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Mariupol hospital airstrike

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Mariupol hospital airstrike
Part of the Siege of Mariupol
Наслідки обстрілу дитячої лікарні та пологового будинку в Маріуполі, 9 березня 2022 року.jpg
Hospital in Mariupol after airstrike
LocationMariupol, Ukraine
Coordinates47°05′47″N 37°32′01″E / 47.09645°N 37.53373°E / 47.09645; 37.53373Coordinates: 47°05′47″N 37°32′01″E / 47.09645°N 37.53373°E / 47.09645; 37.53373
Date9 March 2022
Deaths4 + 1 stillbirth
Injuredat least 17
Perpetrators Russian Armed Forces

On 9 March 2022, the Russian Air Force bombed Maternity Hospital No 3, a hospital complex functioning both as a children's hospital and maternity ward in Mariupol, Ukraine,[1] during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, killing at least four people and injuring at least sixteen, and leading to at least one stillbirth.[2]

Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyy,[3] Josep Borrell, the European Union head of Foreign Affairs,[2] and British armed forces minister James Heappey[4] described the bombing as a war crime. On 10 March, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defence claimed that bombing of the hospital was justified by the supposed presence of Ukrainian armed forces[5][6] at Mariupol Maternity Hospital No 1, as stated by Russian UN representative Vasily Nebenzya earlier, on 7 March.[1][7] Several media organizations dismissed the Russian claims as false.[8]

An OSCE report concluded the airstrike was a Russian war crime.

Discover more about Mariupol hospital airstrike related topics

Russian Air Force

Russian Air Force

The Russian Air Force is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merging of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. The modern VVS was originally established on 7 May 1992 following Boris Yeltsin's creation of the Ministry of Defence. However, the Russian Federation's air force can trace its lineage and traditions back to the Imperial Russian Air Service (1912–1917) and the Soviet Air Forces (1918–1991).

Hospital

Hospital

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized health science and auxiliary healthcare staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which typically has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region, with many beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' (geriatric) hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received.

Mariupol

Mariupol

Mariupol is a city in Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine. Since May 2022, Mariupol has been occupied by Russian forces. It is situated on the northern coast (Pryazovia) of the Sea of Azov, at the mouth of the Kalmius River. Prior to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, it was the tenth-largest city in the country and the second-largest city in Donetsk Oblast, with an estimated population of 425,681 people in January 2022, however Ukrainian authorities estimate its current population to be approximately 100,000.

Volodymyr Zelenskyy

Volodymyr Zelenskyy

Volodymyr Oleksandrovych Zelenskyy is a Ukrainian politician and former comedian and actor who has served as the sixth and current president of Ukraine since 2019.

Josep Borrell

Josep Borrell

Josep Borrell Fontelles is a Spanish politician serving as High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy since 1 December 2019. A member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), he served as President of the European Parliament from 2004 to 2007 and as Minister of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation in the Government of Spain from 2018 to 2019.

High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the European Commission (HR/VP) is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) within the European Union (EU). The position is currently held by Josep Borrell Fontelles.

James Heappey

James Heappey

James Stephen Heappey is a British politician serving as Minister of State for the Armed Forces since 2022. A member of the Conservative Party, he has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Wells in Somerset since 2015. He was Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Armed Forces from 2020 to 2022, before being promoted to Minister of State in July 2022. Before entering politics he was an officer in the British Army.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign policy and foreign relations of Russia. It is a continuation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, which was under the supervision of the Soviet Ministry of External Relations. Sergei Lavrov is the current foreign minister.

Ministry of Defence (Russia)

Ministry of Defence (Russia)

The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation is the governing body of the Russian Armed Forces.

United Nations

United Nations

The United Nations (UN), particularly informally also referred to as the United Nations Organization (UNO), is an intergovernmental organization whose stated purposes are to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the world's largest and most familiar international organization. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City, and has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna, and The Hague.

Vasily Nebenzya

Vasily Nebenzya

Vasily Alekseyevich Nebenzya is a Russian diplomat and the current Permanent Representative of Russia to the United Nations. His official title is Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest regional security-oriented intergovernmental organization with observer status at the United Nations. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, promotion of human rights, freedom of the press, and free and fair elections. It employs around 3,460 people, mostly in its field operations but also in its secretariat in Vienna, Austria, and its institutions.

