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List of southernmost items

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The most southerly geographical features of various types are listed here.

Cities and settlements

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Capital (of an independent nation) New Zealand Wellington, New Zealand 41°17′20″S 174°46′38″E / 41.28889°S 174.77722°E / -41.28889; 174.77722 (Wellington, New Zealand)
Permanent settlement of any size Antarctica Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica)
Settlement capable of housing more than 1,000 people[1] Antarctica McMurdo Station, Antarctica 77°51′S 166°40′E / 77.850°S 166.667°E / -77.850; 166.667 (McMurdo Station, Antarctica)
Town > 1,000 people Chile Puerto Williams, Chile 54°56′S 67°37′W / 54.933°S 67.617°W / -54.933; -67.617 (Puerto Williams, Chile)
City > 50,000 people Argentina Ushuaia, Argentina 54°48′S 68°18′W / 54.800°S 68.300°W / -54.800; -68.300 (Ushuaia, Argentina)
City > 100,000 people Chile Punta Arenas, Chile 53°10′S 70°56′W / 53.167°S 70.933°W / -53.167; -70.933 (Punta Arenas, Chile)
City > 250,000 people New Zealand Christchurch, New Zealand 43°31′48″S 172°37′13″E / 43.53000°S 172.62028°E / -43.53000; 172.62028 (Christchurch, New Zealand)
City > 500,000 people Argentina Mar del Plata, Argentina 38°00′S 57°33′W / 38.000°S 57.550°W / -38.000; -57.550 (Mar del Plata, Argentina)
Metropolitan area > 5,000,000 people Australia Melbourne, Australia 37°48′49″S 144°57′47″E / 37.81361°S 144.96306°E / -37.81361; 144.96306 (Melbourne, Australia)
Metropolitan area > 15,000,000 people Argentina Buenos Aires, Argentina 34°36′12″S 58°22′54″W / 34.60333°S 58.38167°W / -34.60333; -58.38167 (Buenos Aires, Argentina)
Metropolitan area > 20,000,000 people Brazil São Paulo, Brazil 23°33′06″S 46°38′01″W / 23.55167°S 46.63361°W / -23.55167; -46.63361 (São Paulo, Brazil)

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Southernmost settlements

Southernmost settlements

Southernmost settlements are cities, towns, weather stations or permanent military bases which are farther south than latitude 45°S. They are closely related to the Southern Ocean or either the Roaring Forties or Furious Fifties. Antarctic bases are excluded due to not having a permanent population.

Country

Country

A country is a distinct part of the world, such as a state, nation, or other political entity. It may be a sovereign state or make up one part of a larger state. For example, the country of Japan is an independent, sovereign state, while the country of Wales is a component of a multi-part sovereign state, the United Kingdom. A country may be a historically sovereign area, a currently sovereign territory with a unified government, or a non-sovereign geographic region associated with certain distinct political, ethnic, or cultural characteristics.

New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island and the South Island —and over 700 smaller islands. It is the sixth-largest island country by area, covering 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. The country's varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

Wellington

Wellington

Wellington is the capital city of New Zealand. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the second-largest city in New Zealand by metro area, and is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region. It is the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, and is the world's windiest city by average wind speed.

Antarctica

Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent, being about 40% larger than Europe, and has an area of 14,200,000 km2 (5,500,000 sq mi). Most of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, with an average thickness of 1.9 km (1.2 mi).

Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station

Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station

The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is the United States scientific research station at the South Pole of the Earth. It is the southernmost point under the jurisdiction of the United States. The station is located on the high plateau of Antarctica at 2,835 metres (9,301 ft) above sea level. It is administered by the Office of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation, specifically the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). It is named in honor of Norwegian Roald Amundsen and Briton Robert F. Scott, who led separate teams that raced to become the first to the pole in the early 1900s.

McMurdo Station

McMurdo Station

McMurdo Station is a United States Antarctic research station on the south tip of Ross Island, which is in the New Zealand-claimed Ross Dependency on the shore of McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. It is operated by the United States through the United States Antarctic Program (USAP), a branch of the National Science Foundation. The station is the largest community in Antarctica, capable of supporting up to 1,258 residents, and serves as one of three year-round United States Antarctic science facilities. All personnel and cargo going to or coming from Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station first pass through McMurdo. By road, McMurdo is 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from New Zealand's smaller Scott Base.

Chile

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory. The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

Puerto Williams

Puerto Williams

Puerto Williams is the city, port and naval base on Navarino Island in Chile. It faces the Beagle Channel. It is the capital of the Chilean Antarctic Province, one of four provinces in the Magellan and Chilean Antarctica Region, and administers the communes of Chilean Antarctic Territory and Cabo de Hornos. It has a population of 2,874, including both naval personnel and civilians. Puerto Williams claims the title of world's southernmost city. The settlement was founded in 1953, and was first named Puerto Luisa. The town was later named after John Williams Wilson, a British man who founded Fuerte Bulnes, the first settlement in the Strait of Magellan. It has served primarily as a naval base for Chile. The Chilean Navy runs the Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport and hospital, as well as nearby meteorological stations. Since the late 20th century, the number of navy personnel has decreased in Puerto Williams and the civilian population has increased. In that period, tourism and support of scientific research have contributed to an increase in economic activity.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Ushuaia

Ushuaia

Ushuaia is the capital of Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province, Argentina. With a population of nearly 75,000 and a location below the 54th parallel south latitude, Ushuaia claims the title of world's southernmost city. A much smaller municipality of less than 3,000 people, Puerto Williams in Chile, is nearer to the 55th parallel south, at a latitude of 54°56' S compared to Ushuaia at 54°48' S.

Punta Arenas

Punta Arenas

Punta Arenas is the capital city of Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antarctica Chilena. The city was officially renamed as Magallanes in 1927, but in 1938 it was changed back to "Punta Arenas". It is the largest city south of the 46th parallel south, and at the same time the most populous southernmost city in Chile and in the Americas, and due to its location, the coldest coastal city with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Latin America. It is one of the most southerly ports in the world, serving as an Antarctic gateway city.

