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Malik Dinar

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Mālik b. Dīnār, مالك بن دينار
Malik Dinar.JPG
The grave adornment (Mazar) of Malik Dinar
Preacher, Theologian, Mystic, Ascetic
BornKufa, Iraq[1]
Died748 C.E.
possibly Thalangara, Kasaragod, Kerala, India
Major shrineMalik Dinar Mosque, Thalangara, Kasaragod, Kerala, India
InfluencesAli, Hasan al-Basri

Malik Dinar (Arabic: مالك دينار, romanizedMālik b. Dīnār, Malayalam: മാലിക് ദീനാര്‍) (died 748 CE)[2] was a Muslim scholar and traveller. He was one of the first known Muslims to have come to India in order to propagate Islam in the Indian Subcontinent after the departure of King Cheraman Perumal.[3][4] Even though historians do not agree on the exact place of his death, it is widely accepted that he died at Kasaragod and that his relics were buried at the Malik Dinar Mosque in Thalangara, Kasaragod. Belonging to the generation of the tabi'i, Malik is called a reliable traditionalist in Sunni sources, and is said to have transmitted from such authorities as Malik ibn Anas and Ibn Hajar. He was the son of a slave from Kabul who became a disciple of Hasan al-Basri.[2][3] He died just before the epidemic of plague which caused considerable ravages in Basra in 748-49 CE, with various traditions placing his death either at 744-45 or 747-48 CE.[5]

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Romanization of Arabic

Romanization of Arabic

The romanization of Arabic is the systematic rendering of written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script. Romanized Arabic is used for various purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language works, language education when used instead of or alongside the Arabic script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists. These formal systems, which often make use of diacritics and non-standard Latin characters and are used in academic settings or for the benefit of non-speakers, contrast with informal means of written communication used by speakers such as the Latin-based Arabic chat alphabet.

Malayalam

Malayalam

Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry by the Malayali people. It is one of 22 scheduled languages of India. Malayalam was designated a "Classical Language of India" in 2013. Malayalam has official language status in Kerala and Puducherry (Mahé), and is also the primary spoken language of Lakshadweep, and is spoken by 34 million people in India. Malayalam is also spoken by linguistic minorities in the neighbouring states; with a significant number of speakers in the Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada districts of Karnataka, and Kanyakumari, district of Tamil Nadu. It is also spoken by the Malayali Diaspora worldwide, especially in the Persian Gulf countries, due to the large populations of Malayali expatriates there. They are a significant population in each city in India including Mumbai, Bengaluru, Delhi, Kolkata, Pune etc.

Muslims

Muslims

Muslims are people who adhere to Islam, a monotheistic religion belonging to the Abrahamic tradition. They consider the Quran, the foundational religious text of Islam, to be the verbatim word of the God of Abraham as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main Islamic prophet. The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith).

India

India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area and the second-most populous country. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia.

Islam

Islam

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion centered around the Quran and the teachings of Muhammad. Adherents of Islam, called Muslims, number approximately 1.9 billion globally and are the world's second-largest religious population after Christians.

Malik Dinar Mosque

Malik Dinar Mosque

Malik Dinar Mosque is the second oldest mosque in India, situated in Thalangara in Kasaragod town of Kerala state, India.

Kasaragod

Kasaragod

Kasaragod is a municipal town and administrative headquarters of Kasaragod district in the state of Kerala, India. Established in 1966, Kasaragod was the first municipal town in the district. It is the northernmost district of Kerala and is also known as Saptha Bhasha Sangama Bhoomi.

Malik ibn Anas

Malik ibn Anas

Malik ibn Anas, whose full name is Mālik bin Anas bin Mālik bin Abī ʿĀmir bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith bin Ghaymān bin Khuthayn bin ʿAmr bin Al-Ḥārith al-Aṣbaḥī al-Ḥumyarī al-Madanī, reverently known as al-Imām Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist. Born in the city of Medina, Malik rose to become the premier scholar of prophetic traditions in his day, which he sought to apply to "the whole legal life" in order to create a systematic method of Muslim jurisprudence which would only further expand with the passage of time. Referred to as the "Imam of Medina" by his contemporaries, Malik's views in matters of jurisprudence were highly cherished both in his own life and afterwards, and he became the founder of one of the four schools of Sunni law, the Maliki, which became the normative rite for the Sunni practice of much of North Africa, Al-Andalus, a vast portion of Egypt, and some parts of Syria, Yemen, Sudan, Iraq, and Khorasan, and the prominent Sufi orders, including the Shadiliyya and the Tijaniyyah.

