Get Our Extension

Lobster

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Lobster
Temporal range: Valanginian–Recent
KreeftbijDenOsse.jpg
European lobster
(Homarus gammarus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Suborder: Pleocyemata
Superfamily: Nephropoidea
Family: Nephropidae
Dana, 1852
Genera[1]
Lobsters awaiting purchase in Trenton, Maine
Lobsters awaiting purchase in Trenton, Maine

Lobsters are a family (Nephropidae, synonym Homaridae[2]) of marine crustaceans. They have long bodies with muscular tails and live in crevices or burrows on the sea floor. Three of their five pairs of legs have claws, including the first pair, which are usually much larger than the others. Highly prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important and are often one of the most profitable commodities in the coastal areas they populate.[3]

Commercially important species include two species of Homarus from the northern Atlantic Ocean and scampi (which look more like a shrimp, or a "mini lobster")—the Northern Hemisphere genus Nephrops and the Southern Hemisphere genus Metanephrops.

Discover more about Lobster related topics

Family (biology)

Family (biology)

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy. It is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as the "walnut family".

Synonym (taxonomy)

Synonym (taxonomy)

The Botanical and Zoological Codes of nomenclature treat the concept of synonymy differently.In botanical nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use, so it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. In zoology, moving a species from one genus to another results in a different binomen, but the name is considered an alternative combination rather than a synonym. The concept of synonymy in zoology is reserved for two names at the same rank that refers to a taxon at that rank – for example, the name Papilio prorsa Linnaeus, 1758 is a junior synonym of Papilio levana Linnaeus, 1758, being names for different seasonal forms of the species now referred to as Araschnia levana (Linnaeus, 1758), the map butterfly. However, Araschnia levana is not a synonym of Papilio levana in the taxonomic sense employed by the Zoological code.

Seafood

Seafood

Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish and shellfish. Shellfish include various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Historically, marine mammals such as cetaceans as well as seals have been eaten as food, though that happens to a lesser extent in modern times. Edible sea plants such as some seaweeds and microalgae are widely eaten as sea vegetables around the world, especially in Asia.

Homarus

Homarus

Homarus is a genus of lobsters, which include the common and commercially significant species Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus. The Cape lobster, which was formerly in this genus as H. capensis, was moved in 1995 to the new genus Homarinus.

Scampi

Scampi

Scampi, also called Dublin Bay Prawn or Norway Lobster, is an edible lobster of the order Decapoda. It is widespread in the Mediterranean and northeastern Atlantic, from North Africa to Norway and Iceland, and is a gastronomic delicacy. Scampi became the only species in the genus Nephrops after several other species were moved to the closely related genus Metanephrops.

Shrimp

Shrimp

Shrimp are crustaceans with elongated bodies and a primarily swimming mode of locomotion – most commonly Caridea and Dendrobranchiata of the decapod order, although some crustaceans outside of this order are referred to as "shrimp".

Nephrops

Nephrops

Nephrops is a genus of lobsters comprising a single extant species, Nephrops norvegicus, and several fossil species. It was erected by William Elford Leach in 1814, to accommodate N. norvegicus alone, which had previously been placed in genera such as Cancer, Astacus or Homarus. Nephrops means "kidney eye" and refers to the shape of the animal's compound eye.

Metanephrops

Metanephrops

Metanephrops is a genus of lobsters, commonly known as scampi. Important species for fishery include Metanephrops australiensis and Metanephrops challengeri. It differs from other lobsters such as Homarus and Nephrops norvegicus in that its two main claws are of equal size, rather than being differentiated into a crusher and a pincher. There are 18 extant species recognised in the genus:

Distinction

Although several other groups of crustaceans have the word "lobster" in their names, the unqualified term "lobster" generally refers to the clawed lobsters of the family Nephropidae.[4] Clawed lobsters are not closely related to spiny lobsters or slipper lobsters, which have no claws (chelae), or to squat lobsters. The most similar living relatives of clawed lobsters are the reef lobsters and the three families of freshwater crayfish.

Discover more about Distinction related topics

Spiny lobster

Spiny lobster

Spiny lobsters, also known as langustas, langouste, or rock lobsters, are a family (Palinuridae) of about 60 species of achelate crustaceans, in the Decapoda Reptantia. Spiny lobsters are also, especially in Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, South Africa, and The Bahamas, called crayfish, sea crayfish, or crawfish, terms which elsewhere are reserved for freshwater crayfish.

Slipper lobster

Slipper lobster

Slipper lobsters are a family (Scyllaridae) of about 90 species of achelate crustaceans, in the Decapoda clade Reptantia, found in all warm oceans and seas. They are not true lobsters, but are more closely related to spiny lobsters and furry lobsters. Slipper lobsters are instantly recognisable by their enlarged antennae, which project forward from the head as wide plates. All the species of slipper lobsters are edible, and some, such as the Moreton Bay bug and the Balmain bug are of commercial importance.

Chela (organ)

Chela (organ)

A chela – also called a claw, nipper, or pincer – is a pincer-like organ at the end of certain limbs of some arthropods. The name comes from Ancient Greek χηλή, through New Latin chela. The plural form is chelae. Legs bearing a chela are called chelipeds. Another name is claw because most chelae are curved and have a sharp point like a claw.

Squat lobster

Squat lobster

Squat lobsters are dorsoventrally flattened crustaceans with long tails held curled beneath the cephalothorax. They are found in the two superfamilies Galatheoidea and Chirostyloidea, which form part of the decapod infraorder Anomura, alongside groups including the hermit crabs and mole crabs. They are distributed worldwide in the oceans, and occur from near the surface to deep sea hydrothermal vents, with one species occupying caves above sea level. More than 900 species have been described, in around 60 genera. Some species form dense aggregations, either on the sea floor or in the water column, and a small number are commercially fished.

Reef lobster

Reef lobster

Reef lobsters, Enoplometopus, are a genus of small lobsters that live on reefs in the Indo-Pacific, Caribbean and warmer parts of the Atlantic Ocean.

Crayfish

Crayfish

Crayfish are freshwater crustaceans belonging to the clade Astacidea, which also contains lobsters. In some locations, they are also known as baybugs, crabfish, crawfish, crawdaddies, crawdads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs, rock lobsters, signal crawfish, or yabbies. Taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea. They breathe through feather-like gills. Some species are found in brooks and streams, where fresh water is running, while others thrive in swamps, ditches, and paddy fields. Most crayfish cannot tolerate polluted water, although some species, such as Procambarus clarkii, are hardier. Crayfish feed on animals and plants, either living or decomposing, and detritus.