Geography

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Body of water (navigable) Bay of Whales, Ross Sea 78°30′S 164°20′W / 78.500°S 164.333°W / -78.500; -164.333
Land the Geographic South Pole, Antarctica 90°00′S 00°00′W / 90.000°S -0.000°E / -90.000; -0.000 (South Pole, Antarctica)
Land (excluding Antarctica) Thule Island, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 59°31′50″S 27°23′50″W / 59.53056°S 27.39722°W / -59.53056; -27.39722

Islands

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Any island (above sea level) Deverall Island 81°28′S 161°54′E / 81.467°S 161.900°E / -81.467; 161.900
Any island (with bare rock, not ice-covered) Ross Island 77°50′S 166°40′E / 77.833°S 166.667°E / -77.833; 166.667
Any size excluding Antarctica Thule Island 59°27′S 27°18′W / 59.450°S 27.300°W / -59.450; -27.300
Island > 10,000 km2 excluding Antarctica Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina/Chile 55°02′S 56°27′W / 55.033°S 56.450°W / -55.033; -56.450
Island > 100,000 km2 South Island, New Zealand 46°40′S 169°00′E / 46.667°S 169.000°E / -46.667; 169.000
Coral atoll Elizabeth Reef, Australia 29°57′S 159°4′E / 29.950°S 159.067°E / -29.950; 159.067

Berkner Island is further south than any of these, but its bedrock lies entirely below sea level, with only its ice covering rising above.

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Bay of Whales

Bay of Whales

The Bay of Whales was a natural ice harbour, or iceport, indenting the front of the Ross Ice Shelf just north of Roosevelt Island, Antarctica. It is the southernmost point of open ocean not only of the Ross Sea, but worldwide. The Ross Sea extends much further south – as far as the Gould Coast, some 320 kilometres from the South Pole – but most of that area is covered by the Ross Ice Shelf rather than open sea.

Antarctica

Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent, being about 40% larger than Europe, and has an area of 14,200,000 km2 (5,500,000 sq mi). Most of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, with an average thickness of 1.9 km (1.2 mi).

List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands

List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands

This is a list of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands.Antarctic islands are, in the strict sense, the islands around Antarctica, situated on the Antarctic Plate, and south of the Antarctic Convergence. According to the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, claims to sovereignty over lands south of 60°S are not asserted. Sub-Antarctic islands are the islands situated closer to another continental mainland or on another tectonic plate, but are biogeographically linked to the Antarctic or being part of the Antarctic realm, roughly north of and adjacent to the Antarctic Convergence.

Deverall Island

Deverall Island

Deverall Island is a small ice-covered island, rising above the Ross Ice Shelf just northeast of Beaumont Bay. It was named by the New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (1960–61) for William H. Deverall, a radio operator at Scott Base, 1961. It is considered to be the southernmost island in the world.

Ross Island

Ross Island

Ross Island is an island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound. Ross Island lies within the boundaries of Ross Dependency, an area of Antarctica claimed by New Zealand.

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego also formerly Isla de Xátiva is an island near the southern tip of South America from which it is separated by the Strait of Magellan. The western portion (61.4%) of the island is in Chile, while the eastern portion is in Argentina. It forms the major landmass in an extended group of islands or archipelago also known as Tierra del Fuego.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Chile

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory. The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island and the South Island —and over 700 smaller islands. It is the sixth-largest island country by area, covering 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. The country's varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

Elizabeth Reef

Elizabeth Reef

Elizabeth Reef, located at 29°57′25″S 159°4′32″E is a coral reef in the Coral Sea. The reef is separated by a deep oceanic pass, some 47 km wide, from nearby Middleton Reef, both of which are part of the underwater plateau known as the Lord Howe Rise. It is around 150 km from Lord Howe Island and 600 km from the New South Wales coast of Australia. The Environment, Sport and Territories Legislation Amendment Act 1997 included Elizabeth Reef in Australia's Coral Sea Islands Territory.

Australia

Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi), Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

Berkner Island

Berkner Island

Berkner Island is an Antarctic ice rise, where bedrock below sea level has caused the surrounding ice sheet to create a dome. If the ice cap were removed, the island would be underwater. Berkner Island is completely ice-covered and is about 320 kilometres (200 mi) long and 150 kilometres (93 mi) wide, with an area of 44,000 km2 (17,000 sq mi). It is surrounded by the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. The northernmost point of the Berkner is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the open sea. It lies in the overlapping portion of the Argentine and the British Antarctic territorial claims.

Nature

Animals

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Bird: South polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki) seen at the South Pole[2] 90°00′S 00°00′W / 90.000°S -0.000°E / -90.000; -0.000 (South Pole, Antarctica)
Amphibian: Gray four-eyed frog (Pleurodema bufoninum) Southern tip of South America[3] 53°54′S 71°18′W / 53.900°S 71.300°W / -53.900; -71.300 (Gray four-eyed frog)
Mammal: Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) Southern Ocean[4][5] 80th parallel south
Reptile: Liolaemus magellanicus Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego[6] 52°22′57″S 68°24′36″W / 52.382367°S 68.409956°W / -52.382367; -68.409956 (Liolaemus)
Insect: Antarctic midge (Belgica antarctica) Refuge Islands[7][8] 68°21′S 67°10′W / 68.350°S 67.167°W / -68.350; -67.167 (Antarctic midge)
Fish: Gymnoscopelus nicholsi, Gymnoscopelus braueri, Electrona antarctica Ross Sea[9] 75th parallel south

Plants

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Flowering plants (in greenhouses) Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica[10] 90°00′S 139°16′W / 90.000°S 139.267°W / -90.000; -139.267 (Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica)
Grass and flowering plants (naturally occurring) Terra Firma Islands, Antarctica[11] 68°42′S 67°32′W / 68.700°S 67.533°W / -68.700; -67.533 (Terra Firma Islands)
Trees (naturally occurring) Hornos Island, Chile[12] 55°58′S 67°15′W / 55.967°S 67.250°W / -55.967; -67.250 (Cape Horn)
Palms (nikau (Rhopalostylis sapida), naturally occurring) Chatham Islands, New Zealand[13] 44°02′S 176°26′W / 44.033°S 176.433°W / -44.033; -176.433 (Chatham Islands, New Zealand)

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Pleurodema bufoninum

Pleurodema bufoninum

Pleurodema bufoninum, the large four-eyed frog, is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. It is found in Argentina and Chile. Its natural habitats are subantarctic forests, temperate forests, subantarctic shrubland, temperate shrubland, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subantarctic grassland, temperate grassland, intermittent rivers, swamps, intermittent freshwater marshes, arable land, rural gardens, ponds, and open excavations. The common name "four-eyed frog" refers to two inguinal poison glands that resemble eyes. When threatened, the frog lowers its head and raises its rear. When the frog adopts this posture, the poison glands are also raised toward the predator. The predator may also confuse the frog's raised posterior for the head of a larger animal.

South America

South America

South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere at the northern tip of the continent. It can also be described as the southern subregion of a single continent called America.

80th parallel south

80th parallel south

The 80th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 80 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane, and 10 degrees north of the United States Amundsen Scott South Pole Station.

Liolaemus magellanicus

Liolaemus magellanicus

Liolaemus magellanicus, Magellan's tree iguana, is a species of lizard in the family Iguanidae. It is found in Patagonia and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego in Chile and Argentina. It is the southernmost lizard of the World.

