore, the scientific name of the yerba-mate is Ilex paraguariensis. The consumption of yerba-mate became widespread with the European colonization in the Spanish colony of Paraguay in the late 16th century, among both Spanish settlers and indigenous Guaraní, who consumed it before the Spanish arrival. Yerba Mate consumption spread in the 17th century to the Río de la Plata and from there to Peru and Chile.[11] This widespread consumption turned it into Paraguay's main commodity above other wares such as tobacco, cotton and beef. Aboriginal labour was used to harvest wild stands. In the mid-17th century, Jesuits managed to domesticate the plant and establish plantations in their Indian reductions in the Argentine province of Misiones, sparking severe competition with the Paraguayan harvesters of wild strands. After their expulsion in the 1770s, the Jesuit missions — along with the yerba-mate plantations — fell into ruins. The industry continued to be of prime importance for the Paraguayan economy after independence, but development in benefit of the Paraguayan state halted after the Paraguayan War (1864–1870) that devastated the country both economically and demographically.

Brazil then became the largest producer of mate. In Brazilian and Argentine projects in late 19th and early 20th centuries, the plant was domesticated once again, opening the way for plantation systems. When Brazilian entrepreneurs turned their attention to coffee in the 1930s, Argentina, which had long been the prime consumer, took over as the largest producer, resurrecting the economy of Misiones Province, where the Jesuits had once had most of their plantations. For years, the status of largest producer shifted between Brazil and Argentina.[12]

Today, Argentina is the largest producer with 56–62%, followed by Brazil, 34–36%, and Paraguay, 5%.[13] Uruguay is the largest consumer per capita, consuming around 19 liters per year.[14]

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History of yerba mate

History of yerba mate

The history of yerba mate stretches back to pre-Columbian Paraguay. It is marked by a rapid expansion in harvest and consumption in the Spanish South American colonies but also by its difficult domestication process that began in the mid 17th century and again later when production was industrialized around 1900.

José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia

José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia

José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco was a Paraguayan lawyer and politician, and the first dictator (1814–1840) of Paraguay following its 1811 independence from the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. His official title was "Supreme and Perpetual Dictator of Paraguay", but he was popularly known as El Supremo.

Guaraní people

Guaraní people

Guarani are a group of culturally-related indigenous peoples of South America. They are distinguished from the related Tupi by their use of the Guarani language. The traditional range of the Guarani people is in present-day Paraguay between the Paraná River and lower Paraguay River, the Misiones Province of Argentina, southern Brazil once as far east as Rio de Janeiro, and parts of Uruguay and Bolivia.

Paraguayan War

Paraguayan War

The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance, was a South American war that lasted from 1864 to 1870. It was fought between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay. It was the deadliest and bloodiest inter-state war in Latin American history. Paraguay sustained large casualties, but the approximate numbers are disputed. Paraguay was forced to cede disputed territory to Argentina and Brazil. The war began in late 1864, as a result of a conflict between Paraguay and Brazil caused by the Uruguayan War. Argentina and Uruguay entered the war against Paraguay in 1865, and it then became known as the "War of the Triple Alliance."

Río de la Plata

Río de la Plata

The Río de la Plata, also called the River Plate or La Plata River in English, is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River at Punta Gorda. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean and forms a funnel-shaped indentation on the southeastern coastline of South America. Depending on the geographer, the Río de la Plata may be considered a river, an estuary, a gulf, or a marginal sea. If considered a river, it is the widest in the world, with a maximum width of 220 kilometres (140 mi).

Commodity

Commodity

In economics, a commodity is an economic good, usually a resource, that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

Suppression of the Society of Jesus

Suppression of the Society of Jesus

The suppression of the Jesuits was the removal of all members of the Society of Jesus from most of the countries of Western Europe and their colonies beginning in 1759, and the abolishment of the order by the Holy See in 1773. The Jesuits were serially expelled from the Portuguese Empire (1759), France (1764), the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma, the Spanish Empire (1767) and Austria, and Hungary (1782).

Jesuit missions

Jesuit missions

The phrase Jesuit missions usually refers to a Jesuit missionary enterprise in a particular area, involving a large number of Jesuit priests and brothers, and lasting over a long period of time.

Misiones Province

Misiones Province

Misiones is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamia region. It is surrounded by Paraguay to the northwest, Brazil to the north, east and south, and Corrientes Province of Argentina to the southwest.

Name

The English word comes from the French maté and the American Spanish mate, which means both mate and the vessel for drinking it, from the Quechua word mati for the calabash gourd used to make it.[15][16]

Both the spellings "maté" and "mate" are used in English. The acute accent indicates that the word is pronounced with two syllables, like café (both maté and café are stressed on the first syllable in the UK), rather than like the one-syllable English word "mate".[17] An acute accent is not used in the Spanish spelling, because the first syllable is stressed. The Yerba Mate Association of the Americas points out that, in Spanish, "maté" with the stress on the second syllable means "I killed".[1]

In Brazil, traditionally prepared mate is known as chimarrão, although the word mate and the expression "mate amargo" (bitter mate) are also used in Argentina and Uruguay. The Spanish cimarrón means "rough", "brute", or "barbarian", but is most widely understood to mean "feral", and is used in almost all of Latin America for domesticated animals that have become wild. The word was then used by the people who colonized the region of the Río de la Plata to describe the natives' rough and sour drink, drunk with no other ingredient to sweeten the taste.