Description

European lobster with cut antennae
European lobster with cut antennae

Body

Lobsters are invertebrates with a hard protective exoskeleton.[5] Like most arthropods, lobsters must shed to grow, which leaves them vulnerable. During the shedding process, several species change color. Lobsters have eight walking legs; the front three pairs bear claws, the first of which are larger than the others. The front pincers are also biologically considered legs, so they belong in the order Decapods ("ten-footed").[6] Although lobsters are largely bilaterally symmetrical like most other arthropods, some genera possess unequal, specialized claws.

Lobster anatomy includes two main body parts: the cephalothorax and the abdomen. The cephalothorax fuses the head and the thorax, both of which are covered by a chitinous carapace. The lobster's head bears antennae, antennules, mandibles, the first and second maxillae. The head also bears the (usually stalked) compound eyes. Because lobsters live in murky environments at the bottom of the ocean, they mostly use their antennae as sensors. The lobster eye has a reflective structure above a convex retina. In contrast, most complex eyes use refractive ray concentrators (lenses) and a concave retina.[7] The lobster's thorax is composed of maxillipeds, appendages that function primarily as mouthparts, and pereiopods, appendages that serve for walking and for gathering food. The abdomen includes pleopods (also known as swimmerets), used for swimming, as well as the tail fan, composed of uropods and the telson.

Lobsters, like snails and spiders, have blue blood due to the presence of hemocyanin, which contains copper.[8] In contrast, vertebrates, and many other animals have red blood from iron-rich hemoglobin. Lobsters possess a green hepatopancreas, called the tomalley by chefs, which functions as the animal's liver and pancreas.[9]

Lobsters of the family Nephropidae are similar in overall form to several other related groups. They differ from freshwater crayfish in lacking the joint between the last two segments of the thorax,[10] and they differ from the reef lobsters of the family Enoplometopidae in having full claws on the first three pairs of legs, rather than just one.[10] The distinctions from fossil families such as the Chilenophoberidae are based on the pattern of grooves on the carapace.[10]

Analysis of the neural gene complement revealed extraordinary development of the chemosensory machinery, including a profound diversification of ligand-gated ion channels and secretory molecules.[11]

Coloring

Typically, lobsters are dark colored, either bluish-green or greenish-brown, to blend in with the ocean floor, but they can be found in many colors.[12][13] Lobsters with atypical coloring are extremely rare, accounting for only a few of the millions caught every year, and due to their rarity, they usually are not eaten, instead being released back into the wild or donated to aquariums. Often, in cases of atypical coloring, there is a genetic factor, such as albinism or hermaphroditism. Special coloring does not appear to affect the lobster's taste once cooked; except for albinos, all lobsters possess astaxanthin, which is responsible for the bright red color lobsters turn after being cooked.[14]

Lobster Color Chart
Color Prevalence Notes Notable specimens
albino 1 in 100,000,000[15] Also called white; translucent; ghost; crystal.[16][17][18]
"cotton candy." 1 in 100,000,000[19] Also called pastel.[20] Possibly a sub-type of albino.[19] Haddie (2021, Maine)[21]
blue 1 in 1,000,000[22] to 1 in 2,000,000[23][24][25] Caused by a genetic defect.[22] Lord Stanley (2019, Massachusetts)[24][25](2019, St. Louis)[26] Lucky Blue (2022, Maine)[27]
calico 1 in 30,000,000[28] Eve (2019, Maryland)[29]
orange 1 in 30,000,000[30] Cheddar (2022, Florida)[31] Buscuit (2022, Mississippi)[32]
split-colored 1 in 50,000,000[33] Almost all split-coloreds are hermaphroditic.[16]
"Halloween" 1 in 50,000,000[33] to 1 in 100,000,000[34] Sub-type of split-colored, specifically orange and black.[35] Pinchy (2012, Massachusetts)[36]
red 1 in 10,000,000[35] to 1 in 30,000,000[37]
yellow 1 in 30,000,000[38]

Discover more about Description related topics

Decapod anatomy

Decapod anatomy

The decapod is made up of 20 body segments grouped into two main body parts: the cephalothorax and the pleon (abdomen). Each segment may possess one pair of appendages, although in various groups these may be reduced or missing. They are, from head to tail:

Invertebrate

Invertebrate

Invertebrates are a paraphyletic group of animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column, derived from the notochord. This is a grouping including all animals apart from the chordate subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include arthropods, mollusks, annelids, echinoderms and cnidarians.

Exoskeleton

Exoskeleton

An exoskeleton is an external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to an internal skeleton (endoskeleton) in for example, a human. In usage, some of the larger kinds of exoskeletons are known as "shells". Examples of exoskeletons within animals include the arthropod exoskeleton shared by chelicerates, myriapods, crustaceans, and insects, as well as the shell of certain sponges and the mollusc shell shared by snails, clams, tusk shells, chitons and nautilus. Some animals, such as the turtle, have both an endoskeleton and an exoskeleton.

Arthropod

Arthropod

Arthropods are invertebrate animals with an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Arthropoda. They are distinguished by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. Arthropods are bilaterally symmetrical and their body possesses an external skeleton. In order to keep growing, they must go through stages of moulting, a process by which they shed their exoskeleton to reveal a new one. Some species have wings. They are an extremely diverse group, with up to 10 million species.

Ecdysis

Ecdysis

Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa. Since the cuticle of these animals typically forms a largely inelastic exoskeleton, it is shed during growth and a new, larger covering is formed. The remnants of the old, empty exoskeleton are called exuviae.

Genus

Genus

Genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms as well as viruses. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Panthera leo (lion) and Panthera onca (jaguar) are two species within the genus Panthera. Panthera is a genus within the family Felidae.

Cephalothorax

Cephalothorax

The cephalothorax, also called prosoma in some groups, is a tagma of various arthropods, comprising the head and the thorax fused together, as distinct from the abdomen behind.. The word cephalothorax is derived from the Greek words for head and thorax. This fusion of the head and thorax is seen in chelicerates and crustaceans; in other groups, such as the Hexapoda, the head remains free of the thorax. In horseshoe crabs and many crustaceans, a hard shell called the carapace covers the cephalothorax.

Abdomen

Abdomen

The abdomen is the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The abdomen is the front part of the abdominal segment of the torso. The area occupied by the abdomen is called the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the posterior tagma of the body; it follows the thorax or cephalothorax.

Chitin

Chitin

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n ( KY-tin) is a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, an amide derivative of glucose. Chitin is probably the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature (behind only cellulose); an estimated 1 billion tons of chitin are produced each year in the biosphere. It is a primary component of cell walls in fungi (especially basidiomycetes and filamentous fungi), the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects, the radulae, cephalopod beaks and gladii of molluscs and in some nematodes and diatoms. It is also synthesised by at least some fish and lissamphibians. Commercially, chitin is extracted from the shells of crabs, shrimps, shellfish and lobsters, which are major by-products of the seafood industry. The structure of chitin is comparable to cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. It is functionally comparable to the protein keratin. Chitin has proved useful for several medicinal, industrial and biotechnological purposes.

