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Australia

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Australia

Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi), Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

Henry Melville

Henry Melville

Henry Saxelby Melville Wintle, commonly referred to as Henry Melville, was an Australian journalist, author, occultist, and Freemason best remembered for writing the play The Bushrangers, his historical work The History of Van Diemen's Land From the Year 1824 to 1835, and his occult philosophical work Veritas: Revelation of Mysteries, Biblical, Historical, and Social by Means of the Median and Persian Laws. His life was dramatized in the 1882 Princess Theatre (Bendigo) production Found, or Found Drowned.

Charles Harpur

Charles Harpur

Charles Harpur was an Australian poet and playwright. He is regarded as "Australia's most important nineteenth-century poet."

Garnet Walch

Garnet Walch

Garnet Walch, was an Australian writer, dramatist, journalist and publisher. From 1872 on, he became very popular as author of numerous pantomimes, burlesques, melodramas, comedies and comediettas.

Alfred Dampier

Alfred Dampier

Alfred Dampier was an English-born actor-manager and playwright, active in Australia.

Alex Melrose

Alex Melrose

Alexander Melrose, generally known as Alex, was a South Australian lawyer noted for his patronage of the arts.

Guy Boothby

Guy Boothby

Guy Newell Boothby was a prolific Australian novelist and writer, noted for sensational fiction in variety magazines around the end of the nineteenth century. He lived mainly in England. He is best known for such works as the Dr Nikola series, about an occultist criminal mastermind who is a Victorian forerunner to Fu Manchu, and Pharos, the Egyptian, a tale of Gothic Egypt, mummies' curses and supernatural revenge. Rudyard Kipling was his friend and mentor, and his books were remembered with affection by George Orwell.

George Beeby

George Beeby

Sir George Stephenson Beeby KBE was an Australian politician, judge and author. He was one of the founders of the Labor Party in New South Wales, and represented the party in state parliament from 1907 to 1912. He fell out with the party and later served as an independent, a Nationalist, and a Progressive. He left parliament in 1920 to join the state arbitration court, and in 1926 was appointed to the Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration. He was Chief Judge from 1939 until his retirement in 1941.

Dora Wilcox

Dora Wilcox

Dora Wilcox, was a New Zealand and Australian poet and playwright.

Harry Tighe

Harry Tighe

Harry Tighe (1877–1946) was an Australian playwright and novelist. Born in Newcastle, New South Wales He was Cambridge educated and spent the most active part of his career in Britain. He spent three mature years living in Cremorne, Sydney during which he tried theatre production as a founder of the Independent Theatre His passage to Australia was booked when he died.

Carlton Dawe

Carlton Dawe

William Carlton Lanyon Dawe, generally known as Carlton Dawe, was a prolific Australian author of over 70 books including romance, mystery and crime.

Lionel Shave

Lionel Shave

Lionel Shave (1888-1954) was an Australian dramatist born in Victoria and died in Sydney. He married Doris Minnie Long (1891-1968), and was the father of the businessman and patron of the arts Kenneth Shave. His plays were produced by the Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Austria

See also: List of German-language playwrights; List of German-language authors; List of Austrian writers

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Austria

Austria

Austria, formally the Republic of Austria, is a country in the southern part of Central Europe, lying in the Eastern Alps. It is a federation of nine states, one of which is the capital, Vienna, the most populous city and state. A landlocked country, Austria is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The country occupies an area of 83,871 km2 (32,383 sq mi) and has a population of 9 million.

Franz Grillparzer

Franz Grillparzer

Franz Seraphicus Grillparzer was an Austrian writer who was considered to be the leading Austrian dramatist of the 19th century. His plays were and are frequently performed at the famous Burgtheater in Vienna. He also wrote the oration for Ludwig van Beethoven's funeral, as well as the epitaph for his friend Franz Schubert.

Johann Nestroy

Johann Nestroy

Johann Nepomuk Eduard Ambrosius Nestroy was a singer, actor and playwright in the popular Austrian tradition of the Biedermeier period and its immediate aftermath. He participated in the 1848 revolutions and his work reflects the new liberal spirit then spreading throughout Europe.

Friedrich Kaiser

Friedrich Kaiser

Friedrich Kaiser was an Austrian playwright. During his youth he was one of the most popular people in Vienna. Some of his plays were "Hans Hasenkopf" (1835); "Wer wird Amtmann" (1840), "Palais und Irrenhaus" (1863), "Des Krämers Töchterlein" (1862), "Pater Abraham a Sancta Clara" as well as many others. He also wrote the historical novel "Ein Plaffenfeben."

Hermann Bahr

Hermann Bahr

Hermann Bahr was an Austrian writer, playwright, director, and critic.

Hugo von Hofmannsthal

Hugo von Hofmannsthal

Hugo Laurenz August Hofmann von Hofmannsthal was an Austrian novelist, librettist, poet, dramatist, narrator, and essayist.

Karl Kraus (writer)

Karl Kraus (writer)

Karl Kraus was an Austrian writer and journalist, known as a satirist, essayist, aphorist, playwright and poet. He directed his satire at the press, German culture, and German and Austrian politics. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature three times.

Franz Theodor Csokor

Franz Theodor Csokor

Franz Theodor Csokor was an Austrian author and dramatist, particularly well known for his Expressionist dramas. His most successful and best-known piece is 3. November 1918, about the downfall of the Austria-Hungary monarchy. In many of his works Csokor deals with themes of antiquity and Christianity.

Ferdinand Bruckner

Ferdinand Bruckner

Ferdinand Bruckner was an Austrian-German writer and theater manager. Although his works are relatively rarely revived, Krankheit der Jugend was put on at the Cottesloe stage of London's Royal National Theatre in 2009, under the title Pains of Youth. It was directed by Katie Mitchell and was met with very mixed reviews. Bruckner's play Die Rassen under the title Race was revived in 2001, in New York, by the Classical Stage Company. The critic John Simon called it "both scarily suspenseful and heartbreakingly elegant..." Simon concluded that the play: " comes as close as anything I know to explaining how a cultured nation hurtled into stupefying barbarity."

Arnolt Bronnen

Arnolt Bronnen

Arnolt Bronnen was an Austrian playwright and director.

Alexander Lernet-Holenia

Alexander Lernet-Holenia

Alexander Lernet-Holenia was an Austrian poet, novelist, dramaturgist and writer of screenplays and historical studies who produced a heterogeneous literary opus that included poetry, psychological novels describing the intrusion of otherworldly or unreal experiences into reality, and recreational films.

Fritz Hochwälder

Fritz Hochwälder

Fritz Hochwälder also known as Fritz Hochwaelder, was an Austrian playwright. Known for his spare prose and strong moralist themes, Hochwälder won several literary awards, including the Grand Austrian State Prize for Literature in 1966. Most of his plays were first performed at the Burgtheater in Vienna.

Azerbaijan

See also: List of Azerbaijani dramatists and playwrights

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Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the South Caucasus region and is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south. Baku is the capital and largest city.

List of Azerbaijani dramatists and playwrights

List of Azerbaijani dramatists and playwrights

This is a list of notable Azerbaijani dramatists and playwrights, which is arranged alphabetically.

Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev

Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev

Abdurrahim bey Asad bey oglu Hagverdiyev was an Azerbaijani playwright, writer and cultural figure, stage director, politician, public figure, one of the five first Azeri Deputats of First Duma of Russian Empire, Deputat of Georgian Parliament, Creator of the Theatrical Writers Society in Azerbaijan, one of the collaborators of the magazine Molla Nasraddin, and Ambassador of Azerbaijan in the Republic of North Caucasus and Armenia.

