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List of political parties in India

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India has a multi-party system. The Election Commission of India (ECI) accords recognition to the national level and the state level political parties based upon objective criteria. A recognised political party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol,[a] free broadcast time on state-run television and radio, consultation in the setting of election dates, and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India. Registered Parties are upgraded as recognised National Party or State Party by the ECI if they meet the relevant criteria after a Lok Sabha or State legislative assembly election. The Recognised Party status is reviewed periodically by the ECI.

Before the amendment in 2016 (came into force with effect from 1 January 2014), if a political party failed to fulfill the criteria in the subsequent Lok Sabha or state legislative assembly election, they lost their status as a recognised Party. In 2016, the ECI announced that such a review would take place after two consecutive elections instead of every election. Therefore, a political party shall retain the recognised Party status even if they do not meet the criteria in the next election. However, if they fail to meet the criteria in the subsequent election following the next election, they would lose their status.

As per latest publication dated 23 September 2021 from Election Commission of India, the total number of parties registered was 2858, with 8 national parties, 54 state parties and 2796 unrecognised parties.[3] All registered parties contesting elections need to choose a symbol from a list of available symbols offered by the EC. All 28 states of the country along with the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Puducherry have elected governments unless President's rule is imposed under certain condition.

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India

India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia.

Multi-party system

Multi-party system

In political science, a multi-party system is a political system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national elections, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition. Apart from one-party-dominant and two-party systems, multi-party systems tend to be more common in parliamentary systems than presidential systems and far more common in countries that use proportional representation compared to countries that use first-past-the-post elections. Several parties compete for power and all of them have reasonable chance of forming government.

Election Commission of India

Election Commission of India

The Election Commission of India (ECI) is a constitutional body. It was established by the Constitution of India to conduct and regulate elections in the country. Article 324 of the Constitution provides that the power of superintendence, direction, and control of elections to parliament, state legislatures, the office of the president of India, and the office of vice-president of India shall be vested in the election commission. Thus, the Election Commission is an all-India body in the sense that it is common to both the Central government and the state governments.

Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by an adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan, New Delhi.

State legislative assemblies of India

State legislative assemblies of India

The State Legislative Assembly, or Vidhan Sabha, or also Saasana Sabha, is a legislative body in the states and union territories of India. In the 28 states and 3 union territories with a unicameral state legislature, it is the sole legislative body and in 6 states it is the lower house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being State Legislative Council. 5 union territories are governed directly by the Union Government of India and have no legislative body.

Union territory

Union territory

A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India. Unlike the states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are federal territories governed, in part or in whole, by the Union Government of India. There are currently eight union territories in India, namely Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Lakshadweep and Puducherry.

Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)

Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)

Jammu and Kashmir is a region administered by India as a union territory and consists of the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947, and between India and China since 1962. The Line of Control separates Jammu and Kashmir from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north. It lies to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of Ladakh which is administered by India as a union territory.

Delhi

Delhi

Delhi, officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. Straddling the Yamuna river, primarily its western or right bank, Delhi shares borders with the state of Uttar Pradesh in the east and with the state of Haryana in the remaining directions. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, while the NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban agglomeration, which includes the satellite cities Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area known as the National Capital Region (NCR), has an estimated population of over 28 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in India and the second-largest in the world.

Puducherry (union territory)

Puducherry (union territory)

Puducherry, also known as Pondicherry or Pondichéry, is a union territory of India, consisting of four small geographically unconnected districts. It was formed out of four territories of former French India, namely Pondichéry , Karikal (Karaikal), Mahé and Yanaon, excluding Chandannagar (Chandernagore), and it is named after the largest district, Puducherry, which was also the capital of French India. Historically known as Pondicherry, the territory changed its official name to Puducherry on 20 September 2006.

President's rule

President's rule

In India, President's rule is the suspension of state government and imposition of direct Union government rule in a state. Under Article 356 of the Constitution of India, if a state government is unable to function according to Constitutional provisions, the Union government can take direct control of the state machinery. Subsequently, executive authority is exercised through the centrally appointed governor, who has the authority to appoint other administrators to assist them. The administrators are usually nonpartisan retired civil servants.

National parties

A registered party is recognised as a national party only if it fulfils any one of the three conditions listed below:[4]

  • The party win 2% of seats in the Lok Sabha from at least three different states.
  • At a general election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party polls 6% of votes in any four or more states and in addition it wins four Lok Sabha seats.
  • The party gets recognition as a state party in four states.
8 recognised national parties
Party Flag Election
symbol
Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader(s) States/union territories governed Seats
Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
Assemblies
State
Councils
All India Trinamool Congress
All India Trinamool Congress flag (2).svg
All India Trinamool Congress symbol.svg
Centre-left Secularism
Progressivism
1998
(25 years ago)
 (1998)
Mamata Banerjee
1 / 31
23 / 543
13 / 245
228 / 4,036
0 / 426
Bahujan Samaj Party Elephant Bahujan Samaj Party.svg
Indian Election Symbol Elephant.png
Centre-left Social equality
Social justice
Self-respect
1984
(39 years ago)
 (1984)
Mayawati
0 / 31
10 / 543
1 / 245
7 / 4,036
1 / 426
Bharatiya Janata Party BJP Flag.svg
Lotos flower symbol.svg
Right-wing Hindutva
Nationalism
Conservatism
Social conservatism
1980
(43 years ago)
 (1980)
J. P. Nadda
16 / 31
303 / 543
92 / 245
1,383 / 4,036
167 / 426
Communist Party of India CPI-banner.svg
CPI symbol.svg
Left-wing Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Socialism
Secularism
1925
(98 years ago)
 (1925)
D. Raja
3 / 31
2 / 543
2 / 245
21 / 4,036
2 / 426
Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI-M-flag.svg
Indian Election Symbol Hammer Sickle and Star.png
Left-wing Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Secularism
Social equality
Democracy
Socialism
1964
(59 years ago)
 (1964)
Sitaram Yechury
3 / 31
3 / 543
5 / 245
86 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indian National Congress Indian National Congress Flag.svg
Hand INC.svg
Centre to
centre-left
Big tent
Civic nationalism
Social liberalism
Secularism
Social democracy
1885
(138 years ago)
 (1885)
Mallikarjun Kharge
6 / 31
52 / 543
31 / 245
650 / 4,036
45 / 426
Nationalist Congress Party Flag of Nationalist Congress Party.svg
Nationalist Congress Party Election Symbol.png
Centre Indian nationalism
Secularism
1999
(24 years ago)
 (1999)
Sharad Pawar
0 / 31
4 / 543
4 / 245
56 / 4,036
11 / 426
National People's Party NPP Flag.jpg
Indian Election Symbol Book.svg
Centre-left Regionalism
Ethnocentrism
2013
(10 years ago)
 (2013)
Conrad Sangma
3 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
31 / 4,036
0 / 426

