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Magnus the Good

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Magnus the Good
Magnus den gode mynt p.jpg
Coin minted for Magnus the Good in Denmark
King of Norway
Reign1035 – 25 October 1047
PredecessorCnut
SuccessorHarald III
Co-rulerHarald III (1046–47)
King of Denmark
Reign8 June 1042 – 25 October 1047
PredecessorCnut III
SuccessorSweyn II
Bornc. 1024
Norway
Died25 October 1047 (aged 23)
Zealand, Denmark
Burial
IssueRagnhild Magnusdatter
HouseSt. Olaf (Vestfold branch of Fairhair dynasty)
FatherOlaf II of Norway
MotherAlfhild

Magnus Olafsson (Old Norse: Magnús Óláfsson; Norwegian and Danish: Magnus Olavsson; c. 1024 – 25 October 1047), better known as Magnus the Good (Old Norse: Magnús góði, Norwegian and Danish: Magnus den gode), was King of Norway from 1035 and King of Denmark from 1042 until his death in 1047.

Magnus was an illegitimate son of King Olaf II of Norway, and fled with his mother Alfhild when his father was dethroned in 1028. He returned to Norway in 1035 and was crowned king at the age of 11. In 1042, he was also crowned king of Denmark. Magnus ruled the two countries until 1047, when he died under unclear circumstances. After his death, his kingdom was split between Harald Hardrada in Norway and Sweyn Estridsson in Denmark.

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Old Norse

Old Norse

Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian, is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements and chronologically coincides with the Viking Age, the Christianization of Scandinavia and the consolidation of Scandinavian kingdoms from about the 7th to the 15th centuries.

Norwegian language

Norwegian language

Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is an official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties; some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages. Faroese and Icelandic are not mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form because continental Scandinavian has diverged from them. While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Age.

Danish language

Danish language

Danish is a North Germanic language spoken by about six million people, principally in Denmark, as well as Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the northern German region of Southern Schleswig, where it has minority language status. Minor Danish-speaking communities are also found in Norway, Sweden, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina.

Olaf II of Norway

Olaf II of Norway

Olaf II Haraldsson, later known as Saint Olaf, was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. Son of Harald Grenske, a petty king in Vestfold, Norway, he was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae and canonised at Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site. His sainthood encouraged the widespread adoption of Christianity by Scandinavia's Vikings/Norsemen.

Harald Hardrada

Harald Hardrada

Harald Sigurdsson, also known as Harald of Norway and given the epithet Hardrada in the sagas, was King of Norway from 1046 to 1066. Additionally, he unsuccessfully claimed both the Danish throne until 1064 and the English throne in 1066. Before becoming king, Harald had spent around fifteen years in exile as a mercenary and military commander in Kievan Rus' and of the Varangian Guard in the Byzantine Empire.

Sweyn II of Denmark

Sweyn II of Denmark

Sweyn II Estridsson Ulfsson was King of Denmark from 1047 until his death in 1076. He was the son of Ulf Thorgilsson and Estrid Svendsdatter, and the grandson of King Sweyn I Forkbeard through his mother's line. He was married three times, and fathered 20 children or more out of wedlock, including the five future kings Harald III Hen, Canute IV the Saint, Oluf I Hunger, Eric I Evergood, and Niels.

Early life

Magnus was an illegitimate son of King Olaf Haraldsson (later St. Olaf), by his English concubine Alfhild,[1] originally a slave (thrall) of Olaf's queen Astrid Olofsdotter.[2] Born prematurely, the child was weak and unable to breathe for the first few minutes, and he was probably not expected to survive. Olaf was not present at the child's birth, and his Icelandic skald Sigvatr Þórðarson became his godfather. In a hasty baptism, Sigvatr named Magnus after the greatest king he knew of, also Olaf's greatest role model, Karla Magnus, or Charlemagne. Against the odds, Magnus went on to grow strong and healthy, and he became of vital importance to Olaf as his only son.[3]