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego

Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego also formerly Isla de Xátiva is an island near the southern tip of South America from which it is separated by the Strait of Magellan. The western portion (61.4%) of the island is in Chile, while the eastern portion is in Argentina. It forms the major landmass in an extended group of islands or archipelago also known as Tierra del Fuego.

Refuge Islands

Refuge Islands

Refuge Islands is a small group of islands lying 1 nautical mile (1.9 km) from the ice cliffs at the southwest side of Red Rock Ridge, off the west coast of Graham Land. Discovered and named by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill, 1934–37, who used these islands as a depot for sledge journeys south from the southern base in the Debenham Islands.

Electrona antarctica

Electrona antarctica

The Antarctic lanternfish or Electrona antarctica mainly inhabits the Antarctic deep, warm waters. It is the dominant species in the Southern Ocean. Their life span is about 4–5 years and they mature after 2–3 years. Their maximum length is 12.5 cm. Their feeding depends upon area to area. Small fish primarily feed on copepods, euphausiid larvae, and hyperiids. This species is mainly the nektonic prey species of seabirds in open water. It is an important krill predator and serves as prey for a majority of seabirds. It is one of the southernmost fish species, being recorded as far south as 74°40′S in the Ross Sea.

Ross Sea

Ross Sea

The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica, between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land and within the Ross Embayment, and is the southernmost sea on Earth. It derives its name from the British explorer James Clark Ross who visited this area in 1841. To the west of the sea lies Ross Island and Victoria Land, to the east Roosevelt Island and Edward VII Peninsula in Marie Byrd Land, while the southernmost part is covered by the Ross Ice Shelf, and is about 200 miles (320 km) from the South Pole. Its boundaries and area have been defined by the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research as having an area of 637,000 square kilometres (246,000 sq mi).

75th parallel south

75th parallel south

The 75th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 75 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane in the Antarctic. The parallel passes through the Southern Ocean and Antarctica.

Flowering plant

Flowering plant

Flowering plants are plants that bear flowers and fruits, and form the clade Angiospermae, commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek words angeion and sperma ('seed'), and refers to those plants that produce their seeds enclosed within a fruit. They are by far the most diverse group of land plants with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known genera and 300,000 known species. Angiosperms were formerly called Magnoliophyta.

Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station

Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station

The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is the United States scientific research station at the South Pole of the Earth. It is the southernmost point under the jurisdiction of the United States. The station is located on the high plateau of Antarctica at 2,835 metres (9,301 ft) above sea level. It is administered by the Office of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation, specifically the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). It is named in honor of Norwegian Roald Amundsen and Briton Robert F. Scott, who led separate teams that raced to become the first to the pole in the early 1900s.

Antarctica

Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent, being about 40% larger than Europe, and has an area of 14,200,000 km2 (5,500,000 sq mi). Most of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, with an average thickness of 1.9 km (1.2 mi).

Education

Item Place Latitude/longitude
International Baccalaureate school John McGlashan College, Dunedin, New Zealand[14] 45°51′17″S 170°29′55″E / 45.85472°S 170.49861°E / -45.85472; 170.49861 (John McGlashan College in Dunedin)
University National University of Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, Argentina[15] 54°48′57″S 68°19′04″W / 54.81583°S 68.31778°W / -54.81583; -68.31778 (Ushuaia, Argentina)
Kindergarten Puerto Williams,[16] Chile 54°55′59″S 67°37′00″W / 54.93306°S 67.61667°W / -54.93306; -67.61667 (Kindergarten in Puerto Williams)
Secondary school Puerto Williams, Chile[17] 54°55′59″S 67°37′00″W / 54.93306°S 67.61667°W / -54.93306; -67.61667 (Puerto Williams, Chile)
Primary school Escuela Nº 38 "Presidente Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín", Esperanza Base, Antarctica[18] 63°24′S 57°00′W / 63.400°S 57.000°W / -63.400; -57.000 (Esperanza Base, Antarctica)

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International Baccalaureate

International Baccalaureate

The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and founded in 1968. It offers four educational programmes: the IB Diploma Programme and the IB Career-related Programme for students aged 15 to 19, the IB Middle Years Programme for students aged 11 to 16, and the IB Primary Years Programme for children aged 3 to 12. To teach these programmes, schools must be authorized by the International Baccalaureate.

John McGlashan College

John McGlashan College

John McGlashan College is a state integrated boarding and day school for boys, located in the suburb of Maori Hill in Dunedin, New Zealand. The school currently caters for 531 students from years 7 to 13, including 120 boarders and up to 30 international students.

Dunedin

Dunedin

Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The city has a rich Scottish, Chinese and Māori heritage.

New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island and the South Island —and over 700 smaller islands. It is the sixth-largest island country by area, covering 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. The country's varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

National University of Tierra del Fuego

National University of Tierra del Fuego

The National University of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands is an Argentine national university in Tierra del Fuego Province. The campus university is located in the city of Ushuaia. The institution was founded through National Law 26.559, enacted by Congress on November 14, 2009, and was formally established on December 28, 2010.

Ushuaia

Ushuaia

Ushuaia is the capital of Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province, Argentina. With a population of nearly 75,000 and a location below the 54th parallel south latitude, Ushuaia claims the title of world's southernmost city. A much smaller municipality of less than 3,000 people, Puerto Williams in Chile, is nearer to the 55th parallel south, at a latitude of 54°56' S compared to Ushuaia at 54°48' S.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Puerto Williams

Puerto Williams

Puerto Williams is the city, port and naval base on Navarino Island in Chile. It faces the Beagle Channel. It is the capital of the Chilean Antarctic Province, one of four provinces in the Magellan and Chilean Antarctica Region, and administers the communes of Chilean Antarctic Territory and Cabo de Hornos. It has a population of 2,874, including both naval personnel and civilians. Puerto Williams claims the title of world's southernmost city. The settlement was founded in 1953, and was first named Puerto Luisa. The town was later named after John Williams Wilson, a British man who founded Fuerte Bulnes, the first settlement in the Strait of Magellan. It has served primarily as a naval base for Chile. The Chilean Navy runs the Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport and hospital, as well as nearby meteorological stations. Since the late 20th century, the number of navy personnel has decreased in Puerto Williams and the civilian population has increased. In that period, tourism and support of scientific research have contributed to an increase in economic activity.

Chile

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory. The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

Raúl Alfonsín

Raúl Alfonsín

Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín was an Argentine lawyer and statesman who served as President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 8 July 1989. He was the first democratically elected president after more than seven years of military dictatorship, and is considered the "father of modern democracy in Argentina". Ideologically, he identified as a Radical and a social democrat, serving as the leader of the Radical Civic Union from 1983 to 1991, 1993 to 1995, 1999 to 2001, with his political approach being known as "Alfonsinism".