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French language

French language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spoken in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Quechuan languages

Quechuan languages

Quechua, usually called Runasimi in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Peruvian Andes. Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken pre-Columbian language family of the Americas, with an estimated 8–10 million speakers as of 2004. Approximately 25% of Peruvians speak a Quechuan language. It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language family of the Inca Empire. The Spanish encouraged its use until the Peruvian struggle for independence of the 1780s. As a result, Quechua variants are still widely spoken today, being the co-official language of many regions and the second most spoken language family in Peru.

Acute accent

Acute accent

The acute accent, ◌́, is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts. For the most commonly encountered uses of the accent in the Latin and Greek alphabets, precomposed characters are available.

Stress in Spanish

Stress in Spanish

Stress in Spanish is functional: to change the placement of stress changes the meaning of a sentence or phrase: for example, célebre ('famous'), celebre, and celebré contrast only by stress. There is some minor variance between Spanish dialects; a speaker of Rioplatense Spanish will pronounce boina ('beret') as [ˈbojna] while a speaker of Colombian Spanish will pronounce it as [boˈina].

Río de la Plata

Río de la Plata

The Río de la Plata, also called the River Plate or La Plata River in English, is the estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River at Punta Gorda. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean and forms a funnel-shaped indentation on the southeastern coastline of South America. Depending on the geographer, the Río de la Plata may be considered a river, an estuary, a gulf, or a marginal sea. If considered a river, it is the widest in the world, with a maximum width of 220 kilometres (140 mi).

Culture

Pope Francis holds a guampa and bombilla given as a gift while speaking with Argentine President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Pope Francis holds a guampa and bombilla given as a gift while speaking with Argentine President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

Mate has a strong cultural significance both in terms of national identity as well as in social terms. Yerba Mate is the national drink of Paraguay, where it is also consumed with either hot or ice cold water (see tereré);[18] Argentina;[19] and Uruguay. Drinking mate is a common social practice in all of the territory of Paraguay and parts of Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, southern Chile, and eastern Bolivia. Throughout the Southern Cone, it is considered to be a tradition taken from the Paraguayan Guaraní and drank by the gauchos or vaqueros, terms commonly used to describe the old residents of the South American pampas, chacos, or Patagonian grasslands, found principally in parts of Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, southeastern Bolivia, southern Chile and southern Brazil. Argentina has celebrated National Mate Day every 30 November since 2015.[20]

Parque Histórico do Mate, funded by the state of Paraná (Brazil), is a park aimed to educate people on the sustainable harvesting methods needed to maintain the integrity and vitality of the oldest wild forests of mate in the world.[21][22]

Mate is also consumed as an iced tea in various regions of Brazil, originating both from an industrialized form, produced by Matte Leão, and from artisanal producers. It is part of the beach culture in Rio de Janeiro, where it is widely sold by beach vendors;[23] the hot infused variation being uncommon in the area. Due to immigrants from Syria and Lebanon, imported Mate is also consumed to a significant extent in Lebanon and especially in Syria. In term of quantity, Syria was the first importing country for several years.

Mate is a popular drink among famous footballers from South America who were seen drinking it before matches, including: Lionel Messi, Sergio Agüero, Luis Suárez, Neymar, Gonzalo Higuaín, Douglas Costa, Rodrigo Bentancur, Erik Lamela, Juan Foyth and many others; in addition, it was adopted by their European teammates who included it in their diet, such as Antoine Griezmann, Paul Pogba, Eric Dier, Danny Rose and Dele Alli.[24]

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Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner, often referred to by her initials CFK, is an Argentine lawyer and politician who has served as the Vice President of Argentina since 2019. She also served as the President of Argentina from 2007 to 2015 and the first lady during the tenure of her husband, Néstor Kirchner. She was the second female president of Argentina and the first elected female president of Argentina. Ideologically, she identifies herself as a Peronist and a progressive, with her political approach called Kirchnerism.

Gaucho

Gaucho

A gaucho or gaúcho is a skilled horseman, reputed to be brave and unruly. The figure of the gaucho is a folk symbol of Argentina, Uruguay, Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, and the south of Chilean Patagonia. Gauchos became greatly admired and renowned in legend, folklore, and literature and became an important part of their regional cultural tradition. Beginning late in the 19th century, after the heyday of the gauchos, they were celebrated by South American writers.

Pampas

Pampas

The Pampas are fertile South American low grasslands that cover more than 1,200,000 square kilometres (460,000 sq mi) and include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, and Córdoba; all of Uruguay; and Brazil's southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul. The vast plains are a natural region, interrupted only by the low Ventana and Tandil hills, near Bahía Blanca and Tandil (Argentina), with a height of 1,300 m (4,265 ft) and 500 m (1,640 ft), respectively.

