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Lord Hawkesbury (1787 ship)

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History
U.S.
Launched1781[1]
FateSold c.1787
Great Britain
NameLord Hawkesbury
NamesakeCharles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of Liverpool
Owner
  • 1787: A. & B. Champion
  • 1792:Daniel Bennet
Acquired1787 by purchase
Captured15 May 1796
FateWrecked 26 May 1796
General characteristics
Tons burthen205,[1] or 219[3] (bm)
Length89 ft 0 in (27.1 m)[2]
Beam25 ft 3+12 in (7.7 m)[2]
NotesTwo decks and three masts

Lord Hawkesbury was launched in the United States in 1781, probably under another name. She entered Lloyd's Register in 1787. She made six voyages as a whaler. On her second whaling voyage she "the first parcel of ambergris 'by any English whaler'". She was lost on the seventh after a squadron of French naval vessels had captured her. One of her original, British crew succeeded in regaining sufficient control from her prize crew to enable him to run her aground, wrecking her.

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United States

United States

The United States of America, commonly known as the United States or informally America, is a country in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, nine Minor Outlying Islands, and 326 Indian reservations. It is the third-largest country by both land and total area. The United States shares land borders with Canada to its north and with Mexico to its south. It has maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, Russia, and other nations. With a population of over 331 million, it is the third most populous country in the world. The national capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city and financial center is New York City.

Lloyd's Register

Lloyd's Register

Lloyd's Register Group Limited (LR) is a technical and professional services organisation and a maritime classification society, wholly owned by the Lloyd’s Register Foundation, a UK charity dedicated to research and education in science and engineering. The organisation dates to 1760. Its stated aims are to enhance the safety of life, property, and the environment, by helping its clients to improve the safety and performance of complex projects, supply chains and critical infrastructure.

Whaler

Whaler

A whaler or whaling ship is a specialized vessel, designed or adapted for whaling: the catching or processing of whales.

Ambergris

Ambergris

Ambergris, ambergrease, or grey amber is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whales. Freshly produced ambergris has a marine, fecal odor. It acquires a sweet, earthy scent as it ages, commonly likened to the fragrance of Isopropyl alcohol without the vaporous chemical astringency.

Career

Lord Hawkesbury first appeared in Lloyd's Register in 1787. Her master was T. Delano, her owners A[lexander] and Benjamin] Champion, and her trade London-Southern Fishery.[1]

1st whaling voyage (1787–1788): Captain Thomas Delano sailed from England on 7 September 1787, bound for South Georgia. He returned on 12 September 1788 with 35 tuns of sperm oil, eight tuns of whale oil, and four hundredweight (cwt) of whale bone (baleen).[3]

Lord Hawkesbury, Henry Delano, master, may have made an earlier seal hunting voyage to South Georgia. One report has her there in 1786.[4]

2nd whaling voyage (1788–1789): Captain Delano sailed from England on 14 November 1788. He hunted whales in the Atlantic. In January 1789 Lord Hawkesbury and several other whalers, including Spy, were "all well" off the coast of Guinea.[5] Lord Hawkesbury returned on 25 August 1789 with 34 tuns of sperm oil and reportedly "the first parcel of ambergris 'by any English whaler'".[3]

3rd whaling voyage (1789–1790): Captain Joshua Coffin sailed from England on 15 October 1789. He hunted whales in the Atlantic and returned to England on 6 December 1790. Lord Hawkesbury brought 76 tons sperm oil and headmatter, and 360 ounces of ambergris, which sold at £19 6s per ounce.[3]

4th whaling voyage (1791–1792): Captain Barnabas Gardner sailed from England on 16 February 1791. He too hunted for whales in the Atlantic and returned to England on 27 April 1792.[3]

The Champions sold Lord Hawkesbury to Daniel Bennett, a leading shipowner of whalers sailing the Southern Whale Fishery.

5th whaling voyage (1792–1793): Captain William Wilkinson sailed from England on 8 September 1792, bound for the Atlantic and the west coast of Africa. He returned on 4 October 1793. Lord Hawkesbury brought back 55 tuns of sperm oil, 60 tuns of whale oil, 40 cwt of whale bone.[3]

6th whaling voyage (1794): Captain Mackay (or Henry Mackie), sailed from England on 21 January 1794, bound for Walvis Bay. He returned on 29 November with eight tuns of sperm oil, 110 tuns of whale oil, and 75 cwt of whale bone.[3]

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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote and inhospitable collection of islands, consisting of South Georgia and a chain of smaller islands known as the South Sandwich Islands. South Georgia is 165 kilometres (103 mi) long and 35 kilometres (22 mi) wide and is by far the largest island in the territory. The South Sandwich Islands lie about 700 kilometres (430 mi) southeast of South Georgia. The territory's total land area is 3,903 km2 (1,507 sq mi). The Falkland Islands are about 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) west from its nearest point.