Carapace

Carapace

A carapace is a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods, such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates, such as turtles and tortoises. In turtles and tortoises, the underside is called the plastron.

Antenna (biology)

Antenna (biology)

Antennae, sometimes referred to as "feelers", are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.

Compound eye

Compound eye

A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. It may consist of thousands of ommatidia, which are tiny independent photoreception units that consist of a cornea, lens, and photoreceptor cells which distinguish brightness and color. The image perceived by this arthropod eye is a combination of inputs from the numerous ommatidia, which are oriented to point in slightly different directions. Compared with single-aperture eyes, compound eyes have poor image resolution; however, they possess a very large view angle and the ability to detect fast movement and, in some cases, the polarization of light. Because a compound eye is made up of a collection of ommatidia, each with its own lens, light will enter each ommatidium instead of using a single entrance point. The individual light receptors behind each lens are then turned on and off due to a series of changes in the light intensity during movement or when an object is moving, creating a flicker-effect known as the flicker frequency, which is the rate at which the ommotadia are turned on and off– this facilitates faster reaction to movement; honey bees respond in 0.01s compared with 0.05s for humans.

Longevity

Lobsters live up to an estimated 45 to 50 years in the wild, although determining age is difficult:[39] it is typically estimated from size and other variables. Newer techniques may lead to more accurate age estimates.[40][41][42]

Research suggests that lobsters may not slow down, weaken or lose fertility with age and that older lobsters may be more fertile than younger.[43] This longevity may be due to telomerase, an enzyme that repairs long repetitive sections of DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes, referred to as telomeres. Telomerase is expressed by most vertebrates during embryonic stages but is generally absent from adult stages of life.[44] However, unlike most vertebrates, lobsters express telomerase as adults through most tissue, which has been suggested to be related to their longevity. Telomerase is especially present in green spotted lobsters - whose markings are thought to be produced by the enzyme interacting with their shell pigmentation.[45][46][47] Lobster longevity is limited by their size. Moulting requires metabolic energy, and the larger the lobster, the more energy is needed; 10 to 15% of lobsters die of exhaustion during moulting, while in older lobsters, moulting ceases and the exoskeleton degrades or collapses entirely, leading to death.[48][49]

Like many decapod crustaceans, lobsters grow throughout life and can add new muscle cells at each moult.[50] Lobster longevity allows them to reach impressive sizes. According to Guinness World Records, the largest lobster ever caught was in Nova Scotia, Canada, weighing 20.15 kilograms (44.4 lb).[51][52]

Discover more about Longevity related topics

Telomerase

Telomerase

Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres. A telomere is a region of repetitive sequences at each end of the chromosomes of most eukaryotes. Telomeres protect the end of the chromosome from DNA damage or from fusion with neighbouring chromosomes. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster lacks telomerase, but instead uses retrotransposons to maintain telomeres.

Enzyme

Enzyme

Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts by accelerating chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and the field of pseudoenzyme analysis recognizes that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.

Telomere

Telomere

A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences associated with specialized proteins at the ends of linear chromosomes. Telomeres are a widespread genetic feature most commonly found in eukaryotes. In most, if not all species possessing them, they protect the terminal regions of chromosomal DNA from progressive degradation and ensure the integrity of linear chromosomes by preventing DNA repair systems from mistaking the very ends of the DNA strand for a double-strand break.

Moulting

Moulting

In biology, moulting, or molting, also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body, either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.

Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 1999 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world. The brainchild of Sir Hugh Beaver, the book was co-founded by twin brothers Norris and Ross McWhirter in Fleet Street, London, in August 1955.

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland".

Ecology

Lobsters live in all oceans, on rocky, sandy, or muddy bottoms from the shoreline to beyond the edge of the continental shelf. They generally live singly in crevices or in burrows under rocks.[53]

Lobsters are omnivores and typically eat live prey such as fish, mollusks, other crustaceans, worms, and some plant life. They scavenge if necessary and are known to resort to cannibalism in captivity. However, when lobster skin is found in lobster stomachs, this is not necessarily evidence of cannibalism because lobsters eat their shed skin after moulting.[54] While cannibalism was thought to be nonexistent among wild lobster populations, it was observed in 2012 by researchers studying wild lobsters in Maine. These first known instances of lobster cannibalism in the wild are theorized to be attributed to a local population explosion among lobsters caused by the disappearance of many of the Maine lobsters' natural predators.[55]

In general, lobsters are 25–50 cm (10–20 in) long and move by slowly walking on the sea floor. However, they swim backward quickly when they flee by curling and uncurling their abdomens. A speed of 5 m/s (11 mph) has been recorded.[56] This is known as the caridoid escape reaction.

Symbiotic animals of the genus Symbion, the only known member of the phylum Cycliophora, live exclusively on lobster gills and mouthparts.[57] Different species of Symbion have been found on the three commercially important lobsters of the North Atlantic Ocean: Nephrops norvegicus, Homarus gammarus, and Homarus americanus.[57]

Discover more about Ecology related topics

Continental shelf

Continental shelf

A continental shelf is a portion of a continent that is submerged under an area of relatively shallow water, known as a shelf sea. Much of these shelves were exposed by drops in sea level during glacial periods. The shelf surrounding an island is known as an insular shelf.

Abdomen

Abdomen

The abdomen is the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The abdomen is the front part of the abdominal segment of the torso. The area occupied by the abdomen is called the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the posterior tagma of the body; it follows the thorax or cephalothorax.

Caridoid escape reaction

Caridoid escape reaction

The caridoid escape reaction, also known as lobstering or tail-flipping, refers to an innate escape mechanism in marine and freshwater crustaceans such as lobsters, krill, shrimp and crayfish.

Symbion

Symbion

Symbion is a genus of commensal aquatic animals, less than 0.5 mm wide, found living attached to the mouthparts of cold-water lobsters. They have sac-like bodies, and three distinctly different forms in different parts of their two-stage life-cycle. They appear so different from other animals that they were assigned their own, new phylum Cycliophora shortly after they were discovered in 1995. This was the first new phylum of multicelled organism to be discovered since the Loricifera in 1983.

Gill

Gill

A gill is a respiratory organ that many aquatic organisms use to extract dissolved oxygen from water and to excrete carbon dioxide. The gills of some species, such as hermit crabs, have adapted to allow respiration on land provided they are kept moist. The microscopic structure of a gill presents a large surface area to the external environment. Branchia is the zoologists' name for gills.