Gran Chaco

Gran Chaco

The Gran Chaco or Dry Chaco is a sparsely populated, hot and semiarid lowland natural region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided among eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina, and a portion of the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, where it is connected with the Pantanal region. This land is sometimes called the Chaco Plain.

Patagonian grasslands

Patagonian grasslands

The Patagonian grasslands (NT0804) is an ecoregion in the south of Chile, Argentina and the Falkland Islands. The grasslands are home to diverse fauna, including several rare or endemic species of birds. There are few protected areas. The grasslands are threatened by overgrazing by sheep, which supply high-quality merino wool. Efforts are being made to develop sustainable grazing practices to avoid desertification.

Paraná (state)

Paraná (state)

Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line. It is subdivided into 399 municipalities, and its capital is the city of Curitiba. Other major cities are Londrina, Maringá, Ponta Grossa, Cascavel, São José dos Pinhais and Foz do Iguaçu. The state is home to 5.4% of the Brazilian population and has 6.2% of the Brazilian GDP.

Iced tea

Iced tea

Iced tea is a form of cold tea. Though it is usually served in a glass with ice, it can refer to any tea that has been chilled or cooled. It may be sweetened with sugar or syrup. Iced tea is also a popular packaged drink that can be mixed with flavored syrup such as lemon, raspberry, lime, passion fruit, peach, orange, strawberry, and cherry.

Matte Leão

Matte Leão

Matte Leão is a Brazilian infusion and tea brand, now owned by The Coca-Cola Company. The spelling Matte is archaic, but preserved in the trademark; the currently correct Portuguese spelling for the herb and the derived beverage is mate. Matte Leão offers a range of over 100 types of infusions.

Lebanon

Lebanon

Lebanon, officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is located between Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus lies to its west across the Mediterranean Sea; its location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland has contributed to its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious diversity. It is part of the Levant region of the Middle East. Lebanon is home to roughly five million people and covers an area of 10,452 square kilometres (4,036 sq mi), making it the second smallest country in continental Asia. The official language of the state is Arabic, while French is also formally recognized; the Lebanese Arabic is used alongside Modern Standard Arabic throughout the country.

Lionel Messi

Lionel Messi

Lionel Andrés Messi, also known as Leo Messi, is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a forward for Ligue 1 club Paris Saint-Germain and captains the Argentina national team. Widely regarded as one of the greatest players of all time, Messi has won a record seven Ballon d'Or awards, a record six European Golden Shoes, and in 2020 was named to the Ballon d'Or Dream Team. Until leaving the club in 2021, he had spent his entire professional career with Barcelona, where he won a club-record 35 trophies, including 10 La Liga titles, seven Copa del Rey titles and four UEFA Champions Leagues. With his country, he won the 2021 Copa América and the 2022 FIFA World Cup. A prolific goalscorer and creative playmaker, Messi holds the records for most goals in La Liga (474), most hat-tricks in La Liga (36) and the UEFA Champions League (8), and most assists in La Liga (192) and the Copa América (17). He has also the most international goals by a South American male (98). Messi has scored over 790 senior career goals for club and country, and has the most goals by a player for a single club (672).

Luis Suárez

Luis Suárez

Luis Alberto Suárez Díaz is a Uruguayan professional footballer who plays as a striker for Campeonato Brasileiro Série A club Grêmio and the Uruguay national team. Nicknamed El Pistolero, he is known for his passing, finishing and comfort with the ball. Suárez is regarded as one of the best players of his generation and one of the greatest strikers of all time. Suárez has won two European Golden Shoes, an Eredivisie Golden Boot, a Premier League Golden Boot, and the Pichichi Trophy. He has scored over 500 career goals for club and country.

Neymar

Neymar

Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior, known as Neymar, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as a forward for Ligue 1 club Paris Saint-Germain and the Brazil national team. A prolific goalscorer and renowned playmaker, he is regarded as one of the best players in the world. Neymar has scored at least 100 goals for three different clubs, making him one of three players to achieve this.

Preparation

A traditional calabash gourd with a kettleA modern mate with an electric kettle
A traditional calabash gourd with a kettle
A traditional calabash gourd with a kettleA modern mate with an electric kettle
A modern mate with an electric kettle

The preparation of mate is a simple process, consisting of filling a container with yerba, pouring hot, but not boiling, water over the leaves, and drinking with a straw, the bombilla, which acts as a filter so as to draw only the liquid and not the yerba leaves. The method of preparing the mate infusion varies considerably from region to region, and which method yields the finest outcome is debated. However, nearly all methods have some common elements. The beverage is traditionally prepared in a gourd vessel, also called mate in Spanish and cuia (= gourd) in Portuguese, from which it is drunk. The gourd is nearly filled with yerba, and hot water,[25] typically at 70 to 85 °C (158 to 185 °F), never boiling,[26] is added. The drink is so popular within countries that consume it, that several national electric kettle manufacturers just refer to the range 70 to 85 °C on its thermostat as "mate" temperature.