Discover more about National parties related topics

Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by an adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan, New Delhi.

Rajya Sabha

Rajya Sabha

The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally the Council of States, is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India. As of 2022, it has a maximum membership of 245, of which 233 are elected by the legislatures of the states and union territories using single transferable votes through open ballots, while the president can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services. The potential seating capacity of the Rajya Sabha is 245, according to article 80 of the Indian Constitution. Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with about a third of the 238 designates up for election every two years, in even-numbered years. Unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha is a continuing chamber and hence not subject to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha, can be prorogued by the president.

Centre-left politics

Centre-left politics

Centre-left politics lean to the left on the left–right political spectrum but are closer to the centre than other left-wing politics. Those on the centre-left believe in working within the established systems to improve social justice. The centre-left promotes a degree of social equality that it believes is achievable through promoting equal opportunity. The centre-left emphasizes that the achievement of equality requires personal responsibility in areas in control by the individual person through their abilities and talents as well as social responsibility in areas outside control by the person in their abilities or talents.

Progressivism

Progressivism

Progressivism holds that it is possible to improve human societies through political action. As a political movement, progressivism seeks to advance the human condition through social reform based on purported advancements in science, technology, economic development, and social organization. Adherents hold that progressivism has universal application and endeavor to spread this idea to human societies everywhere. Progressivism arose during the Age of Enlightenment out of the belief that civility in Europe was improving due to the application of new empirical knowledge to the governance of society.

Mamata Banerjee

Mamata Banerjee

Mamata Banerjee is an Indian politician who is serving as the eighth and current chief minister of the Indian state of West Bengal since 20 May 2011, the first woman to hold the office. Having served many times as a Union Cabinet Minister, Mamata Banerjee became the Chief Minister of West Bengal for the first time in 2011. She founded the All India Trinamool Congress in 1998 after separating from the Indian National Congress, and became its first chairperson. She is often referred to as 'Didi'.

Bahujan Samaj Party

Bahujan Samaj Party

The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is a national level political party in India that was formed to represent Bahujans, referring to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes (OBC), along with religious minorities. According to Kanshi Ram, when he founded the party in 1984, the Bahujans comprised 85 percent of India's population, but were divided into 6,000 different castes. The party claims to be inspired by the philosophy of Gautama Buddha, B. R. Ambedkar, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Narayana Guru, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy and Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj.

Mayawati

Mayawati

Kumari Mayawati is an Indian politician. She has served four separate terms as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. She is the national president of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), which focuses on a platform of social change for Bahujans, more commonly known as Other Backward Castes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes as well as converted minorities from these castes. She was chief minister briefly in 1995 and again in 1997, then from 2002 to 2003 and from 2007 to 2012.

Bharatiya Janata Party

Bharatiya Janata Party

The Bharatiya Janata Party is a political party in India, and one of the two major Indian political parties alongside the Indian National Congress. Since 2014, it has been the ruling political party in India under Narendra Modi, the incumbent Indian prime minister. The BJP is aligned with right-wing politics, and its policies have historically reflected a traditional Hindu nationalist ideology; it has close ideological and organisational links to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). As of February 2022, it is the country's largest political party in terms of representation in the Parliament of India as well as state legislatures.

Right-wing politics

Right-wing politics

Right-wing politics describes the range of political ideologies that view certain social orders and hierarchies as inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics, authority, property or tradition. Hierarchy and inequality may be seen as natural results of traditional social differences or competition in market economies.

Hindutva

Hindutva

Hindutva (transl. Hinduness) is the predominant form of Hindu nationalism in India. The term was formulated as a political ideology by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in 1923. It is used by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and other organisations, collectively called the Sangh Parivar.

Nationalism

Nationalism

Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation should be congruent with the state. As a movement, it tends to promote the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland to create a nation-state. It holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference (self-determination), that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity, and that the nation is the only rightful source of political power. It further aims to build and maintain a single national identity, based on a combination of shared social characteristics such as culture, ethnicity, geographic location, language, politics, religion, traditions and belief in a shared singular history, and to promote national unity or solidarity. Nationalism, therefore, seeks to preserve and foster a nation's traditional culture. There are various definitions of a "nation", which leads to different types of nationalism. The two main divergent forms are ethnic nationalism and civic nationalism.

Conservatism in India

Conservatism in India

Conservatism in India refers to the political philosophy which seeks to promote preservation of certain traditional values that are cherished and have developed in the subcontinent of India.

Parties pending for national party status

Party Flag Election
symbol
Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader(s) States/union territories governed Seats
Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
Assemblies
State
Councils
Aam Aadmi Party
Aam Aadmi Party Flag.svg
AAP Symbol.png
Centre Socialism
Anti-corruption
Secularism
Humanism
2012
(11 years ago)
 (2012)
Arvind Kejriwal
2 / 31
0 / 543
10 / 245
161 / 4,036
0 / 426

Discover more about Parties pending for national party status related topics

Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by an adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan, New Delhi.