Nephrops norvegicus

Nephrops norvegicus

Nephrops norvegicus, known variously as the Norway lobster, Dublin Bay prawn, shlobster (shrimp-lobster), langoustine or scampi, is a slim, coral colored lobster which grows up to 25 cm (10 in) long, and is "the most important commercial crustacean in Europe". It is now the only extant species in the genus Nephrops, after several other species were moved to the closely related genus Metanephrops. It lives in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, and parts of the Mediterranean Sea, but is absent from the Baltic Sea and Black Sea. Adults emerge from their burrows at night to feed on worms and fish.

Homarus gammarus

Homarus gammarus

Homarus gammarus, known as the European lobster or common lobster, is a species of clawed lobster from the eastern Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and parts of the Black Sea. It is closely related to the American lobster, H. americanus. It may grow to a length of 60 cm (24 in) and a mass of 6 kilograms (13 lb), and bears a conspicuous pair of claws. In life the lobsters are blue, only becoming "lobster red" on cooking. Mating occurs in the summer, producing eggs which are carried by the females for up to a year before hatching into planktonic larvae. Homarus gammarus is a highly esteemed food, and is widely caught using lobster pots, mostly around the British Isles.

As food

Boiled lobster ready for eating
Boiled lobster ready for eating
Lobster served in Stokkseyri, Iceland
Lobster served in Stokkseyri, Iceland

Lobster is commonly served boiled or steamed in the shell. Diners crack the shell with lobster crackers and fish out the meat with lobster picks. The meat is often eaten with melted butter and lemon juice. Lobster is also used in soup, bisque, lobster rolls, cappon magro, and dishes such as lobster Newberg and lobster Thermidor.

Cooks boil or steam live lobsters. When a lobster is cooked, its shell's color changes from blue to orange because the heat from cooking breaks down a protein called crustacyanin, which suppresses the orange hue of the chemical astaxanthin, which is also found in the shell.[58]

According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the mean level of mercury in American lobster between 2005 and 2007 was 0.107 ppm.[59]

History

Lobster rolls in Kent, England
Lobster rolls in Kent, England
Lobster, Crab, and a Cucumber by William Henry Hunt (watercolour, 1826 or 1827)
Lobster, Crab, and a Cucumber by William Henry Hunt (watercolour, 1826 or 1827)

Humans have eaten lobster since the prehistoric period. Large piles of lobster shells near areas populated by fishing communities attest to the crustacean's extreme popularity during this period. Evidence indicates that lobster was being consumed as a regular food product in fishing communities along the shores of Britain,[60] South Africa ~100,000 years ago,[60] Australia, and Papua New Guinea ~35,000 years ago. Lobster became a significant source of nutrients among European coastal dwellers. Historians suggest lobster was an important secondary food source for most European coastal dwellers, and it was a primary food source for coastal communities in Britain during this time.[60]

Lobster became a popular mid-range delicacy during the mid to late Roman period. The price of lobster could vary widely due to various factors, but evidence indicates that lobster was regularly transported inland over long distances to meet popular demand. A mosaic found in the ruins of Pompeii suggests that the spiny lobster was of considerable interest to the Roman population during the early imperial period.[61]

Lobster was a popular food among the Moche people of Peru between 50 CE and 800 CE. Besides its use as food, lobster shells were also used to create a light pink dye, ornaments, and tools. A mass-produced lobster-shaped effigy vessel dated to this period attests to lobster's popularity at this time, though the purpose of this vessel has not been identified.[62]

The Viking period saw an increase in lobster and other shellfish consumption among northern Europeans. This can be attributed to the overall increase in marine activity due to the development of better boats and the increasing cultural investment in building ships and training sailors. The consumption of marine life went up overall in this period, and the consumption of lobster went up in accordance with this general trend.[63]

Unlike fish, however, lobster had to be cooked within two days of leaving salt water, limiting the availability of lobster to inland dwellers. Thus lobster, more than fish, became a food primarily available to the relatively well-off, at least among non-coastal dwellers.[64]

A short video on catching and wholesale exports; 2016

Lobster is first mentioned in cookbooks during the medieval period. Le Viandier de Taillevent, a French recipe collection written around 1300, suggests that lobster (also called saltwater crayfish) be “Cooked in wine and water, or in the oven; eaten in vinegar.”[65] Le Viandier de Taillevent is considered to be one of the first “haut cuisine” cookbooks, advising on how to cook meals that would have been quite elaborate for the period and making usage of expensive and hard to obtain ingredients. Though the original edition, which includes the recipe for lobster, was published before the birth of French court cook Guillaume Tirel, Tirel later expanded and republished this recipe collection, suggesting that the recipes included in both editions were popular among the highest circles of French nobility, including King Philip VI.[66] The inclusion of a lobster recipe in this cookbook, especially one which does not make use of other more expensive ingredients, attests to the popularity of lobster among the wealthy.

The French household guidebook Le Ménagier de Paris, published in 1393, includes no less than five recipes, including lobster, which vary in elaboration.[67] A guidebook intended to provide advice for women running upper-class households, Le Ménagier de Paris is similar to its predecessor in that it indicates the popularity of lobster as a food among the upper classes.[68]

That lobster was first mentioned in cookbooks during the 1300s and only mentioned in two during this century should not be taken as an implication that lobster was not widely consumed before or during this time. Recipe collections were virtually non-existent before the 1300s, and only a handful exist from the medieval period.

During the early 1400s, lobster was still a popular dish among the upper classes. During this time, influential households used the variety and variation of species served at feasts to display wealth and prestige. Lobster was commonly found among these spreads, indicating that it continued to be held in high esteem among the wealthy. In one notable instance, the Bishop of Salisbury offered at least 42 kinds of crustaceans and fish at his feasts over nine months, including several varieties of lobster. However, lobster was not a food exclusively accessed by the wealthy. The general population living on the coasts made use of the various food sources provided by the ocean, and shellfish especially became a more popular source of nutrition. Among the general population, lobster was generally eaten boiled during the mid-15th century, but the influence of the cuisine of higher society can be seen in that it was now also regularly eaten cold with vinegar. The inland peasantry would still have generally been unfamiliar with lobster during this time.[69]

Lobster continued to be eaten as a delicacy and a general staple food among coastal communities until the late 17th century. During this time, the influence of the Church and the government regulating and sometimes banning meat consumption during certain periods continued to encourage the popularity of seafood, especially shellfish, as a meat alternative among all classes. Throughout this period, lobster was eaten fresh, pickled, and salted. From the late 17th century onward, developments in fishing, transportation, and cooking technology allowed lobster to more easily make its way inland, and the variety of dishes involving lobster and cooking techniques used with the ingredient expanded.[70] However, these developments coincided with a decrease in the lobster population, and lobster increasingly became a delicacy food, valued among the rich as a status symbol and less likely to be found in the diet of the general population.[71]