Background

In 2022, during the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russian and pro-Russian forces set siege to the city. It was eventually agreed between Russian and Ukrainian authorities to allow civilians to evacuate from Mariupol and four other Ukrainian towns on 9 March 2022 in a humanitarian corridor.[9]

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Bombing

A children's and maternity hospital in Mariupol (Maternity Hospital No 3[1]) was bombed several times by Russian forces from the air during the ceasefire.[9][10]

Ukrainian authorities described the damage to the hospital as "colossal". Video footage following the attacks showed "much of the front of the building ... ripped away" and "mangled cars burning outside".[9] Hospital wards were "reduced to a wreckage, walls [had] collapsed, rubble cover[ed] medical equipment, windows [were] blown out and shattered glass [was] everywhere".[10]

Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyy stated that people had "hidden" from the attack in time, minimising the number of casualties.[3]

Victims

On 9 March 2022, the Donetsk Oblast governor stated that 17 people, including women in labour, were injured in the bombing.[9][11] "Women, newborns and medical staff were killed" according to neurologist Oleksandra Shcherbet.[10] On 10 March, local authorities stated that one girl and two other people had been killed in the bombing.[2]

An unnamed pregnant woman photographed in the bombing was moved to another hospital and died after her child was stillborn. She had suffered numerous injuries in the bombing, including a crushed pelvis and detached hip, which contributed to the stillbirth of her child.[12] The doctors operated on them by candlelight.[13]

Another pregnant woman photographed in the bombing, Marianna Vyshegirskaya (née Podgurskaya), a popular Instagram blogger,[1] gave birth to a daughter the following day.[14] In early April, Vyshegirskaya filmed an interview in which she said that the hospital was not hit with an airstrike but rather "shelling", which the Associated Press described as contradicted by evidence.[15] Vyshegirskaya gave an interview to the BBC in May, where she said that the hospital was working and that no Ukrainian military was stationed in the maternity building, contradicting Russian claims that the hospital was not functional and had been taken over by soldiers.[16]

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Donetsk Oblast

Donetsk Oblast

Donetsk Oblast, also referred to as Donechchyna (Донеччина), is an oblast in eastern Ukraine. It is Ukraine's most populous province, with around 4.1 million residents. Its administrative centre is Donetsk, though due to the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War, the regional administration was moved to Kramatorsk. Historically, the region has been an important part of the Donbas region. From its creation in 1938 until November 1961, it bore the name Stalino Oblast as Donetsk was then named "Stalino", in honour of Joseph Stalin. As part of the de-Stalinization process, it was renamed after the Siversky Donets river, the main artery of Eastern Ukraine. Its population is estimated as 4,100,280

Childbirth

Childbirth

Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the completion of pregnancy where one or more babies exits the internal environment of the mother via vaginal delivery or caesarean section. In 2019, there were about 140.11 million births globally. In the developed countries, most deliveries occur in hospitals, while in the developing countries most are home births.

Instagram

Instagram

Instagram is a photo and video sharing social networking service owned by American company Meta Platforms. The app allows users to upload media that can be edited with filters and organized by hashtags and geographical tagging. Posts can be shared publicly or with preapproved followers. Users can browse other users' content by tag and location, view trending content, like photos, and follow other users to add their content to a personal feed.

Shell (projectile)

Shell (projectile)

A shell, in a military context, is a projectile whose payload contains an explosive, incendiary, or other chemical filling. Originally it was called a bombshell, but "shell" has come to be unambiguous in a military context. Modern usage sometimes includes large solid kinetic projectiles, which are more properly termed shot. Solid shot may contain a pyrotechnic compound if a tracer or spotting charge is used.

Associated Press

Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is an American not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association, and produces news reports that are distributed to its members, U.S. newspapers and broadcasters. Since the award was established in 1917, the AP has earned 56 Pulitzer Prizes, including 34 for photography. It is also known for publishing the widely used AP Stylebook.

War crime claims

Josep Borrell, the European Union head of Foreign Affairs, described the bombing as a war crime.[2] James Heappey, British Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Armed Forces, said that whether hitting the hospital was indiscriminate fire into a built-up area or a deliberate targeting, "it [was] a war crime".[4] Ukrainian leaders have echoed similar sentiments.[3]

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War crimes in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

War crimes in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Since the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russian authorities and armed forces have committed multiple war crimes in the form of deliberate attacks against civilian targets, massacres of civilians, torture and rape of women and children, and indiscriminate attacks in densely populated areas.

Josep Borrell

Josep Borrell

Josep Borrell Fontelles is a Spanish politician serving as High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy since 1 December 2019. A member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), he served as President of the European Parliament from 2004 to 2007 and as Minister of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation in the Government of Spain from 2018 to 2019.

High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the European Commission (HR/VP) is the chief co-ordinator and representative of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) within the European Union (EU). The position is currently held by Josep Borrell Fontelles.

