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Mark Ciavarella

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Mark Ciavarella
Mark Ciavarella.jpg
Born
Mark Arthur Ciavarella Jr.[1]

(1950-03-03) March 3, 1950 (age 72)
Alma materKing's College
Duquesne Law School
OccupationFormer President Judge[2]
Years active1996–2009
Known forKids for cash scandal
SuccessorChester B. Muroski[3]
Criminal statusFederal inmate #15008-067 Federal Correctional Institution, Ashland, Kentucky
SpouseCindy Baer (div. 2013)
Criminal chargeRacketeering, fraud, money laundering, extortion, bribery, and federal tax violations
Penalty28 years in federal prison

Mark Arthur Ciavarella Jr. (born March 3, 1950) is an American convicted felon and former President Judge of the Luzerne County Court of Common Pleas in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, who was involved, along with fellow judge Michael Conahan, in the "Kids for cash" scandal in 2008,[4] for which he was sentenced to 28 years in federal prison in 2011.[5]

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Luzerne County, Pennsylvania

Luzerne County, Pennsylvania

Luzerne County is a county in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 906 square miles (2,350 km2), of which 890 square miles (2,300 km2) is land and 16 square miles (41 km2) is water. It is Northeastern Pennsylvania's second-largest county by total area. As of the 2020 census, the population was 325,594, making it the most populous county in the northeastern part of the state. The county seat and largest city is Wilkes-Barre. Other populous communities include Hazleton, Kingston, Nanticoke, and Pittston. Luzerne County is included in the Scranton–Wilkes-Barre–Hazleton Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a total population of 555,426.

Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

Wilkes-Barre is a city in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Luzerne County. Located at the center of the Wyoming Valley in Northeastern Pennsylvania, it had a population of 44,328 in the 2020 census. It is the second-largest city, after Scranton, in the Scranton–Wilkes-Barre–Hazleton, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 563,631 as of the 2010 census and is the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Pennsylvania after the Delaware Valley, Greater Pittsburgh, and the Lehigh Valley with an urban population of 401,884.

Michael Conahan

Michael Conahan

Michael T. Conahan is an American convicted felon and former judge. He received a J.D. degree from Temple University and went on to serve from 1994 to 2007 as Judge on the Court of Common Pleas in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. During the last four years of his tenure, he was the President Judge of the county.

Kids for cash scandal

Kids for cash scandal

The "kids for cash" scandal centered on judicial kickbacks to two judges at the Luzerne County Court of Common Pleas in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, US. In 2008, judges Michael Conahan and Mark Ciavarella were convicted of accepting money in return for imposing harsh adjudications on juveniles to increase occupancy at the PA Child Care for-profit detention centers.

Federal prison

Federal prison

A federal prison is operated under the jurisdiction of a federal government as opposed to a state or provincial body. Federal prisons are used for convicts who violated federal law, inmates considered dangerous (Brazil), or those sentenced to longer terms of imprisonment (Canada). Not all federated countries have a legal concept of "federal prison".

Biography

Ciavarella was a lifelong resident of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, having been raised in the East End section of the city and attending St. Mary's High School. After graduating from the local King's College he attended Duquesne University School of Law, receiving his J.D. degree in 1975. Ciavarella entered private legal practice, becoming a partner in the firm of Lowery, Ciavarella and Rogers. From 1976 to 1978, he was city solicitor and then from 1978 until 1995, he served as solicitor for the city zoning board. In 1995, he ran for judge in Luzerne County on the Democratic ticket and was elected to a ten-year term. He was re-elected to a second ten-year term in 2005. Ciavarella was also active in several civic and Catholic organizations. He was married to the former Cindy Baer and the couple have three children.[1] They separated on September 15, 2010, and in May 2013, she filed for divorce.[6]

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Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

Wilkes-Barre is a city in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Luzerne County. Located at the center of the Wyoming Valley in Northeastern Pennsylvania, it had a population of 44,328 in the 2020 census. It is the second-largest city, after Scranton, in the Scranton–Wilkes-Barre–Hazleton, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 563,631 as of the 2010 census and is the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Pennsylvania after the Delaware Valley, Greater Pittsburgh, and the Lehigh Valley with an urban population of 401,884.