Olaf was dethroned by the Danish king Cnut the Great in 1028, and he went into exile with his family and court, including the young Magnus.[1] They travelled over the mountains and through Eidskog during the winter, entered Värmland, and were given shelter by a chieftain called Sigtrygg in Närke. After a few months, they departed Närke, and by March went eastwards towards Sigtuna, where the Swedish king Anund Jacob had left them a ship. The party thereafter sailed through the Baltic Sea and into the Gulf of Finland, eventually landing in Kievan Rus' (Garðaríki). They made their first stop at Staraya Ladoga (Aldeigjuborg) to organise the further journey.[4] From there they travelled southwards to Novgorod (Holmgard), where Olaf sought assistance from Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise. Yaroslav, however, did not want to become directly involved in the Scandinavian power-struggles, and declined to help. After some time, in early 1030, Olaf learned that the Earl of Lade Håkon Eiriksson, Cnut's regent in Norway, had disappeared at sea, and gathered his men to make a swift return to Norway. Magnus was left to be fostered by Yaroslav and his wife Ingegerd.[5]

In early 1031, a party including Magnus's uncle Harald Sigurdsson (later also to be king and then known as Harald Hardrada) arrived to report the news of his father's death at the Battle of Stiklestad. For the next few years, Magnus was educated in Old Russian and some Greek and was trained as a warrior.[6] In 1030, Cnut appointed his first wife Ælfgifu and their son Svein as regents, but the Norwegians found their rule oppressive and, by the time of Cnut's death in 1035, they had been driven out and Magnus was established as king.[7] Einar Thambarskelfir and Kalf Arnesson, who had both sought to be appointed regents under Cnut after Olaf's death in 1030,[8] had gone together to Kievan Rus' to bring the boy back to rule as the King of Norway.[9] After receiving the approval of Ingegerd, they returned with Magnus to Sigtuna in early 1035, and received backing from the Swedish king, brother of Magnus's stepmother Astrid. Astrid immediately became an important supporter of Magnus, and an army was gathered in Sweden, headed by Einar and Kalf, to place Magnus on the Norwegian throne.[10]

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Olaf II of Norway

Olaf II of Norway

Olaf II Haraldsson, later known as Saint Olaf, was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028. Son of Harald Grenske, a petty king in Vestfold, Norway, he was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae and canonised at Nidaros (Trondheim) by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site. His sainthood encouraged the widespread adoption of Christianity by Scandinavia's Vikings/Norsemen.

Kingdom of England

Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1 May 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Sigvatr Þórðarson

Sigvatr Þórðarson

Sigvatr Þórðarson or Sighvatr Þórðarson or Sigvat the Skald (995–1045) was an Icelandic skald. He was a court poet to King Olaf II of Norway, as well as Canute the Great, Magnus the Good and Anund Jacob, by whose reigns his floruit can be dated to the earlier eleventh century. Sigvatr was the best known of the court skalds of King Olaf and also served as his marshal (stallare), even baptizing his son Magnus.

Charlemagne

Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great, a member of the Carolingian dynasty, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and the first Emperor of the Romans from 800. Charlemagne succeeded in uniting the majority of western and central Europe and was the first recognized emperor to rule from western Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire around three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded was the Carolingian Empire. He was canonized by Antipope Paschal III—an act later treated as invalid—and he is now regarded by some as beatified in the Catholic Church.

Eidskog

Eidskog

Eidskog is a municipality in Innlandet county, Norway. It is located in the traditional district of Vinger. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Skotterud. Other villages in the municipality include Magnor, Matrand, and Åbogen.

Närke

Närke

Närke is a Swedish traditional province, or landskap, situated in Svealand in south central Sweden. It is bordered by Västmanland to the north, Södermanland to the east, Östergötland to the southeast, Västergötland to the southwest, and Värmland to the northwest. Närke has a surface area of 4,126 km² and a total population of 208,376.

Sigtuna

Sigtuna

Sigtuna is a locality situated in Sigtuna Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden with 8,444 inhabitants in 2010. It is the namesake of the municipality even though the seat is in Märsta. Sigtuna is for historical reasons often still referred to as a stad.

Anund Jacob

Anund Jacob

Anund Jacob or James, Swedish: Anund Jakob was King of Sweden from 1022 until around 1050. He is believed to have been born on July 25, in either 1008 or 1010 as Jakob, the son of King Olof Skötkonung and Queen Estrid. Being the second Christian king of the Swedish realm, his long and partly turbulent reign saw the increasing dissemination of Christianity as well as repeated attempts to influence the balance of power in Scandinavia. Through out his regin he tried to subvert the rising Danish hegemony in Scandinavia by supporting the Norwegian monarchy. He also supported the reign of Yaroslav the Wise in Kievan Rus, his brother-in-law. He is referred to in positive terms in German and Norse historical sources. His reign was one of the longest in Sweden during the Viking Age and Middle Ages.

Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that is enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.

Gulf of Finland

Gulf of Finland

The Gulf of Finland is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland to the north and Estonia to the south, to Saint Petersburg in Russia to the east, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Helsinki and Tallinn. The eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland belong to Russia, and some of Russia's most important oil harbors are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg. As the seaway to Saint Petersburg, the Gulf of Finland has been and continues to be of considerable strategic importance to Russia. Some of the environmental problems affecting the Baltic Sea are at their most pronounced in the shallow gulf. Proposals for a tunnel through the gulf have been made.

Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus', also known as Kyivan Rus', was a state in Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century. Encompassing a variety of polities and peoples, including East Slavic, Norse, and Finnic, it was ruled by the Rurik dynasty, founded by the Varangian prince Rurik. The modern nations of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestor, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it. At its greatest extent in the mid-11th century, Kievan Rus' stretched from the White Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south and from the headwaters of the Vistula in the west to the Taman Peninsula in the east, uniting the East Slavic tribes.

Garðaríki

Garðaríki

Garðaríki or Garðaveldi is the Old Norse term used in medieval times for the states of Kievan Rus.

King of Norway and Denmark

Coin minted for Magnus the Good in Lund (at the time a town in Danish Scania)
Coin minted for Magnus the Good in Lund (at the time a town in Danish Scania)

Magnus was proclaimed king in 1035 at 11 years of age. At first, Magnus sought revenge against his father's enemies, but on Sigvatr's advice, he stopped doing so, which is why he became known as "good" or "noble".[9]

Another son of Cnut, Harthacnut, was on the throne of Denmark and wanted his country to reunite with Norway, while Magnus initiated a campaign against Denmark around 1040.[11] However, the noblemen of both countries brought the two kings together at the Göta älv, the border between their kingdoms. They made peace and agreed that the first of them to die would be succeeded by the other.[12][13] In 1042, Harthacnut died while in England, and Magnus also became King of Denmark, in spite of a claim by Cnut's nephew Sweyn Estridsen, whom Harthacnut had left in control of Denmark when he went to England,[12][14] and who had some support.

As part of consolidating his control, Magnus destroyed the Jomsborg, headquarters of the Jomsvikings. Sweyn fled east and returned as one of the leaders of an invasion by the Wends in 1043, which Magnus decisively defeated at the Battle of Lyrskov Heath, near Hedeby.[13][15] In the battle, Magnus wielded Saint Olaf's battle-axe, named Hel after the goddess of death.[13][16] He had dreamt of his father the night before, and the Norwegians swore that before the battle they could hear the bell that Saint Olaf had given to the Church of St. Clement in Kaupang, in Nidaros—a sign that the saint was watching over his son and the army.[17] It was the greatest victory ever over the Wends, with up to 15,000 killed.

Sweyn continued to oppose Magnus in Denmark, although according to Heimskringla, they reached a settlement by which Sweyn became Earl of Denmark under Magnus.[18]

Magnus wanted to reunite Cnut the Great's entire North Sea Empire by also becoming king of England. When Harthacnut died, the English nobles had chosen as their king Æthelred the Unready's son Edward (later known as Edward the Confessor); Magnus wrote to him that he intended to attack England with combined Norwegian and Danish forces and "he will then govern it who wins the victory."[19] The English were mostly hostile to Magnus; Sweyn was made welcome there, although Edward's mother, Emma, curiously favored Magnus and in 1043 the king confiscated her property, with which by one report she had promised to assist Magnus.[20]

Meanwhile, Magnus' uncle Harald Sigurdsson had returned to Norway from the east and contested his rule there, while Sweyn was still a threat in Denmark; Harald allied himself with Sweyn.[1][14] Magnus chose to appease Harald,[1] and made him his co-king in Norway in 1046.[21][22]

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Lund

Lund

Lund is a city in the southern Swedish province of Scania, across the Öresund strait from Copenhagen. The town had 91,940 inhabitants out of a municipal total of 121,510 as of 2018. It is the seat of Lund Municipality, Scania County. The Öresund Region, which includes Lund, is home to more than 4.1 million people.