Mammed Said Ordubadi

Mammed Said Ordubadi

Mammad Said Ordubadi was Azerbaijani writer, poet, playwright and journalist.

Abbas Sahhat

Abbas Sahhat

Abbas Sahhat, was an Azerbaijani poet and dramatist.

Huseyngulu Sarabski

Huseyngulu Sarabski

Huseyngulu Sarabski, born Hüseynqulu Malik oğlu Rzayev, was an Azerbaijani opera singer (tenor), composer, playwright, stage actor, theatre director, and musician (tar).

Huseyn Javid

Huseyn Javid

Huseyn Javid ,was born Huseyn Abdulla oglu Rasizadeh, was a prominent Azerbaijani poet and playwright of the early 20th century. He was one of the founders of progressive romanticism movement in the contemporary Azerbaijani literature. He was exiled during the Stalin purges in the USSR.

Jafar Jabbarly

Jafar Jabbarly

Jafar Gafar oglu Jabbarly, was an Azerbaijani playwright, poet, director and screenwriter.

Magsud Ibrahimbeyov

Magsud Ibrahimbeyov

Magsud Mammadibrahim oglu Ibrahimbeyov, also spelled Ibragimbekov, was a Soviet and Azerbaijani writer and member of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan.

Hamid Arzulu

Hamid Arzulu

Hamid Arzulu is an Azerbaijani poet, writer, translator, dramatist, scientist, teacher and a doctor of philology. He lives in the city of Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan.

Anar Rzayev

Anar Rzayev

Anar Rasul oghlu Rzayev, known as Anar, is Azerbaijani writer, dramatist, film director, and the Chairman of the Writers' Union of Azerbaijan. Anar is primarily a novelist and short-story writer although in the past, he has also authored screenplays and directed films as well as acted in a film.

Afag Masud

Afag Masud

Afag Masud is an Azerbaijani writer.

Bangladesh

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi). Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world, and shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's political, financial and cultural centre. Chittagong, the second-largest city, is the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal. The official language is Bengali, one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family.

Momtazuddin Ahmed

Momtazuddin Ahmed

Momtazuddin Ahmed was a Bangladeshi philosopher and educationist.

Mamunur Rashid

Mamunur Rashid

Mamunur Rashid is a Bangladeshi actor, director and scriptwriter. He was awarded Ekushey Padak in 2012 and Bangla Academy Literary Award in 1982 by the Government of Bangladesh.

Selim Al Deen

Selim Al Deen

Selim Al Deen was a Bangladeshi playwright and theatre artist. He was the founder chairperson of the Department of Drama and Dramatics at Jahangirnagar University. He was awarded Bangla Academy Literary Award in 1984 and Ekushey Padak in 2007 by the Government of Bangladesh for his contribution to theatre.

Belarus

Belgium

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Belgium

Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Northwestern Europe. The country is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest. It covers an area of 30,528 km2 (11,787 sq mi) and has a population of more than 11.5 million, making it the 22nd most densely populated country in the world and the 6th most densely populated country in Europe, with a density of 376/km2 (970/sq mi). Belgium is part of an area known as the Low Countries, historically a somewhat larger region than the Benelux group of states, as it also included parts of northern France. The capital and largest city is Brussels; other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi, Liège, Bruges, Namur, and Leuven.

Maurice Maeterlinck

Maurice Maeterlinck

Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, also known as Count Maeterlinck from 1932, was a Belgian playwright, poet, and essayist who was Flemish but wrote in French. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1911 "in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations". The main themes in his work are death and the meaning of life. He was a leading member of La Jeune Belgique group and his plays form an important part of the Symbolist movement. In later life, Maeterlinck faced credible accusations of plagiarism.

Fernand Crommelynck

Fernand Crommelynck

Fernand Crommelynck was a Belgian dramatist. His work is known for farces in which commonplace weaknesses are developed into monumental obsessions.

Michel de Ghelderode

Michel de Ghelderode

Michel de Ghelderode was an avant-garde Belgian dramatist, from Flanders, who spoke and wrote in French. His works often deal with the extremes of human experience, from death and degradation to religious exaltation. He wrote plays and short stories, and was a noted letter writer.

Félicien Marceau

Félicien Marceau

Félicien Marceau was a French novelist, playwright and essayist originally from Belgium. His real name was Louis Carette. He was close to the Hussards right-wing literary movement, which in turn was close to the monarchist movement. He was born in Kortenberg, Flemish Brabant.

Michèle Fabien

Michèle Fabien

Michèle Gérard was a Belgian writer and playwright.

Éric-Emmanuel Schmitt

Éric-Emmanuel Schmitt

Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt is a Franco–Belgian playwright, short story writer and novelist, as well as a film director. His plays have been staged in over fifty countries all over the world.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH (БиХ) or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country at the crossroads of south and southeast Europe, located in the Balkans. Bosnia and Herzegovina borders Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the southeast, and Croatia to the north and southwest. In the south it has a narrow coast on the Adriatic Sea within the Mediterranean, which is about 20 kilometres long and surrounds the town of Neum. Bosnia, which is the inland region of the country, has a moderate continental climate with hot summers and cold, snowy winters. In the central and eastern regions of the country, the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and in the northeast it is predominantly flat. Herzegovina, which is the smaller, southern region of the country, has a Mediterranean climate and is mostly mountainous. Sarajevo is the capital and the largest city of the country followed by Banja Luka, Tuzla and Zenica.

Zlatko Topčić

Zlatko Topčić

Zlatko Topčić is a Bosnian screenwriter, playwright and novelist. He has written a number of films, including: Remake, The Abandoned, Miracle in Bosnia; theater plays: Time Out, I Don't Like Mondays, Refugees; novels: The Final Word, Dagmar, June 28, 1914.

Abdulah Sidran

Abdulah Sidran

Abdulah Sidran, often referred to by his hypocoristic nickname Avdo, is a Bosnian poet and screenwriter. He is best known for writing the poetry book Sarajevski Tabut and the scripts for When Father Was Away on Business and Do You Remember Dolly Bell?.

Safet Plakalo

Safet Plakalo

Safet Plakalo was a prominent Bosnian playwright, journalist, theatre critic and a founder of Sarajevo War Theatre (SARTR). He was one of the few South Slavic writers of poetic dramatic orientation. His unique dramatic expression integrated the precise poetic form of a sonnet deeply into a dramatic form.

Nenad Veličković

Nenad Veličković

Nenad Veličković is a Bosnian writer and playwright. He lives in Sarajevo.

Brazil

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Brazil

Brazil

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in South America and in Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3,300,000 sq mi) and with over 217 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the seventh most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the only country in the Americas to have Portuguese as an official language. It is one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world, and the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.

Martins Pena

Martins Pena

Luís Carlos Martins Pena was a Brazilian playwright, famous for introducing to Brazil the "comedy of manners", winning the epithet of "the Brazilian Molière".

Álvares de Azevedo

Álvares de Azevedo

Manuel Antônio Álvares de Azevedo, affectionately called "Maneco" by his close friends, relatives and admirers, was a Brazilian Romantic poet, short story writer, playwright and essayist, considered to be one of the major exponents of Ultra-Romanticism and Gothic literature in Brazil. His works tend to play heavily with opposite notions, such as love and death, platonism and sarcasm, sentimentalism and pessimism, among others, and have a strong influence of Musset, Chateaubriand, Lamartine, Goethe and – above all – Byron.

Machado de Assis

Machado de Assis

Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, often known by his surnames as Machado de Assis, Machado, or Bruxo do Cosme Velho, was a pioneer Brazilian novelist, poet, playwright and short story writer, widely regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature. Nevertheless, Assis did not achieve widespread popularity outside Brazil during his lifetime. In 1897, he founded and became the first President of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. He was multilingual, having taught himself French, English, German and Greek later in life.

