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List of prime ministers of Italy

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Top left: Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour was the first prime minister of the Kingdom of Italy.Top right: Benito Mussolini was the longest-serving prime minister in Italian history.Bottom left: Silvio Berlusconi is the longest-serving prime minister of the Italian Republic.Bottom right: Giorgia Meloni is the current prime minister of Italy.
Top left: Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour was the first prime minister of the Kingdom of Italy.Top right: Benito Mussolini was the longest-serving prime minister in Italian history.Bottom left: Silvio Berlusconi is the longest-serving prime minister of the Italian Republic.Bottom right: Giorgia Meloni is the current prime minister of Italy.
Top left: Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour was the first prime minister of the Kingdom of Italy.Top right: Benito Mussolini was the longest-serving prime minister in Italian history.Bottom left: Silvio Berlusconi is the longest-serving prime minister of the Italian Republic.Bottom right: Giorgia Meloni is the current prime minister of Italy.
Top left: Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour was the first prime minister of the Kingdom of Italy.Top right: Benito Mussolini was the longest-serving prime minister in Italian history.Bottom left: Silvio Berlusconi is the longest-serving prime minister of the Italian Republic.Bottom right: Giorgia Meloni is the current prime minister of Italy.

The prime minister of Italy is the head of the Council of Ministers, which holds effective executive power in the Italian government.[1][2] The first officeholder was Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, who was sworn in on 23 March 1861 after the unification of Italy.[3] Cavour previously served as Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia, an office from which the Italian prime minister took most of its powers and duties.[4] During the monarchy period, prime ministers were appointed by the king of Italy, as laid down in the Albertine Statute.[5] From 1925 until the fall of his regime in 1943, fascist dictator Benito Mussolini formally modified the office title to "Head of Government, Prime Minister and Secretary of State".[6] From 1861 to 1946, 30 men served as prime ministers, leading 67 governments in total.[7]

After the abolition of the Kingdom of Italy in 1946 and the proclamation of the Italian Republic, the office was established by Articles 92 through 96 of the Constitution of Italy. The prime minister is appointed by the President of the Republic and must receive a confidence vote by both houses of Parliament: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.[8] From 1946 to 2022, in the first 76 years after the creation of the Republic, 30 men served as Prime Ministers.[9][10]

The current officeholder is Giorgia Meloni, who was appointed on 22 October 2022, becoming the first woman to hold this office.[11][12]

The longest-serving prime minister in the history of Italy was Benito Mussolini, who ruled the country from 1922 until 1943;[13] the longest-serving prime minister of the Italian Republic is Silvio Berlusconi, who held the position for more than nine years between 1994 and 2011.[14] The shortest-serving officeholder was Tommaso Tittoni, who served as prime minister for only 16 days in 1905,[15] while the shortest-serving prime minister of the Italian Republic was Fernando Tambroni, who governed for 123 days in 1960.[16]

Discover more about List of prime ministers of Italy related topics

Council of Ministers (Italy)

Council of Ministers (Italy)

The Council of Ministers is the principal executive organ of the Government of Italy. It comprises the President of the Council, all the ministers, and the undersecretary to the President of the council. Deputy ministers and junior ministers are part of the government, but are not members of the Council of Ministers.

Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri, generally known as Cavour, was an Italian politician, businessman, economist and noble, and a leading figure in the movement towards Italian unification. He was one of the leaders of the Historical Right and prime minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont–Sardinia, a position he maintained throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Giuseppe Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy. After the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as the first prime minister of Italy; he died after only three months in office and did not live to see the Roman Question solved through the complete unification of the country after the Capture of Rome in 1870.

King of Italy

King of Italy

King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a barbarian military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy

Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy

The fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio, came as a result of parallel plots led respectively by Count Dino Grandi and King Victor Emmanuel III during the spring and summer of 1943, culminating with a successful vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister Benito Mussolini at the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943. As a result, a new government was established, putting an end to the 21 years of Fascist rule in the Kingdom of Italy, and Mussolini was placed under arrest.

Benito Mussolini

Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician and journalist who founded and led the National Fascist Party. He was Prime Minister of Italy from the March on Rome in 1922 until his deposition in 1943, and "Duce" of Italian Fascism from the establishment of the Italian Fasces of Combat in 1919 until his execution in 1945 by Italian partisans. As dictator of Italy and principal founder of fascism, Mussolini inspired and supported the international spread of fascist movements during the inter-war period.

Italy

Italy

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a country located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, in Southern Europe; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region. Italy is also considered part of Western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital and largest city, the country covers a total area of 301,230 km2 (116,310 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland, Campione. With over 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union.

