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Louis Adamic

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Louis Adamic
Louis adamič - SBI.jpg
Born
Alojzij Adamič

(1898-03-23)March 23, 1898
DiedSeptember 4, 1951(1951-09-04) (aged 53)
Milford, New Jersey, United States
NationalityYugoslav
Occupation(s)Author, translator
AwardsAnisfield-Wolf Book Award for From Many Lands

Louis Adamic[notes 1] (Slovene: Alojzij Adamič; March 23, 1898[notes 2] – September 4, 1951) was a Slovene-American author and translator, mostly known for writing about and advocating for ethnic diversity of the United States.[5]

Background

Praproče Manor, birthplace of Louis Adamic
Praproče Manor, birthplace of Louis Adamic

Louis Adamic was born at Praproče Mansion in Praproče pri Grosupljem in the region of Lower Carniola, in what is now Slovenia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire). He was baptized Alojzij Adamič.[6] The oldest son of the peasants Anton and Ana Adamič,[7] he was given a limited childhood education at the city school and, in 1909, entered the primary school at Ljubljana. Early in his third year he joined a secret students' political club associated with the Yugoslav Nationalistic Movement that had recently sprung up in the South-Slavic provinces of Austria-Hungary.

Swept up in a bloody demonstration in November 1913, Adamic was briefly jailed, expelled from school, and barred from any government educational institution. He was admitted to the Jesuit school in Ljubljana, but was unable to bring himself to go. "No more school for me. I was going to America," Adamic wrote. "I did not know how, but I knew that I would go."[8]

On December 31, 1913, at the age of 15, Adamic emigrated to the United States. [9]

He finally settled in a heavily ethnic Croatian fishing community of San Pedro, California. He became a naturalized United States citizen in 1918 as Louis Adamic.[10]

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Praproče pri Grosupljem

Praproče pri Grosupljem

Praproče pri Grosupljem is a small settlement east of Grosuplje in central Slovenia. The area is part of the historical region of Lower Carniola. The Municipality of Grosuplje is now included in the Central Slovenia Statistical Region.

Lower Carniola

Lower Carniola

Lower Carniola is a traditional region in Slovenia, the southeastern part of the historical Carniola region.

Slovenia

Slovenia

Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest. Slovenia is mostly mountainous and forested, covers 20,271 square kilometres (7,827 sq mi), and has a population of 2.1 million. Slovenes constitute over 80% of the country's population. Slovene, a South Slavic language, is the official language. Slovenia has a predominantly temperate continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral and the Julian Alps. A sub-mediterranean climate reaches to the northern extensions of the Dinaric Alps that traverse the country in a northwest–southeast direction. The Julian Alps in the northwest have an alpine climate. Toward the northeastern Pannonian Basin, a continental climate is more pronounced. Ljubljana, the capital and largest city of Slovenia, is geographically situated near the centre of the country.

Ljubljana

Ljubljana

Ljubljana is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. It is the country's cultural, educational, economic, political and administrative center.

Yugoslavs

Yugoslavs

Yugoslavs or Yugoslavians is an identity that was originally designed to refer to a united South Slavic people. It has been used in two connotations: the first in a sense of common shared ethnic descent, i.e. panethnic or supraethnic connotation for ethnic South Slavs, and the second as a term for all citizens of former Yugoslavia regardless of ethnicity. Cultural and political advocates of Yugoslav identity have historically ascribed the identity to be applicable to all people of South Slav heritage, including those of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia. Although Bulgarians are a South Slavic group, attempts at uniting Bulgaria into Yugoslavia were unsuccessful, and therefore Bulgarians were not included in the panethnic identification. Since the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the establishment of South Slavic nation states, the term ethnic Yugoslavs has been used to refer to those who exclusively view themselves as Yugoslavs with no other ethnic self-identification, many of these being of mixed ancestry.

