Get Our Extension

Maria Martinez

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Maria Montoya Martinez
Po've'ka
Maria Martinez, San Ildefonso pottery maker.jpg
Martinez c. 1925
Born
Maria Poveka Montoya

1887 (1887)
Died1980 (1981) (aged 92-93)
San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico
NationalityAmerican
Known forPottery, Ceramics
MovementSan Ildefonso School
SpouseJulian Martinez

Maria Montoya Martinez (1887 – July 20, 1980) was a Native American artist who created internationally known pottery.[1][2] Martinez (born Maria Poveka Montoya), her husband Julian, and other family members, including her son Popovi Da, examined traditional Pueblo pottery styles and techniques to create pieces which reflect the Pueblo people's legacy of fine artwork and crafts. The works of Maria Martinez, and especially her black ware pottery, survive in many museums, including the Smithsonian, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Denver Art Museum, and more. The Penn Museum in Philadelphia holds eight vessels – three plates and five jars – signed either "Marie" or "Marie & Julian".[3]

Maria Martinez was from the San Ildefonso Pueblo, a community located 20 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico. At an early age, she learned pottery skills from her aunt[4] and recalls this "learning by seeing" starting at age eleven, as she watched her aunt, grandmother, and father's cousin work on their pottery during the 1890s.[5] During this time, Spanish tinware and Anglo enamelware had become readily available in the Southwest, making the creation of traditional cooking and serving pots less necessary.[6] Traditional pottery making techniques were being lost, but Martinez and her family experimented with different techniques and helped preserve the cultural art.[1]: 62–63 

Discover more about Maria Martinez related topics

Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, First Americans, Indigenous Americans, and other terms, are the Indigenous peoples of the mainland United States. There are 574 federally recognized tribes living within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. As defined by the United States Census, "Native Americans" are Indigenous tribes that are originally from the contiguous United States, along with Alaska Natives. Indigenous peoples of the United States who are not listed as American Indian or Alaska Native include Native Hawaiians, Samoan Americans, and Chamorros. The US Census groups these peoples as "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders".

Julian Martinez

Julian Martinez

Julián Martínez, also known as Pocano (1879–1943), was a San Ildefonso Pueblo potter, painter, and the patriarch of a family of Native American ceramic artists in the United States.

Popovi Da

Popovi Da

Popovi Da (1923–1971) was a San Ildefonso Pueblo Native American potter. He was also known as Tony Martinez. As an artist he worked as a collaborative team with his mother, the noted Tewa potter, Maria Martínez, and also independently on his own works. He served six terms as Governor of San Ildefonso Pueblo beginning in 1952.

Metropolitan Museum of Art

Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the [[Americas] and the most-visited museum in the United States. Its permanent collection contains over two million works, divided among 17 curatorial departments. The main building at 1000 Fifth Avenue, along the Museum Mile on the eastern edge of Central Park on Manhattan's Upper East Side, is by area one of the world's largest art museums. The first portion of the approximately 2-million-square-foot (190,000 m2) building was built in 1880. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art, architecture, and artifacts from medieval Europe.

Denver Art Museum

Denver Art Museum

The Denver Art Museum (DAM) is an art museum located in the Civic Center of Denver, Colorado. With encyclopedic collections of more than 70,000 diverse works from across the centuries and world, the DAM is one of the largest art museums between the West Coast and Chicago. It is known for its collection of American Indian art, as well as The Petrie Institute of Western American Art, which oversees the museum's Western art collection. and its other collections of more than 70,000 diverse works from across the centuries and world. The museum's iconic Martin Building was designed by famed Italian architect Gio Ponti in 1971.

University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology—commonly known as the Penn Museum—is an archaeology and anthropology museum at the University of Pennsylvania. It is located on Penn's campus in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, at the intersection of 33rd and South Streets. Housing over 1.3 million artifacts, the museum features one of the most comprehensive collections of middle and near-eastern art in the world.

Santa Fe, New Mexico

Santa Fe, New Mexico

Santa Fe is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. The name “Santa Fe” means 'Holy Faith' in Spanish, and the city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís.

Spain

Spain

Spain, or the Kingdom of Spain, is a country primarily located in southwestern Europe with parts of territory in the Atlantic Ocean and across the Mediterranean Sea. The largest part of Spain is situated on the Iberian Peninsula; its territory also includes the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla in Africa. The country's mainland is bordered to the south by Gibraltar; to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea; to the north by France, Andorra and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the second-largest country in the European Union (EU) and, with a population exceeding 47.4 million, the fourth-most populous EU member state. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Zaragoza, Málaga, Murcia, Palma de Mallorca, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Bilbao.

