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Marie Tharp

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Marie Tharp
Marie Tharp working with fathometer record (cropped).jpg
Marie Tharp in 1968
Born(1920-07-30)July 30, 1920
DiedAugust 23, 2006(2006-08-23) (aged 86)
Alma materOhio University
University of Michigan
University of Tulsa
Known forSeafloor topography
Scientific career
FieldsGeology, Oceanography
InstitutionsLamont–Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University
Bathymetric globe produced by Marie Tharp and Bruce Heezen
Bathymetric globe produced by Marie Tharp and Bruce Heezen
Manuscript map created by Tharp and Heezen depicting the early developments of the understanding of the ocean's bottom (1957)
Manuscript map created by Tharp and Heezen depicting the early developments of the understanding of the ocean's bottom (1957)

Marie Tharp (July 30, 1920 – August 23, 2006) was an American geologist and oceanographic cartographer. In the 1950s, she collaborated with geologist Bruce Heezen to produce the first scientific map of the Atlantic Ocean floor.[1] Her cartography revealed a more detailed topography and multi-dimensional geographical landscape of the ocean bottom.[2]

Tharp's discovery of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge caused a paradigm shift in earth science that led to acceptance of the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift.[3][4][5]

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Geologist

Geologist

A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists usually study geology, earth science, or geophysics, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology, and other sciences are also useful. Field research is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory and digitalized work. Geologists can be classified in a larger group of scientists, called geoscientists.

Oceanography

Oceanography

Oceanography, also known as oceanology and ocean science, is the scientific study of the oceans. It is an important Earth science, which covers a wide range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers utilize to glean further knowledge of the world ocean, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, climatology, geography, geology, hydrology, meteorology and physics. Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past. An oceanographer is a person who studies many matters concerned with oceans, including marine geology, physics, chemistry and biology.

Cartography

Cartography

Cartography is the study and practice of making and using maps. Combining science, aesthetics and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.

Bruce C. Heezen

Bruce C. Heezen

Bruce Charles Heezen was an American geologist. He worked with oceanographic cartographer Marie Tharp at Columbia University to map the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the 1950s.

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a mid-ocean ridge located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world. In the North Atlantic, the ridge separates the North American from the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate, north and south of the Azores Triple Junction respectively. In the South Atlantic, it separates the African and South American plates. The ridge extends from a junction with the Gakkel Ridge northeast of Greenland southward to the Bouvet Triple Junction in the South Atlantic. Although the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is mostly an underwater feature, portions of it have enough elevation to extend above sea level, for example in Iceland. The ridge has an average spreading rate of about 2.5 centimetres (1 in) per year.

Paradigm shift

Paradigm shift

A paradigm shift, a concept brought into the common lexicon by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn, is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline. Even though Kuhn restricted the use of the term to the natural sciences, the concept of a paradigm shift has also been used in numerous non-scientific contexts to describe a profound change in a fundamental model or perception of events.

Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics is the generally accepted scientific theory that considers the Earth's lithosphere to comprise a number of large tectonic plates which have been slowly moving since about 3.4 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. Plate tectonics came to be generally accepted by geoscientists after seafloor spreading was validated in the mid to late 1960s.

Continental drift

Continental drift

Continental drift is the hypothesis that the Earth's continents have moved over geologic time relative to each other, thus appearing to have "drifted" across the ocean bed. The idea of continental drift has been subsumed into the science of plate tectonics, which studies the movement of the continents as they ride on plates of the Earth's lithosphere.

Early life and education

Marie Tharp was born on July 30, 1920, in Ypsilanti, Michigan, the only child of Bertha Louise Tharp, a German and Latin teacher, and William Edgar Tharp, a soil surveyor for the United States Department of Agriculture.[6] She often accompanied her father on his field work, which gave her an early introduction to mapmaking. Despite this, she had no interest in pursuing a career in field work as during that time this was understood to be men's work.

Due to the nature of William Tharp's work, the family moved constantly until he retired in 1931. At that point Marie had attended over 17[7] public schools in Alabama, Iowa, Michigan and Indiana, which made it difficult for her to establish friendships.[6] Her mother, who died when Marie was 15,[8] was her closest female acquaintance.[6] A full school year in Florence, Alabama, was particularly influential for her. There she attended a class called Current Science, in which she learned about contemporary scientists and their research projects. In addition, she undertook school field trips on weekends to study trees and rocks.[8]

After her father's retirement, Marie Tharp moved to a farm in Bellefontaine, Ohio, where she graduated from the local high school.[2] She took some gap years between high school and college to work on her family's farm.[7] She entered the Ohio University in 1939, where she "changed her major every semester."[7]