The American lobster was not originally popular among European colonists in North America. This was partially due to the European inlander's association of lobster with barely edible salted seafood and partially due to a cultural opinion that seafood was a lesser alternative to meat that did not provide the taste or nutrients desired. It was also due to the extreme abundance of lobster at the time of the colonists' arrival, which contributed to a general perception of lobster as an undesirable peasant food.[72] The American lobster did not achieve popularity until the mid-19th century when New Yorkers and Bostonians developed a taste for it, and commercial lobster fisheries only flourished after the development of the lobster smack,[73] a custom-made boat with open holding wells on the deck to keep the lobsters alive during transport.[74]

Before this time, lobster was considered a poverty food or as a food for indentured servants or lower members of society in Maine, Massachusetts, and the Canadian Maritimes. Some servants specified in employment agreements that they would not eat lobster more than twice per week,[75] however there is limited evidence for this.[76][77] Lobster was also commonly served in prisons, much to the displeasure of inmates.[78] American lobster was initially deemed worthy only of being used as fertilizer or fish bait, and until well into the 20th century, it was not viewed as more than a low-priced canned staple food.[79]

As a crustacean, lobster remains a taboo food in the dietary laws of Judaism and certain streams of Islam.[note 1][80]

Grading

Caught lobsters are graded as new-shell, hard-shell, or old-shell. Because lobsters that have recently shed their shells are the most delicate, an inverse relationship exists between the price of American lobster and its flavor. New-shell lobsters have paper-thin shells and a worse meat-to-shell ratio, but the meat is very sweet. However, the lobsters are so delicate that even transport to Boston almost kills them, making the market for new-shell lobsters strictly local to the fishing towns where they are offloaded. Hard-shell lobsters with firm shells but less sweet meat can survive shipping to Boston, New York, and even Los Angeles, so they command a higher price than new-shell lobsters. Meanwhile, old-shell lobsters, which have not shed since the previous season and have a coarser flavor, can be air-shipped anywhere in the world and arrive alive, making them the most expensive.

Killing methods and animal welfare

Lobsters in a tank at a fish market
Lobsters in a tank at a fish market

Several methods are used for killing lobsters. The most common way of killing lobsters is by placing them live in boiling water, sometimes after being placed in a freezer for a period. Another method is to split the lobster or sever the body in half lengthwise. Lobsters may also be killed or immobilized immediately before boiling by a stab into the brain (pithing), in the belief that this will stop suffering. However, a lobster's brain operates from not one but several ganglia, and disabling only the frontal ganglion does not usually result in death.[81] The boiling method is illegal in some places, such as in Reggio Emilia, Italy, where offenders face fines up to €495.[82] Lobsters can be killed by electrocution prior to cooking with a device called the CrustaStun.[83] The Swiss government banned boiling lobster live without stunning them first.[84] Since March 2018, lobsters in Switzerland need to be knocked out, or killed instantly, before they are prepared. They also receive other forms of protection while in transit.[85][86]

Discover more about As food related topics

Lobster pick

Lobster pick

A lobster pick or lobster fork is a long, narrow food utensil used to extract meat from joints, legs, claws, and other small parts of a lobster. Lobster picks are usually made of stainless steel and weigh as much as an average teaspoon. They have a long, textured cylindrical handle, ending in a crescent-shaped moderately sharp pick, or else a small two-tined fork. The other end may have a spoon for scooping out meat from inside the lobster. The lobster pick can also be used with other seafood, such as crab and crawfish.

Bisque (food)

Bisque (food)

Bisque is a smooth, creamy, highly seasoned soup of French origin, classically based on a strained broth (coulis) of crustaceans. It can be made from lobster, langoustine, crab, shrimp or crayfish. The French bisque is one of the most popular seafood soups around the world.

Lobster roll

Lobster roll

A lobster roll is a dish native to New England. It is made of lobster meat served on a grilled hot dog-style bun. The filling may also contain butter, lemon juice, salt, and black pepper, with variants made in some parts of New England replacing the butter with mayonnaise. Other versions may contain diced celery or scallion. Potato chips or French fries are the typical side dishes.

Cappon magro

Cappon magro

Cappon magro, is an elaborate Genoese salad of seafood and vegetables over hardtack arranged into a decorative pyramid and dressed with a rich sauce.

Lobster Newberg

Lobster Newberg

Lobster Newberg is an American seafood dish made from lobster, butter, cream, cognac, sherry, and eggs, with a secret ingredient found to be Cayenne pepper. A modern legend with no primary or early sources states that the dish was invented by Ben Wenberg, a sea captain in the fruit trade. He was said to have demonstrated the dish at Delmonico's Restaurant in New York City to the manager, Charles Delmonico, in 1876. After refinements by the chef, Charles Ranhofer, the creation was added to the restaurant's menu as Lobster à la Wenberg and it soon became very popular.

Lobster Thermidor

Lobster Thermidor

Lobster Thermidor is a French dish of lobster meat cooked in a rich wine sauce, stuffed back into a lobster shell, and browned. The sauce is often a mixture of egg yolks and brandy, served with an oven-browned cheese crust, typically Gruyère. The sauce originally contained mustard. Due to the expensive ingredients and extensive preparation involved, lobster Thermidor is usually considered a recipe for special occasions.

Crustacyanin

Crustacyanin

Crustacyanin is a carotenoprotein biological pigment found in the exoskeleton of lobsters and responsible for their blue colour. β-Crustacyanin (β-CR), is composed of two stacked astaxanthin carotenoids that absorb at λ = 580–590 nm. α-crustacyanin (α-CR) is an assembly of eight β-CR protein dimers. It is a 320 kDa complex containing 16 astaxanthin molecules. Although the β-CR dimer has a peak wavelength of 580 nm, α-CR exhibits a bathochromic shift to 632 nm; the mechanism and function of the additional wavelength shift is not understood.

Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin is a keto-carotenoid within a group of chemical compounds known as terpenes. Astaxanthin is a metabolite of zeaxanthin and canthaxanthin, containing both hydroxyl and ketone functional groups. It is a lipid-soluble pigment with red coloring properties, which result from the extended chain of conjugated double bonds at the center of the compound.

Food and Drug Administration

Food and Drug Administration

The United States Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, caffeine products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed and veterinary products.

Mercury (element)

Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is also known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum from the Greek words hydorcode: ell promoted to code: el (water) and argyroscode: ell promoted to code: el (silver). A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is known to be liquid at standard temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is the halogen bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature.