The most common preparation involves a careful arrangement of the yerba within the gourd before adding hot water. In this method, the gourd is first filled one-half to three-quarters of the way with yerba. Too much yerba will result in a "short" mate; conversely, too little yerba results in a "long" mate, both being considered undesirable. After that, any additional herbs (yuyo, in Portuguese jujo) may be added for either health or flavor benefits, a practice most common in Paraguay, where people acquire herbs from a local yuyera (herbalist) and use the mate as a base for their herbal infusions. When the gourd is adequately filled, the preparer typically grasps it with the full hand, covering and roughly sealing the opening with the palm. Then the mate is turned upside-down, and shaken vigorously, but briefly and with gradually decreasing force, in this inverted position. This causes the finest, most powdery particles of the yerba to settle toward the preparer's palm and the top of the mate.

Once the yerba mate has settled, the mate is carefully brought to a near-sideways angle, with the opening tilted just slightly upward of the base. The mate is then shaken very gently with a side-to-side motion. This further settles the yerba mate inside the gourd so that the finest particles move toward the opening and the yerba is layered along one side. The largest stems and other bits create a partition between the empty space on one side of the gourd and the lopsided pile of yerba on the other.

A typical bomba/bombilla or strawHomemade bamboo bombillasAn ornate silver bombilla
A typical bomba/bombilla or straw
A typical bomba/bombilla or strawHomemade bamboo bombillasAn ornate silver bombilla
Homemade bamboo bombillas
A typical bomba/bombilla or strawHomemade bamboo bombillasAn ornate silver bombilla
An ornate silver bombilla

After arranging the yerba along one side of the gourd, the mate is carefully tilted back onto its base, minimizing further disturbances of the yerba as it is re-oriented to allow consumption. Some settling is normal, but is not desirable. The angled mound of yerba should remain, with its powdery peak still flat and mostly level with the top of the gourd. A layer of stems along its slope will slide downward and accumulate in the space opposite the yerba (though at least a portion should remain in place).

All of this careful settling of the yerba ensures that each sip contains as little particulate matter as possible, creating a smooth-running mate. The finest particles will then be as distant as possible from the filtering end of the straw. With each draw, the smaller particles would inevitably move toward the straw, but the larger particles and stems filter much of this out. A sloped arrangement provides consistent concentration and flavor with each filling of the mate.

Statue of a man serving mate, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina
Statue of a man serving mate, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina

Now the mate is ready to receive the straw. Wetting the yerba by gently pouring cool water into the empty space within the gourd until the water nearly reaches the top, and then allowing it to be absorbed into the yerba before adding the straw, allows the preparer to carefully shape and "pack" the yerba's slope with the straw's filtering end, which makes the overall form of the yerba within the gourd more resilient and solid. Dry yerba, though, allows a cleaner and easier insertion of the straw, but care must be taken so as not to overly disturb the arrangement of the yerba. Such a decision is entirely a personal or cultural preference. The straw is inserted with one's thumb and index finger on the upper end of the gourd, at an angle roughly perpendicular to the slope of the yerba, so that its filtering end travels into the deepest part of the yerba and comes to rest near or against the opposite wall of the gourd. It is important for the thumb to form a seal over the end of the straw when it is being inserted, or the air current produced in it will draw in undesirable particulates.

Brewing

After the above process, the yerba may be brewed. If the straw is inserted into dry yerba, the mate must first be filled once with cool water as above, then be allowed to absorb it completely (which generally takes no more than two or three minutes). Treating the yerba with cool water before the addition of hot water is essential, as it protects the yerba mate from being scalded and from the chemical breakdown of some of its desirable nutrients. Hot water may then be added by carefully pouring it, as with the cool water before, into the cavity opposite the yerba, until it reaches almost to the top of the gourd when the yerba is fully saturated. Care should be taken to maintain the dryness of the swollen top of the yerba beside the edge of the gourd's opening.

Once the hot water has been added, the mate is ready for drinking, and it may be refilled many times before becoming lavado (washed out) and losing its flavor. When this occurs, the mound of yerba can be pushed from one side of the gourd to the other, allowing water to be added along its opposite side; this revives the mate for additional refillings and is called "reformar o/el mate" (reforming the mate).

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Calabash

Calabash

Calabash, also known as bottle gourd, white-flowered gourd, long melon, birdhouse gourd, New Guinea bean, Tasmania bean, and opo squash, is a vine grown for its fruit. It can be either harvested young to be consumed as a vegetable, or harvested mature to be dried and used as a utensil, container, or a musical instrument. When it is fresh, the fruit has a light green smooth skin and white flesh.

Gourd

Gourd

Gourds include the fruits of some flowering plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, particularly Cucurbita and Lagenaria. The term refers to a number of species and subspecies, many with hard shells, and some without. One of the earliest domesticated types of plants, subspecies of the bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, have been discovered in archaeological sites dating from as early as 13,000 BCE. Gourds have had numerous uses throughout history, including as tools, musical instruments, objects of art, film, and food.

Kettle

Kettle

A kettle, sometimes called a tea kettle or teakettle, is a type of pot specialized for boiling water, commonly with a lid, spout, and handle, or a small electric kitchen appliance of similar shape that functions in a self-contained manner. Kettles can be heated either by placing on a stove, or by their own internal electric heating element in the appliance versions. As indicated by its name, the kettle was and is often used as teaware to brew tea or prepare a tisane. Some very modern versions do more than just boil water, and also make the tea and keep it warm.