Tinware

Tinware

Tinware is any item made of prefabricated tinplate. Usually tinware refers to kitchenware made of tinplate, often crafted by tinsmiths. Many cans used for canned food are tinware as well. Something that is tinned after being shaped and fabricated is not considered tinware.

Anglo

Anglo

Anglo is a prefix indicating a relation to, or descent from, the Angles, England, English culture, the English people or the English language, such as in the term Anglosphere. It is often used alone, somewhat loosely, to refer to people of British descent in Anglo-America, the Anglophone Caribbean, South Africa, Namibia, Australia, and New Zealand. It is used in Canada to differentiate between the French speakers (Francophone) of mainly Quebec and some parts of New Brunswick, and the English speakers (Anglophone) in the rest of Canada. It is also used in the United States to distinguish the Latino population from the non-Latino white majority.

Early life

Born to in San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico to Tomas and Reyes Pena Montoya, Maria had four sisters: Maximiliana (Ana), Juanita, Desideria, and Clara. Maria was the middle child. Her aunt, Nicolasa, taught her clay work. Maria and all four of her sisters made pottery, and some examples of her sisters' pottery can be seen in exhibits. She told people that she saw an alien on a mountain at eight.[1] Her given name Po've'ka in the Tewa language means pond lily or water lily.[7]: 17 

History

A pot by Maria Martinez, approximately 1945, at the de Young Museum in San Francisco
A pot by Maria Martinez, approximately 1945, at the de Young Museum in San Francisco

During an excavation in 1908 led by Edgar Lee Hewett, a professor of archaeology and the founder and director of the Museum of New Mexico in Santa Fe, examples of black-on-white biscuit ware pottery were discovered. While searching through the sandy dirt and red clay of the New Mexico desert terrain, broken pieces of biscuit ware were uncovered.

It is a common misconception that, "during the end of the 18th century, the use of plant pigments and finely powdered mineral substances became the preferred technique of painting and slowly caused the extinction of glazed pottery".[8]: 8  In reality, the nearby inhabitants of Santa Clara Pueblo, had produced the highly burnished black pottery, since the 1600s.[9]

Hewett sought a skilled pueblo potter who could re-create biscuit ware. His intention was to place re-created pots in museums and thus preserve the ancient art form. Maria Martinez was known in the Tewa pueblo of San Ildefonso, New Mexico for making the thinnest pots in the least time; therefore, Hewett saw her as the perfect Pueblo potter to bring his idea to life.[10]: 90  This work was distinct from, but invariably confused with (in the popular narrative) the matte black on polished blackware that Maria and her husband experimented with and perfected on their own and for which there was no prior precedent,[11] contrary to popular myth.[12]

Discover more about History related topics

De Young Museum

De Young Museum

The de Young Museum, formally the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, is a fine arts museum located in San Francisco, California. Located in Golden Gate Park, it is a component of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, along with the Legion of Honor. The de Young is named for early San Francisco newspaperman M. H. de Young.

San Francisco

San Francisco

San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Northern California. The city proper is the fourth most populous in California, with 815,201 residents as of 2021, and covers a land area of 46.9 square miles, at the end of the San Francisco Peninsula, making it the second most densely populated large U.S. city after New York City and the fifth most densely populated U.S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. Among the 91 U.S. cities proper with over 250,000 residents, San Francisco was ranked first by per capita income and sixth by aggregate income as of 2021. Colloquial nicknames for San Francisco include SF, San Fran, The City, Frisco, and Baghdad by the Bay.

Edgar Lee Hewett

Edgar Lee Hewett

Edgar Lee Hewett was an American archaeologist and anthropologist whose focus was the Native American communities of New Mexico and the southwestern United States. He is best known for his role in gaining passage of the Antiquities Act, a pioneering piece of legislation for the conservation movement; as the founder and first director of the Museum of New Mexico; and as the first president of the New Mexico Normal School, now New Mexico Highlands University.