Aluísio Azevedo

Aluísio Azevedo

Aluísio Tancredo Gonçalves de Azevedo was a Brazilian novelist, caricaturist, diplomat, playwright and short story writer. Initially a Romantic writer, he would later adhere to the Naturalist movement. He introduced the Naturalist movement in Brazil with the novel O Mulato, in 1881.

Nelson Rodrigues

Nelson Rodrigues

Nelson Falcão Rodrigues was a Brazilian playwright, journalist and novelist. In 1943, he helped usher in a new era in Brazilian theater with his play Vestido de Noiva , considered revolutionary for the complex exploration of its characters' psychology and its use of colloquial dialogue. He went on to write many other seminal plays and today is widely regarded as Brazil's greatest playwright.

Millôr Fernandes

Millôr Fernandes

Millôr Fernandes was a Brazilian writer, journalist, cartoonist, humorist and playwright. Born Milton Viola Fernandes, his birth was registered on May 27, 1924; the handwriting on his birth certificate rendered the name "Millôr", which he adopted as his official name.

Ariano Suassuna

Ariano Suassuna

Ariano Vilar Suassuna was a Brazilian playwright and author. He was the driving force behind the creation of the Movimento Armorial. He founded the Student Theater at Federal University of Pernambuco. Four of his plays have been filmed, and he was considered one of Brazil's greatest living playwrights of his time. He was also an important regional writer, doing various novels set in the Northeast of Brazil. He received an honorary doctorate at a ceremony performed at a circus. He was the author of, among other works, the Auto da Compadecida and A Pedra do Reino. He was a staunch defender of the culture of the Northeast, and his works dealt with the popular culture of the Northeast.

Augusto Boal

Augusto Boal

Augusto Boal was a Brazilian theatre practitioner, drama theorist, and political activist. He was the founder of Theatre of the Oppressed, a theatrical form originally used in radical left popular education movements. Boal served one term as a Vereador in Rio de Janeiro from 1993 to 1997, where he developed legislative theatre.

Caio Fernando Abreu

Caio Fernando Abreu

Caio Fernando Loureiro de Abreu, best known as Caio Fernando Abreu, was one of the most influential and original Brazilian writers of the 1970s and 1980s. Caio F., as he habitually signed his letters, was born in Santiago do Boqueirão in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in 1948, and died in Porto Alegre in 1996.

Canada

See also: List of Canadian playwrights; List of Canadian writers; List of Quebec writers; List of French Canadian writers from outside Quebec; List of Canadian plays

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Canada

Canada

Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest binational land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

List of Canadian playwrights

List of Canadian playwrights

Playwrights from Canada include:

List of Canadian writers

List of Canadian writers

This is a list of Canadian literary figures, including poets, novelists, children's writers, essayists, and scholars.

List of Quebec writers

List of Quebec writers

This is a list of authors from the Canadian province of Quebec.

List of French Canadian writers from outside Quebec

List of French Canadian writers from outside Quebec

Although most Canadian francophone writers are from Quebec, there are also a number of francophone writers from elsewhere in Canada. These writers may be Acadian, Franco-ontarian or from any other Canadian province.

List of Canadian plays

List of Canadian plays

Canadian plays have been written since the 19th century, both in English and in French. The present list comprises plays in English, some of which being translations from French Canadian plays. Full length and one act plays are included but not musicals.

Merrill Denison

Merrill Denison

Merrill Denison was a Canadian playwright. He created many dramas which were broadcast during the early days of radio, and was the art director of Hart House Theatre, Toronto, Ontario.

Gratien Gélinas

Gratien Gélinas

Gratien Gélinas, was a Canadian writer, playwright, actor, director, producer and administrator who is considered one of the founders of modern Canadian theatre and film.

Robertson Davies

Robertson Davies

William Robertson Davies was a Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor. He was one of Canada's best known and most popular authors and one of its most distinguished "men of letters", a term Davies gladly accepted for himself. Davies was the founding Master of Massey College, a graduate residential college associated with the University of Toronto.

Marcel Dubé

Marcel Dubé

Marcel Dubé was a Canadian playwright. He produced over 300 works for radio, television, and stage. During his career he promoted the preservation and sanctity of the French language in Quebec.

Vittorio Rossi

Vittorio Rossi

Vittorio Luciano Rossi is a playwright, actor and screenwriter born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. He grew up in the district of Ville Emard. Graduating from Concordia University in 1985 with a B.F.A. specializing in theatre performance, Rossi has earned the respect of the national theatre community with his award-winning plays. Mr. Rossi stormed the Montréal theatre scene with two consecutive Best New Play Awards at the Quebec Drama Festival in 1986 and 1987 with Little Blood Brother and Backstreets. His plays have been produced in Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa, Vancouver, New York City, Boston, Syracuse and The Stratford Festival in Ontario.

David Gow

David Gow

David James Gow CBE is the inventor of the i-Limb prosthetic hand. He was made an honorary Doctor of Science in November 2018 by the University of Edinburgh.

Czech Republic

See also: List of Czech writers

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Czech Republic

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic, also known as Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Historically known as Bohemia, it is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to the southeast. The Czech Republic has a hilly landscape that covers an area of 78,871 square kilometers (30,452 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental and oceanic climate. The capital and largest city is Prague; other major cities and urban areas include Brno, Ostrava, Plzeň and Liberec.

List of Czech writers

List of Czech writers

Below is an alphabetical list of Czech writers.

Max Brod

Max Brod

Max Brod was a German-speaking Bohemian, later Israeli, author, composer, and journalist.

Paul Kornfeld (playwright)

Paul Kornfeld (playwright)

Paul Kornfeld was a Prague-born German-language Jewish writer whose expressionist plays and scholarly treatises on the theory of drama earned him a specialized niche in influencing contemporary intellectual discourse.

Karel Čapek

Karel Čapek

Karel Čapek was a Czech writer, playwright and critic. He has become best known for his science fiction, including his novel War with the Newts (1936) and play R.U.R., which introduced the word robot. He also wrote many politically charged works dealing with the social turmoil of his time. Influenced by American pragmatic liberalism, he campaigned in favor of free expression and strongly opposed the rise of both fascism and communism in Europe.

Václav Havel

Václav Havel

Václav Havel was a Czech statesman, author, poet, playwright, and former dissident. Havel served as the last president of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first president of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003 and was the first democratically elected president of either country after the fall of communism. As a writer of Czech literature, he is known for his plays, essays, and memoirs.

Denmark

See also: List of Danish authors

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Denmark

Denmark

Denmark is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It is the most populous and politically central constituent of the Kingdom of Denmark, a constitutionally unitary state that includes the autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland in the North Atlantic Ocean. Metropolitan Denmark is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, lying south-west of Sweden, south of Norway, and north of Germany.

Ludvig Holberg

Ludvig Holberg

Ludvig Holberg, Baron of Holberg was a writer, essayist, philosopher, historian and playwright born in Bergen, Norway, during the time of the Dano-Norwegian dual monarchy. He was influenced by Humanism, the Enlightenment and the Baroque. Holberg is considered the founder of modern Danish and Norwegian literature. He is best known for the comedies he wrote in 1722–1723 for the Lille Grønnegade Theatre in Copenhagen. Holberg's works about natural and common law were widely read by many Danish law students over two hundred years, from 1736 to 1936.

Johan Ludvig Heiberg (poet)

Johan Ludvig Heiberg (poet)

Johan Ludvig Heiberg, Danish poet, playwright, literary critic, literary historian son of the political writer Peter Andreas Heiberg (1758–1841), and of the novelist, afterwards the Baroness Gyllembourg-Ehrensvärd, was born in Copenhagen. He promoted Hegelian philosophy and introduced vaudeville to Denmark.