Tharp graduated from Ohio University in 1943 with bachelor's degrees in English and music and four minors.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, many young men dropped out of schools and universities to join the armed forces.[9] During World War II, more women were recruited into professions like petroleum geology, normally restricted to men."With classrooms empty of men during the war years, Michigan—which had never allowed women into its geology program—was trying to fill seats,"[2] though less than 4% of all earth sciences doctorates at the time were obtained by women.[10] Having taken a geology class at Ohio, Tharp attended the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor's petroleum geology program, where she completed a master's degree in 1944.[11][2]

After graduating, Tharp began work as a junior geologist at the Stanolind Oil company in Tulsa, Oklahoma, but discovered that the company did not permit women to do nor attend field work. Tharp was only permitted to coordinate maps and data for male colleagues' trips.[2][9] While still working as a geologist for the Stanolind Oil company, Tharp enrolled in the faculty of mathematics at the University of Tulsa, obtaining her second BSc.[9]

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German language

German language

German is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and the Italian province of South Tyrol. It is also a co-official language of Luxembourg and Belgium, as well as a national language in Namibia. Outside Germany, it is also spoken by German communities in France (Bas-Rhin), Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary (Sopron).

Latin

Latin

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area around present-day Rome, but through the power of the Roman Republic it became the dominant language in the Italian region and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Even after the fall of Western Rome, Latin remained the common language of international communication, science, scholarship and academia in Europe until well into the 18th century, when other regional vernaculars supplanted it in common academic and political usage, and it eventually became a dead language in the modern linguistic definition.

Alabama

Alabama

Alabama is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States, bordered by Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east; Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south; and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state.

Iowa

Iowa

Iowa is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states: Wisconsin to the northeast, Illinois to the east and southeast, Missouri to the south, Nebraska to the west, South Dakota to the northwest, and Minnesota to the north.

Michigan

Michigan

Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes region of the upper Midwestern United States. With a population of nearly 10.12 million and an area of nearly 97,000 sq mi (250,000 km2), Michigan is the 10th-largest state by population, the 11th-largest by area, and the largest by area east of the Mississippi River. Its capital is Lansing, and its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's most populous and largest metropolitan economies. Its name derives from a gallicized variant of the original Ojibwe word ᒥᓯᑲᒥ, meaning "large water" or "large lake".

Indiana

Indiana

Indiana is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States. It is the 38th-largest by area and the 17th-most populous of the 50 States. Its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th state on December 11, 1816. It is bordered by Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, the Ohio River and Kentucky to the south and southeast, and the Wabash River and Illinois to the west.

Florence, Alabama

Florence, Alabama

Florence is a city in, and the county seat of, Lauderdale County, Alabama, United States, in the state's northwestern corner. It is situated along the Tennessee River and is home to the University of North Alabama, the oldest college in the state.

Bellefontaine, Ohio

Bellefontaine, Ohio

Bellefontaine is a city in and the county seat of Logan County, Ohio, United States, located 48 miles (77 km) northwest of Columbus. The population was 13,370 at the 2010 Census. It is the principal city of the Bellefontaine, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Logan County. The highest point in Ohio, Campbell Hill, is within the city limits.

English language

English language

English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the island of Great Britain. English is genealogically West Germanic, closest related to the Low Saxon and Frisian languages; however, its vocabulary is also distinctively influenced by dialects of French and Latin, plus some grammar and a small amount of core vocabulary influenced by Old Norse. Speakers of English are called Anglophones.

Music

Music

Music is generally defined as the art of arranging sound to create some combination of form, harmony, melody, rhythm or otherwise expressive content. Exact definitions of music vary considerably around the world, though it is an aspect of all human societies, a cultural universal. While scholars agree that music is defined by a few specific elements, there is no consensus on their precise definitions. The creation of music is commonly divided into musical composition, musical improvisation, and musical performance, though the topic itself extends into academic disciplines, criticism, philosophy, and psychology. Music may be performed or improvised using a vast range of instruments, including the human voice.

Attack on Pearl Harbor

Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, just before 8:00 a.m. on Sunday, December 7, 1941. The United States was a neutral country at the time; the attack led to its formal entry into World War II the next day. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, and as Operation Z during its planning.

Earth science

Earth science

Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. This is a branch of science dealing with the physical, chemical, and biological complex constitutions and synergistic linkages of Earth's four spheres, namely biosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and geosphere. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history. Earth science encompasses four main branches of study, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields.

Career

By 1948, Tharp had spent four years in Tulsa and was looking for her next career step. She moved to New York City and initially sought work at the American Museum of Natural History, but after learning how time-consuming paleontological research was, she looked for positions at Columbia University.[12] She eventually found drafting work with Maurice Ewing, the founder of the Lamont Geological Observatory (now the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory). Curiously, when interviewed for the job, Tharp did not mention she had a master's degree in geology.[13] Tharp was one of the first women to work at the Lamont Geological Observatory.