South Slavs

South Slavs

South Slavs are Slavic peoples who speak South Slavic languages and inhabit a contiguous region of Southeast Europe comprising the eastern Alps and the Balkan Peninsula. Geographically separated from the West Slavs and East Slavs by Austria, Hungary, Romania, and the Black Sea, the South Slavs today include Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs, and Slovenes, respectively the main populations of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia.

Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Dual Monarchy, or Austria, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War and was dissolved shortly after its defeat in the First World War.

Emigration

Emigration

Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere. Conversely, immigration describes the movement of people into one country from another. A migrant emigrates from their old country, and immigrates to their new country. Thus, both emigration and immigration describe migration, but from different countries' perspectives.

Croatian Americans

Croatian Americans

Croatian Americans or Croat Americans are Americans who have full or partial Croatian ancestry. In 2012, there were 414,714 American citizens of Croat or Croatian descent living in the United States as per revised 2010 United States Census. The figure includes all people affiliated with United States who claim Croatian ancestry, both those born in the country and naturalized citizens, as well as those with dual citizenship who affiliate themselves with both countries or cultures.

Career

Adamic first worked as a manual laborer and later at a Yugoslavian daily newspaper, Narodni Glas ("The Voice of the Nation"), that was published in New York. As an American soldier he participated in combat on the Western front during the First World War. After the war he worked as a journalist and professional writer.

All of Adamic's writings are based on his labor experiences in America and his former life in Slovenia. He achieved national acclaim in America in 1934 with his book The Native's Return, which was a bestseller directed against King Alexander's regime in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. This book gave many Americans their first real knowledge of the Balkans. It contained many insights, but proved far from infallible: Adamic predicted that America would prosper by eventually "going left", i.e. turning socialist.

He received the Guggenheim Fellowship award in 1932. During the Second World War he had supported the Yugoslav National liberation struggle and the establishment of a socialist Yugoslav federation. He founded the United Committee of South-Slavic Americans in support of Marshal Tito. From 1949 he was a corresponding member of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts.

From 1940 onwards he served as editor of the magazine Common Ground. Adamic was the author of Dynamite: The Story of Class Violence in America (1931); Laughing in the Jungle: The Autobiography of an Immigrant in America (1932); The Native's Return: An American Immigrant Visits Yugoslavia and Discovers His Old Country (1934); Grandsons: A Story of American Lives (1935, novel); Cradle of Life: The Story of One Man's Beginnings (1936, novel); The House in Antigua (1937, travel); My America (1938); From Many Lands (1940); Two-Way Passage (1941); What's Your Name? (1942); My Native Land (1943); Nation of Nations (1945); and The Eagle and the Root (1950). Maxim Lieber was his literary agent, 1930–1931 and in 1946. In 1941, Adamic won the Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for From Many Lands.[11]

Adamic was strongly opposed to the foreign policy followed by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and in 1946 wrote Dinner at the White House, which purported to be an account of a dinner party given by President Franklin D. Roosevelt at which Adamic and Churchill had both been present. After the proofs had been passed by publishers Harper and Brothers, an additional footnote was inserted in pages 151 and 152 which claimed that Churchill had opposed the National Liberation Front in Greece because they intended to scale down the rate of interest Greece was paying to Hambros Bank. The footnote further claimed that Hambros had "bailed Winston Churchill out of bankruptcy in 1912". The footnote appeared in the book when it was published, and a copy was circulated to every British Member of Parliament; when Churchill was alerted, he instructed his solicitors to issue a writ for libel. Harper and Brothers admitted the statement was untrue and Adamic also withdrew the claim and apologised; a substantial sum of damages was paid,[12] reported by the Daily Express as £5,000.[13] As of 2011 the copy of Dinner at the White House in the British Library is held in the Suppressed Safe collection, inaccessible to readers.[14]

His support for the Tito regime led to him being targeted by Nevada Senator Pat McCarran, who between May and September 1949, chaired a subcommittee to expose Soviet sympathizers among ethnic communities.[15]