Henrik Hertz

Henrik Hertz

Henrik Hertz was a Danish poet.

Kaj Munk

Kaj Munk

Kaj Harald Leininger Munk was a Danish playwright and Lutheran pastor, known for his cultural engagement and his martyrdom during the Occupation of Denmark of World War II. He is commemorated as a martyr in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 14 August, alongside Maximilian Kolbe.

Kjeld Abell

Kjeld Abell

Kjeld Abell was a Danish playwright, screenwriter, and theatrical designer. Born in Ribe, Denmark, Abell's first designs were seen in ballets directed by George Balanchine at Copenhagen's Royal Danish Theatre and London's Alhambra Theatre.

Egypt

Estonia

France

See also: List of French playwrights; List of French language authors

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France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also includes overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, giving it one of the largest discontiguous exclusive economic zones in the world. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain 68 million people.

List of French playwrights

List of French playwrights

This is an incomplete list of playwrights from France in chronological order, according to date of birth.

Jean Bodel

Jean Bodel

Jean Bodel, was an Old French poet who wrote a number of chansons de geste as well as many fabliaux. He lived in Arras.

Adam de la Halle

Adam de la Halle

Adam de la Halle was a French poet-composer trouvère. Among the few medieval composers to write both monophonic and polyphonic music, in this respect he has been considered both a conservative and progressive composer, resulting in a complex legacy: he cultivated admired representatives of older trouvère genres, but also experimented with newer dramatic works. Adam represented the final generation of the trouvère tradition and "has long been regarded as one of the most important musical and literary figures of thirteenth-century Europe".

Jean de La Taille

Jean de La Taille

Jean de La Taille was a French poet and dramatist born in Bondaroy.

Pierre de Larivey

Pierre de Larivey

Pierre de Larivey was a French dramatist of Italian origin. He is credited with introducing the Italian "comedy of intrigue" into France.

Alexandre Hardy

Alexandre Hardy

Alexandre Hardy was a French dramatist, one of the most prolific of all time. He claimed to have written some six hundred plays, but only thirty-four are extant.

Georges de Scudéry

Georges de Scudéry

Georges de Scudéry, the elder brother of Madeleine de Scudéry, was a French novelist, dramatist and poet.

Jean Mairet

Jean Mairet

Jean (de) Mairet was a classical french dramatist who wrote both tragedies and comedies.

Pierre Corneille

Pierre Corneille

Pierre Corneille was a French tragedian. He is generally considered one of the three great seventeenth-century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine.

Molière

Molière

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière, was a French playwright, actor, and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and world literature. His extant works include comedies, farces, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets, and more. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed at the Comédie-Française more often than those of any other playwright today. His influence is such that the French language is often referred to as the "language of Molière".

Philippe Quinault

Philippe Quinault

Philippe Quinault, French dramatist and librettist, was born in Paris.

Georgia

See also: List of Georgian writers

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (country)

Georgia is a transcontinental country at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is part of the Caucasus region, bounded by the Black Sea to the west, by Russia to the north and northeast, by Turkey to the southwest, by Armenia to the south, and by Azerbaijan to the southeast. The country covers an area of 69,700 square kilometres (26,900 sq mi), and has a population of 3.7 million people. Tbilisi is its capital as well as its largest city, home to roughly a third of the Georgian population.

List of Georgian writers

List of Georgian writers

An alphabetic list of prose writers and poets from the nation of Georgia.

Alexander Orbeliani

Alexander Orbeliani

Count Alexander Orbeliani (Jambakur-Orbeliani) was a Georgian Romanticist poet, playwright, journalist and historian, of the noble House of Orbeliani.

Giorgi Eristavi

Giorgi Eristavi

Giorgi Eristavi was a Georgian playwright, poet, journalist, and the founder of modern Georgian theatre.

Raphael Eristavi

Raphael Eristavi

Prince Raphael Eristavi (1824-1901) was a Georgian poet and playwright.

David Kldiashvili

David Kldiashvili

David Kldiashvili was a Georgian prose-writer whose novels and plays are concentrated on the degeneration of the country’s gentry and the miseries of the peasantry, boldly exposing the antagonisms of Georgian society.

Grigol Robakidze

Grigol Robakidze

Grigol Robakidze was a Georgian writer, publicist, and public figure primarily known for his prose and anti-Soviet émigré activities.

Gerzel Baazov

Gerzel Baazov

Gerzel Baazov was a Georgian Jewish poet and playwright who fell victim to Joseph Stalin’s Great Purges.

Lasha Bugadze

Lasha Bugadze

Lasha Bugadze is a Georgian novelist and playwright. Among his noteworthy plays are Shocked Tatyana, which satirizes war heroism, and Soldier, Love, Bodyguard and ... the President.

Nestan Kvinikadze

Nestan Kvinikadze

Nestan (Nene) Kvinikadze, Georgian writer, scriptwriter and journalist. She graduated from the Shota Rustavelie State University of Film and Theatre. Her first book was published at the age of 18. She is an author of numerous movie-scripts and plays. She has published numerous collections of prose fiction and one novel - Ispahan Nightingales. Since 2006 she is the editor-in-chief of monthly bilingual (Georgian/English] free magazine - "Focus". Her articles and essays are regularly being published in Anabechdi magazine. Since March, 2007 she is one of the producers of Rustavi 2. She is one of the organizers of art festivals "Mziuri" and "Train".

Germany

See also: List of German-language playwrights; List of German-language authors

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Germany

Germany

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; it covers an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of almost 84 million within its 16 constituent states. Germany borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. The nation's capital and most populous city is Berlin and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr.

Andreas Gryphius

Andreas Gryphius

Andreas Gryphius was a German poet and playwright. With his eloquent sonnets, which contains "The Suffering, Frailty of Life and the World", he is considered one of the most important Baroque poets of the Germanosphere. He was one of the first improvers of the German language and German poetry.

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock was a German poet. His best known work is the epic poem Der Messias. One of his major contributions to German literature was to open it up to exploration outside of French models.

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was a German philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and a representative of the Enlightenment era. His plays and theoretical writings substantially influenced the development of German literature. He is widely considered by theatre historians to be the first dramaturg in his role at Abel Seyler's Hamburg National Theatre.

Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg

Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg

Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg was a German poet and critic.

Johann Anton Leisewitz

Johann Anton Leisewitz

Johann Anton Leisewitz was a German lawyer and dramatic poet, and a central figure of the Sturm und Drang era. He is best known for his play Julius of Taranto (1776), that inspired Friedrich Schiller and is considered the forerunner of Schiller's quintessential Sturm und Drang work The Robbers (1781).

Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger

Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger

Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger was a German dramatist and novelist. His play Sturm und Drang (1776) gave its name to the Sturm und Drang artistic epoch. He was a childhood friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and is often closely associated with Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz. Klinger worked as a playwright for the Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft for two years, but eventually left the Kingdom of Prussia to become a General in the Imperial Russian Army.

Friedrich Schiller

Friedrich Schiller

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, friendship with the already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. They frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works that he had left as sketches. This relationship and these discussions led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism. They also worked together on Xenien, a collection of short satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents of their philosophical vision.

August Wilhelm Iffland

August Wilhelm Iffland

August Wilhelm Iffland was a German actor and dramatic author.

August von Kotzebue

August von Kotzebue

August Friedrich Ferdinand von Kotzebue was a German dramatist and writer who also worked as a consul in Russia and Germany.