While there, she met Bruce Heezen, and in early work together they used photographic data to locate downed military aircraft from World War II.[14] Eventually she worked for Heezen exclusively, plotting the ocean floor.[12] Tharp was employed and continuously promoted from 1952 to 1968, when her position was cut and moved to grant-funded status due to lab politics involving Heezen (she remained in a grant-funded position until Heezen's death in 1977). Because of the Cold War, the U.S. government forbade seafloor maps to be published, for fear that Soviet submarines could use them.[9]

For the first 18 years of their collaboration, Heezen collected bathymetric data aboard the research ship Vema, while Tharp drew maps from that data, since women were barred from working on ships at the time. She was later able to join a 1968 data-collection expedition on the USNS Kane.[15] She independently used data collected from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's research ship Atlantis, and seismographic data from undersea earthquakes. Her work with Heezen represented the first systematic attempt to map the entire ocean floor.

As early as the mid-19th century, a submarine mountain range in the Atlantic had been roughly outlined by John Murray and Johan Hjort. Marie Tharp also discovered the rift valley on her more precise graphical representations of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which were based on new measurement data obtained with the echo sounder. It took her a year to convince Bruce Heezen of this. Later, she also mapped the other mid-ocean ridges.[16][17]

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New York City

New York City

New York, often called New York City (NYC), is the most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over 300.46 square miles (778.2 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. The city is within the southern tip of New York State, and constitutes the geographical and demographic center of both the Northeast megalopolis and the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass. With over 20.1 million people in its metropolitan statistical area and 23.5 million in its combined statistical area as of 2020, New York is one of the world's most populous megacities, and over 58 million people live within 250 mi (400 km) of the city. New York City is a global cultural, financial, and media center with a significant influence on commerce, health care and life sciences, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, dining, art, fashion, and sports. New York is the most photographed city in the world. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy, an established safe haven for global investors, and is sometimes described as the capital of the world.

American Museum of Natural History

American Museum of Natural History

The American Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum on the Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York City. In Theodore Roosevelt Park, across the street from Central Park, the museum complex comprises 26 interconnected buildings housing 45 permanent exhibition halls, in addition to a planetarium and a library. The museum collections contain over 34 million specimens of plants, animals, fossils, minerals, rocks, meteorites, human remains, and human cultural artifacts, as well as specialized collections for frozen tissue and genomic and astrophysical data, of which only a small fraction can be displayed at any given time. The museum occupies more than 2 million square feet (190,000 m2). AMNH has a full-time scientific staff of 225, sponsors over 120 special field expeditions each year, and averages about five million visits annually.

Paleontology

Paleontology

Paleontology, also spelled palaeontology or palæontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene epoch. It includes the study of fossils to classify organisms and study their interactions with each other and their environments. Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, ὄν, and λόγος.

Columbia University

Columbia University

Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. Columbia is ranked among the top universities in the world.

Maurice Ewing

Maurice Ewing

William Maurice "Doc" Ewing was an American geophysicist and oceanographer.

Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory

Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory

The Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) is the scientific research center of the Columbia Climate School, and a unit of The Earth Institute at Columbia University. It focuses on climate and earth sciences and is located on a 189-acre campus in Palisades, New York, 18 miles (29 km) north of Manhattan on the Hudson River.

Cold War

Cold War

The Cold War is a term commonly used to refer to a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc. Historians do not fully agree on its starting and ending points, but the period is generally considered to span from the announcement of the Truman Doctrine on 12 March 1947 to the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 26 December 1991. The term cold war is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in 1945. Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

Bathymetry

Bathymetry

Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of ocean floors, lake floors, or river floors. In other words, bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to hypsometry or topography. The first recorded evidence of water depth measurements are from Ancient Egypt over 3000 years ago. Bathymetric charts are typically produced to support safety of surface or sub-surface navigation, and usually show seafloor relief or terrain as contour lines and selected depths (soundings), and typically also provide surface navigational information. Bathymetric maps may also use a Digital Terrain Model and artificial illumination techniques to illustrate the depths being portrayed. The global bathymetry is sometimes combined with topography data to yield a global relief model. Paleobathymetry is the study of past underwater depths.

Earthquake

Earthquake

An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in intensity, from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt, to those violent enough to propel objects and people into the air, damage critical infrastructure, and wreak destruction across entire cities. The seismic activity of an area is the frequency, type, and size of earthquakes experienced over a particular time period. The seismicity at a particular location in the Earth is the average rate of seismic energy release per unit volume. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling.

John Murray (oceanographer)

John Murray (oceanographer)

Sir John Murray was a pioneering Canadian-born British oceanographer, marine biologist and limnologist. He is considered to be the father of modern oceanography.

Johan Hjort

Johan Hjort

Johan Hjort was a Norwegian fisheries scientist, marine zoologist, and oceanographer. He was among the most prominent and influential marine zoologists of his time.

Rift valley

Rift valley

A rift valley is a linear shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift. Rifts are formed as a result of the pulling apart of the lithosphere due to extensional tectonics. The linear depression may subsequently be further deepened by the forces of erosion. More generally the valley is likely to be filled with sedimentary deposits derived from the rift flanks and the surrounding areas. In many cases rift lakes are formed. One of the best known examples of this process is the East African Rift. On Earth, rifts can occur at all elevations, from the sea floor to plateaus and mountain ranges in continental crust or in oceanic crust. They are often associated with a number of adjoining subsidiary or co-extensive valleys, which are typically considered part of the principal rift valley geologically.