Skåneland

Skåneland

Skåneland or Skånelandene (Danish) is a region on the southern Scandinavian peninsula. It includes the Swedish provinces of Blekinge, Halland, and Scania. The Danish island of Bornholm is traditionally also included. Skåneland has no official recognition or function and the term is not in common usage. Equivalent terms in English and Latin are "the Scanian Provinces" and "Terrae Scaniae" respectively. The term is mostly used in historical contexts and not in daily speech. In Danish, Skånelandene is used more often. The terms have no political implications as the region is not a political entity but a cultural region, without officially established administrative borders.

Harthacnut

Harthacnut

Harthacnut, traditionally Hardicanute, sometimes referred to as Canute III, was King of Denmark from 1035 to 1042 and King of the English from 1040 to 1042.

Göta älv

Göta älv

The Göta älv is a river that drains lake Vänern into the Kattegat, at the city of Gothenburg, on the western coast of Sweden. It was formed at the end of the last glaciation, as an outflow channel from the Baltic Ice Lake to the Atlantic Ocean and nowadays it has the largest drainage basin in Scandinavia.

Jomsborg

Jomsborg

Jomsborg or Jómsborg was a semi-legendary Viking stronghold at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, that existed between the 960s and 1043. Its inhabitants were known as Jomsvikings. Jomsborg's exact location, or its existence, has not yet been established, though it is often maintained that Jomsborg was located on the eastern outlet of the Oder river. Historian Lauritz Weibull dismissed Jomsborg as a legend.

Jomsvikings

Jomsvikings

The Jomsvikings were purportedly a legendary order of Viking mercenaries or conquerors of the 10th and 11th centuries. Though reputed to be staunchly dedicated to the worship of the Old Norse gods, they would allegedly fight for any lord who could pay their substantial fees, even if they may be Christian. The institution of the Jomsvikings would itself foreshadow those of the later religious and chivalric orders of the Middle Ages.

Battle of Lyrskov Heath

Battle of Lyrskov Heath

The Battle of Lyrskov Heath or Lyrskov Hede was fought on September 28, 1043, at Lyrskov, between a Dano-Norwegian army led by Magnus the Good, and an army of Wends. It was a great victory for Magnus' forces; the Wendish army was crushed and up to 15,000 were killed.

Hedeby

Hedeby

Hedeby was an important Danish Viking Age trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the most important archaeological site in Schleswig-Holstein. Around 965, chronicler Abraham ben Jacob visited Hedeby and described it as, "a very large city at the very end of the world's ocean."

North Sea Empire

North Sea Empire

The North Sea Empire, also known as the Anglo-Scandinavian Empire, was the personal union of the kingdoms of England, Denmark and Norway for most of the period between 1013 and 1042 towards the end of the Viking Age. This ephemeral Norse-ruled empire was a thalassocracy, its components only connected by and dependent upon the sea.

Edward the Confessor

Edward the Confessor

Edward the Confessor was one of the last Anglo-Saxon English kings. Usually considered the last king of the House of Wessex, he ruled from 1042 to 1066.

Emma of Normandy

Emma of Normandy

Emma of Normandy was a Norman-born noblewoman who became the English, Danish, and Norwegian queen through her marriages to the Anglo-Saxon king Æthelred the Unready and the Danish prince Cnut the Great. The daughter of the Norman ruler Richard the Fearless and Gunnor, she was Queen of the English during her marriage to King Æthelred from 1002 to 1016, except during a brief interruption in 1013–14 when the Danish king Sweyn Forkbeard occupied the English throne. Æthelred died in 1016, and Emma remarried to Sweyn's son Cnut. As Cnut's wife, she was Queen of England from their marriage in 1017, Queen of Denmark from 1018, and Queen of Norway from 1028 until Cnut died in 1035.

Harald Hardrada

Harald Hardrada

Harald Sigurdsson, also known as Harald of Norway and given the epithet Hardrada in the sagas, was King of Norway from 1046 to 1066. Additionally, he unsuccessfully claimed both the Danish throne until 1064 and the English throne in 1066. Before becoming king, Harald had spent around fifteen years in exile as a mercenary and military commander in Kievan Rus' and of the Varangian Guard in the Byzantine Empire.