Constitution of Italy

Constitution of Italy

The Constitution of the Italian Republic was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended sixteen times, was promulgated in an extraordinary edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale on 27 December 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage on 2 June 1946, on the same day as the referendum on the abolition of the monarchy was held, and it was formed by the representatives of all the anti-fascist forces that contributed to the defeat of Nazi and Fascist forces during the Italian Civil War. The election was held in all Italian provinces. The Constitution was drafted in 1946 and came into force on 1 January 1948, one century after the Constitution of the Kingdom of Italy, the Statuto Albertino, had been enacted.

Italian Parliament

Italian Parliament

The Italian Parliament is the national parliament of the Italian Republic. It is the representative body of Italian citizens and is the successor to the Parliament of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1943), the transitional National Council (1945–1946) and the Constituent Assembly (1946–1948). It is a bicameral legislature with 600 elected members and a small number of unelected members. The Italian Parliament is composed of the Chamber of Deputies, as well as the Senate of the Republic.

Chamber of Deputies (Italy)

Chamber of Deputies (Italy)

The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the bicameral Italian Parliament. The two houses together form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. The Chamber of Deputies has 400 seats, of which 392 will be elected from Italian constituencies, and 8 from Italian citizens living abroad. Deputies are styled The Honourable and meet at Palazzo Montecitorio.

Giorgia Meloni

Giorgia Meloni

Giorgia Meloni is an Italian politician who has been serving as the prime minister of Italy since 22 October 2022, the first woman to hold this position. A member of the Chamber of Deputies since 2006, she has led the Brothers of Italy (FdI) political party since 2014, and she has been the president of the European Conservatives and Reformists Party since 2020.

Fascist Italy (1922–1943)

Fascist Italy (1922–1943)

The Kingdom of Italy was governed by the National Fascist Party from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as prime minister. The Italian Fascists imposed authoritarian rule and crushed political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne (1996), "[the] Fascist government passed through several relatively distinct phases". The first phase (1922–1925) was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship". The second phase (1925–1929) was "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper". The third phase (1929–1934) was with less interventionism in foreign policy. The fourth phase (1935–1940) was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, which was launched from Eritrea and Somaliland; confrontations with the League of Nations, leading to sanctions; growing economic autarky; invasion of Albania; and the signing of the Pact of Steel. The fifth phase (1940–1943) was World War II itself which ended in military defeat, while the sixth and final phase (1943–1945) was the rump Salò Government under German control.

Fernando Tambroni

Fernando Tambroni

Fernando Tambroni Armaroli was an Italian politician, member of the Christian Democracy, who served as 36th Prime Minister of Italy from March to July 1960. He also served as Minister of the Interior from July 1955 until February 1959, Minister of Budget and Treasury from February 1959 to March 1960 and Minister of the Merchant Navy from August 1953 until July 1955.

Prime ministers of Italy

Prime ministers of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)

Parties:[a]

1861–1912:
  Historical Right
  Historical Left
  Military
1912–1922:
  Liberal Union / Italian Liberal Party
  Italian Radical Party
  Italian Reformist Socialist Party
1922–1943:
  National Fascist Party
1943–1946:
  Labour Democratic Party
  Action Party
  Christian Democracy
  Military

Coalitions:[b]

1861–1912:
  Rightist coalition
  Leftist coalition
  Mixed coalition
1912–1922:
  Liberal coalition
1922–1943:
  Fascist government
1943–1946:
  National Liberation Committee
  Mixed coalition