Continental drift theory

Don Blomquist and Marie Tharp at the drafting table; maps of the Mid-Atlantic ridge can be seen
Don Blomquist and Marie Tharp at the drafting table; maps of the Mid-Atlantic ridge can be seen

Before the early 1950s, scientists knew very little about the structure of the ocean floor. Though studying geology on land was cheaper and easier, the overall structure of the earth could not be understood without knowledge of the structure and evolution of the seafloor.

In 1952, Tharp painstakingly aligned sounding profiles from Atlantis, acquired during 1946–1952, and one profile from the naval ship Stewart acquired during 1921. She created a total of approximately six profiles stretching west-to-east across the North Atlantic. From these profiles, she was able to examine the bathymetry of the northern sections of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Tharp identified an aligned, v-shaped structure running continuously through the axis of the ridge and believed that it might be a rift valley[12][18] formed by the oceanic surface being pulled apart.[12] Heezen was initially unconvinced as the idea would have supported continental drift, then a controversial theory. At the time many scientists, including Heezen, believed that continental drift was impossible. Instead, for a time, he favored the Expanding Earth hypothesis,[19][20] (now infamously) dismissing her explanation as "girl talk".[21]

Heezen soon hired Howard Foster to plot the location of earthquake epicenters in the oceans for a project relating large-scale turbidity currents to undersea earthquakes. The creation of this earthquake epicenter map proved to be a useful secondary dataset for examining the bathymetry of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. When Foster's map of earthquake epicenters was overlaid with Tharp's profile of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge it became clear that the location of these earthquakes aligned with Tharp's rift valley. After putting together these two datasets, Tharp became convinced that a rift valley did in fact exist within the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.[12] It was only after seeing that the location of earthquake epicenters aligned with Tharp's rift valley that Heezen accepted her hypothesis and turned to the alternative theories of plate tectonics and continental drift.[22][23]

Painting of the Mid-Ocean Ridge by Heinrich Berann (1977) based on the scientific profiles of Marie Tharp and Bruce Heezen
Painting of the Mid-Ocean Ridge by Heinrich Berann (1977) based on the scientific profiles of Marie Tharp and Bruce Heezen
Marty Weiss, Al Ballard, and Marie Tharp conversing on the maiden voyage of the USNS Kane, c. 1968
Marty Weiss, Al Ballard, and Marie Tharp conversing on the maiden voyage of the USNS Kane, c. 1968

Tharp and Heezen published their first physiographic map of the North Atlantic in 1957.[12] Still, Tharp's name does not appear on any of the major papers on plate tectonics that Heezen and others published between 1959 and 1963. Tharp continued working with graduate student assistants to further map the extent of the central rift valley. Tharp demonstrated that the rift valley extended along with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge into the South Atlantic,[12] and found a similar valley structure in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden, suggesting the presence of a global oceanic rift zone.[24] Subsequently, in collaboration with the Austrian landscape painter Heinrich Berann, Tharp and Heezen realized their map of the entire ocean floor, which was published in 1977 by National Geographic under the title of The World Ocean Floor.[9] Although Tharp was later recognized and credited for her work on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, it was Heezen who, at the time in 1956, put out and received credit for the discovery that was made.

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Continental drift

Continental drift

Continental drift is the hypothesis that the Earth's continents have moved over geologic time relative to each other, thus appearing to have "drifted" across the ocean bed. The idea of continental drift has been subsumed into the science of plate tectonics, which studies the movement of the continents as they ride on plates of the Earth's lithosphere.

Expanding Earth

Expanding Earth

The expanding Earth or growing Earth hypothesis argues that the position and relative movement of continents is at least partially due to the volume of Earth increasing. Conversely, geophysical global cooling was the hypothesis that various features could be explained by Earth contracting.

Turbidity current

Turbidity current

A turbidity current is most typically an underwater current of usually rapidly moving, sediment-laden water moving down a slope; although current research (2018) indicates that water-saturated sediment may be the primary actor in the process. Turbidity currents can also occur in other fluids besides water.

Epicenter

Epicenter

The epicenter, epicentre or epicentrum in seismology is the point on the Earth's surface directly above a hypocenter or focus, the point where an earthquake or an underground explosion originates.

Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics is the generally accepted scientific theory that considers the Earth's lithosphere to comprise a number of large tectonic plates which have been slowly moving since about 3.4 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. Plate tectonics came to be generally accepted by geoscientists after seafloor spreading was validated in the mid to late 1960s.