Bombilla

Bombilla

A bombilla (Spanish), bomba (Portuguese) or massasa (Arabic) is a type of drinking straw, used to drink mate. In metal bombillas, the lower end is perforated and acts as a metal filter which is used to separate the mate infusion from leaves, stems, and other mate debris, and functions in a similar fashion to the perforated metal screen of a teapot. Filters can be removable and can be opened for cleaning, or they may be permanently fixed to the bombilla stem. Bombillas vary in length but a popular length is approximately 7 inches (18 cm) long.

Settling

Settling

Settling is the process by which particulates move towards the bottom of a liquid and form a sediment. Particles that experience a force, either due to gravity or due to centrifugal motion will tend to move in a uniform manner in the direction exerted by that force. For gravity settling, this means that the particles will tend to fall to the bottom of the vessel, forming sludge or slurry at the vessel base.

Posadas, Misiones

Posadas, Misiones

Posadas is the capital city of the Argentine province of Misiones, in its south, at the far north-east of the country on the left bank of the Paraná River, opposite Encarnación, Paraguay. The city has an area of 965 square kilometres (373 sq mi) and a population of 324,756, and the Greater Posadas area has a population of over 359,609 according to a 2017 estimate.

Etiquette

Mate drinking in public is commonplaceA man drinking mate in a carUruguayan senators drink mate in parliament
Mate drinking in public is commonplace
Mate drinking in public is commonplaceA man drinking mate in a carUruguayan senators drink mate in parliament
A man drinking mate in a car
Mate drinking in public is commonplaceA man drinking mate in a carUruguayan senators drink mate in parliament
Uruguayan senators drink mate in parliament

Mate is traditionally drunk in a particular social setting, such as family gatherings or with friends. The same gourd (cuia/mate) and straw (bomba/bombilla) are used by everyone drinking. One person (known in Portuguese as the preparador, cevador, or patrão, and in Spanish as the cebador) assumes the task of server, which most of the time is the house owner in family gatherings. Typically, the cebador fills the gourd and drinks the mate completely to ensure that it is free of particulate matter and of good quality. In some places, passing the first brew of mate to another drinker is considered bad manners, as it may be too cold or too strong; for this reason, the first brew is often called mate del zonzo (fool´s mate). The cebador possibly drinks the second filling as well, if they deem it too cold or bitter. The cebador subsequently refills the gourd and passes it to the drinker to their right, who likewise drinks it all (there is not much; the mate is full of yerba, with room for little water), and returns it without thanking the server; a final gracias or obrigado (thank you) implies that the drinker has had enough.[27] The only exception to this order is if a new guest joins the group; in this case the new arrival receives the next mate, and then the cebador resumes the order of serving, and the new arrival will receive theirs depending on their placement in the group. When no more tea remains, the straw makes a loud sucking noise, which is not considered rude. The ritual proceeds around the circle in this way until the mate becomes lavado (washed out), typically after the gourd has been filled about 10 times or more depending on the yerba used (well-aged yerba mate is typically more potent, so provides a greater number of refills) and the ability of the cebador. When one has had one's fill of mate, they politely thank the cebador, passing the mate back at the same time. It is impolite for anyone but the cebador to move the bombilla or otherwise mess with the mate; the cebador may take offense to this and not offer it to the offender again. When someone takes too long, others in the round (roda in Portuguese, ronda in Spanish) will likely politely warn them by saying "bring the talking gourd" (cuia de conversar); an Argentine equivalent, especially among young people, being no es un micrófono ("it's not a microphone"), an allusion to the drinker holding the mate for too long, as if they were using it as a microphone to deliver a lecture.

Some drinkers like to add sugar or honey, creating mate dulce or mate doce (sweet mate), instead of sugarless mate amargo (bitter mate), a practice said to be more common in Brazil outside its southernmost state. Some people also like to add lemon or orange peel, some herbs or even coffee, but these are mostly rejected by people who like to stick to the "original" mate. Traditionally, natural gourds are used, though wood vessels, bamboo tubes, and gourd-shaped mates, made of ceramic or metal (stainless steel or even silver) are also common, as are vessels made from cattle horns. The gourd is traditionally made out of the porongo or cabaça fruit shell. Gourds are commonly decorated with silver, sporting decorative or heraldic designs with floral motifs. Some gourd mates with elaborated silver ornaments and silver bombillas are true pieces of jewelry and very sought after by collectors.