Rajya Sabha

Rajya Sabha

The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally the Council of States, is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of India. As of 2022, it has a maximum membership of 245, of which 233 are elected by the legislatures of the states and union territories using single transferable votes through open ballots, while the president can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social services. The potential seating capacity of the Rajya Sabha is 245, according to article 80 of the Indian Constitution. Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with about a third of the 238 designates up for election every two years, in even-numbered years. Unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha is a continuing chamber and hence not subject to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha, can be prorogued by the president.

State legislative assemblies of India

State legislative assemblies of India

The State Legislative Assembly, or Vidhan Sabha, or also Saasana Sabha, is a legislative body in the states and union territories of India. In the 28 states and 3 union territories with a unicameral state legislature, it is the sole legislative body and in 6 states it is the lower house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being State Legislative Council. 5 union territories are governed directly by the Union Government of India and have no legislative body.

State legislative councils of India

State legislative councils of India

The State Legislative Council, or Vidhan Parishad, or Saasana Mandali is the upper house in those states of India that have a bicameral state legislature; the lower house being the State Legislative Assembly. Its establishment is defined in Article 169 of the Constitution of India.

Aam Aadmi Party

Aam Aadmi Party

The Aam Aadmi Party is a political party in India. AAP was founded in November 2012 by Arvind Kejriwal and his then-companions, following the 2011 Indian anti-corruption movement. AAP is currently the ruling party of two states: The N.C.T of Delhi, and the state of Punjab. The party's election symbol is a broom.

Centrism

Centrism

Centrism is a political outlook or position involving acceptance or support of a balance of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy while opposing political changes that would result in a significant shift of society strongly to the left or the right.

Socialism

Socialism

Socialism is a political philosophy and movement encompassing a range of economic and social systems, which are characterised by social ownership of the means of production, with an emphasis on democratic control, such as workers' self-management, as opposed to private ownership. Socialism includes the political, social, and economic philosophies and movements associated with the proposal and implementention of such systems. Social ownership can be public, community, collective, cooperative, or employee. While no single definition encapsulates the many types of socialism, social ownership is the one common element, and is considered left-wing. Different types of socialism vary based on the role of markets and planning in resource allocation, on the structure of management in organizations, and from below or from above approaches, with some socialists favouring a party, state, or technocratic-driven approach. Socialists disagree on whether government, particularly existing government, is the correct vehicle for change.

Anti-corruption

Anti-corruption

Anti-corruption comprises activities that oppose or inhibit corruption. Just as corruption takes many forms, anti-corruption efforts vary in scope and in strategy. A general distinction between preventive and reactive measures is sometimes drawn. In such framework, investigative authorities and their attempts to unveil corrupt practices would be considered reactive, while education on the negative impact of corruption, or firm-internal compliance programs are classified as the former.

Secularism

Secularism

Secularism is the principle of seeking to conduct human affairs based on secular, naturalistic considerations.

Humanism

Humanism

Humanism is a philosophical stance that emphasizes the individual and social potential, and agency of human beings, whom it considers the starting point for serious moral and philosophical inquiry.

Arvind Kejriwal

Arvind Kejriwal

Arvind Kejriwal is an Indian politician, former bureaucrat, and activist who is the 7th and current Chief Minister of Delhi since February 2015. Currently, he is the national convener of the Aam Aadmi Party, which won the 2015 Delhi Assembly elections with a historic majority, obtaining 67 out of 70 seats. He was also the Chief Minister of Delhi from December 2013 to February 2014, stepping down after 49 days of assuming power. In 2006, Kejriwal was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award for his involvement in the Parivartan movement using right to information legislation in a campaign against government corruption. The same year, after resigning from Government service, he founded the Public Cause Research Foundation to campaign for transparant governance.

State parties

A registered party is recognised as a state party only if it fulfils any one of the five conditions listed below:[4]