Death

Site of the grave of king Magnus in Nidaros Cathedral, Trondheim.
Site of the grave of king Magnus in Nidaros Cathedral, Trondheim.

Sweyn increased the pressure on Magnus from his base in Scania,[11] but by late 1046, Magnus had driven Sweyn out of Denmark. However, on 25 October 1047, Magnus suddenly died while in Denmark, either in Zealand or in Jutland, either in an accident or of a disease; accounts vary.[23] Reports include falling overboard from one of the ships he was mustering to invade England and drowning,[13] falling off a horse,[14][24] and falling ill while on board a ship.[1] He is said to have made Sweyn his heir in Denmark, and Harald in Norway; some say in a deathbed statement.[1] Magnus was buried with his father in the cathedral at Nidaros, modern Trondheim.[1]

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Scania

Scania

Scania, also known by its native name of Skåne, is the southernmost of the historical provinces (landskap) of Sweden. Located in the south tip of the geographical region of Götaland, the province is roughly conterminous with Skåne County, created in 1997. Like the other former provinces of Sweden, Scania still features in colloquial speech and in cultural references, and can therefore not be regarded as an archaic concept. Within Scania there are 33 municipalities that are autonomous within the Skåne Regional Council. Scania's largest city, Malmö, is the third-largest city in Sweden, as well as the fifth-largest in Scandinavia.

Jutland

Jutland

Jutland, known anciently as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula, is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany. The names are derived from the Jutes and the Cimbri, respectively.

Nidaros Cathedral

Nidaros Cathedral

Nidaros Cathedral is a Church of Norway cathedral located in the city of Trondheim in Trøndelag county. It is built over the burial site of King Olav II, who became the patron saint of the nation, and is the traditional location for the consecration of new kings of Norway. It was built over a 230-year period, from 1070 to 1300 when it was substantially completed. However additional work, additions and renovations have continued intermittently since then, including a major reconstruction starting in 1869 and completed in 2001.

Trondheim

Trondheim

Trondheim, historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem, is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. As of 2020, it had a population of 205,332, was the third most populous municipality in Norway, and was the fourth largest urban area. Trondheim lies on the south shore of Trondheim Fjord at the mouth of the River Nidelva. Among the major technology-oriented institutions headquartered in Trondheim are the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), the Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research (SINTEF), and St. Olavs University Hospital.

Physical appearance

Snorri describes Magnus as "of middle height, with regular features and light complexion. He had light blond hair, was well spoken and quick to make up his mind, was of noble character, most generous, a great warrior, and most valorous."[25]

Descendants

The Magnus Stone created by Niels Skovgaard in Skibelund Krat, Denmark
The Magnus Stone created by Niels Skovgaard in Skibelund Krat, Denmark

The line of Olaf II ended with Magnus' death. However, in 1280, Eric II of Norway, who was descended through his mother from Magnus' legitimate sister, Wulfhild, was crowned king of Norway.

Magnus was not married, but had a daughter out of wedlock, Ragnhild Magnusdatter [no], who married Haakon Ivarsson [no], a Norwegian nobleman.[14] Ragnhild and Haakon had daughters Sunniva and Ragnhild. Sunniva had a son Hakon Sunnivasson, whose son became King Eric III of Denmark. Ragnhild married Paul Thorfinnsson, Earl of Orkney, and together they were the parents of Haakon Paulsson, who also became an earl of Orkney.

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Niels Skovgaard

Niels Skovgaard

Niels Kristian Skovgaard was a Danish painter and sculptor. His statue of N.F.S. Grundtvig is considered to be a masterpiece of Danish sculpture.

Eric II of Norway

Eric II of Norway

Eric Magnusson was the King of Norway from 1280 until 1299.

Wulfhild of Norway

Wulfhild of Norway

Wulfhild of Norway, Old West Norse: Úlfhildr Ólafsdóttir, Swedish: Ulfhild Olofsdotter, was a Norwegian princess, and a duchess of Saxony by marriage to Ordulf, Duke of Saxony.

Hakon Sunnivasson

Hakon Sunnivasson

Hakon Sunnivasson was a Danish nobleman and the father of King Eric III of Denmark.

Eric III of Denmark

Eric III of Denmark

Eric III Lamb was the King of Denmark from 1137 until 1146. He was the grandson of Eric I of Denmark and the nephew of Eric II of Denmark, whom he succeeded on the throne. He abdicated in 1146, as the first and only Danish monarch to do so voluntarily. His succession led to a period of civil war between Sweyn III, Canute V, and Valdemar I.