Ibn Hajar

Ibn Hajar

Ibn Hajar may refer to:Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (1372–1449), Shafi'i and Hadith scholar Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami (1503–1566), Shafi'i scholar

Kabul

Kabul

Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. Located in the eastern half of the country, it is also a municipality, forming part of the Kabul Province; it is administratively divided into 22 municipal districts. According to late 2022 estimates, the population of Kabul was 3.5 million people. In contemporary times, the city has served as Afghanistan's political, cultural, and economical center, and rapid urbanisation has made Kabul the 75th-largest city in the world and the country's primate city.

Hasan al-Basri

Hasan al-Basri

Abu Sa'id ibn Abi al-Hasan Yasar al-Basri, often referred to as Hasan of Basra for short, or as Hasan al-Basri, was an early Muslim preacher, ascetic, theologian, exegete, scholar, judge, and mystic. Born in Medina in 642, Hasan belonged to the second generation of Muslims, all of whom would subsequently be referred to as the tābiʿūn in Sunni Islamic piety. In fact, Hasan rose to become one of "the most celebrated" of the tābiʿūn, enjoying an "acclaimed scholarly career and an even more remarkable posthumous legacy in Islamic scholarship."

Basra

Basra

Basra is a city in southern Iraq located on the Shatt al-Arab in the Arabian Peninsula. It had an estimated population of 1.4 million in 2018. Basra is also Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is handled at the port of Umm Qasr. However, there is ongoing construction of Grand Faw Port on the coast of Basra, which is considered a national project for Iraq and will become one of the largest ports in the world and the largest in the Middle East, in addition, the port will strengthen Iraq’s geopolitical position in the region and the world. Furthermore, Iraq is planning to establish large naval base in the Faw peninsula.

Life

Malik, a preacher and moralist of Basra, made a living as a copyist of the Qur'an,[6] and seems to have been interested in the question of the various readings of the scripture.[7] During his life, Malik had the occasion to follow more or less regularly the teaching of Basran traditionists and mystics as famous as Anas b. Mālik, Ibn Sīrīn, Hasan of Basra and Rabīʿa al-ʿAdawiyya.[8] He was considered to have led an ascetic life himself, and tradition attributed to him several thaumaturgic gifts and miracles, including the ability to walk on water. He seems, moreover, to have been "a most eloquent ḳāṣṣ"[9] or popular orator of religious sermons who admired, in particular, the eloquence of his contemporary al-Ḥaj̲j̲āj̲ "whom he naturally could see at Baṣra."[10]

According to Ibn al-Faḳīh, "he brought honour to his native town because he was accounted one of the six Baṣrans who were without equals at Kūfa."[11] Later scholars ranging from Abū Nuʿaym[12] to Ibn al-Jawzī[13] reproduce "whole hosts" of proverbial sayings from him,[14] which clearly reflect the extent to which Malik continued to influence Sunni thinkers of all types. According to Pellat, the explicit articulation of the Sufi ideal of the "inner jihad" (the war against one's own soul)," also finds its original formulation in Malik, who is believed to have said d̲j̲āhidū ahwāʾakum kamā tud̲j̲āhidūn aʿdāʾakum (“fight against your desires just as you fight against your enemies”),[15] in a maxim that would wield considerable influence upon Islamic mystics through the medieval period. Malik also seems to have had an appreciation for the Christian religion, and may have even read parts of the New Testament for spiritual inspiration in imitating the example of Jesus.[16]

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Basra

Basra

Basra is a city in southern Iraq located on the Shatt al-Arab in the Arabian Peninsula. It had an estimated population of 1.4 million in 2018. Basra is also Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is handled at the port of Umm Qasr. However, there is ongoing construction of Grand Faw Port on the coast of Basra, which is considered a national project for Iraq and will become one of the largest ports in the world and the largest in the Middle East, in addition, the port will strengthen Iraq’s geopolitical position in the region and the world. Furthermore, Iraq is planning to establish large naval base in the Faw peninsula.