Museum of New Mexico

Museum of New Mexico

The Museum of New Mexico is a collection of museums, historic sites, and archaeological services governed by the State of New Mexico. It currently consists of six divisions : the Palace of the Governors state history museum, the New Mexico Museum of Art, the Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, the Museum of International Folk Art, the archaeology division, and the state historic sites. Each division within the Museum of New Mexico adheres to policies decided by the Museum of New Mexico Board of Regents, a group of New Mexico residents appointed by the governor with consent of the Senate.

Biscuit (pottery)

Biscuit (pottery)

Biscuit refers to any pottery that has been fired in a kiln without a ceramic glaze. This can be a final product such as biscuit porcelain or unglazed earthenware or, most commonly, an intermediate stage in a glazed final product.

Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico

Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico

Santa Clara Pueblo ″Singing Water Village″, also known as ″Village of Wild Roses″ is a census-designated place (CDP) in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, United States and a federally recognized tribe of Native American Pueblo people.

Burnishing (pottery)

Burnishing (pottery)

Burnishing is a form of pottery treatment in which the surface of the pot is polished, using a hard smooth surface such as a wooden or bone spatula, smooth stones, plastic, or even glass bulbs, while it still is in a leathery 'green' state, i.e., before firing. After firing, the surface is extremely shiny.

Challenges and experiments

Polychrome Avanyu plate by Maria and Popovi Da, 1969
Polychrome Avanyu plate by Maria and Popovi Da, 1969

A long process of experimentation and overcoming challenges was required to successfully recreate the black-on-black pottery style to meet Maria’s exacting standards. "As almost all clay found in the hills is not jet black, one specific challenge was to figure out a way to make the clay turn the desired color. Maria discovered, from observing the Tafoya family of Santa Clara Pueblo, who still practiced traditional pottery techniques, that smothering the fire surrounding the pottery during the outdoor firing process caused the smoke to be trapped and is deposited into the clay, creating various shades of black to gunmetal color."[13] She experimented with the idea that an "unfired polished red vessel which was painted with a red slip on top of the polish and then fired in a smudging fire at a relatively cool temperature would result in a deep glossy black background with dull black decoration."[8]: 36  Shards and sheep and horse manure placed around the outside and inside of the outdoor kiva-style adobe oven would give the pot a slicker matte finished appearance.[14]: 20  After much trial and error, Maria successfully produced a black ware pot. The first pots for a museum were fired around 1913. These pots were undecorated, unsigned, and of a generally rough quality.[13] The earliest record of this pottery was in a July 1920 exhibition held at the New Mexico Museum of Art.[7]: 33 

Embarrassed that she could not create high quality black pots in the style of the ancient Pueblo peoples, Martinez hid her pots away from the world.[10]: 90  A few years later, Hewett and his guests visited the little Tewa Pueblo. These guests asked to purchase black ware pottery, similar to Martinez's pots housed in a museum. She was greatly encouraged by this interest and resolutely began trying to perfect the art of black ware pottery. Her skill advanced with each pot, and her art began to cause quite a stir among collectors and developed into a business for the black ware pottery. In addition, Martinez began experimenting with various techniques to produce other shapes and colorful forms of pottery.[9][15]

Discover more about Challenges and experiments related topics

Popovi Da

Popovi Da

Popovi Da (1923–1971) was a San Ildefonso Pueblo Native American potter. He was also known as Tony Martinez. As an artist he worked as a collaborative team with his mother, the noted Tewa potter, Maria Martínez, and also independently on his own works. He served six terms as Governor of San Ildefonso Pueblo beginning in 1952.

Kiva

Kiva

A kiva is a space used by Puebloans for rites and political meetings, many of them associated with the kachina belief system. Among the modern Hopi and most other Pueblo peoples, "kiva" means a large room that is circular and underground, and used for spiritual ceremonies.

Adobe

Adobe

Adobe is a building material made from earth and organic materials. Adobe is Spanish for mudbrick. In some English-speaking regions of Spanish heritage, such as the Southwestern United States, the term is used to refer to any kind of earthen construction, or various architectural styles like Pueblo Revival or Territorial Revival. Most adobe buildings are similar in appearance to cob and rammed earth buildings. Adobe is among the earliest building materials, and is used throughout the world.

New Mexico Museum of Art

New Mexico Museum of Art

The New Mexico Museum of Art is an art museum in Santa Fe governed by the state of New Mexico. It is one of four state-run museums in Santa Fe that are part of the Museum of New Mexico. It is located at 107 West Palace Avenue, one block off the historic Santa Fe Plaza. It was given its current name in 2007, having previously been referred to as The Museum of Fine Arts.