Symbols:
dagger Died in office

Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Cabinet Composition Legislature
(Election)
Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour Count
Camillo Benso di Cavour
(1810–1861)
23 March
1861
6 June
1861dagger
75 days Historical Right Cavour IV[c] Right VIII[c]
(1861)
Victor Emmanuel II[c]
VictorEmmanuel2.jpg
(1861–1878)
[17]
Bettino Ricasoli Baron
Bettino Ricasoli
(1809–1880)
12 June
1861
3 March
1862
264 days Historical Right Ricasoli I Right [18]
Urbano Rattazzi Urbano Rattazzi
(1808–1873)
3 March
1862
8 December
1862
280 days Historical Left Rattazzi I RightLeft [19]
Luigi Carlo Farini Luigi Carlo Farini
(1812–1866)
8 December
1862
24 March
1863
106 days Historical Right Farini Right [20]
Marco Minghetti Marco Minghetti
(1818–1886)
24 March
1863
28 September
1864
1 year, 188 days Historical Right Minghetti I Right [21]
Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora General
Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora
(1804–1878)
28 September
1864
31 December
1865
1 year, 265 days Military La Marmora II Right [22]
[23]
31 December
1865
20 June
1866
La Marmora III IX
(1865)
Bettino Ricasoli Baron
Bettino Ricasoli
(1809–1880)
20 June
1866
10 April
1867
294 days Historical Right Ricasoli II RightLeft [24]
Urbano Rattazzi Urbano Rattazzi
(1808–1873)
10 April
1867
27 October
1867
200 days Historical Left Rattazzi II RightLeft X
(1867)
[25]
Luigi Federico Menabrea Count
Luigi Federico Menabrea
(1809–1896)
27 October
1867
5 January
1868
1 year, 48 days Historical Right Menabrea I Right [26]
[27]
[28]
5 January
1868
13 May
1869
Menabrea II
13 May
1869
14 December
1869
Menabrea III
Giovanni Lanza Giovanni Lanza
(1810–1882)
14 December
1869
10 July
1873
3 years, 208 days Historical Right Lanza Right XI
(1870)
[29]
Marco Minghetti Marco Minghetti
(1818–1886)
10 July
1873
25 March
1876
2 years, 259 days Historical Right Minghetti II Right XII
(1874)
[30]
Agostino Depretis Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
25 March
1876
25 December
1877
1 year, 364 days Historical Left Depretis I Left XIII
(1876)
[31]
[32]
26 December
1877
24 March
1878
Depretis II Umberto I
Umberto I di Savoia.jpg
(1878–1900)
Benedetto Cairoli Benedetto Cairoli
(1825–1889)
24 March
1878
19 December
1878
270 days Historical Left Cairoli I Left [33]
Agostino Depretis Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
19 December
1878
14 July
1879
214 days Historical Left Depretis III Left [34]
Benedetto Cairoli Benedetto Cairoli
(1825–1889)
14 July
1879
25 November
1879
1 year, 319 days Historical Left Cairoli II Left [35]
[36]
25 November
1879
29 May
1881
Cairoli III XIV
(1880)
Agostino Depretis Agostino Depretis
(1813–1887)
29 May
1881
25 May
1883
6 years, 61 days Historical Left Depretis IV Left [37]
[38]
[39]
[40]
[41]
25 May
1883
30 March
1884
Depretis V XV
(1882)
30 March
1884
29 June
1885
Depretis VI
29 June
1885
4 April
1887
Depretis VII XVI
(1886)
4 April
1887
29 July
1887dagger
Depretis VIII
Francesco Crispi Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
29 July
1887
9 March
1889
3 years, 192 days Historical Left Crispi I Left [42]
[43]
9 March
1889
6 February
1891
Crispi II XVII
(1890)
Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì Marquess
Antonio Starabba di Rudinì
(1839–1908)
6 February
1891
15 May
1892
1 year, 99 days Historical Right Di Rudinì I LeftRight [44]
Giovanni Giolitti Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 May
1892
15 December
1893
1 year, 214 days Historical Left Giolitti I Left XVIII
(1892)
[45]
Francesco Crispi Francesco Crispi
(1819–1901)
15 December
1893
14 June
1894
2 years, 86 days Historical Left Crispi III LeftRight [46]
[47]
14 June
1894
10 March
1896
Crispi IV XIX
(1895)
Antonio Starabba, Marchese di Rudinì Marquess
Antonio Starabba di Rudinì
(1839–1908)
10 March
1896
11 July
1896
2 years, 111 days Historical Right Di Rudinì II Right
with Left's external support
[48]
[49]
[50]
[51]
11 July
1896
14 December
1897
Di Rudinì III
14 December
1897
1 June
1898
Di Rudinì IV LeftRight XX
(1897)
1 June
1898
29 June
1898
Di Rudinì V LeftRight
Luigi Pelloux General
Luigi Pelloux
(1839–1924)
29 June
1898
14 May
1899
1 year, 360 days Military Pelloux I Left
with Right's external support
[52]
[53]
14 May
1899
24 June
1900
Pelloux II LeftRight