Heinrich C. Berann

Heinrich C. Berann

Heinrich Caesar Berann was an Austrian painter and cartographer. He achieved world fame with his panoramic maps that combined modern cartography with classical painting. His work includes maps of Olympic Games sites, of mountainous regions published in the National Geographic Magazine, and four panorama posters of national parks published by the U.S. National Park Service.

USNS Kane (T-AGS-27)

USNS Kane (T-AGS-27)

USNS Kane (T-AGS-27) was a Silas Bent-class survey ship acquired by the United States Navy and delivered to Military Sealift Command in 1967. Kane spent her career performing oceanographic surveys. The ship was equipped with the Oceanographic Data Acquisition System (ODAS) as were oceanographic survey ships USNS Silas Bent (T-AGS-26) and USNS Wilkes (T-AGS-33).

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or ~19.8% of the water on Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use. Along its core, the Indian Ocean has some large marginal or regional seas such as the Arabian Sea, Laccadive Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Andaman Sea.

Arabian Sea

Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan, Iran and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea and the Maldives, on the southwest by Somalia, and on the east by India. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 meters (15,262 ft). The Gulf of Aden in the west connects the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and the Gulf of Oman is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf.

Red Sea

Red Sea

The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. Its connection to the ocean is in the south, through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. To its north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez. It is underlain by the Red Sea Rift, which is part of the Great Rift Valley.

Gulf of Aden

Gulf of Aden

The Gulf of Aden is a deepwater gulf between Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea to the east, Djibouti to the west, and the Guardafui Channel, Socotra and Somalia to the south. In the northwest, it connects with the Red Sea through the Bab-el-Mandeb strait, and it connects with the Arabian Sea to the east. To the west, it narrows into the Gulf of Tadjoura in Djibouti.

National Geographic

National Geographic

National Geographic is a popular American monthly magazine published by the National Geographic Society. Known for its photojournalism, it is one of the most widely read magazines of all time.

Retirement and death

After Heezen's death, Tharp continued to serve on the faculty of Columbia University until 1983, after which she operated a map-distribution business in South Nyack during her retirement.[25] Tharp donated her map collection and notes to the Map and Geography Division of the Library of Congress in 1995.[26] In 1997, Tharp received double honors from the Library of Congress, which named her one of the four greatest cartographers of the 20th century and included her work in an exhibit in the 100th-anniversary celebration of its Geography and Map Division.[27] In 2001, Tharp was awarded the first annual Lamont–Doherty Heritage Award at her home institution for her life's work as a pioneer of oceanography.[3] Tharp died of cancer in Nyack, New York, on August 23, 2006, at the age of 86.[28]

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South Nyack, New York

South Nyack, New York

South Nyack is a hamlet and census-designated place in the town of Orangetown in Rockland County, New York, United States. It is located north of Grand View-on-Hudson, northeast of Orangeburg, east of Blauvelt State Park, south of Nyack and west of the Hudson River. The hamlet is the western terminus of the Tappan Zee Bridge. Its population was 3,510 at the 2010 census. The hamlet was formerly incorporated as a village from 1878 until 2022.

Library of Congress

Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the country. The library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains a conservation center in Culpeper, Virginia. The library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, and its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol. The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 470 languages."

Cancer

Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.

Nyack, New York

Nyack, New York

Nyack is a village located primarily in the town of Orangetown in Rockland County, New York, United States. Incorporated in 1872, it retains a very small western section in Clarkstown. It is a suburb of New York City lying approximately 15 miles (24 km) north of the Manhattan boundary near the west bank of the Hudson River, situated north of South Nyack, east of Central Nyack, south of Upper Nyack, and southeast of Valley Cottage.

Personal life

In 1948, she married David Flanagan and moved with him to New York. They divorced in 1952.[29]

Awards and honors

Like many scientists, Marie Tharp was recognized mainly later in life. Her awards include:

Discover more about Awards and honors related topics

Legacy

Tharp was recognized in 1997 by the Library of Congress as one of the four greatest cartographers of the 20th century.[31] The position of Marie Tharp Lamont Research Professor was created in her honor.[32]

Marie Tharp Fellowship

Created by Lamont in 2004, the Marie Tharp Fellowship is a competitive academic visiting fellowship awarded to women to work with researchers at the Earth Institute of Columbia University.[33][34] Women who are accepted are given the opportunity to work with faculty, research staff, postdoctoral researchers and graduate students and in the duration of 3 months, they are awarded up to $30,000 as financial aid.[35][25]

Posthumous recognition

Google Earth included the Marie Tharp Historical Map layer in 2009, allowing people to view Tharp's ocean map using the Google Earth interface.[36] She is the subject of the 2013 biography by Hali Felt entitled Soundings: The Story of the Remarkable Woman Who Mapped the Ocean Floor, which was cited by the New York Times for its standing as an "eloquent testament both to Tharp's importance and to Felt's powers of imagination."[37]