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Alexander I of Yugoslavia

Alexander I of Yugoslavia

Alexander I, also known as Alexander the Unifier, was the prince regent of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1914 and later the King of Yugoslavia from 1921 to 1934. He was assassinated by the Bulgarian Vlado Chernozemski of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, during a 1934 state visit to France. Having sat on the throne for 13 years, he is the longest-reigning monarch of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state in Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941. From 1918 to 1929, it was officially called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, but the term "Yugoslavia" was its colloquial name due to its origins. The official name of the state was changed to "Kingdom of Yugoslavia" by King Alexander I on 3 October 1929.

Balkans

Balkans

The Balkans, also known as the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographical area in southeastern Europe with various geographical and historical definitions. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch throughout the whole of Bulgaria. The Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic Sea in the northwest, the Ionian Sea in the southwest, the Aegean Sea in the south, the Turkish Straits in the east, and the Black Sea in the northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined. The highest point of the Balkans is Mount Musala, 2,925 metres (9,596 ft), in the Rila mountain range, Bulgaria.

Guggenheim Fellowship

Guggenheim Fellowship

Guggenheim Fellowships are grants that have been awarded annually since 1925 by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those "who have demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the arts."

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply as Yugoslavia, was a country in Central and Southeast Europe. It emerged in 1945, following World War II, and lasted until 1992, with the breakup of Yugoslavia occurring as a consequence of the Yugoslav Wars. Spanning an area of 255,804 square kilometres (98,766 sq mi) in the Balkans, Yugoslavia was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west, by Austria and Hungary to the north, by Bulgaria and Romania to the east, and by Albania and Greece to the south. It was a one-party socialist state and federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, and had six constituent republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia. Within Serbia was the Yugoslav capital city of Belgrade as well as two autonomous Yugoslav provinces: Kosovo and Vojvodina.

Common Ground (magazine)

Common Ground (magazine)

Common Ground was a literary magazine published quarterly between 1940 and 1949 by the Common Council for American Unity to further an appreciation of contributions to U.S. culture by many ethnic, religions and national groups.

Dynamite: The Story of Class Violence in America

Dynamite: The Story of Class Violence in America

Dynamite: The Story of Class Violence in America is a 1931 book by Louis Adamic.

Laughing in the Jungle

Laughing in the Jungle

Laughing in the Jungle, published in 1932, is an autobiography by a Slovene-American writer Louis Adamic. As a fourteen year old, Adamic immigrated to the United States in 1913 from Carniola (Kranjska), at that time a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In Adamic’s words, Laughing in the Jungle was an attempt to explain his experiences as an immigrant to America. The title of the book, Laughing in the Jungle, was inspired by Upton Sinclair’s 1906 book The Jungle. Adamic for the first time learned about the book from his Carniolan neighbor, Peter Molek, who said to him that “the whole of America is a jungle… [that] swallows many people who go there to work.” At first, Adamic did not understand Molek’s point, but after sixteen years in America, he came to believe that the United States “is more a jungle than civilization” where one can survive only with “knowledge and understanding of the scene, with a sense of humor.”

Maxim Lieber

Maxim Lieber

Maxim Lieber was a prominent American literary agent in New York City during the 1930s and 1940s. The Soviet spy Whittaker Chambers named him as an accomplice in 1949, and Lieber fled first to Mexico and then Poland not long after Alger Hiss's conviction in 1950.

Anisfield-Wolf Book Award

Anisfield-Wolf Book Award

The Anisfield-Wolf Book Award is an American literary award dedicated to honoring written works that make important contributions to the understanding of racism and the appreciation of the rich diversity of human culture. Established in 1935 by Cleveland poet and philanthropist Edith Anisfield Wolf and originally administered by the Saturday Review, the awards have been administered by the Cleveland Foundation since 1963.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. As the leader of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. He built the New Deal Coalition, which defined modern liberalism in the United States throughout the middle third of the 20th century. His third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II, which ended in victory shortly after he died in office.