Description of black ware pottery

Maria and Julian Martinez matte-on-glossy blackware wedding vase, ca. 1929, collection of the Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art
Maria and Julian Martinez matte-on-glossy blackware wedding vase, ca. 1929, collection of the Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art

An olla jar has a slightly flattened rim and a marked angle at the shoulder. The one created by Maria and Julian Martinez is characteristic of this type, which is "decorated on the rims only, i.e. above the angle of the shoulder."[16] Light is reflected off of the shiny, smooth surface. The jet black ceramic product's finish appears unblemished in any way. A band of a lighter black decoration stands out against a solid black matte background. This type of pot “depends for decorative effect on the manipulation of surface finish alone” to appear as though the decorations are scratched into the pot's surface.[16] The band wraps directly below the narrow neck of the pot. A wide-eyed avanyu, or horned serpent, encircles the pot and slithers inside the band. The serpent's tongue almost touches the tip of his tail. The snake's body movements seem alive; a tribute to the appreciation the Pueblo peoples have for nature and life. The decorations on the pot give the pot a personality and unique individualized look.

Process

Creating black ware pottery is a long process that consists of many steps requiring patience and skill. Six distinct processes occur before the pot is finished. According to Susan Peterson in The Living Tradition of Maria Martinez, these steps include, “finding and collecting the clay, forming a pot, scraping and sanding the pot to remove surface irregularities, applying the iron-bearing slip and burnishing it to a high sheen with a smooth stone, decorating the pot with another slip, and firing the pot."[10]: 164 

The first step is to gather the clay, which is done once a year, usually in October when it is dry. The clay is then stored in an adobe structure where the temperature remains constant.[10]: 164  The next step is to begin molding the clay to form a pot; the right amount of clay is brought into the house from the storage structure. The clay is placed on a table covered with a cloth. A fist-sized hole is made in the clay and equal amounts of gray-pink and blue sand is placed in the depression. A smaller hole is made in the blue sand and water is poured into the hole. The substances are then kneaded together. The mixture is then wrapped in the cloth, washed, and covered with a towel to prevent moisture from escaping. The clay is allowed to a day or two to dry slightly and stabilize. The pukis or "supporting mold, a dry or fired clay shape where a round bottom of a new piece may be formed" allows the potter to build the base of the pot into a pancake-like form.[10]: 167  After squeezing the clay together with one's fingers, a 1" high wall is pinched up from the pancake-like base. A gourd rib is used in criss-cross motions to smooth out the wall, making it thick and even. Long coils of clay are laid on the top of the clay wall. These are then smoothed out with the gourd, allowing the potter to increase the height of the pot. Any air holes are patched with clay and sealed with the gourd rib.[10]: 167 

After drying, the pot is scraped, sanded, and polished with stones. This is the most time consuming part of the process. A small round stone is applied to the side of the pot in consistent, horizontal, rhythmic motions. The pot is burnished by rubbing the stone parallel with the side of the pot to produce a shiny, evenly-polished surface.[10]: 173  The pot is then ready to fire after a secondary slip is applied. The slip is painted onto the burnished surface in various traditional designs.[13]

Firing

María and Julián Martinez pit firing blackware pottery at  P'ohwhóge Owingeh (San Ildefonso Pueblo), New Mexico (c.1920)
María and Julián Martinez pit firing blackware pottery at P'ohwhóge Owingeh (San Ildefonso Pueblo), New Mexico (c.1920)

Maria Martinez used a firing technique called "reduction firing". A reducing atmosphere occurs when the air surrounding the pots does not contain enough oxygen to feed the flames. This causes a chemical reaction that darkens the clay body.[17] The firing process would take many hours in addition to the weeks of preparation beforehand. She often was assisted by her husband or children. The firing occurred early in the morning on a clear, calm day when wind would not hinder the process.