Contaminants

Research found both cold- and hot-water extractions of commercial yerba-mate products contained high levels (8.03 to 53.3 ng/g dry leaves) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (i.e. benzo[a]pyrene).[28]

Brazilian-style Chimarrão
Brazilian-style Chimarrão

Other properties

Mate is a rich source of caffeine. On average, mate tea contains 92 mg of chlorogenic acid per gram of dry leaves, and no catechins, giving it a significantly different polyphenol profile from other teas.[29][30]

According to Argentine culture in part promoted by marketers, the stimulant in mate is actually a substance called mateína (named after the drink). However, analysis of the active chemicals in mate has found that mateína does not exist.[31]

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Legendary origins

The Guaraní people started drinking mate in a region that currently includes Paraguay, southern Brazil, southeastern Bolivia, northeastern Argentina and Uruguay. They have a legend that the Goddesses of the Moon and the Cloud came to visit the Earth one day. An old man saved them from a yaguareté (jaguar) that was going to attack them. The goddesses gave him a new kind of plant, from which he could prepare a "drink of friendship" as compensation for his actions.[10]

Variants

Another drink can be prepared with specially cut dry leaves, very cold water, and, optionally, lemon or another fruit juice, called tereré. It is very common in Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. After pouring the water, it is considered proper to "wait while the saint has a sip" before the first person takes a drink. In southern Brazil, tererê is sometimes used as a derogatory term for a not hot enough chimarrão.

In Uruguay and Brazil, the traditional gourd is usually big with a corresponding large hole. In Argentina (especially in the capital Buenos Aires), the gourd is small and has a small hole and people sometimes add sugar for flavor.

In Uruguay, people commonly walk around the streets toting a mate and a thermos with hot water. In some parts of Argentina, gas stations sponsored by yerba mate producers provide free hot water to travelers, specifically for the purpose of drinking during the journey. Disposable mate sets with a plastic mate and straw and sets with a thermos flask and stacking containers for the yerba and sugar inside a fitted case are available.

In Argentina, mate cocido (boiled mate), in Brazil, chá mate, is made with a teabag or leaves and drunk from a cup or mug, with or without sugar and milk. Companies such as Cabrales from Mar del Plata and Establecimiento Las Marías produce teabags for export to Europe.[32]

Mate is consumed as an ice tea in various regions of Brazil, in both artisanal and industrial forms. This is a bottle of industrialized mate ice tea, bought from a local supermarket in Rio de Janeiro.
Mate is consumed as an ice tea in various regions of Brazil, in both artisanal and industrial forms. This is a bottle of industrialized mate ice tea, bought from a local supermarket in Rio de Janeiro.

Travel narratives, such as Maria Graham's Journal of a Residence in Chile, show a long history of mate drinking in central Chile. Many rural Chileans drink mate, in particular in the southern regions, particularly Magallanes, Aysén and Chiloé.

In Peru, mate is widespread throughout the north and south, first being introduced to Lima in the 17th century. It is widespread in rural zones, and it is prepared with coca (plant) or in a sweetened tea form with small slices of lemon or orange.[33]

In some parts of Syria, Lebanon and other Eastern Mediterranean countries, drinking mate is also common. The custom came from Syrians and Lebanese who moved to South America during the late 19th and early parts of the 20th century, adopted the tradition, and kept it after returning to Western Asia. Syria is the biggest importer of yerba-mate in the world, importing 15,000 tons a year. Mostly, the Druze communities in Syria and Lebanon maintain the culture and practice of mate.[4][5]

According to a major retailer of mate in San Luis Obispo, California, by 2004, mate had grown to about 5% of the overall natural tea market in North America.[34][35] Loose mate is commercially available in much of North America. Bottled mate is increasingly available in the United States. Canadian bottlers have introduced a cane sugar-sweetened, carbonated variety, similar to soda pop. One brand, Sol Mate, produces 10-US-fluid-ounce (300 ml) glass bottles available at Canadian and U.S. retailers, making use of the translingual pun (English 'soul mate'; Spanish/Portuguese 'sun mate') for the sake of marketing.[36]

In some parts of the Southern Cone they prefer to drink bitter mate, especially in Paraguay, Uruguay, the south of Brazil, and parts of Argentina and Bolivia. This is referred to in Brazil and a large part of Argentina as cimarrón – which also an archaic name for wild cattle, especially, to a horse that was very attached to a cowboy—which is understood as unsweetened mate.[37] Many people are of the opinion that mate should be drunk in this form.

Unlike bitter mate, in every preparation of mate dulce, or sweet mate, sugar is incorporated according to the taste of the drinker. This form of preparation is very widespread in various regions of Argentina, like in the Santiago del Estero province, Córdoba (Argentina), Cuyo, and the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires, among others. In Chile, this form of mate preparation is widespread in mostly rural zones. The spoonful of sugar or honey should fall on the edge of the cavity that the straw forms in the yerba, not all over the mate. One variation is to sweeten only the first mate preparation in order to cut the bitterness of the first sip, thus softening the rest. In Paraguay, a variant of mate dulce is prepared by first caramelizing refined sugar in a pot then adding milk. The mixture is heated and placed in a thermos and used in place of water. Often, chamomile (manzanilla, in Spanish) and coconut are added to yerba in the gumpa.

In the sweet version artificial sweeteners are also often added. As an alternative sweetener, natural ka’á he’é (Stevia rebaudiana) is preferred, which is an herb whose leaves are added in order to give a touch of sweetness. This is used principally in Paraguay.