Sperm oil

Sperm oil

Sperm oil is a waxy liquid obtained from sperm whales. It is a clear, yellowish liquid with a very faint odor. Sperm oil has a different composition from common whale oil, obtained from rendered blubber. Although it is traditionally called an "oil", it is technically a liquid wax. It is composed of wax esters with a small proportion of triglycerides, an ester of an unsaturated fatty acid, and a branched-chain fatty alcohol. It is a natural antioxidant and heat-transfer agent. In the late-18th and early-19th centuries, sperm oil was prized as an illuminant for its bright, odorless flame and as a lubricant for its low viscosity and stability. It was supplanted in the late 19th century by less expensive alternatives such as kerosene and petroleum-based lubricants. With the 1987 international ban on whaling, sperm oil is no longer legally sold.

Hundredweight

Hundredweight

The hundredweight, formerly also known as the centum weight or quintal, is a British imperial and US customary unit of weight or mass. Its value differs between the US and British imperial systems. The two values are distinguished in American English as the "short" and "long" hundredweight and in British English as the "cental" and the "imperial hundredweight".The short hundredweight or cental of 100 pounds (45.36 kg) is used in the United States. The long or imperial hundredweight of 8 stone or 112 pounds (50.80 kg) is defined in the imperial system.

Baleen

Baleen

Baleen is a filter-feeding system inside the mouths of baleen whales. To use baleen, the whale first opens its mouth underwater to take in water. The whale then pushes the water out, and animals such as krill are filtered by the baleen and remain as a food source for the whale. Baleen is similar to bristles and consists of keratin, the same substance found in human fingernails, skin and hair. Baleen is a skin derivative. Some whales, such as the bowhead whale, have longer baleen than others. Other whales, such as the gray whale, only use one side of their baleen. These baleen bristles are arranged in plates across the upper jaw of whales.

Seal hunting

Seal hunting

Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals. Seal hunting is currently practiced in ten countries: United States, Canada, Namibia, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Finland and Sweden. Most of the world's seal hunting takes place in Canada and Greenland.

Spy (1781 ship)

Spy (1781 ship)

Spy was built in France in 1780, almost surely under another name, and taken in prize. The British East India Company (EIC) purchased her in 1781 and used her for almost two years as a fast packet vessel and cruiser based in St Helena. It then sold her and she became a London-based slave ship, making two voyages carrying slaves from West Africa to the West Indies. She then became a whaler, making seven whaling voyages between 1786 and 1795. She was probably wrecked in August 1795 on a voyage as a government transport.

Ambergris

Ambergris

Ambergris, ambergrease, or grey amber is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whales. Freshly produced ambergris has a marine, fecal odor. It acquires a sweet, earthy scent as it ages, commonly likened to the fragrance of Isopropyl alcohol without the vaporous chemical astringency.

£sd

£sd

£sd is the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies once common throughout Europe, especially in the British Isles and hence in several countries of the British Empire and subsequently the Commonwealth. The abbreviation originates from the Latin currency denominations librae, solidi, and denarii. In the United Kingdom, these were referred to as pounds, shillings, and pence.

Shilling

Shilling

The shilling is a historical coin, and the name of a unit of modern currencies formerly used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, other British Commonwealth countries and Ireland, where they were generally equivalent to 12 pence or one-twentieth of a pound before being phased out during the 20th century.

List of ships owned by Daniel Bennett & Son

List of ships owned by Daniel Bennett & Son

By the early 19th century, Daniel Bennett was the most important owner of vessels engaging in whale hunting in the Southern Whale Fishery. At one point he had some 17 vessels out whale hunting. He also owned vessels that were traders rather than whalers.

Walvis Bay

Walvis Bay

Walvis Bay is a city in Namibia and the name of the bay on which it lies. It is the second largest city in Namibia and the largest coastal city in the country. The city covers a total area of 29 square kilometres (11 sq mi) of land.

Capture and loss

Lord Hawkesbury set out on a seventh voyage under Captain Mackay. She was lost on 26 May 1796 near the Cape of Good Hope.[6]

Lord Hawkesbury stopped at Rio de Janeiro in March 1796. Some of the crew had scurvy, and she was in need of refreshments, and calefaction.[7] She was sailing for the whaling grounds at Walvis Bay when on 15 May 1796 at 31°S 8°E / 31°S 8°E / -31; 8 she encountered a squadron of four large French frigates. These were:[8]

They were part of a larger force under Admiral Sercey. He had taken his force on to Île de France but had left the four frigates to patrol between St Helena and the Cape to intercept and capture East Indiamen of the British East India Company (EIC).[8]

The French pillaged Lord Hawkesbury and put a prize crew on board her consisting of an officer and 13 seamen. They took off almost all of her crew, leaving only two sailors, David Liang and Robert Morrow, and a boy to help the prize crew sail her to Île de France.[8]

On 26 May 1796 Lord Hawkesbury was off the east coast of Africa with Morrow at the helm. The French were not paying attention and Morrow succeeded in running her aground at Zoetendal's Vlei (34°43′S 20°8′E / 34.717°S 20.133°E / -34.717; 20.133), east of Simon's Bay. Although she was wrecked, there were no casualties and Morrow, Liang, and the boy left the Frenchmen in the custody of local Boers. The Englishmen then walked to Cape Town, arriving there on 4 June.[8]

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Cape of Good Hope

Cape of Good Hope

The Cape of Good Hope is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa.