Giuseppe Saracco Giuseppe Saracco
(1821–1907)
24 June
1900
15 February
1901
236 days Historical Left Saracco LeftRight XXI
(1900)
Victor Emmanuel III
Vitorioemanuel.jpg
(1900–1946)
[54]
Giuseppe Zanardelli Giuseppe Zanardelli
(1826–1903)
15 February
1901
3 November
1903
2 years, 261 days Historical Left Zanardelli LeftRight [55]
Giovanni Giolitti Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
3 November
1903
12 March
1905
1 year, 129 days Historical Left Giolitti II LeftRight
with PSI's external support
XXII
(1904)
[56]
Tommaso Tittoni Tommaso Tittoni
(1855–1931)
12 March
1905
28 March
1905
16 days Historical Right Tittoni LeftRight [57]
Alessandro Fortis Alessandro Fortis
(1842–1909)
28 March
1905
24 December
1905
317 days Historical Left Fortis I LeftRight [58]
[59]
24 December
1905
8 February
1906
Fortis II Left
with Right's external support
Sidney Sonnino Baron
Sidney Sonnino
(1847–1922)
8 February
1906
29 May
1906
110 days Historical Right Sonnino I LeftRightPR [60]
Giovanni Giolitti Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
29 May
1906
11 December
1909
3 years, 196 days Historical Left Giolitti III LeftRight [61]
Sidney Sonnino Baron
Sidney Sonnino
(1847–1922)
11 December
1909
31 March
1910
110 days Historical Right Sonnino II Right
with Left's external support
XXIII
(1909)
[62]
Luigi Luzzatti Luigi Luzzatti
(1841–1927)
31 March
1910
30 March
1911
364 days Historical Right Luzzatti LeftRightPR [63]
Giovanni Giolitti Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
30 March
1911
21 March
1914
2 years, 356 days Liberal Union Giolitti IV ULPR [64]
Antonio Salandra Antonio Salandra
(1853–1931)
21 March
1914
5 November
1914
2 years, 89 days Liberal Union Salandra I UL XXIV
(1913)
[65]
[66]
5 November
1914
18 June
1916
Salandra II ULPRI
Paolo Boselli Paolo Boselli
(1838–1932)
18 June
1916
30 October
1917
1 year, 134 days Liberal Union Boselli ULPRUECIPSRI [67]
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
(1860–1952)
30 October
1917
23 June
1919
1 year, 236 days Liberal Union Orlando ULPRUECIPSRI [68]
Francesco Saverio Nitti Francesco Saverio Nitti
(1868–1953)
23 June
1919
21 May
1920
358 days Italian Radical Party Nitti I ULPLDIPPIPRPSRI [69]
[70]
21 May
1920
15 June
1920
Nitti II ULPLDIPPIPR XXV
(1919)
Giovanni Giolitti Giovanni Giolitti
(1842–1928)
15 June
1920
4 July
1921
1 year, 19 days Liberal Union Giolitti V ULPLDIPPIPDSIPRPSRI [71]
Ivanoe Bonomi Ivanoe Bonomi
(1873–1951)
4 July
1921
26 February
1922
237 days Italian Reformist Socialist Party Bonomi I PPIPLIPLDIPDSIPSRI XXVI
(1921)
[72]
Luigi Facta Luigi Facta
(1861–1930)
26 February
1922
1 August
1922
247 days Liberal Union /
Italian Liberal Party
Facta I PPIPLIPLDIPDSIPSRIPA [73]
[74]
1 August 1922 31 October 1922 Facta II PPIPLIPLDIPDSIPSRI
Benito Mussolini Duce
Benito Mussolini
(1883–1945)
31 October
1922
25 July
1943
20 years, 267 days National Fascist Party Mussolini PPIPLIPDSIPNFANI [75]
PNF XXVII
(1924)
XXVIII
(1929)
XXIX
(1934)
XXX
(no election)
Pietro Badoglio Marshal
Pietro Badoglio
(1871–1956)
25 July
1943
24 April
1944
329 days Military Badoglio I IndependentsDCPLI Parliament abolished [76]
[77]
24 April
1944
18 June
1944
Badoglio II DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL
Ivanoe Bonomi Ivanoe Bonomi
(1873–1951)
18 June
1944
12 December
1944
1 year, 3 days Labour Democratic Party Bonomi II DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL [78]
[79]
12 December
1944
21 June
1945
Bonomi III DCPCIPLIPDL National Council
Ferruccio Parri Ferruccio Parri
(1890–1981)
21 June
1945
10 December
1945
172 days Action Party Parri DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL [80]
Alcide De Gasperi Alcide De Gasperi
(1881–1954)
10 December
1945
13 July
1946
212 days Christian Democracy De Gasperi I DCPCIPLIPSIUPPdAPDL Umberto II
Umberto II, 1944.jpg
(1946)
[81]
  1. ^ Colors in the "Party" column indicate the party to which a prime minister belongs.
  2. ^ Colors in the "Cabinet" and "Composition" columns indicate the governing coalition.
  3. ^ a b c After the Italian unification, the regnal number of King Victor Emmanuel, as well as the numbering for governments and legislatures, were taken in continuation with the corresponding numbers in the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Prime ministers of the Italian Republic (1946–present)