The gourd in which bitter mate is drunk is not used to consume sweet mate due to the idea that the taste of the sugar would be detrimental to its later use to prepare and drink bitter mate, as it is said that it ruins the flavor of the mate.[38]

Materva is a sweet, carbonated soft drink based on yerba mate. Developed in Cuba in 1920, and produced since the 1960s in Miami, Florida, it is a staple of the Cuban culture in Miami.[39][40]

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Mate cocido

Mate cocido

Mate cocido, chá mate, kojoi, or yerbiado is an infusion typical of Southern Cone cuisine. It is traditionally prepared by boiling yerba mate in water, then strained and served in cups. It is a bitter tasting beverage, similar to mate but milder, with the same stimulating and nutritional properties. It is also sold in teabags, so it can be prepared like tea.

Lemon

Lemon

The lemon is a species of small evergreen trees in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia, primarily Northeast India (Assam), Northern Myanmar or China.

Mato Grosso do Sul

Mato Grosso do Sul

Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the Midwestern states of Brazil. Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay, to the southwest, and Bolivia, to the west. The economy of the state is largely based on agriculture and cattle-raising. Crossed in the south by the Tropic of Capricorn, Mato Grosso do Sul generally has a warm, sometimes hot, and humid climate, and is crossed by numerous tributaries of the Paraná River. The state has 1.3% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for 1.5% of the Brazilian GDP.

Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires, officially the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital and primate city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata, on South America's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre", named after the Madonna of Bonaria in Sardinia, Italy. Buenos Aires is classified as an alpha global city, according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) 2020 ranking.

Mar del Plata

Mar del Plata

Mar del Plata is a city on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is the seat of General Pueyrredón district. Mar del Plata is the second largest city in Buenos Aires Province. The name "Mar del Plata" is a shortening of "Mar del Rio de la Plata," and has the meaning of "sea of the Rio de la Plata basin" or "adjoining sea to the (River) Plate region". Mar del Plata is one of the major fishing ports and the biggest seaside beach resort in Argentina. With a population of 614,350 as per the 2010 census [INDEC], it is the 5th largest city in Argentina.

Establecimiento Las Marías

Establecimiento Las Marías

Establecimiento Las Marías is a company specializing in infusions, It develops them all the way from plant to package. It is a source of tea, and its lands are the producers of yerba mate. Taragüi, Unión, La Merced and Mañanita are some of the products that has been relying on over 85 years in the market.

Maria Graham

Maria Graham

Maria Graham, Lady Callcott, was a British writer of travel books and children's books, and also an accomplished illustrator.

Aysén Region

Aysén Region

The Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region, often shortened to Aysén Region or Aisén, is one of Chile's 16 first order administrative divisions. Although the third largest in area, the region is Chile's most sparsely populated region with a population of 102,317 as of 2017. The capital of the region is Coihaique, the region's former namesake.

Chiloé Archipelago

Chiloé Archipelago

The Chiloé Archipelago is a group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region. It is separated from mainland Chile by the Chacao Channel in the north, the Sea of Chiloé in the east and the Gulf of Corcovado in the southeast. All islands except the Desertores Islands form Chiloé Province. The main island is Chiloé Island. Of roughly rectangular shape, the southwestern half of this island is a wilderness of contiguous forests, wetlands and, in some places, mountains. The landscape of the northeastern sectors of Chiloé Island and the islands to the east is dominated by rolling hills, with a mosaic of pastures, forests and cultivated fields.

Lima

Lima

Lima, originally founded as Ciudad de Los Reyes is the capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín Rivers, in the desert zone of the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaside city of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9.7 million in its urban area and more than 11 million in its metropolitan area, Lima is one of the largest cities in the Americas.

Druze

Druze

The Druze are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group from Western Asia who adhere to the Druze faith, an Abrahamic, monotheistic, syncretic, and ethnic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad and ancient Greek philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, and Zeno of Citium. Adherents of the Druze religion call themselves "the Monotheists" or "the Unitarians" (al-Muwaḥḥidūn).

California

California

California is a state in the Western United States, located along the Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay areas are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million. Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Source: "Mate (drink)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mate_(drink).