First, the pots were placed in the firing pit, and carefully covered with broken pieces of pottery and aluminum sheets or scrap metal. In order to allow ventilation to keep the fire burning, small spaces were left uncovered. The pit-kiln assembly was then surrounded with cow chips - very dry cow dung - as fuel. The chips were placed carefully in order to leave the vents free. The goal was to prevent any flame from actually touching the pots, hence the protective metal sheets. After covering the kiln with more cow chips, they lit the kindling on all sides to ensure an even distribution of heat. They continued to feed the fire with dry cedar wood until it reached the desired temperature of around 1,200 to 1,400 degrees Fahrenheit, depending on the desired look they intended for the batch of pots. If the fire continued to burn, the pottery would achieve a red-brown color. But in order to make the blackware pottery that Maria was famous for, the fire was smothered with dry, powdered horse dung. By doing this, the amount of oxygen within the kiln was greatly reduced, therefore creating a reduction atmosphere that caused the color of the pots to turn black. After several hours, Martinez shifted the horse dung to extinguish the fire and bury the pots so they could cool slowly. After the pit kiln was cool enough to unload, they carefully removed the pots using a stick if the pots were still hot, or by hand if the pots were cool enough to touch.[18]

Decorations

Julian Martinez, Maria's husband, began decorating Maria's pots after many trials and errors. "To create his designs, a slurry of clay and water known as slip is created and applied to the already burnished, but yet unfired surface. You cannot polish a design into a matte background, as the stone is not as precise as a brush is."[13] He discovered that painting designs with a guaco juice and clay mixture provided a matte-on-shiny decorative effect. The process involved polishing the background, then matte-painting the designs before firing.

In 1918, Julian finished the first of Maria's blackware pots with a matte background and a polished Avanyu design.[10]: 91  Many of Julian's decorations were patterns adopted from ancient vessels of the Pueblos. These patterns included birds, road runner tracks, rain, feathers, clouds, mountains, and zigzags or kiva steps.

Signatures

Maria used variations of her signature on her pots throughout her lifetime. These signatures help date the pieces of art. Maria and Julian's oldest works were all unsigned. The two had no idea that their art would become popular and did not feel it was necessary to claim authorship of their work. The unsigned pieces were most likely made between the years of 1918 and 1923. Once Maria gained success with her pottery she began signing her work as "Marie." She thought that the name "Marie" was more popular among the non-Indian public than the name "Maria" and would influence the purchasers more.[19] The pieces signed as "Marie" were made between 1923 and 1925.[1]: 64  Even though Julian decorated the pots, only Maria claimed the work since pottery was still considered a woman's job in the Pueblo.[14]: 4  Maria left Julian's signature off the pieces to respect the Pueblo culture until 1925. After that, “Marie + Julian” remained the official signature on all of the pottery until Julian's death in 1943. Maria's family began helping with the pottery business after Julian's death. From 1943 to 1954 Maria's son, Adam, and his wife Santana, collected clay, coiled, polished, decorated, and fired pottery with Maria. Adam took over his father's job of collecting clay and painting the decorations. “Marie + Santana” became the new signature on the pots. For about thirty years Maria signed her name as “Marie.” Once her son, Popovi Da, began working alongside his mother, Maria began referring to herself as “Maria” on the pottery. They began co-signing their pieces around 1956 as “Maria+Poveka” and “Maria/Popovi."[20]

She won many awards and presented her pottery at several world fairs and received the initial grant for the National Endowment for the Arts to fund a Martinez pottery workshop in 1973.[10]: 81  Martinez passed on her knowledge and skill to many others including her family, other women in the pueblo, and students in the outside world. When she was a young girl she had learned how to become a potter by watching her aunt Nicolasa make pottery. During the time that she developed what we now know as the San Ildefonso style of traditional pottery, she learned much from Sarafina Tafoya, the pottery matriarch of neighboring Santa Clara Pueblo. When in 1932 she was asked to teach by the government Indian school in Santa Fe, Martinez refused to do so: "I come and I work and they can watch," she stated. Her family members had not taught her, and she would not do it herself either - "nobody teaches."[5]

Discover more about Process related topics

Reducing atmosphere

Reducing atmosphere

A reducing atmosphere is an atmospheric condition in which oxidation is prevented by removal of oxygen and other oxidizing gases or vapours, and which may contain actively reducing gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and gases such as hydrogen sulfide that would be oxidized by any present oxygen. Although early in its history the Earth had a reducing atmosphere, it now instead has an oxidizing atmosphere with molecular oxygen (dioxygen, O2) as the primary oxidizing agent.

Kiln

Kiln

A kiln is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes. Kilns have been used for millennia to turn objects made from clay into pottery, tiles and bricks. Various industries use rotary kilns for pyroprocessing—to calcinate ores, to calcinate limestone to lime for cement, and to transform many other materials.