She was animated in "The Lost Worlds of Planet Earth", the ninth episode of Neil deGrasse Tyson’s Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, and voiced by actress Amanda Seyfried. The episode depicts her discovery of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and subsequently later in the episode deGrasse Tyson recognized Tharp not only as an influential scientist who happens to be a woman but also as one who should be recognized as a scientist who overcame sexism to contribute to her field.[38] Her life story is told in three children's books, Solving the Puzzle Under the Sea: Marie Tharp Maps the Ocean Floor, by Robert Burleigh and illustrated by Raúl Colón, Ocean Speaks: How Marie Tharp Revealed the Ocean's Biggest Secret by Jess Keatting and illustrated by Katie Hickey and in 2020 MacMillan published Marie's Ocean: Marie Tharp Maps the Mountains under the Sea written and illustrated by Josie James. This picture book of Tharp's life was honored as a National Science Teaching Association Best STEM Book of 2021 and a National Council for the Social Studies 2021 Notable Social Studies Trade Book for Young Readers.

In 2015 the International Astronomical Union named the Tharp Moon crater in her honor.

In 2022 the non-profit Ocean Research Project named their 72ft research schooner after her.[39]

On November 21, 2022, Google honored Tharp by releasing a Google Doodle which included narration, mini games, and animations, telling the story of Tharp's discovery of continental drift and provided historical context for her work.[40]

Discover more about Legacy related topics

Library of Congress

Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the country. The library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains a conservation center in Culpeper, Virginia. The library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, and its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol. The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 470 languages."

Columbia University

Columbia University

Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. Columbia is ranked among the top universities in the world.

Google Earth

Google Earth

Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D representation of Earth based primarily on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by superimposing satellite images, aerial photography, and GIS data onto a 3D globe, allowing users to see cities and landscapes from various angles. Users can explore the globe by entering addresses and coordinates, or by using a keyboard or mouse. The program can also be downloaded on a smartphone or tablet, using a touch screen or stylus to navigate. Users may use the program to add their own data using Keyhole Markup Language and upload them through various sources, such as forums or blogs. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is also a Web Map Service client. In 2019, Google has revealed that Google Earth now covers more than 97 percent of the world, and has captured 10 million miles of Street View imagery.

The Lost Worlds of Planet Earth

The Lost Worlds of Planet Earth

"The Lost Worlds of Planet Earth" is the ninth episode of the American documentary television series Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey. It premiered on May 4, 2014 on Fox, and aired on May 5, 2014 on National Geographic Channel. The episode was directed by Brannon Braga, written by Ann Druyan and Steven Soter, and featured the voice of Amanda Seyfried as geologist Marie Tharp. The episode explores the history of the Earth starting with the period of the Late Heavy Bombardment, approximately "3.8 to 4.1 Billion years ago during which the Moon, Mercury, Venus, and the Earth were battered by space debris." Host Neil deGrasse Tyson then delves into the biography of the Earth, expressed "in its continents, oceans and life living on and in them, saying 'the past is another planet,'" alluding to how plate tectonics have shaped the Earth over millions of years.

Neil deGrasse Tyson

Neil deGrasse Tyson

Neil deGrasse Tyson is an American astrophysicist, author, and science communicator. Tyson studied at Harvard University, the University of Texas at Austin, and Columbia University. From 1991 to 1994, he was a postdoctoral research associate at Princeton University. In 1994, he joined the Hayden Planetarium as a staff scientist and the Princeton faculty as a visiting research scientist and lecturer. In 1996, he became director of the planetarium and oversaw its $210 million reconstruction project, which was completed in 2000. Since 1996, he has been the director of the Hayden Planetarium at the Rose Center for Earth and Space in New York City. The center is part of the American Museum of Natural History, where Tyson founded the Department of Astrophysics in 1997 and has been a research associate in the department since 2003.

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey is a 2014 American science documentary television series. The show is a follow-up to the 1980 television series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, which was presented by Carl Sagan on the Public Broadcasting Service and is considered a milestone for scientific documentaries. This series was developed to bring back the foundation of science to network television at the height of other scientific-based television series and films. The show is presented by astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson, who, as a young high school student, was inspired by Sagan. Among the executive producers are Seth MacFarlane, whose financial investment was instrumental in bringing the show to broadcast television, and Ann Druyan, a co-author and co-creator of the original television series and Sagan's wife. The show is produced by Brannon Braga, and Alan Silvestri composed the backing score.

Amanda Seyfried

Amanda Seyfried

Amanda Michelle Seyfried is an American actress. Born and raised in Allentown, Pennsylvania, she began modeling at age 11 and ventured into acting at 15, with recurring roles as Lucy Montgomery on the CBS soap opera As the World Turns (1999–2001) and Joni Stafford on the ABC soap opera All My Children (2003). She came to prominence for her feature film debut in the teen comedy Mean Girls (2004), and her recurring roles as Lilly Kane on the CW/Hulu television series Veronica Mars (2004–2006) and Sarah Henrickson on the HBO drama series Big Love (2006–2011).