Prime Ministers of the Italian Republic (1946–present)
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Party Cabinet Composition Legislature
(Election)
President
(Tenure)
Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
Alcide De Gasperi Alcide De Gasperi
(1881–1954)
13 July
1946
2 February
1947
7 years, 35 days Christian Democracy De Gasperi II DCPSIUPPCIPRI Constituent
Assembly

(1946)
Enrico
De Nicola

Enrico De Nicola (cropped).jpg
(1946–1948)
[82]
[83]
[84]
[85]
[86]
[87]
[88]
2 February
1947
1 June
1947
De Gasperi III DCPSIPCIPDL
1 June
1947
24 May
1948
De Gasperi IV Centrism
DCPSDIPLIPRI
24 May
1948
27 January
1950
De Gasperi V I
(1948)
Luigi Einaudi
Luigi Einaudi 2.jpg
(1948–1955)
27 January
1950
26 July
1951
De Gasperi VI Centrism
DCPSDIPRI
26 July
1951
16 July
1953
De Gasperi VII Centrism
DCPRI
16 July
1953
17 August
1953
De Gasperi VIII[c] DC II
(1953)
Giuseppe Pella Giuseppe Pella
(1902–1981)
17 August
1953
19 January
1954
155 days Christian Democracy Pella DC
with PLI and PNM's external support
[89]
Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
19 January
1954
10 February
1954
22 days Christian Democracy Fanfani I[c] DC [90]
Mario Scelba Mario Scelba
(1901–1991)
10 February
1954
6 July
1955
1 year, 146 days Christian Democracy Scelba Centrism
DCPSDIPLI
[91]
Antonio Segni Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
6 July
1955
20 May
1957
1 year, 318 days Christian Democracy Segni I Centrism
DCPSDIPLI
Giovanni
Gronchi

Giovanni Gronchi.jpg
(1955–1962)
[92]
Adone Zoli Adone Zoli
(1887–1960)
20 May
1957
2 July
1958
1 year, 43 days Christian Democracy Zoli DC
with MSI, PSDI, PLI, PMP, PNM, PRI's external support
[93]
Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
2 July
1958
16 February
1959
229 days Christian Democracy Fanfani II Centrism
DCPSDI
III
(1958)
[94]
Antonio Segni Antonio Segni
(1891–1972)
16 February
1959
26 March
1960
1 year, 39 days Christian Democracy Segni II DC
with MSI, PLI, PNM and PMP's external support
[95]
Fernando Tambroni Fernando Tambroni
(1901–1963)
26 March
1960
27 July
1960
123 days Christian Democracy Tambroni DC
with MSI's external support
[96]
Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
27 July
1960
22 February
1962
2 years, 330 days Christian Democracy Fanfani III DC
with PSDI, PLI, and PRI's external support
[97]
[98]
22 February
1962
22 June
1963
Fanfani IV DCPSDIPRI
with PSI's external support
Antonio Segni
Antonio Segni Official 1962.jpg
(1962–1964)
Giovanni Leone Giovanni Leone
(1908–2001)
22 June
1963
5 December
1963
166 days Christian Democracy Leone I DC
with PSI, PSDI and PRI's external support
IV
(1963)
[99]
Aldo Moro Aldo Moro
(1916–1978)
5 December
1963
23 July
1964
4 years, 203 days Christian Democracy Moro I Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDIPRI
[100]
[101]
[102]
23 July
1964
24 February
1966
Moro II Giuseppe
Saragat

Giuseppe Saragat (cropped).jpg
(1964–1971)
24 February
1966
25 June
1968
Moro III
Giovanni Leone Giovanni Leone
(1908–2001)
25 June
1968
13 December
1968
171 days Christian Democracy Leone II DC
with PSU and PRI's external support
V
(1968)
[103]
Mariano Rumor Mariano Rumor
(1915–1990)
13 December
1968
6 August
1969
1 year, 236 days Christian Democracy Rumor I Organic centre-left
DCPSUPRI
[104]
[105]
[106]
6 August
1969
28 March
1970
Rumor II DC
with PSI, PSDI and PRI's external support
28 March
1970
6 August
1970
Rumor III Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDIPRI
Emilio Colombo Emilio Colombo
(1920–2013)
6 August
1970
18 February
1972
1 year, 196 days Christian Democracy Colombo Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDIPRI
[107]
Giulio Andreotti Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
18 February
1972
26 June
1972
1 year, 140 days Christian Democracy Andreotti I[c] DC Giovanni
Leone