National Liberation Front (Greece)

National Liberation Front (Greece)

The National Liberation Front (Greek: Εθνικό Απελευθερωτικό Μέτωπο, Ethnikó Apeleftherotikó Métopo was an alliance of various political parties and organizations which fought to liberate Greece from Axis Occupation. It was the main movement of the Greek Resistance during the occupation of Greece. Its main driving force was the Communist Party of Greece, but its membership throughout the occupation included several other leftist and republican groups. ΕΑΜ became the first true mass social movement in modern Greek history. Its military wing, the Greek People's Liberation Army, quickly grew into the largest armed guerrilla force in the country, and the only one with nationwide presence. At the same time, from late 1943 onwards, the political enmity between ΕΑΜ and rival resistance groups from the centre and right evolved into a virtual civil war, while its relationship with the British and the British-backed Greek government in exile was characterized by mutual mistrust, leading EAM to establish its own government, the Political Committee of National Liberation, in the areas it had liberated in spring 1944. Tensions were resolved provisionally in the Lebanon Conference in May 1944, when EAM agreed to enter the Greek government in exile under Georgios Papandreou. The organization reached its peak after liberation in late 1944, when it controlled most of the country, before suffering a catastrophic military defeat against the British and the government forces in the Dekemvriana clashes. This marked the beginning of its gradual decline, the disarmament of ELAS, and the open persecution of its members during the "White Terror", leading eventually to the outbreak of the Greek Civil War.

Death

In 1951, he was found shot in his home in Milford, New Jersey, with his house burning and with a rifle in his hand.[16] It was supposed by assistant Hunterdon County physician Dr. John Fuhrmann to be suicide. However, State Police Lieutenant J.J. Harris implied that foul play was a possibility.[16] Found in Adamic's pocket by the police was a newspaper clipping of a story headlined "Adamic Red Spy, Woman Charges."[16]

Herbert Heisel, Hunterdon County Prosecutor, claimed that there was no reason to contradict the initial report of a suicide after further investigative and laboratory reports.[17]

John Roy Carlson, present at the burial of Adamic, said he believed he was murdered by communist enemies, who were threatened by the impending publication of The Eagle and the Root.[18] Other unnamed friends of Adamic were reported to have said that he was threatened due to his support of Tito in Yugoslavia.[19]

Anton Smole, of Tanjug, claimed Adamic had told of him of multiple occasions in which unknown men had threatened Adamic over his sympathies with Tito and Yugoslavia. Included in these claims is a reported visit to Adamic's farmhouse in October of 1949 from an unknown man who warned him to stop submitting magazine articles that were friendly to Yugoslavia. Reportedly, Adamic had also been beaten severely on a California beach sometime in 1951, and left with the warning that he would be killed if he continued writing about Yugoslavia.[20]

Ethel Sharp, Adamic's typist, claimed he had told her of an incident in October of 1950 in which four unidentified men visited Adamic's home and threateningly inquired into the progress of The Eagle and the Root. However, Adamic was apparently unfazed by the visit. The episode had not been reported to the authorities.[20]

In 1957, Howard L. Yowell, the then-current owner of the house where Adamic died, found $12,350 cash in a tin box within a wall of the farmhouse. The Flemington Police speculated that the money had belonged to Adamic.[21]

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Milford, New Jersey

Milford, New Jersey

Milford is a borough located in western Hunterdon County, in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2020 United States census, the borough's population was 1,232, a decrease of one person (−0.1%) from the 2010 census count of 1,233, which in turn reflected an increase of 38 (+3.2%) from the 1,195 counted at the 2000 census.