  • A party should secure at least 6% of valid votes polled in an election to the state legislative assembly and win at least 2 seats in that state assembly.
  • A party should secure at least 6% of valid votes polled in an election to Lok Sabha and win at least 1 seat in Lok Sabha.
  • A party should win at least 3% of the total number of seats or a minimum of three seats in the Legislative Assembly, which ever is higher.
  • A party should win at least one seat in the Lok Sabha for every 25 seats or any fraction thereof allotted to that State.
  • Under the liberalised criteria, one more clause that it will be eligible for recognition as state party if it secures 8% or more of the total valid votes polled in the state.
52 recognised state parties[3]
Party Flag Election
symbol
Political
position
Ideology Founded Leader(s) State(s) States
governed
Seats
Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha State
Assemblies
State
Councils
State Party in 3 States
Janata Dal (Secular) Indian election symbol female farmer.svg Centre to Centre-left Secularism 1999 H. D. Deve Gowda Arunachal Pradesh
Karnataka
Kerala
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
34 / 4,036
13 / 426
Janata Dal (United) Janata Dal (United) Flag.svg Indian Election Symbol Arrow.svg Centre-left Socialism[5]
Secularism[5]
Integral humanism
2003 Nitish Kumar Arunachal Pradesh
Bihar
Manipur
1 / 31
16 / 543
5 / 245
46 / 4,036
23 / 426
State Party in 2 States
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam AIADMK OfficialFlag Vector.svg Two Leaves Centre-left Populism
Socialism
Secularism
Dravidianism
Tamil nationalism[6][7]
1972 Edappadi K. Palaniswami Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
0 / 31
1 / 543
4 / 245
63 / 4,036
0 / 426
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Flag DMK.svg Indian election symbol rising sun.svg Centre-left Social democracy[8]
Dravidianism
Social justice[8]
Federalism
1949 M. K. Stalin Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
1 / 31
24 / 543
10 / 245
131 / 4,036
0 / 426
Naga People's Front Flag of the Naga People's Front.png Indian Election Symbol Cock.png Regionalism 2002 T. R. Zeliang Manipur
Nagaland
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
30 / 4,036
0 / 426
Rashtriya Janata Dal RJD Flag.svg Indian Election Symbol Hurricane Lamp.png Centre-left Socialism 1997 Lalu Prasad Yadav
Tejashwi Yadav
Bihar
Jharkhand
3 / 31
0 / 543
6 / 245
81 / 4,036
5 / 426
Revolutionary Socialist Party RSP-flag.svg Indian Election Symbol Spade and Stoker.png Far-left Communism
Marxism–Leninism[9]
Revolutionary socialism
1940 Manoj Bhattacharya[10] Kerala
West Bengal
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Telugu Desam Party Telugu Desam Party Flag.png Indian Election Symbol Cycle.png Centre[11] Populism[12]
Economic liberalism[13]
1982 N. Chandrababu Naidu Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
0 / 31
3 / 543
1 / 245
23 / 4,036
15 / 426
State Party in 1 State
All India Forward Bloc Indian Election Symbol Lion.svg Left-wing Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
Anti-imperialism
Marxism[14]
1939 Debabrata Biswas West Bengal
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen logo.svg kite Right-wing[15] Composite nationalism[16]
Minority rights[17]
Dalit Rights[18]
Constitutionalism[19]
1958 Asaduddin Owaisi Telangana
0 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
14 / 4,036
2 / 426
All India N.R. Congress All India N.R. Congress.png Indian Election Symbol Jug.svg Centre Social democracy
Populism
2011 N. Rangaswamy Puducherry
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,036
0 / 426
All India United Democratic Front Indian Election Symbol Lock And Key.svg 2005 Badruddin Ajmal Assam
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
15 / 4,036
0 / 426
All Jharkhand Students Union ANSU Party flag.jpg Indian Election Symbol Banana.svg 1986 Sudesh Mahto Jharkhand
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Apna Dal (Sonelal) Apna dal Flag.svg Indian Election Symbol Cup and Saucer.jpg Centre-right Kurmis Interest 2016 Anupriya Patel Uttar Pradesh
1 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
12 / 4,036
1 / 426
Asom Gana Parishad Indian Election Symbol Elephant.png Centre-right Regionalism
Anti-Bengali sentiment
1985 Atul Bora Assam
1 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
9 / 4,036
0 / 426
Bharat Rashtra Samithi Bharat Rashtra Samithi Flag.png Indian Election Symbol Car.jpg Centre[20] Regionalism[21]
Populism[22]
Conservatism
Separatism
2001 K. Chandrashekar Rao Telangana
1 / 31
9 / 543
7 / 245
104 / 4,036
35 / 426
Biju Janata Dal Biju Janata Dal Flag.jpg Indian Election Symbol Conch.svg
Centre-left
Regionalism[23]
Populism
Secularism[23]
Liberalism[24]
Economic nationalism[25]
1997 Naveen Patnaik Odisha
1 / 31
12 / 543
9 / 245
114 / 4,036
0 / 426
Bodoland People's Front BPF-Flag.svg Indian Election Symbol Nangol.svg Secularism
Democratic socialism[26]
2005 Hagrama Mohilary Assam
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation CPIML LIBERATION FLAG.png Flag Logo of CPIML.png Far-left Communism[27]
Marxism–Leninism
Maoism[27]
1974 Dipankar Bhattacharya Bihar
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
13 / 4,036
0 / 426
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam flag.PNG Indian Election Symbol Nagara.svg Centre to
centre-left
Social welfare
Populism
Secularism
Social democracy
2005 Vijayakanth Tamil Nadu
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Goa Forward Party Goa Forward Party Flag.jpg Indian election symbol Coconut.svg Regionalism 2016 Vijai Sardesai Goa
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Hill State People's Democratic Party Indian Election Symbol Lion.svg 1968 Meghalaya
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indian National Lok Dal Indian National Lok Dal Flag.svg INLD1.svg Centre Social liberalism
Regionalism
1996 Om Prakash Chautala Haryana
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indian Union Muslim League Flag of the Indian Union Muslim League.svg Indian Election Symbol Lader.svg Muslim interests
Social conservatism
1948 Hyderali Shihab Thangal Kerala
0 / 31
3 / 543
1 / 245
15 / 4,036
0 / 426
Indigenous People's Front of Tripura Flag green yellow.svg Indian Election symbol Dao.svg Centre-right Regionalism
Ethnic nationalism
Anti-immigration
2009 N.C. Debbarma Tripura
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
5 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference JKNC-flag.svg Indian Election Symbol Plough.png Kashmiriyat
Kashmiri autonomy
Secularism
1932 Farooq Abdullah Jammu and Kashmir
0 / 31
3 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party Indian Election Symbol Cycle.png Democracy[28][29]
Anti-corruption[28][29]
Secularism[30]
Women's rights
1982 Bhim Singh Jammu and Kashmir
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party Indian Election Symbol Ink Pot and Pen.png Kashmiriyat
Kashmiri autonomy[31]
Regionalism
1999 Mehbooba Mufti Jammu and Kashmir
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Janta Congress Chhattisgarh Indian Election Symbol Farmer Ploughing (within Square).jpg Left-wing Social justice
Feminism
Direct democracy
Agrarianism
2016 Renu Jogi Chhattisgarh
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jannayak Janta Party Indian election symbol Key.svg Democratic socialism 2018 Dushyant Chautala Haryana
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
10 / 4,036
0 / 426
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha Indian Election Symbol Bow And Arrow.svg 1972 Shibu Soren
Hemant Soren
Jharkhand
1 / 31
1 / 543
2 / 245
30 / 4,036
0 / 426
Kerala Congress (M) Kerala-Congress-flag.svg Indian election symbol two leaves.svg Welfare[32]
Democratic socialism[33]
1979 Jose K. Mani Kerala
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
5 / 4,036
0 / 426
Lok Janshakti Party (Ram Vilas) Lok Janshakti Party Flag.svg Indian Election Symbol Bungalow.png 2000 Chirag Paswan Bihar
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena Mns-symbol-railway-engine.png Far-right Hindutva[34]
Right-wing populism[35]
Regionalism[36][37]
Ultranationalism[38][37]
Marathi interests[37]
2006 Raj Thackeray Maharashtra
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Indian Election Symbol Lion.svg Centre Populism
Regionalism
1963 Deepak Dhavalikar Goa
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
2 / 4,036
0 / 426
Mizo National Front Election Symbol Star.svg 1961 Zoramthanga Mizoram
1 / 31
1 / 543
1 / 245
28 / 4,036
0 / 426
Mizoram People's Conference Bulb Election Symbol.svg 1975 Lalhmangaiha Sailo Mizoram
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party Partyrop.png Indian Election Symbol Crown.png Regionalism 2017 Neiphiu Rio Nagaland
1 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
21 / 4,036
0 / 426
Pattali Makkal Katchi Pmk flag.jpg Mango Centre Populism 1989 S. Ramadoss Puducherry
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
5 / 4,036
0 / 426
People's Democratic Alliance Crown 2012 B.D. Behring Manipur
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
People's Democratic Front Candle - Election Symbol.png 2017 Ivanlum Marbaniang Meghalaya
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
4 / 4,036
0 / 426
People's Party of Arunachal Indian Election Symbol Maize.svg Regionalism 1977 Kamen Ringu Arunachal Pradesh
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426
Rashtriya Lok Dal Rashtriya Lok Dal Flag new.jpg Indian Election Symbol Hand Pump.png 1996 Jayant Chaudhary Uttar Pradesh
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
10 / 4,036
0 / 426
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party Logo Rashtriya Loktantrik party.png Water bottle RLP election symbol.svg 2020 Hanuman Beniwal Rajasthan
0 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Samajwadi Party Samajwadi Party Flag.jpg Indian Election Symbol Cycle.png Centre-left[39]
to left[40][41]
Social democracy[42]
Democratic socialism
Left-wing populism[43]
Social conservatism
1992 Akhilesh Yadav Uttar Pradesh
0 / 31
3 / 543
3 / 245
113 / 4,036
9 / 426
Shiromani Akali Dal SAD flag.svg Shiromani Akali Dal symbol.svg Centre-right Punjabiyat[44][45]
Conservatism[46]
Federalism[47][48]
1920 Sukhbir Singh Badal Punjab
0 / 31
2 / 543
0 / 245
3 / 4,036
0 / 426
Sikkim Democratic Front Sikkim-Democratic-Front-flag.svg Indian Election Symbol Umberlla.png Centre-left
to left-wing
Democratic socialism 1993 Pawan Kumar Chamling Sikkim
0 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
1 / 4,036
0 / 426
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha Sikkim Krantikari Morcha flag.png Symbol SKM.png Democratic socialism 2013 Prem Singh Tamang Sikkim
1 / 31
1 / 543
0 / 245
19 / 4,036
0 / 426
United Democratic Party Indian Election Symbol Drums.png Regionalism
Populism
1997 Metbah Lyngdoh Meghalaya
1 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
8 / 4,036
0 / 426
United People's Party Liberal Tractor Centre Regionalism 2015 Urkhao Gwra Brahma Assam
1 / 31
0 / 543
1 / 245
7 / 4,036
0 / 426
YSR Congress Party Indian Election Symbol Ceiling Fan.svg Centre-left[49] Populism[12]
Regionalism
2011 Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy Andhra Pradesh
1 / 31
22 / 543
9 / 245
151 / 4,036
32 / 426
Zoram Nationalist Party Indian Election Symbol Sun without Rays.png 1997 Lalduhoma Mizoram
0 / 31
0 / 543
0 / 245
0 / 4,036
0 / 426