Esperanza Base

Esperanza Base

Esperanza Base is a permanent, all-year-round Argentine research station in Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula. It is one of only two civilian settlements in Antarctica. The base's motto is Permanencia, un acto de sacrificio.

Antarctica

Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent, being about 40% larger than Europe, and has an area of 14,200,000 km2 (5,500,000 sq mi). Most of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, with an average thickness of 1.9 km (1.2 mi).

Science and technology

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Astronomical observatory South Pole Telescope, Antarctica 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (South Pole Telescope, Antarctica)
Permanent scientific
research station
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica)
Planetarium Otago Museum, Dunedin, New Zealand[19] 45°51′56″S 170°30′38″E / 45.865678°S 170.510471°E / -45.865678; 170.510471 (Otago Museum)
Nuclear power plant Atucha I, Argentina[20] 33°58′S 59°12′W / 33.967°S 59.200°W / -33.967; -59.200 (Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, Argentina)
Atucha II, Argentina 33°58′S 59°12′W / 33.967°S 59.200°W / -33.967; -59.200 (Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, Argentina)

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South Pole Telescope

South Pole Telescope

The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10-metre (390 in) diameter telescope located at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The telescope is designed for observations in the microwave, millimeter-wave, and submillimeter-wave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, with the particular design goal of measuring the faint, diffuse emission from the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The first major survey with the SPT—designed to find distant, massive, clusters of galaxies through their interaction with the CMB, with the goal of constraining the dark energy equation of state—was completed in October 2011. In early 2012, a new camera (SPTpol) was installed on the SPT with even greater sensitivity and the capability to measure the polarization of incoming light. This camera operated from 2012–2016 and was used to make unprecedentedly deep high-resolution maps of hundreds of square degrees of the Southern sky. In 2017, the third-generation camera SPT-3G was installed on the telescope, providing nearly an order-of-magnitude increase in mapping speed over SPTpol.

Antarctica

Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent, being about 40% larger than Europe, and has an area of 14,200,000 km2 (5,500,000 sq mi). Most of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, with an average thickness of 1.9 km (1.2 mi).

Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station

Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station

The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is the United States scientific research station at the South Pole of the Earth. It is the southernmost point under the jurisdiction of the United States. The station is located on the high plateau of Antarctica at 2,835 metres (9,301 ft) above sea level. It is administered by the Office of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation, specifically the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). It is named in honor of Norwegian Roald Amundsen and Briton Robert F. Scott, who led separate teams that raced to become the first to the pole in the early 1900s.

Planetarium

Planetarium

A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation.

Dunedin

Dunedin

Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The city has a rich Scottish, Chinese and Māori heritage.

New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island and the South Island —and over 700 smaller islands. It is the sixth-largest island country by area, covering 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. The country's varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Historical sites and archaeological findings

Transportation

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Airfield (permanent, no scheduled flights) Jack F. Paulus Skiway at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica 89°59′22″S 1°0′0″W / 89.98944°S 1.00000°W / -89.98944; -1.00000 (Jack F. Paulus Skiway, Antarctica)
Seaport/Harbour Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica[22] 77°51′S 166°40′E / 77.850°S 166.667°E / -77.850; 166.667 (McMurdo Station, Antarctica)
Airport (permanent, with scheduled flights) Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport, Puerto Williams, Chile 54°56′S 67°37′W / 54.933°S 67.617°W / -54.933; -67.617 (Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport)
International airport Ushuaia – Malvinas Argentinas International Airport, Ushuaia, Argentina 54°50′S 068°17′W / 54.833°S 68.283°W / -54.833; -68.283 (Ushuaia – Malvinas Argentinas International Airport)
Metro station Plaza de los Virreyes - Eva Perón in Buenos Aires, Argentina 34°38′34.9″S 58°27′41.8″W / 34.643028°S 58.461611°W / -34.643028; -58.461611 (Plaza de los Virreyes - Eva Perón)
Railway Southern Fuegian Railway (Ferrocarril Austral Fueguino) from Ushuaia to the Tierra del Fuego National Park in Argentina[23] 54°48′S 68°18′W / 54.800°S 68.300°W / -54.800; -68.300 (Ushuaia, Argentina)
Narrow gauge railway Dumont d'Urville Station, Antarctica[24][25]

The record was previously held by a 1963 installed line at the British Antarctic Survey base at Signy Island.[24]

66°40′S 140°01′E / 66.667°S 140.017°E / -66.667; 140.017 (Dumont d'Urville Station, Antarctica)
Suspension bridge Bodie Creek Suspension Bridge, Falkland Islands[26] 51°51′14″S 59°01′04″E / 51.853912°S 59.017825°E / -51.853912; 59.017825 (Bodie Creek Suspension Bridge)
Underground railway station Flagstaff railway station, Melbourne, Australia 37°48′44″S 144°57′22″E / 37.812121°S 144.956065°E / -37.812121; 144.956065Coordinates: 37°48′44″S 144°57′22″E / 37.812121°S 144.956065°E / -37.812121; 144.956065

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Jack F. Paulus Skiway

Jack F. Paulus Skiway

The Jack F. Paulus Skiway is an airport located at Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station at the South Pole.

Antarctica

Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent, being about 40% larger than Europe, and has an area of 14,200,000 km2 (5,500,000 sq mi). Most of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, with an average thickness of 1.9 km (1.2 mi).

McMurdo Station

McMurdo Station

McMurdo Station is a United States Antarctic research station on the south tip of Ross Island, which is in the New Zealand-claimed Ross Dependency on the shore of McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. It is operated by the United States through the United States Antarctic Program (USAP), a branch of the National Science Foundation. The station is the largest community in Antarctica, capable of supporting up to 1,258 residents, and serves as one of three year-round United States Antarctic science facilities. All personnel and cargo going to or coming from Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station first pass through McMurdo. By road, McMurdo is 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from New Zealand's smaller Scott Base.

Airport

Airport

An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports usually consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off and to land or a helipad, and often includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers, hangars and terminals, to maintain and monitor aircraft. Larger airports may have airport aprons, taxiway bridges, air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, and emergency services. In some countries, the US in particular, airports also typically have one or more fixed-base operators, serving general aviation.

Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport

Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport

Guardia Marina Zañartu Airport is an airport serving the town of Puerto Williams on the north shore of Navarino Island in the Magallanes Region of Chile. The island is at the southern tip of Chile, and is across a narrow strait from Argentina called Beagle Channel. It is the world's southernmost airport with regular scheduled flights.