Giovanni Leone Official.jpg
(1971–1978)
[108]
[109]
26 June
1972
8 July
1973
Andreotti II DCPSDIPLI
with PRI's external support
VI
(1972)
Mariano Rumor Mariano Rumor
(1915–1990)
8 July
1973
15 March
1974
1 year, 138 days Christian Democracy Rumor IV Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDIPRI
[110]
[111]
15 March
1974
23 November
1974
Rumor V Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDI
with PRI's external support
Aldo Moro Aldo Moro
(1916–1978)
23 November
1974
12 February
1976
1 year, 250 days Christian Democracy Moro IV DCPRI
with PSI and PSDI's external support
[112]
[113]
12 February
1976
30 July
1976
Moro V DC
with PSI, PSDI and PRI's external support
Giulio Andreotti Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
30 July
1976
13 March
1978
3 years, 6 days Christian Democracy Andreotti III Historic Compromise
DC with PCI's external support
VII
(1976)
[114]
[115]
[116]
13 March
1978
21 March
1979
Andreotti IV Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini Official.jpg
(1978–1985)
21 March
1979
5 August
1979
Andreotti V[c] DCPSDIPRI
Francesco Cossiga Francesco Cossiga
(1928–2010)
5 August
1979
4 April
1980
1 year, 74 days Christian Democracy Cossiga I DCPSDIPLI
with PSI and PRI's external support
VIII
(1979)
[117]
[118]
4 April
1980
18 October
1980
Cossiga II Organic centre-left
DCPSIPRI
Arnaldo Forlani Arnaldo Forlani
(born 1925)
18 October
1980
28 June
1981
253 days Christian Democracy Forlani Organic centre-left
DCPSIPSDIPRI
[119]
Giovanni Spadolini Giovanni Spadolini
(1925–1994)
28 June
1981
23 August
1982
1 year, 156 days Italian Republican Party Spadolini I Pentapartito
DCPSIPSDIPRIPLI
[120]
[121]
23 August
1982
1 December
1982
Spadolini II
Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
1 December
1982
4 August
1983
246 days Christian Democracy Fanfani V DCPSIPSDIPLI
with PRI's external support
[122]
Bettino Craxi Bettino Craxi
(1934–2000)
4 August
1983
1 August
1986
3 years, 257 days Italian Socialist Party Craxi I Pentapartito
DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI
IX
(1983)
[123]
[124]
1 August
1986
18 April
1987
Craxi II Francesco Cossiga
Cossiga Francesco.jpg
(1985–1992)
Amintore Fanfani Amintore Fanfani
(1908–1999)
18 April
1987
29 July
1987
102 days Christian Democracy Fanfani VI[c] DC [98]
Giovanni Goria Giovanni Goria
(1943–1994)
29 July
1987
13 April
1988
259 days Christian Democracy Goria Pentapartito
DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI
X
(1987)
[125]
Ciriaco De Mita Ciriaco De Mita
(1928–2022)
13 April
1988
23 July
1989
1 year, 101 days Christian Democracy De Mita Pentapartito
DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI
[126]
Giulio Andreotti Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
23 July
1989
13 April
1991
2 years, 341 days Christian Democracy Andreotti VI Pentapartito
DCPSIPRIPSDIPLI
[127]
[128]
13 April
1991
28 June
1992
Andreotti VII Quadripartito
DCPSIPSDIPLI
Giuliano Amato Giuliano Amato
(born 1938)
28 June
1992
28 April
1993
304 days Italian Socialist Party Amato I Quadripartito
DCPSIPLIPSDI
XI
(1992)
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro portrait.jpg
(1992–1999)
[129]
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
(1920–2016)
28 April
1993
11 May
1994
1 year, 13 days Independent Ciampi DCPSIPDS[d]PLIPRIPSDIFdV[e] [130]
Silvio Berlusconi Silvio Berlusconi
(born 1936)
11 May
1994
17 January
1995
251 days Forza Italia Berlusconi I PdLPBG
FILNANCCDUdC
XII
(1994)
[131]
Lamberto Dini Lamberto Dini
(born 1931)
17 January
1995
18 May
1996
1 year, 122 days Independent Dini Independents
supported by PDS, LN, PPI, PSI, FdV, Rete, CS
[132]
Romano Prodi Romano Prodi
(born 1939)
18 May
1996
21 October
1998
2 years, 156 days Independent[f] Prodi I The Olive Tree
PDSPPIRIFdVUD with PRC's external support
XIII
(1996)
[133]
Massimo D'Alema Massimo D'Alema
(born 1949)
21 October
1998
22 December
1999
1 year, 188 days Democrats of the Left D'Alema I The Olive Tree
DSPPIRISDIFdVPdCIUDR
[134]
[135]
22 December
1999
26 April
2000
D'Alema II The Olive Tree
DSPPIDemRIFdVPdCIUDEUR
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Ciampi ritratto.jpg
(1999–2006)
Giuliano Amato Giuliano Amato
(born 1938)
26 April
2000
11 June
2001
1 year, 46 days Independent[f] Amato II The Olive Tree
DSPPIDemFdVPdCIUDEURRISDI
[136]
Silvio Berlusconi Silvio Berlusconi
(born 1936)
11 June
2001
23 April
2005
4 years, 340 days Forza Italia Berlusconi II House of Freedoms
FIANLNUDCNPSIPRI
XIV
(2001)
[137]
[138]
23 April
2005
17 May
2006
Berlusconi III
Romano Prodi Romano Prodi
(born 1939)
17 May
2006
8 May
2008
1 year, 357 days Independent /
Democratic Party
Prodi II The Union
DSDLPRCRnPPdCIIdVFdVUDEUR
XV
(2006)
Giorgio Napolitano
Presidente Napolitano.jpg
(2006–2015)
[139]
Silvio Berlusconi Silvio Berlusconi
(born 1936)
8 May
2008
16 November
2011
3 years, 192 days The People of Freedom Berlusconi IV Centre-right coalition
PdLLNMpA
XVI
(2008)
[140]
Mario Monti Mario Monti
(born 1943)
16 November
2011
28 April
2013
1 year, 163 days Independent Monti Independents
supported by PdL, PD, UdC, FLI, ApI
[141]
Enrico Letta Enrico Letta
(born 1966)
28 April
2013
22 February
2014
300 days Democratic Party Letta PDPdL[g]NCD[h]SCPpIUDCRI XVII
(2013)
[142]
Matteo Renzi Matteo Renzi
(born 1975)
22 February
2014
12 December
2016
2 years, 294 days Democratic Party Renzi PDNCDSCUDC [143]
Paolo Gentiloni Paolo Gentiloni
(born 1954)
12 December
2016
1 June
2018
1 year, 171 days Democratic Party Gentiloni PDNCD/APCpE Sergio Mattarella
Sergio Mattarella Official (cropped).jpg
(2015–present)
[144]
Giuseppe Conte Giuseppe Conte
(born 1964)
1 June
2018
5 September
2019
2 years, 257 days Independent[i] Conte I M5SLega XVIII
(2018)
[145]
[146]
5 September
2019
13 February
2021
Conte II M5SPDLeUIV[j]
Mario Draghi Mario Draghi
(born 1947)
13 February
2021
22 October
2022
1 year, 251 days Independent Draghi M5SLegaPDFIIpF[k]IVArt.1A[l] [147]
Giorgia Meloni Giorgia Meloni
(born 1977)
22 October
2022
Incumbent 34 days Brothers of Italy Meloni Centre-right coalition
FdILegaFI
XIX
(2022)
[148]
  1. ^ Colors in the "Party" column indicate the party to which a prime minister belongs.
  2. ^ Colors in the "Cabinet" and "Composition" columns indicate the governing coalition.
  3. ^ a b c d e The cabinet did not receive the confidence of the Parliament.
  4. ^ Until 4 May 1993
  5. ^ Until 4 May 1993
  6. ^ a b Within The Olive Tree coalition
  7. ^ Until November 2013
  8. ^ From November 2013 to February 2014
  9. ^ Close to the Five Star Movement
  10. ^ From September 2019 to January 2021
  11. ^ From June 2022
  12. ^ From July 2022