American lobster

American lobster

The American lobster is a species of lobster found on the Atlantic coast of North America, chiefly from Labrador to New Jersey. It is also known as Atlantic lobster, Canadian lobster, true lobster, northern lobster, Canadian Reds, or Maine lobster. It can reach a body length of 64 cm (25 in), and a mass of over 20 kilograms (44 lb), making it not only the heaviest crustacean in the world, but also the heaviest of all living arthropod species. Its closest relative is the European lobster Homarus gammarus, which can be distinguished by its coloration and the lack of spines on the underside of the rostrum. American lobsters are usually bluish green to brown with red spines, but several color variations have been observed.

Pompeii

Pompeii

Pompeii was an ancient city located in what is now the comune of Pompei near Naples in the Campania region of Italy. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area, was buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash and pumice in the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD.

Fishery and aquaculture

Lobsters are caught using baited one-way traps with a color-coded marker buoy to mark cages. Lobster is fished in water between 2 and 900 metres (1 and 500 fathoms), although some lobsters live at 3,700 metres (2,000 fathoms). Cages are of plastic-coated galvanized steel or wood. A lobster fisher may tend to as many as 2,000 traps.

Around the year 2000, owing to overfishing and high demand, lobster aquaculture expanded.[87] However, as of 2008, no lobster aquaculture operation had achieved commercial success, mainly because of lobsters' tendency towards cannibalism and the slow growth of the species.[88]

Species

The fossil record of clawed lobsters extends back at least to the Valanginian age of the Cretaceous (140 million years ago).[89] This list contains all extant species in the family Nephropidae:[90]

  • Homarinus Kornfield, Williams & Steneck, 1995

Discover more about Species related topics

Metanephrops japonicus

Metanephrops japonicus

Metanephrops japonicus is a species of lobster found in Japanese waters, and a gourmet food in Japanese cuisine. It occurs from Chōshi, Chiba Prefecture (Honshu) to the east coast of Kyushu, where it lives at depths of 200–440 metres (660–1,440 ft). Adults grow to a total length of 9–12 centimetres (3.5–4.7 in), and a carapace length of 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in).

Cretaceous

Cretaceous

The Cretaceous is a geological period that lasted from about 145 to 66 million years ago (Mya). It is the third and final period of the Mesozoic Era, as well as the longest. At around 79 million years, it is the longest geological period of the entire Phanerozoic. The name is derived from the Latin creta, "chalk", which is abundant in the latter half of the period. It is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide.

Nephropides

Nephropides

Nephropides caribaeus is a species of lobster, the only species in the genus Nephropides. It is found in western parts of the Caribbean Sea, from Belize to Colombia. It grows to a total length of around 170 mm (6.7 in), and is covered in conspicuous tubercles.

Acanthacaris

Acanthacaris

Acanthacaris is a genus of deep-water lobsters. It contains two species, A. caeca and A. tenuimana, and is the only genus in the subfamily Neophoberinae.

Dinochelus

Dinochelus

Dinochelus ausubeli is a small deep sea lobster discovered in 2007 in the Philippines during the Census of Marine Life and described in 2010 in the new genus Dinochelus. Its two claws are very different in size, are elongated, and bear many long teeth on the inner surface.

Eunephrops

Eunephrops

Eunephrops is a genus of lobsters, containing four species, all found in the Western Atlantic Ocean:Eunephrops bairdii Smith, 1885 Eunephrops cadenasi Chace, 1939 Eunephrops luckhursti Manning, 1997 Eunephrops manningi Holthuis, 1974

Eunephrops bairdii

Eunephrops bairdii

Eunephrops bairdii is a species of marine lobster, commonly called the "red lobster", endemic to the Caribbean Sea. It is found off the coasts of Colombia and Panama at depths of 230–360 metres (750–1,180 ft). It reaches a length of up to 20 centimetres (7.9 in), which is equivalent to a carapace length of 4–9 centimetres (1.6–3.5 in), but is apparently too scarce for commercial exploitation.

Eunephrops cadenasi

Eunephrops cadenasi

Eunephrops cadenasi, sometimes called the sculptured lobster, is a species of lobster found in the Caribbean.

Eunephrops manningi

Eunephrops manningi

Eunephrops manningi, the banded lobster, is a species of lobster found in the West Indies. It was named in 1974 by carcinologist Lipke Holthuis after his friend and fellow carcinologist Raymond B. Manning.

Cape lobster

Cape lobster

The Cape lobster, Homarinus capensis, is a species of small lobster that lives off the coast of South Africa, from Dassen Island to Haga Haga. Only a few dozen specimens are known, mostly regurgitated by reef-dwelling fish. It lives in rocky reefs, and is thought to lay large eggs that have a short larval phase, or that hatch directly as a juvenile. The species grows to a total length of 10 cm (3.9 in), and resembles a small European or American lobster; it was previously included in the same genus, Homarus, although it is not very closely related to those species, and is now considered to form a separate, monotypic genus – Homarinus. Its closest relatives are the genera Thymops and Thymopides.

Homarus

Homarus

Homarus is a genus of lobsters, which include the common and commercially significant species Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus. The Cape lobster, which was formerly in this genus as H. capensis, was moved in 1995 to the new genus Homarinus.

American lobster

American lobster

The American lobster is a species of lobster found on the Atlantic coast of North America, chiefly from Labrador to New Jersey. It is also known as Atlantic lobster, Canadian lobster, true lobster, northern lobster, Canadian Reds, or Maine lobster. It can reach a body length of 64 cm (25 in), and a mass of over 20 kilograms (44 lb), making it not only the heaviest crustacean in the world, but also the heaviest of all living arthropod species. Its closest relative is the European lobster Homarus gammarus, which can be distinguished by its coloration and the lack of spines on the underside of the rostrum. American lobsters are usually bluish green to brown with red spines, but several color variations have been observed.

Source: "Lobster", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lobster.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