National Science Teaching Association

National Science Teaching Association

The National Science Teaching Association (NSTA), founded in 1944 and headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, is an association of science teachers in the United States and is the largest organization of science teachers worldwide. NSTA's current membership of roughly 40,000 includes science teachers, science supervisors, administrators, scientists, business and industry representatives, and others involved in and committed to science education.

National Council for the Social Studies

National Council for the Social Studies

The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) is a U.S.-based association devoted to supporting social studies education. It is affiliated with various regional or state level social studies associations, including: the Middle States Council for the Social Studies, the Washington State Council for the Social Studies, the New York City UFT Association for the Teaching of Social Studies, the Michigan Council for the Social Studies, Massachusetts Council for the Social Studies, and Virginia Council for the Social Studies. They publish several journals; their flagship publication being a peer-reviewed journal titled Social Education which, according to their website, aims to strike "a balance of theoretical content and practical teaching ideas." They sponsor the high school honor society Rho Kappa.

International Astronomical Union

International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union is a nongovernmental organisation with the objective of advancing astronomy in all aspects, including promoting astronomical research, outreach, education, and development through global cooperation. It was founded in 1919 and is based in Paris, France.

Tharp (crater)

Tharp (crater)

Tharp is a crater on the Moon. Its name was adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2015 after Marie Tharp, a geologist and oceanographer who created the first comprehensive map of the Earth's ocean floor.

Google Doodle

Google Doodle

A Google Doodle is a special, temporary alteration of the logo on Google's homepages intended to commemorate holidays, events, achievements, and notable historical figures. The first Google Doodle honored the 1998 edition of the long-running annual Burning Man event in Black Rock City, Nevada, and was designed by co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin to notify users of their absence in case the servers crashed. Early Marketing employee Susan Wojcicki then spearheaded subsequent Doodles, including an alien landing on Google and additional custom logos for major holidays. Google Doodles were designed by an outside contractor until 2000, when Page and Brin asked public relations officer Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day. Since then, a team of employees called "Doodlers" have organized and published the Doodles.

Selected publications

  • Tharp, Marie; Heezen, Bruce C.; Ewing, Maurice (1959). The floors of the oceans: I. The North Atlantic. Vol. 65. Geological Society of America. doi:10.1130/SPE65-p1.
  • Heezen, B C; Bunce, Elizabeth T; Hersey, J B; Tharp, Marie (1964). "Chain and Romanche fracture zones". Deep-Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts. 11 (1): 11–33. Bibcode:1964DSRA...11...11H. doi:10.1016/0011-7471(64)91079-4.
  • Heezen, B C; Tharp, Marie (1965). "Tectonic fabric of the atlantic and indian oceans and continental drift". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A. 258 (1088): 90–106. Bibcode:1965RSPTA.258...90H. doi:10.1098/rsta.1965.0024. S2CID 121476006.
  • Tharp, Marie; Friedman, Gerald M (2002). "Mapping the world ocean floor". Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences. 24 (2): 142–149..

Source: "Marie Tharp", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 29th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Tharp.