Friedrich Hölderlin

Friedrich Hölderlin

Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin was a German poet and philosopher. Described by Norbert von Hellingrath as "the most German of Germans", Hölderlin was a key figure of German Romanticism. Particularly due to his early association with and philosophical influence on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, he was also an important thinker in the development of German Idealism.

Heinrich von Kleist

Heinrich von Kleist

Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von Kleist was a German poet, dramatist, novelist, short story writer and journalist. His best known works are the theatre plays Das Käthchen von Heilbronn, The Broken Jug, Amphitryon and Penthesilea, and the novellas Michael Kohlhaas and The Marquise of O. Kleist died by suicide together with a close female friend who was terminally ill.

Ghana

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Ghana

Ghana

Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa. It abuts the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south, sharing borders with Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, and Togo in the east. Ghana covers an area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), spanning diverse biomes that range from coastal savannas to tropical rainforests. With nearly 31 million inhabitants, Ghana is the second-most populous country in West Africa, after Nigeria. The capital and largest city is Accra; other major cities are Kumasi, Tamale, and Sekondi-Takoradi.

Félix Morisseau-Leroy

Félix Morisseau-Leroy

Félix Morisseau-Leroy, was a Haitian writer who used Haitian Creole to write poetry and plays, the first significant writer to do so. By 1961 he succeeded in having Creole recognized as an official language of Haiti, after expanding its teaching in schools and use in creative literature. Morisseau also published works on French, Haitian Creole and Haitian French literature. He worked internationally, encouraging the development of national literature in post-colonial Ghana and Senegal. In 1981 he settled in Miami, Florida, where he was influential in uniting the Haitian community around Creole and encouraged its study in academia.

Joe de Graft

Joe de Graft

Joseph Coleman de Graft was a prominent Ghanaian writer, playwright and dramatist, who was appointed the first director of the Ghana Drama Studio in 1962. He produced and directed plays for radio, stage and television, as well as acting, and was also a poet and educator.

Efua Sutherland

Efua Sutherland

Efua Theodora Sutherland was a Ghanaian playwright, director, dramatist, children's author, poet, educationalist, researcher, child advocate, and cultural activist. Her works include the plays Foriwa (1962), Edufa (1967), and The Marriage of Anansewa (1975). She founded the Ghana Drama Studio, the Ghana Society of Writers, the Ghana Experimental Theatre, and a community project called the Kodzidan. As the earliest Ghanaian playwright-director she was an influential figure in the development of modern Ghanaian theatre, and helped to introduce the study of African performance traditions at the university level. She was also a pioneering African publisher, establishing the company Afram Publications in Accra in the 1970s.

Ama Ata Aidoo

Ama Ata Aidoo

Ama Ata Aidoo, née Christina Ama Aidoo is a Ghanaian author, poet, playwright and academic. She was the Minister of Education under the Jerry Rawlings administration. In 2000, she established the Mbaasem Foundation to promote and support the work of African women writers.

Asiedu Yirenkyi

Asiedu Yirenkyi

Asiedu Yirenkyi was a Ghanaian playwright, actor, director, theatre company manager and author of screen plays. He was born Emmanuel Asiedu Yirenchi at Akropong-Akuapem in the Eastern Region of Ghana to Charles Okata Yirenkyi, a farmer and Comfort Yaa Nyarkoa, a homemaker. He was the younger brother of the late Ghanaian actor and film maker Rev. Kofi Yirenkyi.

Greece

See also: List of Greek artists

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Greece

Greece

Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, and is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Greece shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, and the Sea of Crete and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin, featuring thousands of islands. The country consists of nine traditional geographic regions, and has a population of approximately 10.4 million. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki and Patras.

List of Greek artists

List of Greek artists

This is a list of Greek artists from the antiquity to today. Artists have been categorised according to their main artistic profession and according to the major historical period they lived in: the Ancient, the Byzantine, Cretan Renaissance 1453-1660, Heptanese School 1660-1830 and the Modern period (1830-today). Artists working after World War II are considered Contemporary.

Aeschylus

Aeschylus

Aeschylus was an ancient Greek tragedian, and is often described as the father of tragedy. Academic knowledge of the genre begins with his work, and understanding of earlier Greek tragedy is largely based on inferences made from reading his surviving plays. According to Aristotle, he expanded the number of characters in the theatre and allowed conflict among them. Formerly, characters interacted only with the chorus.

Sophocles

Sophocles

Sophocles is one of three ancient Greek tragedians, at least one of whose plays has survived in full. His first plays were written later than, or contemporary with, those of Aeschylus; and earlier than, or contemporary with, those of Euripides. Sophocles wrote over 120 plays, but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax, Antigone, Women of Trachis, Oedipus Rex, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. For almost fifty years, Sophocles was the most celebrated playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens which took place during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia. He competed in thirty competitions, won twenty-four, and was never judged lower than second place. Aeschylus won thirteen competitions, and was sometimes defeated by Sophocles; Euripides won four.

Euripides

Euripides

Euripides was a tragedian of classical Athens. Along with Aeschylus and Sophocles, he is one of the three ancient Greek tragedians for whom any plays have survived in full. Some ancient scholars attributed ninety-five plays to him, but the Suda says it was ninety-two at most. Of these, eighteen or nineteen have survived more or less complete. There are many fragments of most of his other plays. More of his plays have survived intact than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together, partly because his popularity grew as theirs declined—he became, in the Hellenistic Age, a cornerstone of ancient literary education, along with Homer, Demosthenes, and Menander.

Agathon

Agathon

Agathon was an Athenian tragic poet whose works have been lost. He is best known for his appearance in Plato's Symposium, which describes the banquet given to celebrate his obtaining a prize for his first tragedy at the Lenaia in 416. He is also a prominent character in Aristophanes' comedy the Thesmophoriazusae.

Aristophanes

Aristophanes

Aristophanes, son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion, was a comic playwright or comedy-writer of ancient Athens and a poet of Old Attic Comedy. Eleven of his forty plays survive virtually complete. These provide the most valuable examples of a genre of comic drama known as Old Comedy and are used to define it, along with fragments from dozens of lost plays by Aristophanes and his contemporaries.

Menander

Menander

Menander was a Greek dramatist and the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy. He wrote 108 comedies and took the prize at the Lenaia festival eight times. His record at the City Dionysia is unknown.

Hungary

See also: List of Hungarian writers

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Hungary

Hungary

Hungary is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) of the Carpathian Basin, it is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. Hungary has a population of 9.7 million, mostly ethnic Hungarians and a significant Romani minority. Hungarian, the official language, is the world's most widely spoken Uralic language and among the few non-Indo-European languages widely spoken in Europe. Budapest is the country's capital and largest city; other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs, and Győr.

György Bessenyei

György Bessenyei

György Bessenyei (1747–1811) was a Hungarian playwright and poet.

Izidor Guzmics

Izidor Guzmics

Izidor Guzmics, Hungarian theologian, was born at Vámos-Család in the county of Sopron.

Károly Kisfaludy

Károly Kisfaludy

Károly Kisfaludy was a Hungarian dramatist and artist, brother of Sándor Kisfaludy. He was the founder of the national drama.

József Katona

József Katona

József Katona was a Hungarian playwright and poet, creator of the Hungarian historical tragedy Bánk bán.

Gergely Czuczor

Gergely Czuczor

Gergely Czuczor was a Hungarian Benedictine monk, a poet and linguist, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Baptized István he took Gergely (Gregory) as his religious name.

Ede Szigligeti

Ede Szigligeti

Ede Szigligeti was a Hungarian dramatist.