Hunterdon County, New Jersey

Hunterdon County, New Jersey

Hunterdon County is a county located in the western section of the U.S. state of New Jersey. At the 2020 census, the county was the state's 18th-most populous county, with a population of 128,947, an increase of 598 (+0.5%) from the 2010 census count of 128,349, which in turn reflected an increase of 6,360 (5.2%) from the 121,989 counted in the 2000 census. Its county seat is Flemington.

New Jersey State Police

New Jersey State Police

The New Jersey State Police (NJSP) is the official state police force of the U.S. state of New Jersey. It is a general-powers police agency with statewide jurisdiction, designated by troop sectors.

Arthur Derounian

Arthur Derounian

Arthur Derounian, also known as John Roy Carlson among many pen names, was an Armenian-American journalist and author, best-selling author of Under Cover.

Tanjug

Tanjug

Tanjug (/'tʌnjʊg/) was a Serbian state news agency based in Belgrade, which officially ceased to exist in March 2021. Since then, Belgrade based private company Tanjug Tačno, acquired the rights to use the intellectual property rights and trademarks of the former agency.

Flemington, New Jersey

Flemington, New Jersey

Flemington is a borough in and the county seat of Hunterdon County, in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2020 United States census, the borough's population was 4,876, an increase of 295 (+6.4%) from the 2010 census enumeration of 4,581, in turn reflecting an increase of 381 (+9.1%) from the 4,200 counted in the 2000 census. Most of the borough is located in the Amwell Valley and the Raritan Valley. Northwestern portions of the borough sit on the Hunterdon Plateau.

Legacy

According to John McAleer's Edgar Award-winning Rex Stout: A Biography (1977), it was the influence of Adamic that led Rex Stout to make his fictional detective Nero Wolfe a native of Montenegro, in what was then Yugoslavia.[22] Stout and Adamic were friends and frequent political allies, and Stout expressed uncertainty to McAleer about the circumstances of Adamic's death. In any case, the demise seems to have inspired Stout's 1954 novel The Black Mountain, in which Nero Wolfe returns to his homeland to hunt down the killers of an old friend.

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Writings

Louis Adamic in 1930 lecture poster
Louis Adamic in 1930 lecture poster

Articles in Harper's Magazine:

  • "Racketeers and Organized Labor" (1930)
  • "Sabotage" (1930)
  • "Tragic Towns of New England" (1931)
  • "The Land of Promise" (1931)
  • "The Collapse of Organized Labor" (1931)
  • "Wedding in Carniola" (1932)
  • "Home Again from America," (1932)[23]
  • "Death in Carniola" (1933)
  • "Thirty Million New Americans" (1934)
  • "Education on a Mountain" (1936)
  • "Aliens and Alien-Baiters" (1936)
  • "The Millvale Apparition" (1938)
  • "Death in Front of the Church" (1943)

Books:

Translator:

  • Yugoslav Proverbs (1923)
  • Yerney's Justice by Ivan Cankar (1926)
  • Struggle by anonymous Yugoslav informants (1934)
  • Yugoslavia and Italy by Josip Broz Tito (1944)
  • Liberation. Death to Fascism! Liberty to the People! Picture Story of the Yugoslav People's Epic Struggle against the Enemy—To Win Unity and a Decent Future, 1941–1945 (1945)
Adamic wrote a biography of Robinson Jeffers (here in 1937, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, via Library of Congress)
Adamic wrote a biography of Robinson Jeffers (here in 1937, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, via Library of Congress)

Author:

  • Truth about Los Angeles (1927)
  • Word of Satan in the Bible: Christians Rightly Regard Ecclesiastes Suspiciously (1928)
  • Robinson Jeffers: A Portrait (1929, 1970, 1977, 1983)
  • Dynamite: The Story of Class Violence in America (1931, 1960, 1976, 1983, 1984, 2008) ISBN 978-1-904-85974-1, 1904859747
  • Boj (1969)
  • Laughing in the Jungle: The Autobiography of an Immigrant in America (1932, 1969) ISBN 978-0-405-00503-9
    • Smeh v džungli: Avtobiografija ameriškega priseljenca (slovenian - transl Stanko Leben 1933) COBISS 383817, slovenian - transl Rapa Šuklje) COBISS 176926
    • Smijeh u džungli : autobiografija jednog američkog useljenika (1932)
  • The Native's Return: an American Immigrant Visits Yugoslavia and Discovers His Old Country (1934, 1943, 1975) ISBN 0282571906, 978-0282571900
  • Grandsons: A Story of American Lives (1935, 1983)
  • Lucas, King of the Balucas (1935)
  • Cradle of Life: The Story of One Man's Beginnings (1936)
  • House in Antigua: A Restoration (1937)
  • My America, 1928–1938 (1938, 1976) ISBN 0781280028, 978-0781280020
  • America and the Refugees (1939, 1940)
  • From Many Lands (1940)
  • Plymouth Rock and Ellis Island: Summary of a Lecture (1940)
  • Two-Way Passage (1941)
  • Inside Yugoslavia (1942)
  • What's Your Name? (1942)
  • Foreign-Born Americans and the War with George F. Addes (1943)
  • My Native Land (1943) ISBN 9781789127867
  • Nation of Nations (1945)
  • Dinner at the White House (1946) ISBN 1296826864, 978-1296826864
  • The Eagle and the Roots (1952, 1970) ISBN 0837138094

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Harper's Magazine

Harper's Magazine

Harper's Magazine is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts. Launched in New York City in June 1850, it is the second-oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the U.S.. Harper's Magazine has won 22 National Magazine Awards.

Ivan Cankar

Ivan Cankar

Ivan Cankar was a Slovene writer, playwright, essayist, poet, and political activist. Together with Oton Župančič, Dragotin Kette, and Josip Murn, he is considered as the beginner of modernism in Slovene literature. He is regarded as the greatest writer in Slovene, and has sometimes been compared to Franz Kafka and James Joyce.

Josip Broz Tito

Josip Broz Tito

Josip Broz, commonly known as Tito, was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various positions of national leadership from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II, he was the leader of the Yugoslav Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in German-occupied Europe. He also served as the president of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 14 January 1953 until his death on 4 May 1980.

Robinson Jeffers

Robinson Jeffers

John Robinson Jeffers was an American poet, known for his work about the central California coast. Much of Jeffers's poetry was written in narrative and epic form. However, he is also known for his shorter verse and is considered an icon of the environmental movement. Influential and highly regarded in some circles, despite or because of his philosophy of "inhumanism", Jeffers believed that transcending conflict required human concerns to be de-emphasized in favor of the boundless whole. This led him to oppose U.S. participation in World War II, a stance that was controversial after the U.S. entered the war.

Carl Van Vechten

Carl Van Vechten

Carl Van Vechten was an American writer and artistic photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. He gained fame as a writer, and notoriety as well, for his 1926 novel Nigger Heaven. In his later years, he took up photography and took many portraits of notable people. Although he was married to women for most of his adult years, Van Vechten engaged in numerous homosexual affairs over his lifetime.

Dynamite: The Story of Class Violence in America

Dynamite: The Story of Class Violence in America

Dynamite: The Story of Class Violence in America is a 1931 book by Louis Adamic.

Source: "Louis Adamic", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Adamic.