Discover more about Prime ministers of Italy related topics

Historical Right

Historical Right

The Right group, later called Historical Right by historians to distinguish it from the right-wing groups of the 20th century, was an Italian conservative parliamentary group during the second half of the 19th century. After 1876, the Historical Right constituted the Constitutional opposition toward the left governments. It originated in the convergence of the most liberal faction of the moderate right and the moderate wing of the democratic left. The party included men from heterogeneous cultural, class, and ideological backgrounds, ranging from Anglo-Saxon individualist liberalism to Neo-Hegelian liberalism as well as liberal-conservatives, from strict secularists to more religiously-oriented reformists. Few prime ministers after 1852 were party men; instead they accepted support where they could find it, and even the governments of the Historical Right during the 1860s included leftists in some capacity.

Historical Left

Historical Left

The Left group, later called Historical Left by historians to distinguish it from the left-wing groups of the 20th century, was a liberal and reformist parliamentary group in Italy during the second half of the 19th century. The members of the Left were also known as Democrats or Ministerials. The Left was the dominant political group in the Kingdom of Italy from the 1870s until its dissolution in the early 1910s.

Liberal Union (Italy)

Liberal Union (Italy)

The Liberal Union, simply and collectively called Liberals, was a political alliance formed in the first years of the 20th century by the Italian Prime Minister and leader of the Historical Left Giovanni Giolitti. The alliance was formed when the Left and the Right merged in a single centrist and liberal coalition which largely dominated the Italian Parliament.

Italian Liberal Party

Italian Liberal Party

The Italian Liberal Party was a liberal and conservative political party in Italy.

Italian Radical Party

Italian Radical Party

The Italian Radical Party, also known as the Historical Radical Party, was a radical, republican, secularist and social-liberal political party in Italy.

Italian Reformist Socialist Party

Italian Reformist Socialist Party

The Italian Reformist Socialist Party was a social-democratic political party in Italy.