Imre Madách

Imre Madách

Imre Madách de Sztregova et Kelecsény was a Hungarian aristocrat, writer, poet, lawyer and politician. His major work is The Tragedy of Man. It is a dramatic poem approximately 4000 lines long, which elaborates on ideas comparable to Goethe's Faust and Milton's Paradise Lost. The author was encouraged and advised by János Arany, one of the most famous of the 19th-century Hungarian poets.

Ferenc Herczeg

Ferenc Herczeg

Ferenc Herczeg was a Hungarian playwright and author who promoted conservative nationalist opinion in his country. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature three times.

Dezső Szomory

Dezső Szomory

Dezső Szomory was a Hungarian Jewish writer and dramatist. In his history plays and other works, he developed a unique tone and style of Budapest Hungarian; his work has been compared to that of Marcel Proust. He died during the Holocaust while living under Swedish protection in Budapest, suffering "starvation, loneliness, and depression".

Ferenc Molnár

Ferenc Molnár

Ferenc Molnár, often anglicized as Franz Molnar, was a Hungarian-born author, stage-director, dramatist, and poet, widely regarded as Hungary’s most celebrated and controversial playwright. His primary aim through his writing was to entertain by transforming his personal experiences into literary works of art. He was never connected to any one literary movement but he did utilize the precepts of naturalism, Neo-Romanticism, Expressionism, and the Freudian psychoanalytical concepts, but only as long as they suited his desires. “By fusing the realistic narrative and stage tradition of Hungary with Western influences into a cosmopolitan amalgam, Molnár emerged as a versatile artist whose style was uniquely his own.”

Gyula Háy

Gyula Háy

Gyula "Julius" Háy; 5 May 1900 – 7 May 1975) was a Hungarian communist intellectual and playwright. He wrote under the pen name Stefan Faber.

India

Iran

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Iraq

Ireland

See also: List of Irish dramatists; List of writers from Northern Ireland

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Ireland

Ireland

Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, in north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest in the world.

Isaac Bickerstaffe

Isaac Bickerstaffe

Isaac Bickerstaffe or Bickerstaff was an Irish playwright and Librettist.

James Sheridan Knowles

James Sheridan Knowles

James Sheridan Knowles was an Irish dramatist and actor.

Dion Boucicault

Dion Boucicault

Dionysius Lardner "Dion" Boucicault was an Irish actor and playwright famed for his melodramas. By the later part of the 19th century, Boucicault had become known on both sides of the Atlantic as one of the most successful actor-playwright-managers then in the English-speaking theatre. Although The New York Times hailed him in his obituary as "the most conspicuous English dramatist of the 19th century," he and his second wife, Agnes Robertson Boucicault, had applied for and received American citizenship in 1873.

Lady Gregory

Lady Gregory

Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory was an Irish dramatist, folklorist and theatre manager. With William Butler Yeats and Edward Martyn, she co-founded the Irish Literary Theatre and the Abbey Theatre, and wrote numerous short works for both companies. Lady Gregory produced a number of books of retellings of stories taken from Irish mythology. Born into a class that identified closely with British rule, she turned against it. Her conversion to cultural nationalism, as evidenced by her writings, was emblematic of many of the political struggles to occur in Ireland during her lifetime.

George Moore (novelist)

George Moore (novelist)

George Augustus Moore was an Irish novelist, short-story writer, poet, art critic, memoirist and dramatist. Moore came from a Roman Catholic landed family who lived at Moore Hall in Carra, County Mayo. He originally wanted to be a painter, and studied art in Paris during the 1870s. There, he befriended many of the leading French artists and writers of the day.

George Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw

George Bernard Shaw, known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist and political activist. His influence on Western theatre, culture and politics extended from the 1880s to his death and beyond. He wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Man and Superman (1902), Pygmalion (1913) and Saint Joan (1923). With a range incorporating both contemporary satire and historical allegory, Shaw became the leading dramatist of his generation, and in 1925 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Edward Martyn

Edward Martyn

Edward Martyn was an Irish playwright and early republican political and cultural activist, as the first president of Sinn Féin from 1905–08.

Douglas Hyde

Douglas Hyde

Douglas Ross Hyde, known as An Craoibhín Aoibhinn, was an Irish academic, linguist, scholar of the Irish language, politician and diplomat who served as the first President of Ireland from June 1938 to June 1945. He was a leading figure in the Gaelic revival, and the first President of the Gaelic League, one of the most influential cultural organisations in Ireland at the time.

John Millington Synge

John Millington Synge

Edmund John Millington Synge was an Irish playwright, poet, writer, collector of folklore, and a key figure in the Irish Literary Revival. His best known play The Playboy of the Western World was poorly received, due to its bleak ending, depiction of Irish peasants, and idealisation of parricide, leading to hostile audience reactions and riots in Dublin during its opening run at the Abbey Theatre, Dublin, which he had co-founded with W. B. Yeats and Lady Gregory. His other major works include In the Shadow of the Glen (1903), Riders to the Sea (1904), The Well of the Saints (1905), and The Tinker's Wedding (1909).

James Cousins

James Cousins

James Henry Cousins was an Irish-Indian writer, playwright, actor, critic, editor, teacher and poet. He used several pseudonyms, including Mac Oisín and the Hindu name Jayaram.

Frederick Ryan

Frederick Ryan

Frederick Ryan, was an Irish, Dublin-born playwright, journalist and socialist.

Israel

See also: List of Hebrew language playwrights; List of Hebrew language authors

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Israel

Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia. Situated between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea, it is bordered by Lebanon to the north, by Syria to the northeast, by Jordan to the east, by Egypt to the southwest, and by the Palestinian territories — the West Bank along the east and the Gaza Strip along the southwest — with which it shares legal boundaries. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.

Max Brod

Max Brod

Max Brod was a German-speaking Bohemian, later Israeli, author, composer, and journalist.

Avraham Shlonsky

Avraham Shlonsky

Avraham Shlonsky was a significant and dynamic Israeli poet and editor born in the Russian Empire.

Nathan Alterman

Nathan Alterman

Nathan Alterman was an Israeli poet, playwright, journalist, and translator. Though never holding any elected office, Alterman was highly influential in Socialist Zionist politics, both before and after the establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948.

Ephraim Kishon

Ephraim Kishon

Ephraim Kishon was a Hungarian-born Israeli author, dramatist, screenwriter, and Oscar-nominated film director. He was one of the most widely read contemporary satirists in Israel, and was also particularly popular in German-speaking countries.

Nisim Aloni

Nisim Aloni

Nissim Aloni was an Israeli playwright and translator.

Dan Almagor

Dan Almagor

Dan Almagor is an Israeli playwright who has adapted and translated over a hundred plays for the Hebrew stage, including Shakespeare's "The Comedy of Errors", "As You Like It", "Fiddler on the Roof," "The King and I," "My Fair Lady" and "Guys and Dolls".

A. B. Yehoshua

A. B. Yehoshua

Avraham Gabriel Yehoshua was an Israeli novelist, essayist, and playwright. The New York Times called him the "Israeli Faulkner". Underlying themes in Yehoshua's work are Jewish identity, the tense relations with non-Jews, the conflict between the older and younger generations, and the clash between religion and politics.

Yehoshua Sobol

Yehoshua Sobol

Yehoshua Sobol, is an Israeli playwright, writer, and theatre director.

Hanoch Levin

Hanoch Levin

Hanoch Levin was an Israeli dramatist, theater director, author and poet, best known for his plays. His absurdist style is often compared to the work of Harold Pinter and Samuel Beckett.

Shmuel Hasfari

Shmuel Hasfari

Shmuel Hasfari is an Israeli playwright and screenwriter. He was artistic director of the Cameri Theatre.

