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List of proposed Solar System spacecraft

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This is a list of proposed spacecraft that are planned to focus on the exploration of the Solar System, ordered by date of spacecraft launch.

Planned or scheduled

Rosalind Franklin rover of Euro-Russian ExoMars mission
Rosalind Franklin rover of Euro-Russian ExoMars mission
Mission name Launch date Description Ref(s)
Japan United States Hakuto-R Mission 1 30 November 2022 Lunar lander technology demonstration [1][2][3]
United States Peregrine Mission One 2022 Lunar lander [4][5][6]
India Aditya-L1 February 2023 Solar observation spacecraft [7][8]
Japan SLIM January–March 2023 Lunar lander [9]
European Union JUICE April 2023 Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa flyby; Ganymede orbiter [10][11][12]
Russia Luna 25 July 2023 Lunar south pole lander [13][14]
United States Artemis II May 2024 4-person lunar flyby [15]
Japan France Germany MMX September 2024 Martian moon sample return mission [16][17][18]
United States Europa Clipper October 2024 Jupiter orbiter, Europa multiple flyby [19][20][21]
European Union Hera October 2024 Asteroid 65803 Didymos rendezvous [22]
Russia Luna 26 13 November 2024 Lunar orbiter [23][24][25][26]
United States VIPER November 2024 Lunar rover [27][28][29]
Japan DESTINY+ 2024 Asteroid 3200 Phaethon flyby [30][31]
China Queqiao 2 2024 Relay satellite to support future Chinese Lunar Exploration Program missions. [32]
Japan Tera-hertz Explorer Mid 2020s Mars orbiter and lander [33][34]
United States Artemis III 2025 4-person lunar orbit with 2-person lunar landing [35]
China Chang'e 6 2025 Lunar south pole sample return mission [32][36]
China Tianwen-2 2025 Asteroid 469219 Kamoʻoalewa sample return, comet 311P/PanSTARRS orbiter [37]
Russia Luna 27 August 2025 Lunar south pole lander and rover [23][24][25][38]
China Chang'e 7 2026 Lunar south pole lander, rover and flying probe [39]
China Chang'e 8 2027 South pole lander [32][40]
United States Dragonfly June 2027 Titan rotorcraft lander [41][42]
China Tianwen-3 2028 Mars sample return mission [43]
European Union Japan Comet Interceptor 2029 Flyby of an Oort Cloud comet [44][45][46]
China Tianwen-4 2029 Jupiter and Callisto Orbiter, Uranus flyby [47]

Discover more about Planned or scheduled related topics

Rosalind Franklin (rover)

Rosalind Franklin (rover)

Rosalind Franklin, previously known as the ExoMars rover, is a planned robotic Mars rover, part of the international ExoMars programme led by the European Space Agency and the Russian Roscosmos State Corporation. The mission was scheduled to launch in July 2020, but was postponed to 2022. The 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine has caused an indefinite delay of the programme, as the member states of the ESA voted to suspend the joint mission with Russia; in July 2022, ESA terminated its cooperation on the project with Russia. As of May 2022, the launch of the rover is not expected to occur before 2028 due to the need for a new non-Russian landing platform.

ExoMars

ExoMars

ExoMars is an astrobiology programme of the European Space Agency (ESA).

Japan

Japan

Japan is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, and Taiwan in the south. Japan is a part of the Ring of Fire, and spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers (145,937 sq mi); the five main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.

India

India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia. The nation's capital city is New Delhi.

Aditya-L1

Aditya-L1

Aditya L1 is a planned coronagraphy spacecraft to study solar atmosphere, currently being designed and developed by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and various other Indian research institutes. It will be inserted in a halo orbit around the L1 point between Earth and Sun where it will study solar atmosphere, solar magnetic storms and its impact on environment around Earth.

Smart Lander for Investigating Moon

Smart Lander for Investigating Moon

Smart Lander for Investigating Moon (SLIM) is a lunar lander being developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The lander will demonstrate precision landing technology. By 2017, the lander was planned to be launched in 2021, but this has been subsequently delayed to 2023 due to delays in SLIM's rideshare mission, X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission (XRISM).