War crime

War crime

A war crime is a violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility for actions by combatants in action, such as intentionally killing civilians or intentionally killing prisoners of war, torture, taking hostages, unnecessarily destroying civilian property, deception by perfidy, wartime sexual violence, pillaging, and for any individual that is part of the command structure who orders any attempt to committing mass killings including genocide or ethnic cleansing, the granting of no quarter despite surrender, the conscription of children in the military and flouting the legal distinctions of proportionality and military necessity.

James Heappey

James Heappey

James Stephen Heappey is a British politician serving as Minister of State for the Armed Forces since 2022. A member of the Conservative Party, he has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Wells in Somerset since 2015. He was Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Armed Forces from 2020 to 2022, before being promoted to Minister of State in July 2022. Before entering politics he was an officer in the British Army.

Distinction (law)

Distinction (law)

Distinction is a principle under international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict, whereby belligerents must distinguish between combatants and civilians. Distinction and proportionality are important factors in assessing military necessity in that the harm caused to civilians or civilian property must be proportional and not "excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated" by an attack on a military objective.

Reactions

Ukraine

Deputy Mayor of Mariupol, Sergei Orlov, stated, "We don't understand how it is possible in modern life to bomb [a] children's hospital."[10] Mariupol City Council described the bombing by Russian aircraft as deliberate.[10] Zelenskyy claimed that the attack constituted "proof that the genocide of Ukrainians [was] taking place".[3] Sergei Orlov, deputy mayor of Mariupol, described the attack as both a war crime and genocide.[17]

Russia

On 10 March, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Defence publicly claimed that the bombing was justified. According to Ukrayinska Pravda, foreign minister Sergey Lavrov confirmed that the bombing of the hospital was a deliberate action. He stated, "A few days ago, at a UN Security Council meeting, the Russian delegation presented factual information that this maternity hospital had long been taken over by the Azov Battalion and other radicals and that all the women in labour, all the nurses and in general all the staff had been told to leave it. It was a base of the ultra-radical Azov Battalion."[5] Minister of Defence spokesperson Igor Konashenkov stated that "Absolutely no tasks to hit targets on the ground were accomplished by Russian military aircraft in the area of Mariupol" and that the "alleged airstrike" was a "completely staged provocation in order to maintain the anti-Russian public outcry in the Western audience".[6] Previously the Russian military had claimed that the Azov and Aidar Battalions were "delivering fire" from "schools, hospitals and kindergartens" in Mariupol.[18]

On 10 March 2022, Twitter removed a tweet from the Russian embassy in the UK which claimed that the Mariupol hospital attack was "fake" and that Marianna Vyshegirskaya, one of the victims was an "actress" by citing her blogging career, as a violation of Twitter rules. British politicians welcomed the move and accused the Russian embassy of disinformation.[19][15][20]

Meduza stated that the Russian representative to the United Nations, Vasily Nebenzya, had on 7 March referred to Maternity Hospital No 1 (47°08′20″N 37°36′12″E / 47.13892°N 37.60337°E / 47.13892; 37.60337) as a hospital that he claimed was used by Ukrainian armed forces as a firing point, not Maternity Hospital No 3. Meduza described Lavrov as having confused Hospital No 1, referred to by Nebenzya, with the hospital that was bombed, Hospital No 3.[1][7]

On 22 March 2022, Russian journalist Alexander Nevzorov was charged under Russia's "false information" law after he published information about the Russian shelling of a maternity hospital in Mariupol.[21] Under a new law passed on 4 March, he could be sentenced to up to 15 years in prison.[22]

International

British prime minister Boris Johnson described the attack as "depraved".[9] Jen Psaki, press secretary of United States president Joe Biden, stated that "It is horrifying to see the ... barbaric use of military force to go after innocent civilians in a sovereign country."[9] Josep Borrell, High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, described the bombing as a "heinous war crime".[2] Cardinal Secretary of State of the Vatican City Pietro Parolin expressed dismay at the bombing, calling it an "unacceptable attack on civilians".[23] António Guterres, Secretary-General of the United Nations, wrote that the attack was "horrific" and that "this senseless violence must stop."[24]

The bombing received widespread condemnation in the international press: the Daily Mirror and The Independent described the act as "barbaric", the Daily Express and the Daily Mail called it "depraved", while The Guardian, the Financial Times and El País called it "atrocious".[25][26] Italian newspaper Il Giornale described Putin as a "war criminal", while la Repubblica decried "the death of innocents".[27][28]

Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis of the Hellenic Republic tweeted on 18 March that Greece "is ready to rebuild the maternity hospital in Mariupol, the center of the Greek minority in Ukraine, a city dear to our hearts and symbol of the barbarity of the war."[29]

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List of mayors of Mariupol

List of mayors of Mariupol

The following is a list of mayors of the city of Mariupol. It includes positions equivalent to mayor, such as chairperson of the city council executive committee.

