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Margaret McArthur

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Annie Margaret McArthur (1919–2002) was an Australian nutritionist, anthropologist and educator. She is remembered for conducting ground-breaking research from the late 1940s into the indigenous peoples of Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Pacific region. After assignments with the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization, in 1965 she was engaged as the first women lecturer in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Sydney, becoming a senior lecturer prior to her retirement in 1975.

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Nutritionist

Nutritionist

A nutritionist is a person who advises others on matters of food and nutrition and their impacts on health. Some people specialize in particular areas, such as sports nutrition, public health, or animal nutrition, among other disciplines. In many countries, a person can claim to be a nutritionist even without any training, education, or professional license, in contrast to a dietitian, who has a university degree, professional license, and certification for professional practice.

Anthropologist

Anthropologist

An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present societies. Social anthropology, cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life, while economic anthropology studies human economic behavior. Biological (physical), forensic and medical anthropology study the biological development of humans, the application of biological anthropology in a legal setting and the study of diseases and their impacts on humans over time, respectively.

World Health Organization

World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The WHO Constitution states its main objective as "the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health". Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, it has six regional offices and 150 field offices worldwide.

Food and Agriculture Organization

Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is an international organization that leads international efforts to defeat hunger and improve nutrition and food security. Its Latin motto, fiat panis, translates to "let there be bread". It was founded on 16 October 1945.

University of Sydney

University of Sydney

The University of Sydney (USYD), also known as Sydney University, or informally Sydney Uni, is a public research university located in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it is the oldest university in Australia and is one of the country's six sandstone universities. The university comprises eight academic faculties and university schools, through which it offers bachelor, master and doctoral degrees.

Early life and education

Born in Ararat in south-west Victoria on 6 December 1919, Annie Margaret McArthur studied biochemistry and bacteriology at the University of Melbourne leading to a B.Sc. (1941) and an M.Sc. (1942). She took a post-graduate course in nutrition at the Australian Institute of Anatomy (1946) and received a diploma in social anthropology from the University of London (1952). In 1962, she earned a Ph.D. in social anthropology from the Australian National University in 1962 with a thesis titled The Kunimaipa: the Social Structure of a Papuan Society.[1][2] From 1948 to 1949, she participated as a nutritionist in the

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Ararat, Victoria

Ararat, Victoria

Ararat is a city in south-west Victoria, Australia, about 198 kilometres (120 mi) west of Melbourne, on the Western Highway on the eastern slopes of the Ararat Hills and Cemetery Creek valley between Victoria's Western District and the Wimmera. Its urban population according to 2021 census is 8,500 and services the region of 11,880 residents across the Rural City's boundaries. It is also the home of the 2018/19 GMGA Golf Championship Final.

Victoria (Australia)

Victoria (Australia)

Victoria is a state in southeastern Australia. It is the second-smallest state with a land area of 227,444 km2 (87,817 sq mi), the second most populated state with a population of over 6.5 million, and the most densely populated state in Australia. Victoria is bordered with New South Wales to the north and South Australia to the west, and is bounded by the Bass Strait to the south, the Great Australian Bight portion of the Southern Ocean to the southwest, and the Tasman Sea to the southeast. The state encompasses a range of climates and geographical features from its temperate coastal and central regions to the Victorian Alps in the northeast and the semi-arid north-west.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry

Biochemistry or biological chemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided into three fields: structural biology, enzymology and metabolism. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become successful at explaining living processes through these three disciplines. Almost all areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed through biochemical methodology and research. Biochemistry focuses on understanding the chemical basis which allows biological molecules to give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, in turn relating greatly to the understanding of tissues and organs, as well as organism structure and function. Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, which is the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena.

Bacteriology

Bacteriology

Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them. This subdivision of microbiology involves the identification, classification, and characterization of bacterial species. Because of the similarity of thinking and working with microorganisms other than bacteria, such as protozoa, fungi, and viruses, there has been a tendency for the field of bacteriology to extend as microbiology. The terms were formerly often used interchangeably. However, bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science.

University of Melbourne

University of Melbourne

The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria. Its main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north of Melbourne's central business district, with several other campuses located across Victoria.