European Union

European Union

The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of 4,233,255.3 km2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 447 million. The EU has often been described as a sui generis political entity combining the characteristics of both a federation and a confederation.

Ganymede (moon)

Ganymede (moon)

Ganymede, a satellite of Jupiter, is the largest and most massive of the Solar System's moons. The ninth-largest object of the Solar System, it is the largest without a substantial atmosphere. It has a diameter of 5,268 km (3,273 mi), making it 26 percent larger than the planet Mercury by volume, although it is only 45 percent as massive. Possessing a metallic core, it has the lowest moment of inertia factor of any solid body in the Solar System and is the only moon known to have a magnetic field. Outward from Jupiter, it is the seventh satellite and the third of the Galilean moons, the first group of objects discovered orbiting another planet. Ganymede orbits Jupiter in roughly seven days and is in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance with the moons Europa and Io, respectively.

Callisto (moon)

Callisto (moon)

Callisto, or Jupiter IV, is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede. It is the third-largest moon in the Solar System after Ganymede and Saturn's largest moon Titan, and the largest object in the Solar System that may not be properly differentiated. Callisto was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei. With a diameter of 4821 km, Callisto is about 99% the diameter of the planet Mercury, but only about a third of its mass. It is the fourth Galilean moon of Jupiter by distance, with an orbital radius of about 1883000 km. It is not in an orbital resonance like the three other Galilean satellites—Io, Europa, and Ganymede—and is thus not appreciably tidally heated. Callisto's rotation is tidally locked to its orbit around Jupiter, so that the same hemisphere always faces inward. Because of this, there is a sub-Jovian point on Callisto's surface, from which Jupiter would appear to hang directly overhead. It is less affected by Jupiter's magnetosphere than the other inner satellites because of its more remote orbit, located just outside Jupiter's main radiation belt.

Europa (moon)

Europa (moon)

Europa, or Jupiter II, is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet of all the 80 known moons of Jupiter. It is also the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System. Europa was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and was named after Europa, the Phoenician mother of King Minos of Crete and lover of Zeus.

Russia

Russia

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering over 17,098,246 square kilometres (6,601,670 sq mi), and encompassing one-eighth of Earth's inhabitable landmass. Russia extends across eleven time zones and shares land boundaries with fourteen countries, more than any other country but China. It is the world's ninth-most populous country and Europe's most populous country, with a population of 146 million people. The country's capital and largest city is Moscow, the largest city entirely within Europe. Saint Petersburg is Russia's cultural centre and second-largest city. Other major urban areas include Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan.

Luna 25

Luna 25

Luna 25 is a planned lunar lander mission by Roscosmos. It will land near the lunar south pole at the Boguslavsky crater. It was renamed from Luna-Glob lander to Luna 25 to emphasize the continuity of the Soviet Luna programme from the 1970s, though it is still part of what was at one point conceptualized as the Luna-Glob lunar exploration program. As of September 2022, the launch is scheduled for July 2023.