King's College (Pennsylvania)

King's College (Pennsylvania)

King's College is a Catholic liberal arts college in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. It is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and located within the Diocese of Scranton.

Juris Doctor

Juris Doctor

The Juris Doctor, also known as Doctor of Jurisprudence, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The J.D. is the standard degree obtained to practice law in the United States; unlike in some other jurisdictions, there is no undergraduate law degree in the United States. In the United States, along with Australia, Canada, and some other common law countries, the J.D. is earned by completing law school.

Catholic Church

Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide as of 2019. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilization. The church consists of 24 sui iuris churches, including the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, which comprise almost 3,500 dioceses and eparchies located around the world. The pope, who is the bishop of Rome, is the chief pastor of the church. The bishopric of Rome, known as the Holy See, is the central governing authority of the church. The administrative body of the Holy See, the Roman Curia, has its principal offices in Vatican City, a small enclave of the Italian city of Rome, of which the pope is head of state.

"Kids for cash" scandal

Ciavarella pleaded guilty on February 13, 2009, pursuant to a plea agreement, to federal charges of honest services fraud, wire fraud and tax evasion in connection with receiving $2.6 million in kickbacks from Robert Powell and Robert Mericle, the co-owner and builder respectively, of two private, for-profit juvenile facilities of PA Child Care. In exchange for these kickbacks, Ciavarella sentenced children to extended stays in juvenile detention for offenses as minimal as mocking a principal on Myspace, trespassing in a vacant building, and shoplifting DVDs from Wal-mart.[7] More specifically, the crimes charged were: conspiracy to deprive the public of the "intangible right of honest services", or corruption, and conspiracy to defraud the United States by failing to report income to the Internal Revenue Service.[8] Ciavarella tendered his resignation to Governor Ed Rendell on January 23, 2009, prior to official publication of the charges.[2]

The plea agreement witnessed by defense attorneys Albert Flora and William Ruzzo[9] called for Ciavarella to serve up to seven years in prison, pay fines and restitution, and accept responsibility for the crimes.[10] However, Ciavarella denied that there was a connection between the juvenile sentences he rendered and the kickbacks he received.[11][12] In part because of this denial, on July 30, 2009, Judge Edwin M. Kosik of the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania rejected the plea agreement. He ruled that Ciavarella had continued to deny that there was a "quid pro quo" between his receipt of money and his jailing of juveniles, instead characterizing the money as a "finder’s fee" despite what Judge Kosik felt was the weight of the government's evidence.[13] Attorneys for the judge and his co-conspirator, Michael Conahan, brought a motion requesting reconsideration of the judge's rejection of the plea agreement.[14] The motion was denied on August 24, and Ciavarella and Conahan withdrew their guilty pleas, resulting in the case going to trial.[15]

On September 9, 2009, a federal grand jury in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, returned a 48-count indictment against Ciavarella and Conahan,[16] which included racketeering, fraud, money laundering, extortion, bribery, and federal tax violations. Both judges were arraigned on the charges on September 15, 2009.[17][18] Ciavarella and Conahan entered pleas of not guilty to the 48-count indictment, and remained free on $1 million bail, despite federal prosecutors contentions that their bail should be raised since they now faced the possibility of substantially more prison time and that there was evidence of their attempts to shield assets.[19]

On February 18, 2011, a jury in federal court found Ciavarella guilty of racketeering. This charge stemmed from Ciavarella accepting $997,000 in illegal payments from Robert Mericle, the real estate developer of PA Child Care, and attorney Robert Powell, a co-owner of the facility. Ciavarella was also on trial for 38 other counts including accepting numerous payments from Mericle and Powell as well as tax evasion.[20]

On August 11, 2011, Kosik sentenced Ciavarella to 28 years in federal prison. Ciavarella appealed his conviction and sentence to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. On May 24, 2013, the Third Circuit vacated one count of the indictment against Ciavarella, but upheld all other charges, as well as his sentence.[21] The Third Circuit refused to reconsider on July 24, 2013.[22] The Supreme Court, which rarely accepts such cases, declined to hear the appeal in 2014, although Ciavarella could file a post-conviction relief motion before U.S. District Court within one year.[23] With good behavior, he could be released in fewer than 24 years, when he would be 85.[24] Ciavarella initially served his sentence at Federal Correctional Institution, Pekin in Pekin, Illinois.[25]