See also
Notes
References
  1. ^ Sammy De Grave; N. Dean Pentcheff; Shane T. Ahyong; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2011.
  2. ^ Poore, Gary C. B. (2016). "The Names of the Higher Taxa of Crustacea Decapoda". Journal of Crustacean Biology. 36 (2): 248–255. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  3. ^ "Homarus americanus, American lobster" (PDF). McGill University. June 27, 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 6, 2011.
  4. ^ Scott, Thomas (1996). "Lobster". ABC Biologie. Walter de Gruyter. p. 703. ISBN 978-3-11-010661-9.
  5. ^ R. Quarmby; D.A. Nordens; P.F. Zagalsky; H.J. Ceccaldi; D. Daumas (1977). "Studies on the quaternary structure of the lobster exoskeleton carotenoprotein, crustacyanin". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry. 56 (1): 55–61. doi:10.1016/0305-0491(77)90222-X. PMID 830471.
  6. ^ Robles, Carlos (2007). "Lobsters". In Mark W. Denny; Steven Dean Gaines (eds.). Encyclopedia of tidepools and rocky shores. University of California Press. pp. 333–335. ISBN 978-0-520-25118-2. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  7. ^ Land MF (1976). "Superposition images are formed by reflection in the eyes of some oceanic decapod Crustacea". Nature. 263 (5580): 764–765. Bibcode:1976Natur.263..764L. doi:10.1038/263764a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 995187. S2CID 4215770.
  8. ^ "Copper for life – Vital copper". Association for Science Education.
  9. ^ Shona Mcsheehy & Zoltán Mester (2004). "Arsenic speciation in marine certified reference materials". Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. 19 (3): 373–380. doi:10.1039/b314101b.
  10. ^ a b c Tshudy, Dale & Loren E. Babcock (1997). "Morphology-based phylogenetic analysis of the clawed lobsters (family Nephropidae and the new family Chilenophoberidae)". Journal of Crustacean Biology. 17 (2): 253–263. doi:10.2307/1549275. JSTOR 1549275.
  11. ^ Polinski, Jennifer (June 23, 2021). "The American lobster genome reveals insights on longevity, neural, and immune adaptations". Science Advances. 7 (26): eabe8290. Bibcode:2021SciA....7E8290P. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abe8290. PMC 8221624. PMID 34162536.
  12. ^ "Extremely rare split-colored lobster caught off Maine". USA Today. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  13. ^ Linehanstaff, Josh (August 29, 2018). "Rare ghost lobster caught off Stonington". Press Herald. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  14. ^ "Why Do Crabs and Lobsters Turn Red When You Cook Them?". mentalfloss.com. August 29, 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  15. ^ "2 of rarest of all lobsters caught 5 days apart". USA Today. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  16. ^ a b "Orange, yellow, blue, and even 'Halloween': The rarest lobster colors, explained". Boston.com. September 13, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  17. ^ "Rare white 'translucent' lobster caught by Maine fisherman". ABC News. September 1, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  18. ^ Collman, Ashley. "A Maine fisherman caught a rare 'ghost' lobster that's nearly see-through". INSIDER. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  19. ^ a b Farber, Madeline (August 8, 2018). "Maine chef finds rare cotton candy-colored lobster in tank". Fox News. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  20. ^ "Why This Rare Lobster Is Colored Like Blue Cotton Candy". National Geographic News. June 19, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  21. ^ "Rare 'cotton candy' Lobster found in Maine". www.boston.com. Retrieved January 7, 2023.
  22. ^ a b Chang, Kenneth (March 15, 2005). "Yes, It's a Lobster, and Yes, It's Blue". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  23. ^ "1-in-2M find: 14-year-old, dad nab blue lobster". USA Today. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  24. ^ a b Campisi, Jessica (June 14, 2019). "One in 2 million blue lobster found in Massachusetts seafood restaurant". The Hill. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  25. ^ a b Sutelan, Edward (June 13, 2019). "Rare blue lobster found at Arnold's in Eastham". Cape Cod Times. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
  26. ^ Russell, Aprylete (July 2, 2019). "It's official: St. Louis Aquarium rare blue lobster has a name!". KPLR-TV. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  27. ^ "Meet 'Lucky Blue': 1-in-2-million bright blue lobster caught by father and son in Maine". yahoo.com. August 17, 2022. Retrieved August 17, 2022.
  28. ^ Anderson, Jessica. "Rare 'calico lobster' found at Maryland seafood counter". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  29. ^ "Rare calico lobster turns up at Maryland fish market". WTKR.com. January 15, 2019. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  30. ^ "Flashy orange lobster is a 1-in-30-million rarity". Press Herald. Associated Press. June 7, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  31. ^ "1-in-30 million rare lobster spared from steamer after Red Lobster employees discover her in shipment". yahoo.com. July 13, 2022. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  32. ^ "Cheddar, meet Biscuit. Rescue of second 1-in-30-million rare lobster from Red Lobster is raising questions about species 'abnormality.'". yahoo.com. August 9, 2022. Retrieved August 9, 2022.
  33. ^ a b "More Than 1 in 50 Million Lobsters Are Split-Colored Lobsters". Azula - For the Love of Oceans. February 23, 2018. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  34. ^ Kennedy, Kelsey (September 1, 2017). "A Rare Yellow Lobster Joins a Boston Aquarium's Lobster Rainbow". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  35. ^ a b "Halloween Lobster Sports Orange and Black". National Geographic Society. November 1, 2012. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  36. ^ "Lobster all dressed up for Halloween in orange and black". Boston.com. October 31, 2012. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  37. ^ "Extremely rare split-colored lobster caught off Maine". USA Today. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  38. ^ Charns, David (June 21, 2018), One in 30 million: Super rare yellow lobster found off Maine coast, retrieved March 11, 2019
  39. ^ Wolff, T. (1978). "Maximum size of lobsters (Homarus) (Decapoda, Nephropidae)". Crustaceana. 34: 1–14. doi:10.1163/156854078X00510.
  40. ^ Canfield, Clarke (November 30, 2012). "Lobster age shown by counting its rings like a tree, study reveals". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on January 28, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2014.
  41. ^ Kilada, Raouf; Bernard Sainte-Marie; Rémy Rochette; Neill Davis; Caroline Vanier; Steven Campana (2012). "Direct determination of age in shrimps, crabs, and lobsters". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. NRC Research Press, a division of Canadian Science Publishing. 69 (11): 1728–1733. doi:10.1139/cjfas-2012-0254.
  42. ^ Fairfield, E.; Richardson, D.S.; Daniels, C.L.; Butler, C.L.; Bell, E; Taylor, M.I. (2021). "Ageing European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) using DNA methylation of evolutionarily conserved ribosomal DNA". Evolutionary Applications. 14 (9): 2305–2318. doi:10.1111/eva.13296. ISSN 1752-4571. PMC 8477595. PMID 34603500.
  43. ^ Hestand, Zac (November 1, 2016). "The Lobster, A Dystopian Sci-Fi Love Story". Film Criticism. 40 (3). doi:10.3998/fc.13761232.0040.325. ISSN 2471-4364.
  44. ^ Cong YS, Wright WE, Shay JW (September 1, 2002). "Human Telomerase and Its Regulation". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 66 (3): 407–425. doi:10.1128/MMBR.66.3.407-425.2002. ISSN 1092-2172. PMC 120798. PMID 12208997.