Discover more about State parties related topics

Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by an adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, and they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan, New Delhi.

Janata Dal (Secular)

Janata Dal (Secular)

The Janata Dal (Secular) is an Indian political party led by former prime minister of India, H. D. Deve Gowda. The party is recognized as a State Party in the states of Karnataka, Kerala and Arunachal Pradesh. It was formed in July 1999 by the split of Janata Dal party. It has a political presence mainly in Karnataka. In Kerala, the party is a part of the Left Democratic Front (LDF).

Centrism

Centrism

Centrism is a political outlook or position involving acceptance or support of a balance of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy while opposing political changes that would result in a significant shift of society strongly to the left or the right.

Centre-left politics

Centre-left politics

Centre-left politics lean to the left on the left–right political spectrum but are closer to the centre than other left-wing politics. Those on the centre-left believe in working within the established systems to improve social justice. The centre-left promotes a degree of social equality that it believes is achievable through promoting equal opportunity. The centre-left emphasizes that the achievement of equality requires personal responsibility in areas in control by the individual person through their abilities and talents as well as social responsibility in areas outside control by the person in their abilities or talents.

H. D. Deve Gowda

H. D. Deve Gowda

Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda is an Indian politician from the state of Karnataka. He served as the 11th prime minister of India from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997. He was previously the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 1994 to 1996. He presently is a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha representing Karnataka. He is the National President of the Janata Dal (Secular) party.

Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is a state in Northeastern India. It was formed from the erstwhile North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA) region, and became a state on 20 February 1987. It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south. It shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east, and a disputed border with China in the north at the McMahon Line. Itanagar is the state capital of Arunachal Pradesh. Arunachal Pradesh is the largest of the Seven Sister States of Northeast India by area. Arunachal Pradesh shares a 1,129 km border with China's Tibet Autonomous Region.

Karnataka

Karnataka

Karnataka, formerly Mysore State, is a state in the southwestern region of India. It was formed as Mysore State on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act and renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. Its capital and largest city is Bengaluru.

Kerala

Kerala

Kerala is a state on the Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following the passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions of the erstwhile regions of Cochin, Malabar, South Canara, and Thiruvithamkoor. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the 21st largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33 million inhabitants as per the 2011 census, Kerala is the 13th-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

Janata Dal (United)

Janata Dal (United)

Janata Dal (United), abbreviated as JD(U), is an Indian political party with political presence mainly in eastern and north-eastern India. JD(U) is recognised as a state party in the states of Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur and is a part of government in Bihar. JD(U) heads the government in Bihar and has remained the second largest party in Manipur. JD(U) won 16 seats in the 2019 Indian general election, making it the seventh largest party in the Lok Sabha.

Integral humanism (India)

Integral humanism (India)

Integral humanism was a set of concepts drafted by Deendayal Upadhyaya as a political program and adopted in 1965 as the official doctrine of the Jan Sangh and later BJP. Upadhyaya borrowed the Gandhian principles such as sarvodaya, swadeshi (domestic), and Gram Swaraj and these principles were appropriated selectively to give more importance to cultural-national values. These values were based on an individual's undisputed subservience to nation as a corporate entity.

Nitish Kumar

Nitish Kumar

Nitish Kumar is an Indian politician, who is serving as Chief Minister of Bihar since 22 February 2015, having previous held the office from 2005 to 2014 and for a short period in 2000. The leader of the Janata Dal (United), previously he has also served as a Union Minister as the Samata Party member.

Bihar

Bihar

Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the second largest state by population in 2019, 12th largest by area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi), and 14th largest by GDP in 2021. Bihar borders Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east.

Unrecognised parties

Notable Registered Unrecognised Political Parties (RUPPs)[3]
Party Founded Leader(s) State(s) Flag
Dravidar Kazhagam 1944 K. Veeramani Tamil Nadu, Puducherry

Flag of Dravidar Kazagam.svg

Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist) 1948 Provash Ghosh All-India SUCI flag.svg
Kerala Congress 1964 P. J. Joseph Kerala
Manipur Peoples Party 1968 Sovakiran N. Manipur
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal 1979 Kashi Singh Airy Uttarakhand
Lokdal 1980 Charan Singh Uttar Pradesh
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi 1982 Thol. Thirumavalavan Tamil Nadu
Amra Bangali 1983 Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar West Bengal
Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh 1983 Sundar Shaekhar Maharashtra
Kerala Congress (B) 1989 R. Balakrishna Pillai Kerala
Gondwana Ganatantra Party 1991 Hira Singh Markam Chhattisgarh
Jharkhand
Maharashtra
Kerala Congress (Jacob) 1991 Anoop Jacob Kerala
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 1992 Vaiko Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Samata Party 1994 Uday Mandal[50] Bihar
Manipur[51]
Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar) 1994 Simranjit Singh Mann Punjab
Puthiya Tamilagam 1996 K. Krishnasamy Tamil Nadu
Tamil Maanila Congress 1996 G. K. Vasan Tamil Nadu
Kongunadu Makkal Katchi 2000 A. M. Raja Tamil Nadu
Ittehad-e-Millat Council 2001 Tauqeer Raza Khan Uttar Pradesh
People's Democratic Front 2001 Ajoy Biswas Tripura
Tamil Nadu Kongu Ilaingar Peravai 2001 U. Thaniyarasu Tamil Nadu
Suheldev Bhartiya Samaj Party 2002 Om Prakash Rajbhar Uttar Pradesh
Bihar
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha 2003 Mahadev Jankar Maharashtra
Kerala
Lok Satta Party 2006 Jaya Prakash Narayana Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
Loksatta party flag.svg
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha 2007 Bimal Gurung West Bengal
Peace Party of India 2008 Mohamed Ayub Uttar Pradesh
Rashtriya Ulama Council 2008 Aamir Rashadi Madni Uttar Pradesh
Manithaneya Makkal Katchi 2009 M. H. Jawahirullah Tamil Nadu
Naam Tamilar Katchi 2009 Senthamizhan Seeman Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi 2010 T.R. Pachamuthu Tamil Nadu
Quami Ekta Dal 2010 Mukhtar Ansari Uttar Pradesh
Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic 2010 Devendra Prasad Yadav Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Hindu Sena 2011 Vishnu Gupta New Delhi
Socialist Party (India) 2011 Thampan Thomas
Welfare Party of India 2011 S. Q. R. Ilyas Kerala
Bahujan Mukti Party 2012 V. L. Matang Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Indian Gandhiyan Party 2012 Aashin U S Kerala
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi 2013 E. R. Eswaran Tamil Nadu
Odisha Janmorcha 2013 Pyarimohan Mohapatra Odisha
Jana Sena Party 2014 Pawan Kalyan Andhra Pradesh
Telangana
Janasena Party Flag.png
Param Digvijay Dal 2014 Krishna Mohan Shankar Yogi Uttar Pradesh
All India Hindustan Congress Party 2015 Buddh Prakash Sharma Gujarat
Rajasthan
Jan Adhikar Party Loktantrik[52] 2015 Pappu Yadav Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Jan Shakti Party of India[53] 2015 Gurjeet Singh Azad Punjab
Hindustani Awam Morcha[54] 2015 Jitan Ram Manjhi Bihar
Goa Suraksha Manch 2016 Subhash Velingkar Goa
NISHAD Party 2016 Sanjay Nishad Uttar Pradesh
Swaraj India 2016 Yogendra Yadav Haryana
Karnataka
Maharashtra
All India Mahila Empowerment Party 2017 Nowhera Shaik Telangana
Karnataka
Amma Makkal Munnettra Kazagam 2018 T. T. V. Dhinakaran Tamil Nadu
Jansatta Dal Loktantrik 2018 Raghuraj Pratap Singh Uttar Pradesh
Loktantrik Janata Dal 2018 Sharad Yadav Bihar
Kerala
Makkal Needhi Maiam 2018 Kamal Haasan Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party (Lohiya) 2018 Shivpal Singh Yadav Uttar Pradesh
Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi 2018 Prakash Ambedkar Maharashtra
Vikassheel Insaan Party 2018 Mukesh Sahani Bihar
Lok Insaaf Party 2019 Simarjit Singh Bains Punjab
Jammu and Kashmir Apni Party 2020 Altaf Bukhari Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir Workers Party 2020 Mir Junaid Jammu and Kashmir
Plurals Party 2020 Pushpam Priya Choudhary Bihar
Raijor Dol 2020 Akhil Gogoi Assam
Rashtriya Jan Jan Party 2020 Ashutosh Kumar Bihar
Indian Secular Front 2021 Nawsad Siddique West Bengal
The Indigenous Progressive Regional Alliance 2021 Pradyot Manikya Debbarma Tripura
YSR Telangana Party 2021 Y. S. Sharmila Telangana Ysrtp.jpg
Revolutionary Goans Party 2022 Viresh Borkar Goa