He is registered as inmate 15008–067 at the Federal Correctional Institution at Ashland, Kentucky.[26] His projected release date is June 18, 2034.[26]

On January 9, 2018, federal judge Christopher C. Conner threw out Ciavarella's convictions for racketeering, conspiracy to commit racketeering, and conspiracy to commit money laundering on appeal. Conner upheld Civarella's contention that his attorneys failed to raise statute of limitations claims on those charges. He ordered a new trial on those counts, but allowed the honest services fraud convictions to stand.[27] On January 24, 2020, prosecutors formally notified the court that they would not seek to retry Ciaverella on these three counts. In response, Ciavarella's defense attorneys sought a reduction of his prison sentence, which was rejected.[28]

On October 1, 2019, Ciavarella was disbarred on consent from the practice of law by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.[29]

Civil lawsuits

Ciavarella is a defendant in a class action lawsuit filed by the Juvenile Law Center on behalf of the juveniles who were adjudicated delinquent by him despite not being represented by counsel or advised of their rights.[30][31] He has moved to dismiss this lawsuit as it pertains to him based on judicial immunity.[32] He is also named as a defendant in three other lawsuits, however, all four lawsuits have been consolidated into one master class action lawsuit which was filed in June and then amended in late August 2009.[33][34]

The plaintiffs, in a 75-page court filing on September 9, 2009, argued that the actions of Ciavarella and Conahan should not be "fully shielded by absolutely judicial immunity or legislative immunity", because their actions went beyond their judicial and administrative duties.[35]

Discover more about "Kids for cash" scandal related topics

Kids for cash scandal

Kids for cash scandal

The "kids for cash" scandal centered on judicial kickbacks to two judges at the Luzerne County Court of Common Pleas in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, US. In 2008, judges Michael Conahan and Mark Ciavarella were convicted of accepting money in return for imposing harsh adjudications on juveniles to increase occupancy at the PA Child Care for-profit detention centers.

Honest services fraud

Honest services fraud

Honest services fraud is a crime defined in 18 U.S.C. § 1346, added by the United States Congress in 1988, which states "For the purposes of this chapter, the term scheme or artifice to defraud includes a scheme or artifice to deprive another of the intangible right of honest services."

Kickback (bribery)

Kickback (bribery)

A kickback is a form of negotiated bribery in which a commission is paid to the bribe-taker in exchange for services rendered. Generally speaking, the remuneration is negotiated ahead of time. The kickback varies from other kinds of bribes in that there is implied collusion between agents of the two parties, rather than one party extorting the bribe from the other. The purpose of the kickback is usually to encourage the other party to cooperate in the scheme.

Private prison

Private prison

A private prison, or for-profit prison, is a place where people are imprisoned by a third party that is contracted by a government agency. Private prison companies typically enter into contractual agreements with governments that commit prisoners and then pay a per diem or monthly rate, either for each prisoner in the facility, or for each place available, whether occupied or not. Such contracts may be for the operation only of a facility, or for design, construction and operation.

PA Child Care

PA Child Care

PA Child Care is a juvenile detention center in Pittston Township, Pennsylvania. It was opened in February 2003. It has a sister company, Western PA Child Care, in Butler County, Pennsylvania. Treatment at both facilities is provided by Mid Atlantic Youth Services, and both were involved in the kids for cash scandal in 2008. Gregory Zappala took sole ownership of the company when he purchased co-owner Robert Powell's share in June 2008.

Principal (academia)

Principal (academia)

The principal is the chief executive and the chief academic officer of a university or college in certain parts of the Commonwealth.

Myspace

Myspace

Myspace is a social networking service based in the United States. Launched on August 1, 2003, the site was the first social network to reach a global audience, and had a significant influence on technology, pop culture and music. The site played a critical role in the early growth of companies like YouTube, and created a developer platform that launched the successes of Zynga, RockYou and Photobucket, among others. From 2005 to 2008, Myspace was the largest social networking site in the world.