Earl of Orkney

Earl of Orkney

The Earl of Orkney was originally a Norse jarl ruling the archipelagos of Orkney and Shetland. Originally founded by Norse invaders, the status of the rulers of the Norðreyjar as Norwegian vassals was formalised in 1195. Although the Old Norse term jarl is etymologically related to "earl", and the jarls were succeeded by earls in the late 15th century, a Norwegian jarl is not the same thing. In the Norse context the distinction between jarls and kings did not become significant until the late 11th century and the early jarls would therefore have had considerable independence of action until that time. The position of jarl of Orkney was eventually the most senior rank in medieval Norway except for the king himself.

Haakon Paulsson

Haakon Paulsson

Haakon Paulsson was a Norwegian jarl (1105–1123) and jointly ruled the earldom of Orkney with his cousin Magnus Erlendsson. Their lives and times are recounted in the Orkneyinga saga, which was first written down in the early 13th century by an unknown Icelandic author.

Orkney

Orkney

Orkney, also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of the island of Great Britain. Orkney is 10 miles (16 km) north of the coast of Caithness and has about 70 islands, of which 20 are inhabited. The largest island, the Mainland, has an area of 523 square kilometres (202 sq mi), making it the sixth-largest Scottish island and the tenth-largest island in the British Isles. Orkney’s largest settlement, and also its administrative centre, is Kirkwall.

Source: "Magnus the Good", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_the_Good.

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Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Carl Frederik Bricka, Dansk Biografisk Lexikon, vol. XI [Maar – Müllner], 1897, p.44.
  2. ^ Morten (2011) p. 16
  3. ^ Morten (2011) p. 17
  4. ^ Morten (2011) pp. 15 & 18–20
  5. ^ Morten (2011) pp. 21–23
  6. ^ Morten (2011) pp. 25–27
  7. ^ Frank Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, Oxford history of England 2, 3rd ed. Oxford/Clarendon: 1971, ISBN 9780198217169, pp. 405–06.
  8. ^ Morten (2011) pp. 28–29
  9. ^ a b Karen Larsen, A History of Norway, The American-Scandinavian Foundation, Princeton University Press, 1948, repr. 1950, OCLC 257284542, p. 110.
  10. ^ Morten (2011) pp. 40–44
  11. ^ a b Monarkiet i Danmark – Kongerækken Archived 2009-11-18 at the Wayback Machine at The Danish Monarchy
  12. ^ a b Larsen, p. 113.
  13. ^ a b c d Palle Lauring, A History of the Kingdom of Denmark, tr. David Hohnen, Copenhagen: Høst, 1960, OCLC 5954675, pp. 57–59.
  14. ^ a b c d Johannes C. H. L. Steenstrup, "Magnus den Gode", Dansk biografisk lexikon, online at Project Runeberg (in Danish)
  15. ^ Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen, The Story of Norway, The Story of the Nations, New York: Putnam, 1889, OCLC 1536116, p. 237.
  16. ^ Hollander (Trans.), Heimskringla, p. 562.
  17. ^ Hollander (Trans.), Heimskringla, p. 561.
  18. ^ Hollander (Trans.), Heimskringla, p. 558.
  19. ^ Larsen, p. 114.
  20. ^ Stenton, pp. 426–27.
  21. ^ Hollander (Trans.), Heimskringla, pp. 593–96.
  22. ^ Larsen, p. 111.
  23. ^ Gwyn Jones, A History of the Vikings, London: Oxford University Press, 1973, ISBN 0-19-285063-6, p. 406.
  24. ^ Knut Gjerset, History of the Norwegian People, 2 vols., Volume 1, New York, Macmillan, 1915, OCLC 1674570, p. 279.
  25. ^ Hollander (Trans.), Heimskringla, p. 600.
Bibliography
Further reading
Magnus the Good
House of St. Olaf
Cadet branch of the Fairhair dynasty
Born: c. 1024 Died: 25 October 1047
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Norway
1035–1047
Succeeded by
Preceded by King of Denmark
1042–1047
Succeeded by
Titles in pretence
Preceded by — TITULAR —
King of England
1042–1047
Succeeded by

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