Long-term proposals

Mission name Preliminary launch date estimate Description Ref(s)
Estimated launch date Estimate by Estimate as of
Poland SatRevolution 2022 Virgin Orbit 2019 Mars orbiter [48][49]
India Chandrayaan-3 2023 The Times of India 2022 Lunar lander and rover [50]
Japan Hakuto-R Mission 2 2023 ispace 2019 Private lunar lander and rover [51]
India Shukrayaan-1 2024 SpaceNews 2020 Venus orbiter [52]
India Mars Orbiter Mission 2 2024 Business Standard 2019 Mars orbiter [53]
United States Europa Lander 2025 SpaceNews 2019 Europa lander [54][55]
Russia Orel spacecraft 2026 RIA Novosti 2018 Uncrewed lunar orbit [56][57]
United States European Union 2026 The Space Review 2020 Mars sample return mission [58]
European Union ExoMars 2028 European Space Agency 2022 Mars lander and rover [59][60][61][62]
Russia Venera-D 2029 Russian Space Research Institute 2021 Venus orbiter and lander [63]
Russia M1 2031 RIA Novosti 2019 Crewed lunar landing [64][57]
Russia M2 2032 RIA Novosti 2019 Crewed lunar landing with lunar rover [64]
Russia M3 2033 RIA Novosti 2019 Crewed lunar landing with lunar rover [64]
Russia M4 2034 RIA Novosti 2019 Crewed lunar landing; construction of lunar base [64]
Russia M5 2035 RIA Novosti 2019 Crewed lunar landing; completion of lunar base [64]
United States Psyche Not before 2023 NASA 2022 Metallic asteroid 16 Psyche orbiter [65][66][67] [68]

Discover more about Long-term proposals related topics

Poland

Poland

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called voivodeships, covering an area of 312,696 km2 (120,733 sq mi). Poland has a population of over 38 million and is the fifth-most populous member state of the European Union. Warsaw is the nation's capital and largest metropolis. Other major cities include Kraków, Wrocław, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

SatRevolution

SatRevolution

SatRev S.A. is a Polish company established in 2016, that specialises in building small, lightweight, nanosatellites. The company was listed in the NASA's "State of the Art Small Spacecraft Technology" report as one of 12 in the world.

India

India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia. The nation's capital city is New Delhi.

Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3

Chandrayaan-3 is a planned third lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

Japan

Japan

Japan is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, and Taiwan in the south. Japan is a part of the Ring of Fire, and spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers (145,937 sq mi); the five main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.

Ispace (Japanese company)

Ispace (Japanese company)

ispace Inc. is a private Japanese company developing robotic spacecraft technologies to build landers and rovers to compete for both transportation and exploration mission contracts from space agencies and private industry. ispace will enable clients who may want to discover, map, and use the natural lunar resources.

Shukrayaan-1

Shukrayaan-1

Shukrayaan-1 is a planned orbiter to Venus by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to study the surface and atmosphere of Venus.

SpaceNews

SpaceNews

SpaceNews is a print and digital publication that covers business and political news in the space and satellite industry. SpaceNews provides news, commentary and analysis to an audience of government officials, politicians and executives within the space industry. SpaceNews details topics in civil, military and space and the satellite communications business.

Mars Orbiter Mission 2

Mars Orbiter Mission 2

Mars Orbiter Mission 2, also called Mangalyaan-2, is India's second interplanetary mission planned by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). In a recorded interview in October 2019, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) director indicated possibility of inclusion of a lander but in an interview to The Times Of India in February 2021 ISRO chairman clarified that the mission will consist only an orbiter. The orbiter will use aerobraking to lower its initial apoapsis and enter into an orbit more suitable for observations.

Business Standard

Business Standard

Business Standard is an Indian English-language daily edition newspaper published by Business Standard Private Limited, also available in Hindi. Founded in 1975, the newspaper covers the Indian economy, infrastructure, international business and trade, stock and currency markets, corporate governance, and a range of other financial news, opinions and insights.

Europa (moon)

Europa (moon)

Europa, or Jupiter II, is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet of all the 80 known moons of Jupiter. It is also the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System. Europa was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and was named after Europa, the Phoenician mother of King Minos of Crete and lover of Zeus.

Russia

Russia

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering over 17,098,246 square kilometres (6,601,670 sq mi), and encompassing one-eighth of Earth's inhabitable landmass. Russia extends across eleven time zones and shares land boundaries with fourteen countries, more than any other country but China. It is the world's ninth-most populous country and Europe's most populous country, with a population of 146 million people. The country's capital and largest city is Moscow, the largest city entirely within Europe. Saint Petersburg is Russia's cultural centre and second-largest city. Other major urban areas include Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan.

Source: "List of proposed Solar System spacecraft", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_proposed_Solar_System_spacecraft.

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