Italy

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Italy

Italy

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, or the Republic of Italy, is a country in Southern and Western Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, it consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region. Italy shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. It has a territorial exclave in Switzerland, Campione. Italy covers an area of 301,230 km2 (116,310 sq mi), with a population of about 60 million. It is the third-most populous member state of the European Union, the sixth-most populous country in Europe, and the tenth-largest country in the continent by land area. Italy's capital and largest city is Rome.

List of Italian writers

List of Italian writers

This is a list of notable Italian writers, including novelists, essayists, poets, and other people whose primary artistic output was literature.

Jacopone da Todi

Jacopone da Todi

Jacopone da Todi, O.F.M. was an Italian Franciscan friar from Umbria. He wrote several laude in the local vernacular. He was an early pioneer in Italian theatre, being one of the earliest scholars who dramatised Gospel subjects.

Albertino Mussato

Albertino Mussato

Albertino Mussato (1261–1329) was a statesman, poet, historian and playwright from Padua. He is credited with providing an impetus to the revival of literary Latin, and is characterized as an early humanist. He was influenced by his teacher, the Paduan poet and proto-humanist Lovato Lovati. Mussato influenced many humanists such as Petrarch.

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, occasionally rendered in English as Nicholas Machiavel, was an Italian diplomat, author, philosopher and historian who lived during the Renaissance. He is best known for his political treatise The Prince, written in about 1513 but not published until 1532. He has often been called the father of modern political philosophy and political science.

Ludovico Ariosto

Ludovico Ariosto

Ludovico Ariosto was an Italian poet. He is best known as the author of the romance epic Orlando Furioso (1516). The poem, a continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato, describes the adventures of Charlemagne, Orlando, and the Franks as they battle against the Saracens with diversions into many sideplots. The poem is transformed into a satire of the chivalric tradition. Ariosto composed the poem in the ottava rima rhyme scheme and introduced narrative commentary throughout the work.

Pietro Aretino

Pietro Aretino

Pietro Aretino was an Italian author, playwright, poet, satirist and blackmailer, who wielded influence on contemporary art and politics. He was one of the most influential writers of his time and an outspoken critic of the powerful. Owing to his communications and sympathies with religious reformers, he is considered to have been a Nicodemite Protestant.

Donato Giannotti

Donato Giannotti

Donato Giannotti (27 November 1492 – December 1573) was an Italian political writer and playwright.

Annibale Caro

Annibale Caro

Fra' Annibale Caro, K.M., was an Italian writer and poet.

Luigi Groto

Luigi Groto

Luigi Groto, also called Cieco d'Adria or Cieco D'Hadria, was a blind Italian poet, lutenist, playwright and actor. Groto was born in Veneto and lost his sight eight days after birth. He studied philosophy and literature with such success that at the age of 15 he was already a public orator. He was often in Venice as an envoy from Veneto, and entertained with public performances of his songs. In 1565 he was appointed president of the newly founded Academy of Illustrati of Adria. He died in Venice, having just come from the theater where he had played the role of the blind King Oedipus. In 1623 Filippo Bonaffino set some of his poetry to music in a book of madrigals.

Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno was an Italian philosopher, mathematician, poet, cosmological theorist, and Hermetic occultist. He is known for his cosmological theories, which conceptually extended the then novel Copernican model. He proposed that the stars were distant suns surrounded by their own planets, and he raised the possibility that these planets might foster life of their own, a cosmological position known as cosmic pluralism. He also insisted that the universe is infinite and could have no "center".

Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger

Michelangelo Buonarroti the Younger

Michelangelo Buonarroti il Giovane was a Florentine poet, librettist and man of letters, known as "the Younger" to distinguish him from his granduncle.

Japan

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Kurdistan

Latvia

Lithuania

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Lithuania

Lithuania

Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. It is one of three Baltic states and lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. Lithuania shares land borders with Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Russia to the southwest. It has a maritime border with Sweden to the west on the Baltic Sea. Lithuania covers an area of 65,300 km2 (25,200 sq mi), with a population of 2.8 million. Its capital and largest city is Vilnius; other major cities are Kaunas and Klaipėda. Lithuanians belong to the ethno-linguistic group of the Balts and speak Lithuanian, one of only a few living Baltic languages.

Antanas Vienuolis

Antanas Vienuolis

Antanas Vienuolis was a Soviet and Lithuanian writer, dramatist and one of the most famous realistic prosaists.

Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius

Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius

Vincas Mickevičius, better known by his pen name Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius, was a Lithuanian writer, poet, novelist, playwright and philologist. He is also known as Vincas Krėvė, the shortened name he used in the United States.

Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas

Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas

Vincas Mykolaitis, known by his pen name Putinas, was a Lithuanian poet and writer. He was also a priest, but renounced his priesthood in 1935.

Antanas Škėma

Antanas Škėma

Antanas Škėma was a Lithuanian writer, playwright, stage actor and director. His best known work is the novel Balta drobulė.

Justinas Marcinkevičius

Justinas Marcinkevičius

Justinas Marcinkevičius was a prominent Lithuanian poet and playwright.

Ričardas Gavelis

Ričardas Gavelis

Ričardas Gavelis was a writer, playwright, and journalist.

Mexico

Morocco

See also: List of Moroccan writers

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Morocco

Morocco

Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and has land borders with Algeria to the east, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara to the south. Mauritania lies to the south of Western Sahara. Morocco also claims the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, and several small Spanish-controlled islands off its coast. It spans an area of 446,300 km2 (172,300 sq mi) or 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi), with a population of roughly 37 million. Its official and predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic and French are also widely spoken. Moroccan identity and culture is a mix of Arab, Berber, and European cultures. Its capital is Rabat, while its largest city is Casablanca.

List of Moroccan writers

List of Moroccan writers

This is a list of writers from Morocco.

Abdelkebir Khatibi

Abdelkebir Khatibi

Abdelkebir Khatibi was a prolific Moroccan literary critic, novelist, philosopher, playwright, poet, and sociologist. Affected in his late twenties by the rebellious spirit of 1960s counterculture, he challenged in his writings the social and political norms upon which the countries of the Maghreb region were constructed. His collection of essays Maghreb pluriel is one of his most notable works.

Abdallah Zrika

Abdallah Zrika

Abdallah Zrika is one of the most famous poets of Morocco. His poetry is free, based on spoken language and unrivalled in contemporary Arabic literature in its spontaneity. For the Moroccan youth of the politically and socially repressive years of the 1970s, he represented the ideal of poetry, of freedom of living and expression.

Nepal

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Nepal

Nepal

Nepal, formally the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is mainly situated in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, bordering the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, and India in the south, east, and west, while it is narrowly separated from Bangladesh by the Siliguri Corridor, and from Bhutan by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Nepal is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-cultural state, with Nepali as the official language. Kathmandu is the nation's capital and the largest city.

Balkrishna Sama

Balkrishna Sama

Balkrishna Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana or Bala Krishna Sama was a Nepalese dramatist. For his great contributions to Nepali literature, he was awarded the title Natya Siromani. He is considered as one of the trimurti (trinity) of Nepali literature alongside Laxmi Prasad Devkota and Lekhnath Paudyal. He is often called the "Shakespeare" of Nepal.

Laxmi Prasad Devkota

Laxmi Prasad Devkota

Laxmi Prasad Devkota (1909-1959) was a Nepali poet, playwright, and novelist. Honored with the title of Mahakabi in Nepali literature, he was known as a poet with a golden heart. He is considered to be the greatest and most famous literary figure in Nepal. Some of his popular works include the best-selling Muna Madan, along with Sulochana, Kunjini, Bhikhari, and Shakuntala.

Abhi Subedi

Abhi Subedi

Abhi Subedi is a Nepali poet, playwright, linguist, columnist, translator and critic, who writes in Nepali and English.