DVD

DVD

The DVD is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was invented and developed in 1995 and first released on November 1, 1996, in Japan. The medium can store any kind of digital data and has been widely used for video programs or formerly for storing software and other computer files as well. DVDs offer significantly higher storage capacity than compact discs (CD) while having the same dimensions. A standard DVD can store up to 4.7 GB of storage, while variants can store up to a maximum of 17.08 GB.

Internal Revenue Service

Internal Revenue Service

Section 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States. Therefore all members of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) are traitors and waging war on the United States. There is no federal government, the confederacy failed. Congress are responsible for collecting taxes, duties, imposts and excises, and are not vested with powers to punish for not paying, therefore it would be wise of congress to make sure the People of the United States have a surplus of which to give or it becomes as Shakespeare makes Shylock say:

Ed Rendell

Ed Rendell

Edward Gene Rendell is an American lawyer, prosecutor, politician, and author. He served as the 45th Governor of Pennsylvania from 2003 to 2011, as chair of the national Democratic Party, and as the 96th Mayor of Philadelphia from 1992 to 2000.

Michael Conahan

Michael Conahan

Michael T. Conahan is an American convicted felon and former judge. He received a J.D. degree from Temple University and went on to serve from 1994 to 2007 as Judge on the Court of Common Pleas in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. During the last four years of his tenure, he was the President Judge of the county.

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Harrisburg is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the county seat of Dauphin County. With a population of 50,135 as of the 2021 census, Harrisburg is the 15th largest municipality in Pennsylvania.

Review of judicial rulings

The Pennsylvania Supreme Court, using its rarely invoked power of "King's Bench jurisdiction", appointed Senior Judge Arthur Grim as special master to review all of Ciavarella's juvenile sentences. On March 11, 2009, Grim recommended that all adjudications handed down by Ciavarella between 2003 and 2008 be thrown out. From concluded that the kickbacks and Ciavarella's disregard for the juveniles' rights meant that no one who appeared before him had received an impartial hearing. On March 26, 2009, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court accepted Grim's recommendations and threw out hundreds of Ciavarella's juvenile convictions on the grounds that the defendants' rights had been violated.[36][37]

In early 2009, the Wilkes-Barre daily newspaper The Citizens' Voice accused Judge Ciavarella of improperly concealing a conflict of interest when he rendered a $3.5 million defamation judgment against the paper, and it moved to have the case reopened.[38] The Pennsylvania Supreme Court appointed Lehigh County President Judge William H. Platt to conduct hearings into the matter. After two days of testimony that July, Judge Platt recommended that the verdict be vacated and a new trial be conducted. His recommendation was partially based on the fact that Ciavarella admitted that he wrongly presided over cases involving clients of Robert J. Powell, an attorney who paid Ciavarella and Conahan more than $770,000 in kickbacks.[39]

In June 2009, attorneys from Laputka, Bayless, Ecker & Cohn, a Hazleton law firm, appealed a $3.4 million legal malpractice verdict and wished to supplement the record to indicate that Ciavarella should not have presided over the case and should have recused himself because of his relationship with Powell, who was the opposing attorney.[40]

In early August 2009, the state Supreme Court ordered Luzerne County President Judge Chester Muroski to review a land dispute case that was dismissed by Ciavarella to determine if the ruling was tainted. First National Community Bank had loaned Ciavarella $848,000 and Conahan sat on the bank's board of directors. Ciavarella dismissed a lawsuit by Emil Malinowski against the bank, a ruling which was upheld by the state Superior Court.[41]

Dr. Ki Bum Lee, M.D. requested that a malpractice suit against him by Debra Sharkey be dropped. In court papers filed in early September 2009, Dr. Lee's attorney, Michael Badowski, said Dr. Lee should also be awarded damages after information surfaced regarding Ciavarella, William Sharkey, the former court administrator, and Sharkey's attorney, Robert Powell. Badowski alleged that Sharkey's first cousin and Ciavarella's co-defendant, Judge Michael Conahan, assigned Ciavarella to the malpractice case and that, because of the conflict of interest, Ciavarella had continually ruled against the doctor. The lawsuit, originally filed in October 1997, claimed Lee committed malpractice during Debra Sharkey's hysterectomy.[42]

Judge Thomas L. Ambro of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit ruled, in March 2019, that Mark Ciavarella is not entitled to a new trial which would have followed the precedent set by the U.S. Supreme Court’s 2016 ruling in McDonnell v. United States. McDonnell v. United States altered the definition of 'official acts' as they relate to bribery.