Scurvy

Scurvy

Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C. Early symptoms of deficiency include weakness, feeling tired and sore arms and legs. Without treatment, decreased red blood cells, gum disease, changes to hair, and bleeding from the skin may occur. As scurvy worsens there can be poor wound healing, personality changes, and finally death from infection or bleeding.

French frigate Forte (1794)

French frigate Forte (1794)

Forte was a French 42-gun frigate, lead ship of her class.

Hubert Le Loup de Beaulieu

Hubert Le Loup de Beaulieu

Hubert Le Loup de Beaulieu, often written Beaulieu-Leloup, was a French East India Company and later Navy officer. He was a cousin to Louis Garneray.

French frigate Vertu (1794)

French frigate Vertu (1794)

Vertu was a 40-gun French frigate designed by engineer Segondat. She served in Sercey's squadron in the Indian Ocean, and in Saint-Domingue. She was captured by the Royal Navy at the end of the Blockade of Saint-Domingue when the island surrendered to the British. After her capture the Navy sailed her to Britain but never commissioned her, and finally sold her in 1810.

HMS Seine (1798)

HMS Seine (1798)

Seine was a 38-gun French Seine-class frigate that the Royal Navy captured in 1798 and commissioned as the fifth-rate HMS Seine. On 20 August 1800, Seine captured the French ship Vengeance in a single ship action that would win for her crew the Naval General Service Medal. Seine's career ended in 1803 when she hit a sandbank near the Texel.

French frigate Régénérée (1794)

French frigate Régénérée (1794)

Régénérée was a 40-gun Cocarde-class frigate of the French Navy. The British captured her in 1801 at the fall of Alexandria, named her HMS Alexandria, sailed her back to Britain, but never commissioned her. She was broken up in 1804.

Jean-Baptiste Philibert Willaumez

Jean-Baptiste Philibert Willaumez

Jean-Baptiste Philibert Willaumez was a French sailor, Navy officer, and admiral of the First French Empire.

Pierre César Charles de Sercey

Pierre César Charles de Sercey

Pierre César Charles de Sercey was a French admiral, most notable for commanding French naval forces in the Indian Ocean from 1796 to 1800. His name is engraved on the Arc de triomphe.

Isle de France (Mauritius)

Isle de France (Mauritius)

Isle de France was the name of the Indian Ocean island which is known as Mauritius and its dependent territories between 1715 and 1810, when the area was under the French East India Company and a part of the French colonial empire. Under the French, the island witnessed major changes. The increasing importance of agriculture led to the importation of slaves and the undertaking of vast infrastructural works that transformed Port Louis into a major capital, port, warehousing, and commercial centre.

Saint Helena

Saint Helena

Saint Helena is a British overseas territory located in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote volcanic tropical island 1,950 kilometres west of the coast of south-western Africa, and 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) east of Rio de Janeiro in South America. It is one of three constituent parts of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

East India Company

East India Company

The East India Company (EIC) was an English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600 and dissolved in 1874. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies, and later with East Asia. The company seized control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong. At its peak, the company was the largest corporation in the world. The EIC had its own armed forces in the form of the company's three Presidency armies, totalling about 260,000 soldiers, twice the size of the British army at the time. The operations of the company had a profound effect on the global balance of trade, almost single-handedly reversing the trend of eastward drain of Western bullion, seen since Roman times.

Source: "Lord Hawkesbury (1787 ship)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Hawkesbury_(1787_ship).

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Citations
  1. ^ a b c Lloyd's Register (1787), Seq.№L346.
  2. ^ a b Stanbury et al. (2015), App.7.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g British Southern Whale Fishery Database – Voyages: Lord Hawkesbury.
  4. ^ Stackpole (1972), p. 357.
  5. ^ "The Marine List". Lloyd's List. No. 2095. 2 June 1789. hdl:2027/uc1.c3049065. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  6. ^ Lloyd's List №2874.
  7. ^ Clayton (2014), pp. 163–6.
  8. ^ a b c d Theal (1897), pp.382-4.
References
  • Clayton, Jane M (2014). Ships employed in the South Sea Whale Fishery from Britain: 1775–1815: An alphabetical list of ships. Berforts Group. ISBN 9781908616524.
  • Stackpole, Edouard A. (1972). Whales: the rivalry between America, France, and Britain for control of the southern whale fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts. ISBN 978-0870231049.
  • Stanbury, Myra; Henderson, Kandy-Jane; Derrien, Bernard; Bigourdan, Nicolas; Le Touze, Evelyne (2015). "Chapter 18: Epilogue". In Stanbury, Myra (ed.). The Mermaid Atoll Shipwreck: A Mysterious Early 19th-century Loss. Fremantle, WA: Australian National Centre of Excellence for Maritime Archaeology and the Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology. pp. 235–290. ISBN 9781876465094.
  • Theal, George McCall, ed. (1897). Records of the Cape Colony: Feb.1793–Dec.1796. Government of the Cape Colony.

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