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Notes
  1. ^ Both "mate" and "maté" are common spellings in English. It is spelled "mate" in both Spanish and Portuguese.[1] The pronunciation is [ˈmate] in Spanish and [ˈmatʃi] in Portuguese.
  2. ^ Portuguese: [ʃimɐˈʁɐ̃w̃]
  3. ^ Spanish: [simaˈron]
  4. ^ Portuguese: erva
  5. ^ Known as mate or a guampa in Spanish, or cuia or cabaça in Brazil.
See also
References
  1. ^ a b c Petruzzello, Melissa (ed.). "Mate - beverage". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  2. ^ Cervantes, Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de. "En busca del hueso perdido : (tratado de paraguayología) / Helio Vera". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  3. ^ "Ley 26.871 - Declárase al Mate como infusión nacional". InfoLEG (in Spanish). Ministry of Economy and Public Finance. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  4. ^ a b Barceloux, Donald (3 February 2012). Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-11810-605-1.
  5. ^ a b "South American 'mate' tea a long-time Lebanese hit". Middle East Online. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  6. ^ Goodfriend, Anne (2 March 2006). "Yerba maté: The accent is on popular health drink". USA Today. p. 1. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  7. ^ Del Techo, Ximénez, Dobrizhoffer, Nicolás, Bartolomé, Martín (1967). Tres encuentros con América, Asunción, p. 40. editorial del Centenario.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Ganson, Barbara (ed.). "The Guaraní and Their Legacy". Oxford Bibliographies. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  9. ^ "The Guaraní and Their Legacy".
  10. ^ a b Preedy, Victor R. (2013). Tea in Health and Disease Prevention. Academic Press. pp. 165–6. ISBN 9780123849373. The Indians known as the Guarani began drinking yerba mate in the region that now includes Paraguay, southern Brazil, southeastern Bolivia, Northeastern Argentina and Uruguay.
  11. ^ "Regional History of Yerba Mate". www.yerba-mate.com. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  12. ^ "History of Mate". Establecimiento Las Marías. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  13. ^ "segundoenfoque". 9 February 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  14. ^ "As Consumption Stagnates in South America, will Yerba Mate Move North?". 19 October 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  15. ^ "maté". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  16. ^ Etymology of maté in the Trésor de la langue française informatisé
  17. ^ Although the order of spelling variants in dictionaries is not necessarily meaningful in any particular case, Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged, the Oxford English Dictionary, Collins English Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary of the English Language and Lexico.com all give the accented form "maté" before the unaccented form "mate", or refer the reader to see "maté" if they look up "mate".
  18. ^ Conran, Caroline, Conran, Terence, and Hopkinson, Simon (2001). The Conran Cookbook. Conran-Octopus. ISBN 978-1-84091-182-4.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Sanders, Kerry. "Next time you're in Argentina, try a cup of mate". MSNBC. p. 1. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  20. ^ "¡Al gran mate argentino salud! 30 de noviembre: Día Nacional del Mate en la Argentina". INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE LA YERBA MAT. Retrieved 25 January 2021. El Congreso de la Nación Argentina, sancionó en diciembre de 2014 la Ley 27.117, la cual establece que el día 30 de noviembre de cada año se celebre el "Día Nacional del Mate", en homenaje al caudillo Andrés Guacurarí y Artigas, conocido popularmente como "Andresito".
  21. ^ "Museu Paranaense". Museuparanaense.pr.gov.br. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
  22. ^ "Nativa Yerba Mate". nativayerbamate.com/harvest.html. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
  23. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei (9 February 2010). "Clamping Down on the Kaleidoscope of Rio's Beaches". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  24. ^ "What is mate tea? The drink Messi, Suarez, Griezmann & England footballers love". Goal.com. 10 January 2019.
  25. ^ Brooke, Elizabeth (24 April 1991). "Yerba Mate, Ancient Antidote To South America's Heat". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  26. ^ "Traditional Method". ma-tea.com. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  27. ^ La Nación newspaper: ¿Se toma un mate? (Segunda parte) (in Spanish)
  28. ^ Kamangar, F.; Schantz, M. M.; Abnet, C. C.; Fagundes, R. B.; Dawsey, S. M. (2008). "High Levels of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mate Drinks". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. Cebp.aacrjournals.org. 17 (5): 1262–1268. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0025. PMID 18483349. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  29. ^ Heck, C. I.; De Mejia, E. G. (17 October 2007). "Yerba Mate Tea: A Comprehensive Review on Chemistry, Health Implications, and Technological Considerations". Journal of Food Science. 72 (9): R138-51. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00535.x. PMID 18034743. S2CID 32413555.
  30. ^ Heck, C. I.; De Mejia, E. G. (17 October 2007). "Polyphenols in green tea, black tea, and Mate tea". Journal of Food Science. 72 (9): R138–R151. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00535.x. PMID 18034743. S2CID 32413555.
  31. ^ "La mateína no existe". Universidad Nacional del Litoral. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  32. ^ Cabrales abrirá locales en la Capital La Nación online, 6 October 2001 (in Spanish)
  33. ^ Villanueva, Amaro (1960). EL MATE Arte de Cebar. Buenos Aires: La compañia general fabril financiera S. A. pp. 200 (In Spanish).
  34. ^ "Guayaki Honored With 2004 Socially Responsible Business Award" (Press release). Guayaki. 28 October 2004.
  35. ^ Everage, Laura (1 November 2004). "Trends in Tea". The Gourmet Retailer. Archived from the original on 5 November 2006.
  36. ^ Rude, Justin (19 January 2007). "Tip Sheet: Lowdown on Liquid Power-Ups". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  37. ^ "Mate Terms and Glossary". Circle of Drink. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  38. ^ SMITH, JAMES F. (10 August 1988). "More Than a Drink : Yerba Mate: Argentina's Cultural Rite". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  39. ^ Wong, Samantha. "Materva: Un Buchito de Cuba" (PDF). Johnson and Wales: Student Food Writing. p. 8 (PDF p. 11). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  40. ^ Roque, Raquel Rábade (2011). The Cuban Kitchen (1st ed.). Alfred A. Knopf. p. 6. ISBN 9780375711961. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
Bibliography
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