In his opinion, Judge Ambro stated that "Ciavarella’s bribery-related actions still satisfy even a post-McDonnell understanding of ‘official act.’ If sentencing hundreds of juvenile offenders to excessive terms of incarceration is not an ‘official act,’ then nothing is."[43]

Pension fight

Ciavarella, whose resignation from the bench took effect on March 16, 2009, submitted an application for pension benefits that same day, seeking to withdraw a lump sum of $232,051 that included $51,699 in interest and to begin receiving $5,156 in monthly pension benefits.[44] However, Ciavarella agreed to a federal injunction freezing his pension benefits on or about May 27, 2009. The injunction was requested by the U.S. Attorney's office in order to apply the benefits to restitution to the victims.[45]

Subsequently, the State Employees' Retirement System (SERS) denied pension benefits to Ciavarella, reversing its earlier position that he was eligible to receive benefits until he was sentenced. SERS ruled that the former judge's guilty pleas to fraud and conspiracy in February provided sufficient grounds to deny the benefits. The agency based its determination on the Pension Forfeiture Act, which allows for the denial of benefits to anyone convicted of certain crimes related to their public employment. SERS also refused to repay Ciavarella the $234,000 that he had contributed to the retirement system because the state Department of Public Welfare claimed that he and Conahan are liable for $4.3 million in alleged overpayments it made to two juvenile detention centers.[46][47][48]

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King's Bench jurisdiction

King's Bench jurisdiction

King's Bench jurisdiction or King's Bench power is the extraordinary jurisdiction of an individual state's highest court over its inferior courts. In the United States, the states of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Florida, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma and Wisconsin use the term to describe the extraordinary jurisdiction of their highest court, called the Court of Appeals in New York or the Supreme Court in the other states, over the courts below it. King's Bench jurisdiction includes the power to vacate the judgments of inferior courts when acting in extraordinary circumstances, for example, where the importance of an issue to public well-being or the expediency with which action must be taken in the interest of justice requires superseding normal judicial or appellate procedures. Federal courts in the United States possess the power to issue similar extraordinary writs under the All Writs Act. The term originates from the English Court of King’s Bench.

Special master

Special master

In the law of the United States, a special master is generally a subordinate official appointed by a judge to ensure judicial orders are followed, or in the alternative, to hear evidence on behalf of the judge and make recommendations to the judge as to the disposition of a matter. The special master should not be confused with the traditional common law concept of a master, a judge of the High Court entrusted to deal with summary and administrative matters falling short of a full trial.

The Citizens' Voice

The Citizens' Voice

The Citizens' Voice is a compact newspaper published daily in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Its 2005 circulation was 32,862, mostly Luzerne County residents.

Thomas L. Ambro

Thomas L. Ambro

Thomas Lee Ambro is a United States circuit judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. He began his judicial service in 2000.

McDonnell v. United States

McDonnell v. United States

McDonnell v. United States, 579 U.S. ___ (2016), was a United States Supreme Court case concerning the appeal of former Virginia Governor Robert F. McDonnell's conviction under the Hobbs Act. At issue on appeal was whether the definition of "official act" within the federal bribery statutes encompassed the actions for which McDonnell had been convicted and whether the jury had been properly instructed on this definition at trial.

Source: "Mark Ciavarella", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Ciavarella.