Puerto Williams

Puerto Williams

Puerto Williams is the city, port and naval base on Navarino Island in Chile. It faces the Beagle Channel. It is the capital of the Chilean Antarctic Province, one of four provinces in the Magellan and Chilean Antarctica Region, and administers the communes of Chilean Antarctic Territory and Cabo de Hornos. It has a population of 2,874, including both naval personnel and civilians. Puerto Williams claims the title of world's southernmost city. The settlement was founded in 1953, and was first named Puerto Luisa. The town was later named after John Williams Wilson, a British man who founded Fuerte Bulnes, the first settlement in the Strait of Magellan. It has served primarily as a naval base for Chile. The Chilean Navy runs the Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport and hospital, as well as nearby meteorological stations. Since the late 20th century, the number of navy personnel has decreased in Puerto Williams and the civilian population has increased. In that period, tourism and support of scientific research have contributed to an increase in economic activity.

Chile

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory. The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

International airport

International airport

An international airport is an airport with customs and border control facilities enabling passengers to travel between countries around the world. International airports are usually larger than domestic airports and most feature longer runways and facilities to accommodate the heavier aircraft such as the Boeing 747 commonly used for international and intercontinental travel. International airports often also host domestic flights, which often help feed both passengers and cargo into international ones.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Metro station

Metro station

A metro station or subway station is a station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is usually called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, and evacuate the system in the case of an emergency. In the United Kingdom, they are known as underground stations, most commonly used in reference to the London Underground.

Plaza de los Virreyes - Eva Perón (Buenos Aires Underground)

Plaza de los Virreyes - Eva Perón (Buenos Aires Underground)

Plaza de los Virreyes - Eva Perón is a station on Line E of the Buenos Aires Underground and is the current terminus. The station was opened on 8 May 1986 as the western terminus of the one-line extension from Varela. It was originally called Plaza de los Virreyes; however, Eva Perón was added to the name of the station to commemorate Eva Duarte de Perón, the prominent Argentine historical figure. The Premetro connects here at Intendente Saguier station.

Southern Fuegian Railway

Southern Fuegian Railway

The Southern Fuegian Railway or the Train of the End of the World is a 500 mm gauge steam railway in Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina. It was originally built as a freight line to serve the prison of Ushuaia, specifically to transport timber. It now operates as a heritage railway into the Tierra del Fuego National Park and is considered the southernmost functioning railway in the world.

Recreation

Sport

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Bowling club Stewart Island Bowling Club, Oban, New Zealand[27] 46°53′57″S 168°07′43″E / 46.899224°S 168.128746°E / -46.899224; 168.128746 (Stewart Island Bowling Club)
Ski resort Cerro Castor, Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina[28] 54°43′S 68°00′W / 54.717°S 68.000°W / -54.717; -68.000 (Cerro Castor)
Golf club Ushuaia Golf Club, Ushuaia, Argentina[29] 54°49′52″S 68°25′02″E / 54.831183°S 68.417283°E / -54.831183; 68.417283 (Ushuaia Golf Club)

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Bowling

Bowling

Bowling is a target sport and recreational activity in which a player rolls a ball toward pins or another target. The term bowling usually refers to pin bowling, though in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries, bowling could also refer to target bowling, such as lawn bowls.

Oban, New Zealand

Oban, New Zealand

Oban is the principal settlement on Stewart Island / Rakiura, the southernmost inhabited island of the New Zealand archipelago. Oban is located on Halfmoon Bay, on Paterson Inlet. It has aircraft connections with Invercargill and a ferry service to Bluff.

Ski resort

Ski resort

A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports. In Europe, most ski resorts are towns or villages in or adjacent to a ski area – a mountainous area with pistes and a ski lift system. In North America, it is more common for ski areas to exist well away from towns, so ski resorts usually are destination resorts, often purpose-built and self-contained, where skiing is the main activity.

Cerro Castor

Cerro Castor

Cerro Castor is a ski resort on the southern slope of Mount Krund, 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the city of Ushuaia, in the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego. Its tracks can be used during several months because of the cold weather of the region. The standard season takes place between June and October, and it is, thanks to the geographic location, the longest among the main ski centers in Argentina. Cerro Castor is the southernmost ski resort in the world.

Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina

Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina

Tierra del Fuego, officially the Province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands, is the southernmost, smallest, and least populous Argentine province.

Golf

Golf

Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

Ushuaia

Ushuaia

Ushuaia is the capital of Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province, Argentina. With a population of nearly 75,000 and a location below the 54th parallel south latitude, Ushuaia claims the title of world's southernmost city. A much smaller municipality of less than 3,000 people, Puerto Williams in Chile, is nearer to the 55th parallel south, at a latitude of 54°56' S compared to Ushuaia at 54°48' S.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Religious buildings

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Church (ice-made) Chapel of Our Lady of the Snows, Belgrano II Base, Antarctica[30][31] 77°52′S 34°37′W / 77.867°S 34.617°W / -77.867; -34.617 (Belgrano II Base, Antarctica)
Church (regular) Trinity Church, Antarctica (Russian Orthodox Church), King George Island, Antarctica 62°12′S 58°58′W / 62.200°S 58.967°W / -62.200; -58.967 (King George Island, Antarctica)
Mormon church Puerto Williams, Chile[32] 54°56′S 67°37′W / 54.933°S 67.617°W / -54.933; -67.617 (Mormon church of Puerto Williams, Chile)
Cathedral El Sagrado Corazón, Roman Catholic Diocese of Punta Arenas, Punta Arenas, Chile[33] 53°10′S 70°56′W / 53.167°S 70.933°W / -53.167; -70.933 (Punta Arenas, Chile)
Hindu temple Centro Cultural y Templo Hindu, Punta Arenas, Chile[34] 53°10′S 70°56′W / 53.167°S 70.933°W / -53.167; -70.933 (Punta Arenas, Chile)
Mosque Southland Muslim Association, Invercargill, New Zealand[35] 46°24′35″S 168°23′20″E / 46.40972°S 168.38889°E / -46.40972; 168.38889 (Invercargill, New Zealand)
Synagogue Dunedin Synagogue, Dunedin, New Zealand[36][37] 45°52′S 170°30′E / 45.867°S 170.500°E / -45.867; 170.500 (Dunedin, New Zealand)
Buddhist stupa the Enlightenment Stupa at Portobello, Dunedin, New Zealand[38] 45°51′S 170°39′E / 45.850°S 170.650°E / -45.850; 170.650 (Portobello, New Zealand)
Sikh Gurdwara New Zealand Sikh Society (Wellington), Lower Hutt, New Zealand[39] 41°12′S 174°57′E / 41.200°S 174.950°E / -41.200; 174.950 (New Zealand Sikh Society)

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Chapel of Our Lady of the Snows (Belgrano II Base)

Chapel of Our Lady of the Snows (Belgrano II Base)

The Chapel of Our Lady of the Snows is the name given to a temple excavated in a cave in the ice near the Belgrano II base in the territory it claims as part of Argentine Antarctica. It is one of eight churches on Antarctica.