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References
  1. ^ O'Connell, Suzanne (August 8, 2020). "Marie Tharp's maps revolutionized our knowledge of the seafloor". The Washington Post.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Marie Tharp | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory Bestows Heritage Award on Marie Tharp, Pioneer of Modern Oceanography, Published Jul 10, 2001, Retrieved Oct 12, 2014
  4. ^ Erin Blakemore: Seeing Is Believing: How Marie Tharp Changed Geology Forever. In: Smithsonian Magazine, 30. August 2016.
  5. ^ Earth Institute: Marie Tharp’s Adventures in Mapping the Seafloor, In Her Own Words. Columbia Climate School, 24. Juli 2020.
  6. ^ a b c Higgs, Bettie Matheson (July 13, 2020). "Understanding the Earth: the contribution of Marie Tharp". Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 506: SP506–2019–248. doi:10.1144/SP506-2019-248. hdl:10468/11315. ISSN 0305-8719. S2CID 225540884.
  7. ^ a b c "Marie Tharp – Ages of Exploration". Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  8. ^ a b Felt, Hali (June 2017). "Marie Tharp – Plate Tectonics Pioneer" (PDF). Geological Society of America.
  9. ^ a b c d e Yount, L. (2006). Modern Marine Science: Exploring the Deep. Facts On File, Incorporated. ISBN 9781604130669.
  10. ^ Blakemore, Erin (August 30, 2016). "Seeing Is Believing: How Marie Tharp Changed Geology Forever". Smithsonian.
  11. ^ Barton, Cathy (2002). "Marie Tharp, oceanographic cartographer, and her contributions to the revolution in the Earth sciences". Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 192 (1): 215–228. Bibcode:2002GSLSP.192..215B. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1032.1530. doi:10.1144/gsl.sp.2002.192.01.11. S2CID 131340403.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Tharp, Marie (December 12, 2006). "Marie Tharp biography". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Archived from the original on January 8, 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  13. ^ A Student's Guide to Earth Science, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2004. ISBN 031332901X.
  14. ^ Evans, R. (November 2002). "Plumbing Depths to Reach New Heights". Library of Congress. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  15. ^ Woodward, William (2017). "New Collection of USNS Kane Maiden Scientific Voyage Photographs". AIP History Newsletter. 49 (1): 8–9 – via https://repository.aip.org. {{cite journal}}: External link in |via= (help)
  16. ^ Betsy Mason: Marie Tharp's groundbreaking maps brought the seafloor to the world. In: [Science News], 13 January 2021.
  17. ^ Sabine Höhler: A Sound Survey: The Technological Perception of Ocean Depth, 1850–1930. In: Transforming Spaces. The Topological Turn in Technology Studies.
  18. ^ North, Gary W. (January 1, 2010). "Marie Tharp: The lady who showed us the ocean floors". Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. 35 (15–18): 881–886. Bibcode:2010PCE....35..881N. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2010.05.007. ISSN 1474-7065.
  19. ^ Barton, C. (2002). "Marie Tharp, oceanographic cartographer, and her contributions to the revolution in the Earth sciences". Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 192 (1): 215–228. Bibcode:2002GSLSP.192..215B. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1032.1530. doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2002.192.01.11. S2CID 131340403.
  20. ^ Doel, R.E.; Levin, T.J.; Marker, M.K. (2006). "Extending modern cartography to the ocean depths: military patronage, Cold War priorities, and the Heezen-Tharp mapping project, 1952–1959". Journal of Historical Geography. 32 (3): 605–626. doi:10.1016/j.jhg.2005.10.011.
  21. ^ Tharp, Marie (1999). "Chapter 2: Connect the Dots: Mapping the Seafloor and Discovering the Mid-ocean Ridge". In Lippsett, Laurence (ed.). Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia, Twelve Perspectives on the First Fifty Years 1949–1999. Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY. OCLC 43636190.
  22. ^ Felt, Hali (2017). "ROCK STARS: Marie Tharp – Plate Tectonics Pioneer". GSA Today. 27: 32–33.
  23. ^ Wills, Matthew (October 8, 2016). "The Mother of Ocean Floor Cartography". JSTOR. Retrieved October 14, 2016. While working with the North Atlantic data, she noted what must have been a rift between high undersea mountains. This suggested earthquake activity, which then [was] only associated with [the] fringe theory of continental drift. Heezen infamously dismissed his assistant's idea as "girl talk." But she was right, and her thinking helped to vindicate Alfred Wegener's 1912 theory of moving continents. Yet Tharp's name isn't on any of the key papers that Heezen and others published about plate tectonics between 1959–1963, which brought this once-controversial idea to the mainstream of earth sciences.
  24. ^ Lawrence, David M. (2002). Upheaval from the abyss : ocean floor mapping and the Earth science revolution. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0813530284. OCLC 605755403.
  25. ^ a b "Marie Tharp | Earth 520: Plate Tectonics and People: Foundations of Solid Earth Science". www.e-education.psu.edu.
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  27. ^ Jarvis, Brooke (December 9, 2014). "How One Woman's Discovery Shook the Foundations of Geology". mentalfloss.com.
  28. ^ Fox, Margalit (August 26, 2006). "Marie Tharp, Oceanographic Cartographer, Dies at 86". New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
  29. ^ Felt, Hali (2012). Soundings: The Story of the Remarkable Woman Who Mapped The Ocean Floor. Henry Holt.
  30. ^ "Marie Tharp". Physics Today. July 30, 2018. doi:10.1063/PT.6.6.20180730a. S2CID 240374077.
  31. ^ "Join Us in Celebrating #MarieTharp100". State of the Planet. July 23, 2020. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  32. ^ Aronsohn, Marie Denoia (July 27, 2020). "Lamont's Marie Tharp: She Drew the Maps That Shook the World". State of the Planet. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  33. ^ "Marie Tharp Fellowship Information" (PDF). earth.columbia.edu. Columbia University. January 23, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 20, 2012.
  34. ^ "The Marie Tharp Fellowship". earth.columbia.edu. The Earth Institute, Columbia University. Archived from the original on July 8, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  35. ^ "Applications Now Being Accepted for Marie Tharp Visiting Fellowship". The Earth Institute Columbia University. January 20, 2010. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  36. ^ "Google Earth drops into the oceans". Guardian News. February 2, 2009. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  37. ^ Washburn, Michael (January 25, 2013). "Floating Ideas: Soundings, About Marie Tharp, by Hali Felt". New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  38. ^ Algar, Jim (May 7, 2014). "Cosmos Episode 9 'The Lost Worlds of Planet Earth': Amanda Seyfried walks us through Earth's early past". Tech Times. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  39. ^ "The RV Marie Tharp: Ocean Research Project's steel polar expedition schooner". Ocean Research Project. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  40. ^ "Celebrating Marie Tharp". www.google.com. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
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