Guaco

Guaco

Guaco, huaco, vejuco and bejuco are terms applied to various vine-like Central American, South American, and West Indian climbing plants, reputed to have curative powers. Several species in the genus Mikania are among those referred to as guaco. Even though it is not a vine guaco is also used to refer to Cleome serrulata, the Rocky Mountain beeplant.

Kiva

Kiva

A kiva is a space used by Puebloans for rites and political meetings, many of them associated with the kachina belief system. Among the modern Hopi and most other Pueblo peoples, "kiva" means a large room that is circular and underground, and used for spiritual ceremonies.

Popovi Da

Popovi Da

Popovi Da (1923–1971) was a San Ildefonso Pueblo Native American potter. He was also known as Tony Martinez. As an artist he worked as a collaborative team with his mother, the noted Tewa potter, Maria Martínez, and also independently on his own works. He served six terms as Governor of San Ildefonso Pueblo beginning in 1952.

National Endowment for the Arts

National Endowment for the Arts

The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that offers support and funding for projects exhibiting artistic excellence. It was created in 1965 as an independent agency of the federal government by an act of the U.S. Congress, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 29, 1965. It is a sub-agency of the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities, along with the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities, and the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

Honors

Martinez received honorary doctorates during her lifetime from the University of Colorado and the University of New Mexico.[21] Her portrait was created by Malvina Hoffman, a notable American sculptor.[22] In 1978 Martinez had a major solo exhibition at the Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution.[23]

Discover more about Honors related topics

University of Colorado

University of Colorado

The University of Colorado (CU) is a system of public universities in Colorado. It consists of four institutions: University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, University of Colorado Denver, and the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. It is governed by the elected, nine-member board of regents.

University of New Mexico

University of New Mexico

The University of New Mexico is a public research university in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Founded in 1889 by the New Mexico Territorial Legislature, it is the state's oldest university, flagship academic institution, and the largest by enrollment, with over 25,400 students in 2021.

Malvina Hoffman

Malvina Hoffman

Malvina Cornell Hoffman was an American sculptor and author, well known for her life-size bronze sculptures of people. She also worked in plaster and marble. Hoffman created portrait busts of working-class people and significant individuals. She was particularly known for her sculptures of dancers, such as Anna Pavlova. Her sculptures of culturally diverse people, entitled "Hall of the Races of Mankind", was a popular permanent exhibition at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. It was featured at the Century of Progress International Exposition at the Chicago World's Fair of 1933.

Renwick Gallery

Renwick Gallery

The Renwick Gallery is a branch of the Smithsonian American Art Museum located in Washington, D.C. that displays American craft and decorative arts from the 19th to 21st century. The gallery is housed in a National Historic Landmark building that was opened in 1859 on Pennsylvania Avenue and originally housed the Corcoran Gallery of Art. When it was built in 1859, it was known as "the American Louvre".

Smithsonian Institution

Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, or simply the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and research centers, the largest such complex in the world, created by the U.S. government "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". Founded on August 10, 1846, it operates as a trust instrumentality and is not formally a part of any of the three branches of the federal government. The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson. It was originally organized as the United States National Museum, but that name ceased to exist administratively in 1967.

Collections

Discover more about Collections related topics

Brooklyn Museum

Brooklyn Museum

The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet (52,000 m2), the museum is New York City's second largest and contains an art collection with around 1.5 million objects. Located near the Prospect Heights, Crown Heights, Flatbush, and Park Slope neighborhoods of Brooklyn, the museum's Beaux-Arts building was designed by McKim, Mead and White.

Cincinnati Art Museum

Cincinnati Art Museum

The Cincinnati Art Museum is an art museum in the Eden Park neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio. Founded in 1881, it was the first purpose-built art museum west of the Alleghenies, and is one of the oldest in the United States. Its collection of over 67,000 works spanning 6,000 years of human history make it one of the most comprehensive collections in the Midwest.

Cleveland Museum of Art

Cleveland Museum of Art

The Cleveland Museum of Art (CMA) is an art museum in Cleveland, Ohio, located in the Wade Park District, in the University Circle neighborhood on the city's east side. Internationally renowned for its substantial holdings of Asian and Egyptian art, the museum houses a diverse permanent collection of more than 61,000 works of art from around the world. The museum provides general admission free to the public. With a $755 million endowment, it is the fourth-wealthiest art museum in the United States. With about 770,000 visitors annually (2018), it is one of the most visited art museums in the world.