Antarctica

Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent, being about 40% larger than Europe, and has an area of 14,200,000 km2 (5,500,000 sq mi). Most of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, with an average thickness of 1.9 km (1.2 mi).

Church (building)

Church (building)

A church, church building or church house is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The earliest identified Christian church is a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, there was a wave of church construction in Western Europe.

King George Island (South Shetland Islands)

King George Island (South Shetland Islands)

King George Island is the largest of the South Shetland Islands, lying 120 km off the coast of Antarctica in the Southern Ocean. The island was named after King George III.

Latter Day Saint movement

Latter Day Saint movement

The Latter Day Saint movement is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian Restorationist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.

Puerto Williams

Puerto Williams

Puerto Williams is the city, port and naval base on Navarino Island in Chile. It faces the Beagle Channel. It is the capital of the Chilean Antarctic Province, one of four provinces in the Magellan and Chilean Antarctica Region, and administers the communes of Chilean Antarctic Territory and Cabo de Hornos. It has a population of 2,874, including both naval personnel and civilians. Puerto Williams claims the title of world's southernmost city. The settlement was founded in 1953, and was first named Puerto Luisa. The town was later named after John Williams Wilson, a British man who founded Fuerte Bulnes, the first settlement in the Strait of Magellan. It has served primarily as a naval base for Chile. The Chilean Navy runs the Guardiamarina Zañartu Airport and hospital, as well as nearby meteorological stations. Since the late 20th century, the number of navy personnel has decreased in Puerto Williams and the civilian population has increased. In that period, tourism and support of scientific research have contributed to an increase in economic activity.

Chile

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory. The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

Cathedral

Cathedral

A cathedral is a church that contains the cathedra of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are usually specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutheran churches. Church buildings embodying the functions of a cathedral first appeared in Italy, Gaul, Spain, and North Africa in the 4th century, but cathedrals did not become universal within the Western Catholic Church until the 12th century, by which time they had developed architectural forms, institutional structures, and legal identities distinct from parish churches, monastic churches, and episcopal residences. The cathedral is more important in the hierarchy than the church because it is from the cathedral that the bishop governs the area under his or her administrative authority.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Punta Arenas

Roman Catholic Diocese of Punta Arenas

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Punta Arenas is a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Puerto Montt, in Chile. Its current bishop is Mgr. Óscar Hernán Blanco Martínez, O.M.D.

Punta Arenas

Punta Arenas

Punta Arenas is the capital city of Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antarctica Chilena. The city was officially renamed as Magallanes in 1927, but in 1938 it was changed back to "Punta Arenas". It is the largest city south of the 46th parallel south, and at the same time the most populous southernmost city in Chile and in the Americas, and due to its location, the coldest coastal city with more than 100,000 inhabitants in Latin America. It is one of the most southerly ports in the world, serving as an Antarctic gateway city.

Hindu temple

Hindu temple

A Hindu temple, or mandir or koil in Indian languages, is a house, seat and body of divinity for Hindus. It is a structure designed to bring human beings and gods together through worship, sacrifice, and devotion. The symbolism and structure of a Hindu temple are rooted in Vedic traditions, deploying circles and squares. It also represents recursion and the representation of the equivalence of the macrocosm and the microcosm by astronomical numbers, and by "specific alignments related to the geography of the place and the presumed linkages of the deity and the patron". A temple incorporates all elements of the Hindu cosmos — presenting the good, the evil and the human, as well as the elements of the Hindu sense of cyclic time and the essence of life — symbolically presenting dharma, artha, kama, moksa, and karma.

Mosque

Mosque

A mosque, also called masjid, is a place of prayer for Muslims. Mosques are usually covered buildings, but can be any place where prayers (sujud) are performed, including outdoor courtyards.

Shops and service facilities

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Tourist office Puerto Williams,[40] Chile 54°55′59″S 67°37′00″W / 54.93306°S 67.61667°W / -54.93306; -67.61667 (Puerto Williams, Chile)
Restaurant Lodge Lakutaia,[41] Puerto Williams, Chile 54°56′12″S 67°36′47″W / 54.936789°S 67.613039°W / -54.936789; -67.613039
Cinema Jubany Base, Antarctic Peninsula 62°14′S 58°40′W / 62.233°S 58.667°W / -62.233; -58.667 (Jubany)
Public post office Port Lockroy, Goudier Island, Antarctica[42] 64°49′S 63°30′W / 64.817°S 63.500°W / -64.817; -63.500 (Port Lockroy, Antarctica)
Bar Faraday Bar,[43] Vernadsky Research Base, Antarctica 65°14′45″S 64°15′27″W / 65.245747°S 64.257391°W / -65.245747; -64.257391
Automated teller machine McMurdo Station, Antarctica[44] 77°51′S 166°40′E / 77.850°S 166.667°E / -77.850; 166.667 (McMurdo Station, Antarctica)

International brand names

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Mobil petrol station Invercargill, New Zealand 46°25′46″S 168°21′42″E / 46.42944°S 168.36167°E / -46.42944; 168.36167 [45]
H&M Christchurch, New Zealand 43°32′00″S 172°38′16″E / 43.53333°S 172.63778°E / -43.53333; 172.63778 [46]
Shell petrol station Blackmans Bay, Tasmania, Australia 43°00′00″S 147°19′13″E / 43.00000°S 147.32028°E / -43.00000; 147.32028 [47]
7-Eleven Rosebud, Victoria, Australia 38°21′25″S 144°54′04″E / 38.35694°S 144.90111°E / -38.35694; 144.90111 [48]
ECCO Moorabbin, Melbourne, Australia 37°58′15″S 145°05′21″E / 37.97083°S 145.08917°E / -37.97083; 145.08917 [49]
IKEA Springvale, Melbourne, Australia 37°55′36″S 145°08′36″E / 37.92667°S 145.14333°E / -37.92667; 145.14333