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References
  1. ^ a b Kanjorski, Paul (March 9, 2006). "Congratulating Judge Mark Ciavarella, Jr. as he is named "Man of the Year" by the Wilkes-Barre Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick". Congressional Record. Archived from the original on January 27, 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  2. ^ a b "MEDIA RELEASE: January 26, 2009". Court of Common Pleas of Luzerne County. January 26, 2009. Archived from the original on January 12, 2010. Retrieved May 2, 2009.
  3. ^ "Luzerne County Courts Main Page". Court of Common Pleas of Luzerne County. Retrieved May 3, 2009.
  4. ^ Frank, Thomas (April 1, 2009). "Thomas Frank Says 'Kids for Cash' Incentivizes the Prison Industry". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
  5. ^ Jon Meyer (January 26, 2014). "Five Years Since Ciavarella and Conahan were Charged". WNEP. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  6. ^ Edward Louis (May 13, 2013). "Ciavarella's wife files for divorce". timesleader.com. Archived from the original on February 8, 2015.
  7. ^ Chen, Stephanie (February 23, 2009). "Pennsylvania rocked by 'jailing kids for cash' scandal". CNN. Archived from the original on February 24, 2011.
  8. ^ "Text of U.S. Attorney's charges against Ciavarella and Conahan" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice for the Middle District of Pennsylvania. January 26, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 20, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  9. ^ "Ciavarella Plea Agreement, January 26, 2009" (PDF). September 21, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2011. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
  10. ^ Urbina, Ian (March 27, 2009). "Despite Red Flags, Judges Ran Kickback Scheme for Years". New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2009.
  11. ^ Morgan-Besecker, Terrie (August 23, 2009). "What precisely did 2 judges do? Data contradicts Ciavarella's contention there was no 'quid pro quo' scheme at work". Timesleader.com. Archived from the original on February 8, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  12. ^ Leo Strupczewski (February 13, 2009). "2 Pa. Judges Plead Guilty in Cash-for-Kids Corruption Scandal". The Legal Intelligencer. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
  13. ^ Urbina, Ian (July 31, 2009). "Plea Agreement by 2 Judges Is Rejected In Pennsylvania". New York Times.
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  20. ^ "Jury finds Ciavarella guilty on first of 39 counts". The Times Leader. February 18, 2011. Archived from the original on February 20, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  21. ^ Michael Sisak (May 24, 2013). "Appeals court upholds Ciavarella's 28-year sentence". The Citizens' Voice. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
  22. ^ Michael Sisak (July 25, 2013). "Court won't reconsider Ciavarella's punishment". The Citizens' Voice. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
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  26. ^ a b Federal Bureau of Prisons, U.S. Department of Justice, Inmate Locator.
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  28. ^ Ove, Torsten (August 27, 2020). "Ex-judge loses bid for lighter sentence". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  29. ^ Office Of Disciplinary Counsel v. Mark A. Ciavarella, Jr., October 1, 2019. Supreme Court Of Pennsylvania.
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  40. ^ Sisak, Michael (June 17, 2009). "Law firm seeks incorporate Powell guilty plea in campaign to overturn verdict". The Citizens' Voice. Archived from the original on June 19, 2009.
  41. ^ Morgan-Besecker, Terrie (August 7, 2009). "Ciavarella ruling reviewed Pa. Supreme Court wants President Judge Muroski to take another look at land dispute case involving bank". Timesleader.com. Archived from the original on February 24, 2012. Retrieved September 7, 2009.
  42. ^ Delazio, Sheena (September 5, 2009). "Doctor: Ciavarella had conflict in his case Malpractice case was filed by wife of William Sharkey, the former court administrator". Timesleader.com. Archived from the original on February 24, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
  43. ^ D'Annunzio, P. J. (March 29, 2019). "Doctor: 3rd Circuit Denies Incarcerated 'Kids-for-Cash' Judge Ciavarella's Bid for New Trial". law.com. Retrieved June 22, 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  44. ^ Morgan-Besecker, Terrie (April 11, 2009). "Ex-judge may net $50,000 - Timing of Ciavarella's resignation may enable him to keep pension interest". Timesleader.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
  45. ^ "Judge Orders Ciavarella's Pension Fund Frozen". WNEP-TV. May 27, 2009. Archived from the original on June 1, 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  46. ^ Janoski, Dave (June 16, 2009). "No pension for disgraced judges". The Citizen's Voice. Archived from the original on June 19, 2009. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
  47. ^ Morgan-Besecker, Terrie (June 16, 2009). "Two ex-judges denied pensions Ciavarella, Conahan may have to pay state $4.3M". Timesleader.com. Archived from the original on February 8, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
  48. ^ Janoski, Dave (June 15, 2009). "State seeks $4.3 M from Conahan, Ciavarella". The Citizen's Voice. Archived from the original on June 18, 2009. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
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