Crocker Art Museum

Crocker Art Museum

The Crocker Art Museum is the oldest art museum in the Western United States, located in Sacramento, California. Founded in 1885, the museum holds one of the premier collections of Californian art. The collection includes American works dating from the Gold Rush to the present, European paintings and master drawings, one of the largest international ceramics collections in the U.S., and collections of Asian, African, and Oceanic art. The Crocker Art Museum has been accredited by the American Alliance of Museums, a high standard for US museums.

Denver Art Museum

Denver Art Museum

The Denver Art Museum (DAM) is an art museum located in the Civic Center of Denver, Colorado. With encyclopedic collections of more than 70,000 diverse works from across the centuries and world, the DAM is one of the largest art museums between the West Coast and Chicago. It is known for its collection of American Indian art, as well as The Petrie Institute of Western American Art, which oversees the museum's Western art collection. and its other collections of more than 70,000 diverse works from across the centuries and world. The museum's iconic Martin Building was designed by famed Italian architect Gio Ponti in 1971.

Everson Museum of Art

Everson Museum of Art

The Everson Museum of Art in Downtown Syracuse, New York is a major Central New York museum focusing on American art.

Gilcrease Museum

Gilcrease Museum

Gilcrease Museum, also known as the Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, is a museum northwest of downtown Tulsa, Oklahoma housing the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art of the American West, as well as a growing collection of art and artifacts from Central and South America. The museum is named for Thomas Gilcrease, an oil man and avid art collector, who began the collection. He deeded the collection, as well as the building and property, to the City of Tulsa in 1958. Since July 1, 2008, Gilcrease Museum has been managed by a public-private partnership of the City of Tulsa and the University of Tulsa. The Helmerich Center for American Research at Gilcrease Museum was added in 2014 at a cost of $14 million to provide a secure archival area where researchers can access any of the more than 100,000 books, documents, maps and unpublished materials that have been acquired by the museum.

Institute of Texan Cultures

Institute of Texan Cultures

The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) Institute of Texan Cultures (ITC) is a museum and library located in the Texas Pavilion at HemisFair Park in Downtown San Antonio, Texas. The building which houses the institute a striking example of Brutalist architecture.

Millicent Rogers Museum

Millicent Rogers Museum

The Millicent Rogers Museum is an art museum in Taos, New Mexico, founded in 1956 by the family of Millicent Rogers. Initially the artworks were from the multi-cultural collections of Millicent Rogers and her mother, Mary B. Rogers, who donated many of the first pieces of Taos Pueblo art. In the 1980s, the museum was the first cultural organization in New Mexico to offer a comprehensive collection of Hispanic art.

Minneapolis Institute of Art

Minneapolis Institute of Art

The Minneapolis Institute of Art (Mia) is an arts museum located in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. Home to more than 90,000 works of art representing 5,000 years of world history, Mia is one of the largest art museums in the United States. Its permanent collection includes world-famous works that embody the highest levels of artistic achievement, spanning about 20,000 years and representing the world’s diverse cultures across six continents. The museum has seven curatorial areas: Arts of Africa & the Americas; Contemporary Art; Decorative Arts, Textiles & Sculpture; Asian Art; Paintings; Photography and New Media; and Prints and Drawings.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

The Museum of Fine Arts is an art museum in Boston, Massachusetts. It is the 20th-largest art museum in the world, measured by public gallery area. It contains 8,161 paintings and more than 450,000 works of art, making it one of the most comprehensive collections in the Americas. With more than 1.2 million visitors a year, it is the 52nd–most visited art museum in the world as of 2019.

Museum of Fine Arts (St. Petersburg, Florida)

Museum of Fine Arts (St. Petersburg, Florida)

Source: "Maria Martinez", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Martinez.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