Qira'at

Qira'at

In Islam, Qirāʼah, are different linguistic, lexical, phonetic, morphological and syntactical forms permitted with reciting the holy book of Islam, the Quran. Differences between Qiraʼat are slight and include varying rules regarding the prolongation, intonation, and pronunciation of words, but also differences in stops, vowels, consonants, and less frequently entire words. Qiraʼat also refers to the branch of Islamic studies that deals with these modes of recitation.

Anas ibn Malik

Anas ibn Malik

Anas ibn Mālik ibn Naḍr al-Khazrajī al-Anṣārī (Arabic: أنس بن مالك الخزرجي الأنصاري was a well-known sahabi of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Ibn Sirin

Ibn Sirin

Muhammad Ibn Sirin was a Muslim tabi' who lived in the 8th century CE. He was a contemporary of Anas ibn Malik. He is claimed by some to have been an interpreter of dreams, though others regard the books to have been falsely attributed to him. Once regarded as the same person as Achmet son of Seirim, this is no longer believed to be true, as shown by Maria Mavroudi.

Thaumaturgy

Thaumaturgy

Thaumaturgy is the purported capability of a magician to work magic or other paranormal events or a saint to perform miracles. It is sometimes translated into English as wonderworking.

Ibn al-Faqih

Ibn al-Faqih

Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadani was a 10th-century Persian historian and geographer, famous for his Mukhtasar Kitab al-Buldan written in Arabic.

Ibn al-Jawzi

Ibn al-Jawzi

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Abu 'l-Faras̲h̲ b. al-Jawzī, often referred to as Ibn al-Jawzī for short, or reverentially as Imam Ibn al-Jawzī by some Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurisconsult, preacher, orator, heresiographer, traditionist, historian, judge, hagiographer, and philologist who played an instrumental role in propagating the Hanbali school of orthodox Sunni jurisprudence in his native Baghdad during the twelfth-century. During "a life of great intellectual, religious and political activity," Ibn al-Jawzi came to be widely admired by his fellow Hanbalis for the tireless role he played in ensuring that that particular school – historically, the smallest of the four principal Sunni schools of law – enjoy the same level of "prestige" often bestowed by rulers on the Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanafi rites.

New Testament

New Testament

The New Testament (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. The New Testament's background, the first division of the Christian Bible, is called the Old Testament, which is based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible; together they are regarded as sacred scripture by Christians.

Jesus

Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus Christ or Jesus of Nazareth, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader; he is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible.

Legacy

Source: "Malik Dinar", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, September 28th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malik_Dinar.

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Bibliography
  • Ibn Ḳutayba, Maʿārif, 470, 577
  • ’Ibn Saʿd, Ṭabaḳāt, vii/2, 11
  • Ṭabarī, iii, 281
  • Abu ’l-ʿArab, Ṭabaḳāt ʿulamāʾ Ifrīḳiya, ed. and tr. M. Ben Cheneb, Algiers 1915-20, 17
  • Makkī, Ḳūt al-ḳulūb, iv, 187
  • Nawawī, Tahd̲h̲īb, 537
  • Pellat, Milieu, 99-100, 257.
References
  1. ^ Al-Dhahabi, Siyar a`lam al-nubala', vol. 5, p. 362.
  2. ^ a b Al-Hujwiri, "Kashf al-Mahjoob", 89
  3. ^ a b Ibn Nadim, "Fihrist", 1037
  4. ^ "History". Malik Deenar Grand Juma Masjid. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  5. ^ Pellat, Ch., “Mālik b. Dīnār”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs.
  6. ^ Pellat, Ch., “Mālik b. Dīnār”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam
  7. ^ Ibn al-D̲j̲azarī, Ṭabaḳāt al-ḳurrāʾ , ii, 36
  8. ^ Pellat, Ch., “Mālik b. Dīnār”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  9. ^ Pellat, Ch., “Mālik b. Dīnār”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  10. ^ Pellat, Ch., “Mālik b. Dīnār”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  11. ^ Buldān , 190, tr. Massé, 231, cited in Pellat, Ch., “Mālik b. Dīnār”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  12. ^ Ḥilyat al-awliyāʾ , ii, 357-89
  13. ^ Ṣifat al-ṣafwa , Ḥaydarābād 1356, iii, 197-209
  14. ^ Pellat, Ch., “Mālik b. Dīnār”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  15. ^ Pellat, Ch., “Mālik b. Dīnār”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  16. ^ Pellat, Ch., “Mālik b. Dīnār”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam

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