Discover more about Unrecognised parties related topics

Dravidar Kazhagam

Dravidar Kazhagam

Dravidar Kazhagam is a social movement founded by Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, also called Thanthai Periyar. Its original goals were to eradicate the ills of the existing caste system including untouchability and on a grander scale to obtain a "Dravida Nadu" from the Madras Presidency. Dravidar Kazhagam would in turn give birth to many other political parties including Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and later the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.

K. Veeramani

K. Veeramani

Krishnasamy Veeramani is an Indian politician.

Puducherry (union territory)

Puducherry (union territory)

Puducherry, also known as Pondicherry or Pondichéry, is a union territory of India, consisting of four small geographically unconnected districts. It was formed out of four territories of former French India, namely Pondichéry , Karikal (Karaikal), Mahé and Yanaon, excluding Chandannagar (Chandernagore), and it is named after the largest district, Puducherry, which was also the capital of French India. Historically known as Pondicherry, the territory changed its official name to Puducherry on 20 September 2006.

Provash Ghosh

Provash Ghosh

Provash Ghosh is the General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist) [SUCI(C)]. He was elected to the position by the central committee of the party on 4 March 2010 following the death of Nihar Mukherjee who was elected to the office by the second party congress of the SUCI(C) in November 2009. As per the constitution of the party, the central committee can elect the General Secretary within the Congress, if the elected general secretary dies. Provash Ghosh was elected to the party politburo during the second party congress. .

Kerala Congress

Kerala Congress

Kerala Congress is an Indian political party founded at Kottayam, Kerala in October, 1964, by a block of former Indian National Congress leaders led by K. M. George. The party is primarily active in central Kerala.

P. J. Joseph

P. J. Joseph

P. J. Joseph in full Palathinal Joseph Joseph, is an Indian politician from Kerala Congress serving as the Member of the Legislative Assembly from Thodupuzha Assembly Constituency in Kerala.

Kerala

Kerala

Kerala is a state on the Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following the passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions of the erstwhile regions of Cochin, Malabar, South Canara, and Thiruvithamkoor. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the 21st largest Indian state by area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33 million inhabitants as per the 2011 census, Kerala is the 13th-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

Manipur Peoples Party

Manipur Peoples Party

The Manipur Peoples Party (MPP) is a political party in the Indian state of Manipur. MPP was founded on 26 December 1968 by a group of dissidents from the Indian National Congress. At the February 2007 Manipur state elections, the party received 5 of the 60 seats.

Manipur

Manipur

Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. It is bounded by the Indian states of Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south and Assam to the west. It also borders two regions of Myanmar, Sagaing Region to the east and Chin State to the south. The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi). Manipur has been at the crossroads of Asian economic and cultural exchange for more than 2,500 years. It connects the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia to Southeast Asia, East Asia, Siberia, regions in the Arctic, Micronesia and Polynesia enabling migration of people, cultures and religions.

Kashi Singh Airy

Kashi Singh Airy

Kashi Singh Airy is the leader and founding member of Uttarakhand Kranti Dal and a former member of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly and Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly. He founded the party in 1979 along with Bipin Chandra Tripathi, D. D. Pant and Indramani Badoni.

Lokdal

Lokdal

Lokdal or Lok Dal is an Indian political party based on agriculture policies, founded by former prime minister of India Charan Singh.

Charan Singh

Charan Singh

Chaudhary Charan Singh served as the 5th Prime Minister of India between 28 July 1979 to 14 January 1980. Historians and people alike frequently refer to him as the 'champion of India's peasants.'

Source: "List of political parties in India", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 28th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_political_parties_in_India.