  45. ^ Wolfram Klapper; Karen Kühne; Kumud K. Singh; Klaus Heidorn; Reza Parwaresch; Guido Krupp (1998). "Longevity of lobsters is linked to ubiquitous telomerase expression". FEBS Letters. 439 (1–2): 143–146. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(98)01357-X. PMID 9849895. S2CID 33161779.
  46. ^ Silverman, Jacob (July 5, 2007). "Is there a 400-pound lobster out there?". howstuffworks.
  47. ^ Wallace, David Foster (August 2004). "Consider the Lobster". Gourmet. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2018. Reprinted as Wallace, David Foster (2005). "Consider the Lobster". Consider the Lobster and Other Essays. Little, Brown & Company. ISBN 978-0-316-15611-0.
  48. ^ Koren, Marina (June 3, 2013). "Don't Listen to the Buzz: Lobsters Aren't Actually Immortal". Smithsonian.
  49. ^ "biotemp". Archived from the original on February 11, 2015.
  50. ^ C. K. Govind (1995). "Muscles and their innervation". In Jan Robert Factor (ed.). Biology of the Lobster Homarus americanus. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. pp. 291–312. ISBN 978-0-12-247570-2.
  51. ^ "Heaviest marine crustacean". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on May 28, 2006. Retrieved August 3, 2006.
  52. ^ "Giant lobster landed by boy, 16". BBC News. June 26, 2006.
  53. ^ "Lobsters - info and games". www.sheppardsoftware.com. Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  54. ^ "Homarus americanus, Atlantic lobster". MarineBio.org. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014. Retrieved December 27, 2006.
  55. ^ McLure, Jason (December 3, 2012). "Cruel new fact of crustacean life: lobster cannibalism". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
  56. ^ "The American lobster – frequently asked questions". St. Lawrence Observatory, Fisheries and Oceans Canada. October 19, 2005. Archived from the original on March 10, 2010.
  57. ^ a b Obst M, Funch P, Giribet G (October 17, 2005). "Hidden diversity and host specificity in cycliophorans: a phylogeographic analysis along the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea". Molecular Ecology. 14 (14): 4427–4440. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02752.x. ISSN 0962-1083. PMID 16313603. S2CID 26920982.
  58. ^ "How It Works Magazine".
  59. ^ "Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish (1990-2012)". Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved November 20, 2015.
  60. ^ a b c Townsend, Elisabeth (2011). Lobster: A Global History. Reaktion Books, Limited. pp. 24–26. ISBN 9781861899958.
  61. ^ Townsend, Elisabeth (2011). Lobster : a global history. London: Reaktion Books. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-86189-995-8. OCLC 787845160.
  62. ^ Townsend, Elisabeth (2011). Lobster : a global history. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-1-86189-995-8. OCLC 787845160.
  63. ^ Townsend, Elisabeth (2011). Lobster : a global history. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-1-86189-995-8. OCLC 787845160.
  64. ^ Townsend, Elisabeth (2011). Lobster : a global history. London: Reaktion Books. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-86189-995-8. OCLC 787845160.
  65. ^ "James Prescott - Le Viandier de Taillevent - Translation - Round Saltwater Fish". www.telusplanet.net. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  66. ^ Trubek, Amy B. (2001) [2000]. Haute cuisine : how the French invented the culinary profession. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1776-4. OCLC 48136425.
  67. ^ "Le Menagier de Paris (c)Janet Hinson, translator". www.daviddfriedman.com. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  68. ^ The good wife's guide = Le ménagier de Paris : a medieval household book. Greco, Gina L., Rose, Christine M., 1949-. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 2009. ISBN 978-0-8014-6196-5. OCLC 732957170.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  69. ^ Townsend, Elisabeth (2011). Lobster : a global history. London: Reaktion Books. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-86189-995-8. OCLC 787845160.
  70. ^ Townsend, Elisabeth (2011). Lobster : a global history. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 28–31. ISBN 978-1-86189-995-8. OCLC 787845160.
  71. ^ Townsend, Elisabeth (2011). Lobster : a global history. London: Reaktion Books. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-86189-995-8. OCLC 787845160.
  72. ^ Townsend, Elisabeth (2011). Lobster : a global history. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 31–35. ISBN 978-1-86189-995-8. OCLC 787845160.
  73. ^ Woodard, Colin (2004). The Lobster Coast. New York: Viking/Penguin. pp. 170–180. ISBN 978-0-670-03324-9.
  74. ^ "The Lobster Institute: History". The Lobster Institute at the University of Maine. Archived from the original on September 7, 2006. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  75. ^ "18 Ocean and Coastal Law Journal 2012-2013". heinonline.org. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  76. ^ Townsend, Elisabeth (January 1, 2012). Lobster: A Global History. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-995-8.
  77. ^ Henderson, Mark (October 24, 2005). "How lobster went up in the world". The Times. London. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  78. ^ "Lobster". All About Maine. Secretary of State of Maine. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
  79. ^ Johnson, Paul (2007). "Lobster". Fish Forever: The Definitive Guide to Understanding, Selecting, and Preparing Healthy, Delicious, and Environmentally Sustainable Seafood. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 163–175. ISBN 978-0-7645-8779-5.
  80. ^ Gagne, Anne-Marie; RD (April 13, 2016). "Eating According to Religious Practices: Kosher and Halal". Gordon Food Service. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
  81. ^ Yue, S. (2008). "The welfare of crustaceans at slaughter". Impacts on Farm Animals. Humane Society of the United States.
  82. ^ Johnston, Bruce (March 6, 2004). "Italian animal rights law puts lobster off the menu". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022.
  83. ^ McSmith, A. (2009). "I'll have my lobster electrocuted, please". The Independent. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  84. ^ Tori Weldon. "Swiss ban against boiling lobster alive brings smiles — at first". CBC News.
  85. ^ "Switzerland bans crustacean cruelty". SWI swissinfo.ch.
  86. ^ Francesca Street (January 12, 2018). "Switzerland bans boiling lobsters alive". CNN.
  87. ^ Asbjørn Drengstig, Tormod Drengstig & Tore S. Kristiansen. "Recent development on lobster farming in Norway – prospects and possibilities". UWPhoto ANS. Archived from the original on October 4, 2003.
  88. ^ "Riddles, Trivia and More". Gulf of Maine Research Institute. February 24, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
  89. ^ Dale Tshudy; W. Steven Donaldson; Christopher Collom; Rodney M. Feldmann; Carrie E. Schweitzer (2005). "Hoploparia albertaensis, a new species of clawed lobster (Nephropidae) from the Late Coniacean, shallow-marine Bad Heart Formation of northwestern Alberta, Canada". Journal of Paleontology. 79 (5): 961–968. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2005)079[0961:HAANSO]2.0.CO;2. S2CID 131067067.
  90. ^ Chan, Tin-Yam (2010). "Annotated checklist of the world's marine lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacidea, Glypheidea, Achelata, Polychelida)" (PDF). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 23: 153–181. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 16, 2012.
Further reading
External links

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.