Australian Institute of Anatomy

Australian Institute of Anatomy

The Australian Institute of Anatomy was a natural history museum and medical research institute that was founded in 1931 and disbanded in 1985. The institute's heritage-listed building, located in Acton, Canberra, in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia, has been occupied by the National Film and Sound Archive (NFSA) since October 1984. The building was added to the Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

Social anthropology

Social anthropology

Social anthropology is the study of patterns of behaviour in human societies and cultures. It is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and much of Europe, where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology. In the United States, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology or sociocultural anthropology.

University of London

University of London

The University of London is a federal public research university located in London, England, United Kingdom. The university was established by royal charter in 1836 as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London and King's College London and "other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom". This fact allows it to be one of three institutions to claim the title of the third-oldest university in England, and moved to a federal structure in 1900. It is now incorporated by its fourth (1863) royal charter and governed by the University of London Act 2018.

Australian National University

Australian National University

The Australian National University (ANU) is a public research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, in addition to several national academies and institutes.

Career

After receiving her master's degree, MacArthur spent three years during World War II as a researcher at the Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation in Canberra where she helped develop containers to deliver food for troops in the tropics (1943–1945). Following training at the Australian Institute of Anatomy, in 1947 she joined the Nutrition Expedition to New Guinea conducted by the Commonwealth Department of Health.[3] In 1948, she served as a nutritionist in the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land to study the ecology of indigenous nomads in the far north-east of Australia's Northern Territory.[3][4]

In connection with her Ph.D., MacArthur undertook field research on the Kunimaipa people of Papua, communicating with them in their own language as she studied their nutritional habits. From 1958 to 1960, she worked as a social anthropology consultant to the government of Malaya on behalf of the World Health Organization. She then spent a year as nutrition consultant for Indonesia on an assignment from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.[1]

In 1965 she was engaged by the University of Sydney as the first women lecturer in its Department of Anthropology, becoming a senior lecturer prior to her retirement in 1975. In 1976, she married the retired Harvard anthropology professor Douglas Oliver and settled with him in Honolulu. She died there after a long illness on 12 May 2002.[5]

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World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers. World War II was a total war that directly involved more than 100 million personnel from more than 30 countries.

Canberra

Canberra

Canberra is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory at the northern tip of the Australian Alps, the country's highest mountain range. As of June 2021, Canberra's estimated population was 453,558.

Australian Institute of Anatomy

Australian Institute of Anatomy

The Australian Institute of Anatomy was a natural history museum and medical research institute that was founded in 1931 and disbanded in 1985. The institute's heritage-listed building, located in Acton, Canberra, in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia, has been occupied by the National Film and Sound Archive (NFSA) since October 1984. The building was added to the Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004.

1948 American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land

1948 American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land

In February 1948, a team of Australian and American researchers and support staff came together in northern Australia to begin, what was then, one of the largest scientific expeditions ever to have taken place in Australia—the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. Today it remains one of the most significant, most ambitious and least understood expeditions ever mounted.

Northern Territory

Northern Territory

The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. The Northern Territory shares its borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, and Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other islands of the Indonesian archipelago.

Honolulu

Honolulu

Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaii, which is in the Pacific Ocean. It is an unincorporated county seat of the consolidated City and County of Honolulu, situated along the southeast coast of the island of Oʻahu, and is the westernmost and southernmost major U.S. city. Honolulu is Hawaii's main gateway to the world. It is also a major hub for business, finance, hospitality, and military defense in both the state and Oceania. The city is characterized by a mix of various Asian, Western, and Pacific cultures, reflected in its diverse demography, cuisine, and traditions.

Source: "Margaret McArthur", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_McArthur.

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References
  1. ^ a b de Lepervanche, Marie (2002). "Obituary: Annie Margaret MacArthur". The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 13:2. p. 230-231. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  2. ^ MaArthur, Margaret (1961). "The Kunimaipa : the social structure of a Papuan people". Australian National University. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  3. ^ a b Specht, Ray L. "Margaret McArthur Oliver: 1919–2002". Australian Aboriginal Studies, Vol 2, No. 2. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  4. ^ Thomas, Martin; Neale, Margo (ed.). "Exploring the Legacy of the 1948 Arnhem Land Expedition". Australian National University. Retrieved 22 November 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  5. ^ Meyering, Isobelle Barrett (14 September 2009). "McArthur, Annie Margaret (1919 - 2002)". Australian Women's Register. Retrieved 22 November 2022.

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