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Notes
  1. ^ Adamic told The Literary Digest: "My name is pronounced in this country (America) exactly as the word Adamic, pertaining to Adam: a-dam′-ik."[1][2] His original surname was Adamič, pronounced in Slovenian a-DAH-mich.
  2. ^ The year 1899 is often cited and is also written on Adamic's tombstone, but is incorrect. It was written in Adamič's certificate of origin by the mayor in Grosuplje in 1913, in order to enable Adamic to leave Austro-Hungarian Empire, which did not allow 15-year-old boys to leave the country, because they were to enter the army.[3] The correct year is written in the register of births of the Parish of Žalna.[4]
References
  1. ^ Nutall, Dorothy (August 16, 1936). "The Librarian's Corner". The Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh, PA. p. 32. Retrieved October 26, 2021 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  2. ^ Funk, C. E. (1936) What's the Name, Please?: A guide to the correct pronunciation of current prominent names, Funk & Wagnalls Company, Digitized February 12, 2010
  3. ^ "Unknown". Slavistična revija. Slavistično društvo v Ljubljani, Inštitut za slovenski jezik, Inštitut za literaturo, 1982. 30: 352. 1982.
  4. ^ Adamič, France (1983). Spomini in pričevanja o življenju in delu Louisa Adamiča [Memories and Testimonies about the Life and Work of Louis Adamic] (in Slovenian). Ljubljana: Prešernova družba [Prešeren's Society]. p. 19. COBISS 14064129.
  5. ^ Shiffman, D. (2003) Rooting Multiculturalism: The Work of Louis Adamic, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, ISBN 9780838640029
  6. ^ Taufbuch. Žalna. 1846–1900. p. 219. Retrieved November 26, 2022.
  7. ^ Granatir Alexander, June (2000). "Adamic, Louis". American National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.1600006. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
  8. ^ Adamic, Louis. Laughing in the Jungle: The Autobiography of an Immigrant in America. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1932. Reprinted by Arno Press and The New York Times, 1969; pp. 10–35.
  9. ^ In his author's note to his autobiography, Laughing in the Jungle (1932), Adamic describes himself as being "a boy of fourteen and a half" in 1913, when he left his native country for America (p. ix). "Late in the afternoon of the last day of 1913 I was examined for entry into the United States, with about a hundred other immigrants who had come on the Niagara (p. 43).
  10. ^ "LOUIS ADAMIČ, Slovene-American author and translator..."{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ "From Many Lands". Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  12. ^ "Mr. Churchill gets damages and apology", The Manchester Guardian, January 16, 1947, p. 3.
  13. ^ "Libel on Churchill – damages £5,000", Daily Express, January 16, 1947, p. 3.
  14. ^ "The SS Suppressed Safe Collection of the British Library". Scissors & Paste Bibliographies. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  15. ^ John P. Enyeart, "Revolutionizing Cultural Pluralism: The Political Odyssey of Louis Adamic, 1932-1951", Journal of American Ethnic History, 34:3, (Spring 2015), pp. 58-90
  16. ^ a b c Times, Meyer Berger Special To the New York (September 5, 1951). "Adamic Dies of Shot, Home Aflame; Suicide Verdict Studied in Jersey; LOUIS ADAMIC DIES, APPARENT SUICIDE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  17. ^ TIMES, Special to THE NEW YORK (September 27, 1951). "ADAMIC CALLED SUICIDE; Prosecutor Says Inquiries Back 'Tentative Conclusion'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  18. ^ TIMES, Special to THE NEW YORK (September 8, 1951). "YUGOSLAV OFFICIALS AT BURIAL OF ADAMIC". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  19. ^ TIMES, Special to THE NEW YORK (September 9, 1951). "ADAMIC RIFLE EXAMINED; No Fingerprints 'of Value' Are Found by Jersey Police". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  20. ^ a b TIMES, Special to THE NEW YORK (September 6, 1951). "MOTIVE IS SOUGHT IN ADAMIC'S DEATH; Officials Believe Writer Was a Suicide, but Push Inquiry F.B.I. Drops Case F.B.I. Not Investigating Budenz Sees Murder Possibility". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  21. ^ Times, Special to The New York (August 2, 1957). "$12,350 IS DUG OUT OF AUTHOR'S HOME; Cash Found in Burned Wall of Jersey House Owned by Late Louis Adamic Bills Disintegrating". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  22. ^ For more information see the origins section of the article on Nero Wolfe.
  23. ^ Adamic, Louis (October 1932). "Home Again From America". Harper's Magazine. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
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