References
  1. ^ a b c d Peterson, Susan (1997). Pottery by American Indian women : the legacy of generations. National Museum of Women in the Arts (U.S.), Heard Museum. (1st ed.). New York: Abbeville Press. pp. 62–68. ISBN 0-7892-0353-7. OCLC 36648903.
  2. ^ Sando, Joe S. (1998). PUEBLO NATIONS: Eight Centuries of Pueblo Indian History (2nd ed.). Santa Fe, New Mexico: Clear Light Publishers. p. 176 of 297. ISBN 0-940666-17-0.
  3. ^ "Penn Museum Online Collections Catalog". Penn Museum. March 26, 2020.
  4. ^ Getlein, Mark (2010). Living with Art. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 262–263.
  5. ^ a b Kirkham, Pat, ed. (2000). Women designers in the USA, 1900-2000 : diversity and difference. Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 59. ISBN 0300093314. OCLC 45486311.
  6. ^ Sublette, J. Mark. "Maria Martinez and San Ildefonso Pottery". Medicine Man Gallery. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2012.
  7. ^ a b Spivey, Richard L. (2003). The Legacy of Maria Poveka Martinez. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Museum of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0890134197.
  8. ^ a b Frank, Larry; Harlow, Francis H. (1974). Historical Pottery of the Pueblo Indians 1600-1880. Boston: New York Graphic Society Ltd.
  9. ^ a b Birchell, Donna Blake (5 April 2021). New Mexico Mission Churches. Arcadia Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-4671-4493-3. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Peterson, Susan (1977). The Living Tradition of Maria Martinez. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd.
  11. ^ Spivey, Richard L. (1979). Maria. Flagstaff: Northland Press.
  12. ^ Kidder, Alfred Vincent (1915). Pottery of the Pajarito plateau and of some adjacent regions in New Mexico. American Anthropological Association. Memoirs, no.12. Lancaster, Pa.: The New era printing company.
  13. ^ a b c d Roller, Ryan A. - Santa Clara Pueblo. Great-grandson of Margaret Tafoya. Seventh generation traditional potter.
  14. ^ a b Hyde, Hazel (1973). Maria Making Pottery. Albuquerque: Starline.
  15. ^ "Pueblo Clay, America's First Pottery". Traditional Fine Arts Organization (TFAO). Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  16. ^ a b Bunzel, Ruth L. (1929). The Pueblo Potter. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 44. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  17. ^ Fraser, Harry (Nov 17, 2000). The Electric Kiln. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 102. ISBN 0812217586. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  18. ^ "Maria Martinez Indian Pottery of San Ildefonso Pueblo (documentary video)". YouTube. 1972. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  19. ^ "Touched by Fire: The Art, Life, and Legacy of Maria Martinez". Museum of Indian Arts & Culture. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  20. ^ "Maria Martinez: A Chronological Summary of her Various Time-Period Signatures". Palms Trading Company. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  21. ^ "MARIA POVEKA MARTINEZ - (1887-1980)" (PDF). ASU Art Museum. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  22. ^ Heller, Nancy (2000). Women artists : works from the National Museum of Women in the Arts. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of Women in the Arts. ISBN 9780847822904.
  23. ^ Congdon, Kristin G.; Hallmark, Kara Kelley (2012). American Folk Art: A Regional Reference. ABC-CLIO. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-313-34936-2. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  24. ^ "Brooklyn Museum". www.brooklynmuseum.org. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  25. ^ "Maria Martinez". Cincinnati art Museum. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  26. ^ "Maria Martinez". Cleveland Museum of Art. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  27. ^ "Jar". Crocker Art Museum. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  28. ^ "Maria Martinez". Denver Art Museum. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  29. ^ "Everson Museum :: Object of the Week: Plate by Maria Martinez". www.everson.org. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  30. ^ "Maria Martinez". Gilcrease Museum. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  31. ^ "Object: Jar". UTSA Institute Of Texan Cultures. 2018-10-01. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  32. ^ "The Southwest | Jesse Peter Multicultural Museum". museum.santarosa.edu. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  33. ^ "The Maria Martinez Family Pottery Collection". Millicent Rogers Museum. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  34. ^ "Maria Martinez". Minneapolis Institute of Art. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  35. ^ "Bowl". collections.mfa.org. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  36. ^ "Large Platter with Roadrunner". Museum of Fine Arts. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  37. ^ "Maria Martinez, Popovi Da. Jar. 1960 | MoMA". The Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  38. ^ "Maria Martinez". National Museum of the American Indian. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  39. ^ "Maria Martinez | Artist Profile". NMWA. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  40. ^ "Maria Martinez".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  41. ^ "Maria Martinez". Smithsonian American Art Museum. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  42. ^ "March 23 Art Minute: Maria Martinez, Blackware Pottery Jar". The Toledo Museum of Art. 2020-03-23. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  43. ^ "Exchange: Pot". exchange.umma.umich.edu. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
Further reading
  • Farris, Phoebe (1999). Women artists of color: a bio-critical sourcebook to 20th century artists in the Americas. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 40. ISBN 0-313-30374-6. OCLC 40193578.
External links

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.