Genocide

Genocide

Genocide is the intentional destruction of a people in whole or in part. Raphael Lemkin coined the term in 1944, combining the Greek word γένος with the Latin suffix -caedo.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign policy and foreign relations of Russia. It is a continuation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, which was under the supervision of the Soviet Ministry of External Relations. Sergei Lavrov is the current foreign minister.

Ministry of Defence (Russia)

Ministry of Defence (Russia)

The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation is the governing body of the Russian Armed Forces.

Igor Konashenkov

Igor Konashenkov

Lieutenant General Igor Yevgenyevich Konashenkov is a Russian military officer serving as the chief spokesperson for the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation.

Aidar Battalion

Aidar Battalion

24th Separate Assault Battalion "Aidar", also known as the Aidar Battalion, is an assault battalion of the Ukrainian Ground Forces.

Embassy of Russia, London

Embassy of Russia, London

The Embassy of Russia in London is the diplomatic mission of Russia in the United Kingdom. The main building and Consular section is located at 5 and 6-7 Kensington Palace Gardens at the junction with Bayswater Road; the Ambassador's Residence is located in a separate building at 13 Kensington Palace Gardens. Russia also maintains a Defence Attaché's Office at 44 Millfield Lane, Highgate, and an Office of the Trade Representative at 33 Highgate West Hill, Highgate.

Disinformation

Disinformation

Disinformation is false information deliberately spread to deceive people. It is sometimes confused with misinformation, which is false information but is not deliberate.

Meduza

Meduza

Meduza is a Russian- and English-language independent news website, headquartered in Riga, Latvia. It was founded in 2014 by a group of former employees of the then-independent Lenta.ru news website. Free mobile applications for iOS, Windows Phone and Android became the basis of the media.

Alexander Nevzorov

Alexander Nevzorov

Alexander Glebovich Nevzorov is a Russian television journalist, film director and a former member of the Russian State Duma.

Boris Johnson

Boris Johnson

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson is a British politician, writer and journalist who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2019 to 2022. He previously served as Foreign Secretary from 2016 to 2018 and as Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016. Johnson has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015, having previously been MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008.

Jen Psaki

Jen Psaki

Jennifer Rene Psaki is an American television political analyst who currently works for MSNBC. Previously, she was a political advisor who served under both the Obama and Biden administrations. Immediately prior to working for MSNBC, she served the Biden administration as the 34th White House press secretary during 2021 and 2022. A member of the Democratic Party, she previously served in the Obama administration as the White House deputy press secretary (2009); the White House deputy communications director (2009–2011); the spokesperson for the United States Department of State (2013–2015); and the White House communications director (2015–2017). Psaki was a political contributor for CNN from 2017 to 2020.

OSCE report

On April 13, 2022, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) published a report which covered the Mariupol hospital airstrike, confirming the maternity house was clearly identifiable and operational, and that the Russian forces therefore perpetrated a war crime.

The Mission therefore concludes that the hospital was destroyed by a Russian attack. Based upon Russian explanations, the attack must have been deliberate. No effective warning was given and no time-limit set. This attack therefore constitutes a clear violation of IHL and those responsible for it have committed a war crime.[30]

Source: "Mariupol hospital airstrike", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 11th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariupol_hospital_airstrike.