National Fascist Party

National Fascist Party

The National Fascist Party was a political party in Italy, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Italian Fascism and as a reorganization of the previous Italian Fasces of Combat. The party ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 when Fascists took power with the March on Rome until the fall of the Fascist regime in 1943, when Mussolini was deposed by the Grand Council of Fascism. It was succeeded, in the territories under the control of the Italian Social Republic, by the Republican Fascist Party, ultimately dissolved at the end of World War II.

Labour Democratic Party

Labour Democratic Party

The Labour Democratic Party, previously known as Labour Democracy, was a social-democratic and social-liberal political party in Italy, founded in 1943 as the heir of defunct Italian Reformist Socialist Party, formed by those Socialists who wanted to cooperate with the Liberal political guard which governed Italy from the days of Giovanni Giolitti. Leading members of the party were Ivanoe Bonomi, Meuccio Ruini and Enrico Molè.

Action Party (Italy)

Action Party (Italy)

The Action Party was a liberal-socialist political party in Italy. The party was anti-fascist and republican. Its prominent leaders were Carlo Rosselli, Ferruccio Parri, Emilio Lussu and Ugo La Malfa. Other prominent members included Leone Ginzburg, Ernesto de Martino, Norberto Bobbio, Riccardo Lombardi, Vittorio Foa and the Nobel-winning poet Eugenio Montale.

Christian Democracy (Italy)

Christian Democracy (Italy)

Christian Democracy was a Christian democratic political party in Italy. The DC was founded on 15 December 1943 in the Italian Social Republic as the ideal successor of the Italian People's Party, which had the same symbol, a crusader shield. As a Catholic-inspired, centrist, catch-all party comprising both centre-right and centre-left political factions, the DC played a dominant role in the politics of Italy for fifty years, and had been part of the government from soon after its inception until its final demise on 16 January 1994 amid the Tangentopoli scandals. Christian Democrats led the Italian government continuously from 1946 until 1981. The party was nicknamed the "White Whale" due to its huge organization and official color. During its time in government, the Italian Communist Party was the largest opposition party.

Coalition government

Coalition government

A coalition government is a form of government in which political parties cooperate to form a government. The usual reason for such an arrangement is that no single party has achieved an absolute majority after an election, an atypical outcome in nations with majoritarian electoral systems, but common under proportional representation. A coalition government might also be created in a time of national difficulty or crisis to give a government the high degree of perceived political legitimacy or collective identity, it can also play a role in diminishing internal political strife. In such times, parties have formed all-party coalitions. If a coalition collapses, the Prime Minister and cabinet may be ousted by a vote of no confidence, call snap elections, form a new majority coalition, or continue as a minority government.

National Liberation Committee

National Liberation Committee

The National Liberation Committee was a political umbrella organization and the main representative of the Italian resistance movement fighting against Nazi Germany’s forces during the German occupation of Italy in the aftermath of the armistice of Cassibile, while simultaneously fighting against Italian Fascists during the Italian Civil War. It was a multi-party entity, whose members were united by their anti-fascism. The CLN coordinated and directed the Italian resistance and was subdivided into the Central Committee for National Liberation (CCLN) based in Rome and the later National Liberation Committee for Northern Italy (CLNAI) based in Milan.

Timeline

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)

Alcide De GasperiFerruccio ParriPietro BadoglioBenito MussoliniLuigi FactaIvanoe BonomiFrancesco Saverio NittiVittorio Emanuele OrlandoPaolo BoselliAntonio SalandraLuigi LuzzatiSidney SonninoAlessandro FortisTommaso TittoniGiuseppe ZanardelliGiuseppe SaraccoLuigi PellouxGiovanni GiolittiAntonio Starabba, Marchese di RudinìFrancesco CrispiBenedetto CairoliAgostino DepretisGiovanni LanzaFederico Luigi, Conte MenabreaAlfonso Ferrero La MarmoraMarco MinghettiLuigi Carlo FariniUrbano RattazziBettino RicasoliCamillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Italian Republic (1946–present)

Giorgia MeloniMario DraghiGiuseppe ContePaolo GentiloniMatteo RenziEnrico LettaMario MontiMassimo D'AlemaRomano ProdiLamberto DiniSilvio BerlusconiCarlo Azeglio CiampiGiuliano AmatoCiriaco De MitaGiovanni GoriaBettino CraxiGiovanni SpadoliniArnaldo ForlaniFrancesco CossigaGiulio AndreottiEmilio ColomboMariano RumorAldo MoroGiovanni LeoneFernando TambroniAdone ZoliAntonio SegniMario ScelbaAmintore FanfaniGiuseppe PellaAlcide De Gasperi

Source: "List of prime ministers of Italy", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_prime_ministers_of_Italy.

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Bibliography

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