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Notes
  1. ^ If a party is recognised as a national or state party, its symbol is reserved for its exclusive use in the country or in the state.[1][2]
References
  1. ^ "Names of National State, registered-unrecognised parties and the list of free symbols" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 12 March 2014. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  2. ^ "State Party List" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 13 December 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2017.
  3. ^ a b c "List of Political Parties & Symbol MAIN Notification". Election Commission of India. 23 September 2021.
  4. ^ a b "The Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!". Daily News and Analysis. 10 April 2014.
  6. ^ Price, P. (1996). Revolution and Rank in Tamil Nationalism. The Journal of Asian Studies, 55(2), 359-383. doi:10.2307/2943363
  7. ^ Pamela Price (1999) Relating to leadership in the Tamil nationalist movement: C.N. Annadurai in person‐centred propaganda, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 22:2, 149-174, doi:10.1080/00856409908723369
  8. ^ a b Kannan, Ramya (8 August 2018). "M. Karunanidhi: From health care to community living, his schemes were aimed at social equality". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  9. ^ Bidyut Chakrabarty (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-19-997489-4.
  10. ^ "Indian citizenship act against humanity: Manoj Bhattacharya". prothomalo.com.
  11. ^ "Tumultuous transition". 27 May 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Encyclopedia Britannica".
  13. ^ Price, Pamela; Srinivas, Dusi (August 2014). Piliavsky, Anastasia (ed.). "Patronage and autonomy in India's deepening democracy". Cambridge University Press: 217–236. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107296930.011. ISBN 9781107296930.
  14. ^ "Party constitution". India: All India Forward Bloc. 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  15. ^ "Though BJP and AIMIM are ideologically apart they share a few similarities".
  16. ^ "Will fight back to save India's composite culture, Constitution: Asaduddin Owaisi". 26 May 2019.
  17. ^ "Minority Upliftment".
  18. ^ "AIMIM eyes minorities and Dalits in Malda".
  19. ^ "AIMIM want to confront Hindu nationalism with Indian Constitution: Owaisi". Business Standard India. 8 February 2021.
  20. ^ "Centrist polity of TRS".
  21. ^ Hyderabad, K. VENKATESHWARLU in (23 April 2004). "Regionalism and sub-regionalism". Frontline. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  22. ^ "One year of Telangana a mixed bag for KCR". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018. The Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), led by Chandrasekhar Rao, took over the reins of the new state amid euphoria and high expectations. ... Blending boldness with populism, KCR has earned the reputation for being a tough task master
  23. ^ a b "Biju Janata Dal". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  24. ^ "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Know your party symbols!". Daily News and Analysis. 10 April 2014. Founded in December 1997, the Biju Janata Dal or the BJD is a regional political party of India. Having split from the larger faction Janata Dal, the party stands by democracy and liberalism.
  25. ^ Capron, Laurence; Guillén, Mauro (12 October 2006). "Fighting economic nationalism in deals". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  26. ^ "IDEOLOGY & FLAG". India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  27. ^ a b "General Programme of CPI(ML)". Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) website. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  28. ^ a b "History". JK Panthers Party. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  29. ^ a b PTI (9 November 2010). "SC upholds freeze on delimitation in J&K till 2026". The Hindu.
  30. ^ "Headlines Today". Panther party MLAs disrupt house in Jammu and Kashmir assembly. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015 – via youtube.com.
  31. ^ Jammu Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party. "Self Rule". Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  32. ^ "KM Mani: The man behind the 'Theory of the Toiling Class'". The New Indian Express. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  33. ^ "K M Mani honoured at British Parliament Hall". The New Indian Express. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  34. ^ "Raj Thackeray goes right ahead with 'Hindutva'and development agenda for MNS". CanIndia. 23 January 2020.
  35. ^ Bedi, Tarini (2016). The Dashing Ladies of Shiv Sena. SUNY Press. p. 42.
  36. ^ "Munde still keen on alliance with MNS". Hindustan Times. 2 March 2011.
  37. ^ a b c "Maharashtra Navnirman Sena". Election MS. 29 March 2019.
  38. ^ "How Pakistan Fell in Love With Bollywood". Foreign Policy. 15 March 2010.
  39. ^ Verniers, Gilles (2018). "Conservative in Practice: The Transformation of the Samajwadi Party in Uttar Pradesh". Studies in Indian Politics. 6: 44–59. doi:10.1177/2321023018762675. S2CID 158168430.
  40. ^ "Left wing triumphs in Uttar Pradesh election". Financial Times. 6 March 2012. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. The big winner in the Uttar Pradesh state election was the regional leftwing Samajwadi party
  41. ^ "Indian MPs held hostage in caste struggle". The Independent. 21 June 1995.
  42. ^ Singh, Mahendra Prasad; Saxena, Rekha (2003). India at the Polls: Parliamentary Elections in the Federal Phase. Orient Blackswan. p. 78. ISBN 978-8-125-02328-9.
  43. ^ "Mulayam's son Prateek Yadav attracts eye balls during ride in Rs 5 crore Lamborghini". Zee News. 14 January 2017.
  44. ^ "SAD aims to widen reach, to contest UP poll". The Tribune. Chandigarh. 8 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  45. ^ Pandher, Sarabjit (3 September 2013). "In post-Independence India, the SAD launched the Punjabi Suba morcha in the 1960s, seeking the re-organisation of Punjab on linguistic basis". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  46. ^ Grover, Verinder (1996). Encyclopaedia of India and Her States: Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab, Volume 4. Deep & Deep. p. 578.
  47. ^ "Parkash Singh Badal calls for 'genuinely federal structure' for country". The Economic Times. 7 December 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  48. ^ Bharti, Vishav (6 August 2019). "Article 370: SAD 'dumps' its core ideology of federalism". The Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  49. ^ "This is how Jagan Reddy has turned into a political juggernaut in Andhra".
  50. ^ "महंगाई व बेरोजगारी के खिलाफ किया प्रदर्शन". www.livehindustan.com. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  51. ^ "SAMATA PARTY – Official Website". Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  52. ^ "Allotment of Common Symbol -10B letter dt 15.9.15" (PDF). Election Commission of India. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
  53. ^ "June 2015 Notification" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 2. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  54. ^ "Manjhi's HAM recognised by poll panel". The Statesman. 19 July 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2016.

Praty State and State Presidents List

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