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See also
References
  1. ^ a b c d e "Definitely not 'staged' – False allegations about the maternity hospital airstrike in Mariupol, debunked". Meduza. 2022-03-12. Archived from the original on 2022-03-13. Retrieved 2022-03-13.
  2. ^ a b c d e Sandford, Alasdair (2022-03-10). "Ukraine war: Russian attack on Mariupol hospital a 'heinous war crime', says EU's Borrell". Euronews. Archived from the original on 2022-03-10. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  3. ^ a b c d Zelenskyy, Volodymyr (2022-03-10). "Everything that occupiers doing with Mariupol is beyond atrocities – Zelensky's address (full text)". Ukrinform. Archived from the original on 2022-03-09. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  4. ^ a b Maloletka, Evgeniy; Chernov, Mstyslav (2022-03-10). "Russian airstrike on Mariupol children's hospital sparks global outrage". Global News. Archived from the original on 2022-03-11.
  5. ^ a b "Lavrov confirms Russia deliberately bombed maternity hospital in Mariupol". Ukrayinska Pravda. 2022-03-10. Archived from the original on 2022-03-10. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  6. ^ a b "Russian troops don't hit hospital in Mariupol, it's Kyiv's information provocation - Russian Defense Ministry". Interfax. 2022-03-10. Archived from the original on 2022-03-10. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  7. ^ a b Nebenzya, Vasily (2022-03-07). "Выступление и ответное слово Постоянного представителя В.А.Небензи на заседании СБ ООН по гуманитарной ситуации на Украине" [Statement and response by Permanent Representative Nebenzya to the UN Security Council meeting on the humanitarian situation in Ukraine]. Russian UN Representative (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-03-10. Retrieved 2022-03-13.
  8. ^ Sadeghi, McKenzie. "Fact check: Baseless claims that Russian attack on Mariupol hospital was 'staged'". USA TODAY.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Ukraine accuses Russia of bombing children's hospital in Mariupol". Al Jazeera English. 2022-03-09. Archived from the original on 2022-03-09. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  10. ^ a b c d e Ward, Victoria (2022-03-09). "'Atrocity' as maternity hospital in besieged Mariupol destroyed by Russian air strikes". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-03-09. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  11. ^ Sangal, Aditi; Vogt, Adrienne; Wagner, Meg; Ramsay, George; Guy, Jack; Regan, Helen (2022-03-10). "Russian forces bombed a maternity and children's hospital. Here's what we know about the siege of Mariupol". CNN. Archived from the original on 2022-03-10. Retrieved 2022-03-11. Police in the Donetsk region said according to preliminary information at least 17 people were injured, including mothers and staff. Ukraine's President said authorities were sifting through the rubble looking for victims.
  12. ^ "Ukraine war: Pregnant woman and baby die after hospital shelled". BBC News. 2022-03-14. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  13. ^ Bogner, Matilda (25 March 2022). "Situation in Ukraine. Statement delivered by the Head of Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine on the situation in Ukraine". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
  14. ^ "Ukraine war: Mariupol hospital attack: Pregnant woman hurt in bombing gives birth". BBC News. 2022-03-14. Retrieved 2022-03-16.
  15. ^ a b Tulp, Sophia (2022-04-03). "Ukraine blogger video fuels false info on Mariupol bombing". Associated Press. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  16. ^ Spring, Marianna (17 May 2022). "Marianna Vyshemirsky: 'My picture was used to spread lies about the war'". BBC News. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  17. ^ Harding, Luke; Borger, Julian; Henley, Jon (2022-03-09). "Children under rubble after Russian airstrike on maternity hospital, says Zelenskiy". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2022-03-09. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  18. ^ "Nationalists in Mariupol setting up emplacements in schools, hospitals — Russian top brass". TASS. 5 March 2022. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  19. ^ Dan Milmo, Hibaq Farah (March 10, 2022). "Twitter removes Russian embassy tweet on Mariupol bombing". Guardian. Retrieved March 11, 2022.
  20. ^ Alexandra White in New York. "Pregnant woman caught in air strike on Mariupol hospital dies". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2022-04-07.
  21. ^ "Russia: Authorities launch witch-hunt to catch anyone sharing anti-war views". Amnesty International. 30 March 2022.
  22. ^ "Top Russian Journalist Defiant in Face of Fake News Investigation". VOA News. 23 March 2022.
  23. ^ "Ukraine: Cardinal Parolin 'dismayed' at bombing of children's hospital - Vatican News". Vatican News. 2022-03-10. Archived from the original on 2022-03-10.
  24. ^ "Invasion of Ukraine: Neighbours struggle with refugee influx; UN expresses 'horror' at Mariupol hospital attack". UN News. March 9, 2022. Retrieved March 11, 2022.
  25. ^ "Friday's national newspaper front pages". Sky News. Archived from the original on 2022-03-10. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  26. ^ "Periódicos de España. Toda la prensa de hoy. Kiosko.net". es.kiosko.net (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2022-03-08. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  27. ^ "3 La Repubblica". Il Post (in Italian). 2022-03-10. Archived from the original on 2022-03-10. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  28. ^ "[Nazionale - 1] Giorn/Interni/Pag-Prima ... 10/03/22". Il Post (in Italian). 2022-03-10. Archived from the original on 2022-03-11. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  29. ^ Mayer, Emma (18 March 2022). "Greece Offers To Rebuild Mariupol Maternity Hospital After Russian Bombing". Newsweek. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  30. ^ OSCE, April 13, 2022, pp. 46–47

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