Franchised food brands

Item Place Latitude/longitude
Baskin-Robbins Camberwell, Melbourne, Australia 37°49′50″S 145°03′24″E / 37.830423°S 145.056742°E / -37.830423; 145.056742
Wendy's Dunedin, New Zealand[50] 45°53′38″S 170°30′14″E / 45.894013°S 170.503808°E / -45.894013; 170.503808
Starbucks Invercargill, New Zealand[51] 46°24′43″S 168°20′57″E / 46.411950°S 168.349075°E / -46.411950; 168.349075
Burger King Invercargill, New Zealand[52] 46°24′48″S 168°21′42″E / 46.413267°S 168.361750°E / -46.413267; 168.361750
KFC Invercargill, New Zealand 46°25′08″S 168°21′42″E / 46.418758°S 168.361609°E / -46.418758; 168.361609
McDonald's Invercargill, New Zealand[53] 46°25′15″S 168°21′41″E / 46.420921°S 168.361503°E / -46.420921; 168.361503
Pizza Hut Invercargill, New Zealand 46°25′40″S 168°21′41″E / 46.427798°S 168.361313°E / -46.427798; 168.361313
Subway Invercargill, New Zealand 46°25′40″S 168°21′42″E / 46.427908°S 168.361736°E / -46.427908; 168.361736
Domino's Pizza Punta Arenas, Chile 53°08′20″S 70°53′23″W / 53.138801°S 70.889852°W / -53.138801; -70.889852
Hard Rock Café Ushuaia, Argentina 54°48′25″S 68°18′23″W / 54.806825°S 68.3062502°W / -54.806825; -68.3062502

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Chile

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory. The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

Film

Film

A film – also called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, picture or photoplay – is a work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These images are generally accompanied by sound and, more rarely, other sensory stimulations. The word "cinema", short for cinematography, is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art form that is the result of it.

Antarctic Peninsula

Antarctic Peninsula

The Antarctic Peninsula, known as O'Higgins Land in Chile and Tierra de San Martín in Argentina, and originally as Graham Land in the United Kingdom and the Palmer Peninsula in the United States, is the northernmost part of mainland Antarctica.

Post office

Post office

A post office is a public facility and a retailer that provides mail services, such as accepting letters and parcels, providing post office boxes, and selling postage stamps, packaging, and stationery. Post offices may offer additional services, which vary by country. These include providing and accepting government forms, and processing government services and fees. The chief administrator of a post office is called a postmaster.

Port Lockroy

Port Lockroy

Port Lockroy is a bay forming a natural harbour on the north-western shore of Wiencke Island in the Palmer Archipelago to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula. The Antarctic base with the same name, situated on Goudier Island in this bay, includes the most southerly operational post office in the world. The base has been unstaffed since 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The museum house is unlocked and remains open to individual visits. On 4 October 2022 it was announced that a team of 4 women had been chosen to return to open the base for the summer 2022/23 season.

Goudier Island

Goudier Island

Goudier Island is a small island with an appearance of bare, polished rock, lying 0.05 nautical miles (0.1 km) north of Jougla Point in the harbour of Port Lockroy, Wiencke Island, in the Palmer Archipelago. It was discovered by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1903–05, under Jean-Baptiste Charcot, and named after E. Goudier, chief engineer of the expedition ship Français.

Antarctica

Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent, being about 40% larger than Europe, and has an area of 14,200,000 km2 (5,500,000 sq mi). Most of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, with an average thickness of 1.9 km (1.2 mi).

Bar (establishment)

Bar (establishment)

A bar, also known as a saloon, a tavern or tippling house, or sometimes as a pub or club, is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, liquor, cocktails, and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks. Bars often also sell snack foods, such as crisps or peanuts, for consumption on their premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may also serve food from a restaurant menu. The term "bar" refers to the countertop where drinks are prepared and served, and by extension to the overall premises.

Automated teller machine

Automated teller machine

An automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, funds transfers, balance inquiries or account information inquiries, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.

McMurdo Station

McMurdo Station

McMurdo Station is a United States Antarctic research station on the south tip of Ross Island, which is in the New Zealand-claimed Ross Dependency on the shore of McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. It is operated by the United States through the United States Antarctic Program (USAP), a branch of the National Science Foundation. The station is the largest community in Antarctica, capable of supporting up to 1,258 residents, and serves as one of three year-round United States Antarctic science facilities. All personnel and cargo going to or coming from Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station first pass through McMurdo. By road, McMurdo is 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from New Zealand's smaller Scott Base.

Mobil

Mobil

Mobil is a petroleum brand owned and operated by American oil and gas corporation ExxonMobil. The brand was formerly owned and operated by an oil and gas corporation of the same name, which itself merged with Exxon to form ExxonMobil in 1999.

Invercargill

Invercargill

Invercargill is the southernmost and westernmost city in New Zealand, and one of the southernmost cities in the world. It is the commercial centre of the Southland region. The city lies in the heart of the wide expanse of the Southland Plains to the east of the Ōreti or New River some 18 km north of Bluff, which is the southernmost town in the South Island. It sits amid rich farmland that is bordered by large areas of conservation land and marine reserves, including Fiordland National Park covering the south-west corner of the South Island and the Catlins coastal region.

Gardens/parks, zoos and aquaria

Item Place Latitude/longitude
National park Cabo de Hornos National Park, Tierra Del Fuego, Chile 55°49′58″S 67°25′58″W / 55.83278°S 67.43278°W / -55.83278; -67.43278 (Cabo de Hornos National Park)
Penguin reserve Magdalena Island Penguin Reserve, Magdalena Island, Magallanes Region, Chile[54] 52°55′S 70°35′W / 52.917°S 70.583°W / -52.917; -70.583 (Magdalena Island, Chile)
Aviary Dunedin Aviary, Dunedin, New Zealand 45°51′29″S 170°31′20″E / 45.85806°S 170.52222°E / -45.85806; 170.52222
Botanical garden Jardín Botánico de Ushuaia, Ushuaia, Argentina[55] 54°47′6.5″S 68°16′56″W / 54.785139°S 68.28222°W / -54.785139; -68.28222

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Cabo de Hornos National Park

Cabo de Hornos National Park

Cabo de Hornos National Park is a protected area in southern Chile that was designated a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 2005, along with Alberto de Agostini National Park. The world's southernmost national park, it is located 12 hours by boat from Puerto Williams in the Cape Horn Archipelago, which belongs to the Commune of Cabo de Hornos in the Antártica Chilena Province of Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region.

Chile

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory. The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

Magdalena Island, Magallanes Region

Magdalena Island, Magallanes Region

Magdalena Island is a small island in the Strait of Magellan, Chile. It is occupied year round by a small force of Park Rangers: 6 in summer, 3 in winter. "Newbie" or first-year rangers are not permitted to volunteer for harsh winter duty. They barrack in the single substantial building attached to the Magdalena Island light. The island is part of the End of the World Route, a scenic touristic route.

Magallanes Region

Magallanes Region

The Magallanes Region, officially the Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region, is one of Chile's 16 first order administrative divisions. It is the southernmost, largest, and second least populated region of Chile. It comprises four provinces: Última Esperanza, Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego, and Antártica Chilena.

Dunedin

Dunedin

Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The city has a rich Scottish, Chinese and Māori heritage.

New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island and the South Island —and over 700 smaller islands. It is the sixth-largest island country by area, covering 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. The country's varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

Ushuaia

Ushuaia

Ushuaia is the capital of Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province, Argentina. With a population of nearly 75,000 and a location below the 54th parallel south latitude, Ushuaia claims the title of world's southernmost city. A much smaller municipality of less than 3,000 people, Puerto Williams in Chile, is nearer to the 55th parallel south, at a latitude of 54°56' S compared to Ushuaia at 54°48' S.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Other

Item Place Latitude/longitude
UNESCO world heritage site (natural) French Austral Land and Seas[56] 90°00′S 45°00′E / 90.000°S 45.000°E / -90.000; 45.000 (Cueva de las Manos, Argentina) (southernmost Point)
UNESCO world heritage site (cultural) Cueva de las Manos, Argentina[57] 47°9′S 70°40′W / 47.150°S 70.667°W / -47.150; -70.667 (Cueva de las Manos, Argentina)
Skyscraper (>100 m) Majestic Centre, Wellington, New Zealand 41°17′19″S 174°46′27″E / 41.288501°S 174.774296°E / -41.288501; 174.774296 (Majestic Centre)
Opera house Opera House, Wellington, New Zealand 41°17′29″S 174°46′40″E / 41.2915°S 174.7778°E / -41.2915; 174.7778 (Wellington Opera House)
High-rise building Cue Building,[58] Invercargill, New Zealand 46°24′40″S 168°20′57″E / 46.4110°S 168.3493°E / -46.4110; 168.3493 (Cue Building)
Vineyard Experimental vineyard of Undurraga in Instituto de Investigación Agropecuaria, Chile Chico, Chile[59] 46°32′0.41″S 71°41′16.46″W / 46.5334472°S 71.6879056°W / -46.5334472; -71.6879056 (Viñedo experimental)
Mine Invierno mine, Riesco Island, Chile[60] 52°52′11.92″S 71°37′31.13″W / 52.8699778°S 71.6253139°W / -52.8699778; -71.6253139 (Mina Invierno)
Brewery Cerveza Artesanal Beagle, Ushuaia, Argentina[61] 54°47′24″S 68°15′57″W / 54.789983°S 68.265745°W / -54.789983; -68.265745 (Cerveza Artesenal Beagle)
Lighthouse Monumental Cabo de Hornos, Hornos Island, Chile[62] 55°57′54″S 67°13′12″W / 55.96500°S 67.22000°W / -55.96500; -67.22000
Bell tower First Church of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand[63] 45°52′34″S 170°30′17″E / 45.8760°S 170.5047°E / -45.8760; 170.5047 (First Church of Otago)
Place of birth of a human Esperanza Base, Antarctica (Emilio Marcos Palma in 1978 and seven others) [64] 63°24′S 57°00′W / 63.400°S 57.000°W / -63.400; -57.000 (Esperanza Base, Antarctica)
Cemetery Buromskiy Island, Antarctica[65] 66°32′S 93°0′E / 66.533°S 93.000°E / -66.533; 93.000 (Buromskiy Island Cemetery)

Discover more about Other related topics

Cueva de las Manos

Cueva de las Manos

Cueva de las Manos is a cave and complex of rock art sites in the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, 163 km (101 mi) south of the town of Perito Moreno. It is named for the hundreds of paintings of hands stenciled, in multiple collages, on the rock walls. The art was created in several waves between 7,300 BC and 700 AD, during the Archaic period of pre-Columbian South America. The age of the paintings was calculated from the remains of bone pipes used for spraying the paint on the wall of the cave to create the artwork, radiocarbon dating of the artwork, and stratigraphic dating.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Skyscraper

Skyscraper

A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres (330 ft) or 150 metres (490 ft) in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers are very tall high-rise buildings. Historically, the term first referred to buildings with between 10 and 20 stories when these types of buildings began to be constructed in the 1880s. Skyscrapers may host offices, hotels, residential spaces, and retail spaces.

Majestic Centre

Majestic Centre

The Majestic Centre, designed by Jack Manning of Manning Mitchell in association with Kendon McGrail of Jasmax Architects, was completed in 1991. The main building of the Majestic Centre is the Majestic Tower which is the tallest building in Wellington, New Zealand. The building, located on 100 Willis Street is 116 metres (381 ft) high and has 29 above ground storeys, making it the twelfth-tallest skyscraper building in New Zealand, along with the ASB Bank Centre in Auckland. It was, at the time of its completion, one of the three tallest buildings in the country, the two other contenders being built in the same year. It is to this day the furthest south 100M+ skyscraper in the world. It is mainly used as office space.

New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island and the South Island —and over 700 smaller islands. It is the sixth-largest island country by area, covering 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. The country's varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

Opera house

Opera house

An opera house is a theatre building used for performances of opera. It usually includes a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and building sets.

Opera House, Wellington

Opera House, Wellington

The Opera House is a proscenium theatre in Wellington, New Zealand, located on Manners Street opposite Te Aro Park.

Invercargill

Invercargill

Invercargill is the southernmost and westernmost city in New Zealand, and one of the southernmost cities in the world. It is the commercial centre of the Southland region. The city lies in the heart of the wide expanse of the Southland Plains to the east of the Ōreti or New River some 18 km north of Bluff, which is the southernmost town in the South Island. It sits amid rich farmland that is bordered by large areas of conservation land and marine reserves, including Fiordland National Park covering the south-west corner of the South Island and the Catlins coastal region.

Chile Chico

Chile Chico

Chile Chico is a town in General Carrera Province, Aisén Region, Patagonia, Chile. It is located on the south shore of General Carrera Lake. Chile Chico, which has around 3,000 inhabitants, is the eponymous capital of the commune and capital of the General Carrera Province of the Aysén Region.

Chile

Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometers (291,930 sq mi), with a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. It shares land borders with Peru to the north, Bolivia to the north-east, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chile also controls the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Isla Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. It also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometers (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory. The country's capital and largest city is Santiago, and its national language is Spanish.

Mining

Mining

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposit. The exploitation of these deposits for raw material is based on the economic viability of investing in the equipment, labor, and energy required to extract, refine and transport the materials found at the mine to manufacturers who can use the material.

Invierno mine

Invierno mine

Invierno mine is a coal mine in Riesco Island, Chile, that as of August 12 of 2012 was under construction. The mine is expected to export coal to northern Chile and to other countries. The enterprise in charge of the project has declared the works will occupy an area of 1500 ha representing 0.3% of the area of Riesco Island.

Source: "List of southernmost items", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_southernmost_items.

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