Suman Pokhrel

Suman Pokhrel

Suman Pokhrel is a Nepali poet, lyricist, playwright, translator and artist. Universities in Nepal and India have included his poetry in their syllabus.

Netherlands

See also: List of Dutch language writers

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Macropedius

Macropedius

Georgius Macropedius was a Dutch humanist, schoolmaster and "the greatest Latin playwright of the 16th century."

Dirck Coornhert

Dirck Coornhert

Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert, also known as Theodore Cornhert, was a Dutch writer, philosopher, translator, politician, theologian and artist. Coornhert is often considered the Father of Dutch Renaissance scholarship.

Gerbrand Bredero

Gerbrand Bredero

Gerbrand Adriaenszoon Bredero was a Dutch poet and playwright in the period known as the Dutch Golden Age.

Joost van den Vondel

Joost van den Vondel

Joost van den Vondel was a Dutch poet, writer and playwright. He is considered the most prominent Dutch poet and playwright of the 17th century. His plays are the ones from that period that are still most frequently performed, and his epic Joannes de Boetgezant (1662), on the life of John the Baptist, has been called the greatest Dutch epic.

Jan Harmenszoon Krul

Jan Harmenszoon Krul

Jan Harmenszoon Krul (1601–1646) was a Dutch Catholic playwright. His portrait was painted in 1633 by Rembrandt. Krul founded the Amsterdamsche Musijck Kamer, devoted to the cultivation of music drama.

Jan Vos (poet)

Jan Vos (poet)

Jan Jansz. Vos was a Dutch playwright and poet. A glassmaker by trade, he also played an important role as stage-manager and director of the theatre. He organized, on the mayors' orders, processions and splendid decorated floats, which sometimes drew disapproval, criticism, and derision.

Lodewijk Meyer

Lodewijk Meyer

Lodewijk Meyer was a Dutch physician, classical scholar, translator, lexicographer, and playwright. He was a radical intellectual and one of the more prominent members of the circle around the philosopher Benedictus de Spinoza.

Catharina Questiers

Catharina Questiers

Catharina Questiers was a Dutch poet and dramatist. Along with Cornelia van der Veer and Katharyne Lescailje she was the most successful female Dutch poet of the second half of the 17th century. Her brother David also achieved some note as a poet.

Joan Blasius

Joan Blasius

Joan Leonardszoon Blasius was a Dutch poet, playwright, translator and lawyer. Born near Cadzand in Oostvliet, a village now lost to the North Sea, he was the younger brother of the famous doctor Gerard Blasius.

Govert Bidloo

Govert Bidloo

Govert Bidloo or Govard Bidloo was a Dutch Golden Age physician, anatomist, poet and playwright. He was the personal physician of William III of Orange-Nassau, Dutch stadholder and King of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Abraham Alewijn

Abraham Alewijn

Abraham Alewijn was a jurist and in his time a well-respected poet, who distinguished himself above his contemporary poets, as evidenced from his Zede- en Harpzangen, which had its third printing in quarto in 1713. But he made himself especially valuable as a writer of comedies. His play poetry exists of:Amarillis, play with a happy ending, Amsterdam, 1693. Hardersspel. Amsterdam, 1699. Hardersspel honouring Corn. Pruimer. Amsterdam, 1702. De bedrooge woekeraar, comedy. Amsterdam, 1702. Latona, of de verandering der Boeren in kikvorschen. Amsterdam, 1703, illustrated. Philippyn, Mr. Koppelaar, comedy. Amsterdam, 1707. Beslikte Swaantje en drooge Fobert, of de Boere rechtbank, comedy. Amsterdam, 1715. De Puiterveensche Helleveeg, of beslikte Swaantje aan den tap, comedy. Amsterdam, 1720. Jan Los, of den bedroogen Oostindievaer, comedy. Amsterdam, 1721. Orpheus Hellevaart om Euridice, musical play. Amsterdam. illustrated.

Maria de Wilde

Maria de Wilde

Maria de Wilde was a Dutch engraver and playwright of the Dutch Republic. She was born and died in Amsterdam, where she played an active part in the upper-class bourgeois world of artists and writers, and gained a reputation by engraving her wealthy father's art collection. Formerly credited also with four plays, modern scholars only ascribe a tragedy and possibly a comedy to her.

Nigeria

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Nigeria

Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It is situated between the Sahel to the north and the Gulf of Guinea to the south in the Atlantic Ocean. It covers an area of 923,769 square kilometres (356,669 sq mi), and with a population of over 225 million, it is the most populous country in Africa, and the world's sixth-most populous country. Nigeria borders Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Nigeria is a federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The largest city in Nigeria is Lagos, one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world and the second-largest in Africa.

Wole Soyinka

Wole Soyinka

Akinwande Oluwole Babatunde Soyinka, known as Wole Soyinka, is a Nigerian playwright, novelist, poet, and essayist in the English language. He was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature, for "in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashioning the drama of existence", the first sub-Saharan African to be honoured in that category. Soyinka was born into a Yoruba family in Abeokuta. In 1954, he attended Government College in Ibadan, and subsequently University College Ibadan and the University of Leeds in England. After studying in Nigeria and the UK, he worked with the Royal Court Theatre in London. He went on to write plays that were produced in both countries, in theatres and on radio. He took an active role in Nigeria's political history and its campaign for independence from British colonial rule. In 1965, he seized the Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service studio and broadcast a demand for the cancellation of the Western Nigeria Regional Elections. In 1967, during the Nigerian Civil War, he was arrested by the federal government of General Yakubu Gowon and put in solitary confinement for two years, for volunteering to be a non-government mediating actor.

Ken Saro-Wiwa

Ken Saro-Wiwa

Kenule Beeson "Ken" Saro-Wiwa was a Nigerian writer, television producer, and environmental activist. Ken Saro-Wiwa was a member of the Ogoni people, an ethnic minority in Nigeria whose homeland, Ogoniland, in the Niger Delta, has been targeted for crude oil extraction since the 1950s and has suffered extreme environmental damage from decades of indiscriminate petroleum waste dumping.

Bode Sowande

Bode Sowande

Bode Sowande is a Nigerian writer and dramatist, known for the theatric aesthetic of his plays about humanism and social change. He comes from a breed of writers in Nigeria that favors a post-traditional social and political landscape where the individual is the creator and maker of his own history not just the subject of norms and tradition. Sowande is a member of the so-called second generation of Nigerian playwrights, who favor a much more political tone in their writing and seek to promote an alliance or acquiescence to a change in the status quo and fate of the common man and farmers who constitute the majority of the Nigerian society. Some members of this groups includes: Zulu Sofola, Femi Osofisan and Festus Iyayi. Bode Sowande in May 2010, launched a tarot website Tarot With Prayers.

Sefi Atta

Sefi Atta

Sefi Atta is a Nigerian-American novelist, short-story writer, playwright and screenwriter. Her books have been translated into many languages, radio plays have been broadcast by the BBC, and her stage plays have been performed internationally. Awards she has received include the 2006 Wole Soyinka Prize for Literature in Africa and the 2009 Noma Award for Publishing in Africa.

Biyi Bandele

Biyi Bandele

Biyi Bandele was a Nigerian novelist, playwright and filmmaker. He was the author of several novels, beginning with The Man Who Came in From the Back of Beyond (1991), as well as writing stage plays, before turning his focus to filmmaking. His directorial debut was in 2013 with Half of a Yellow Sun, based on the 2006 novel of the same name by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie.

Norway

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Norway

Norway

Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe, the mainland territory of which comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The remote Arctic island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard also form part of Norway. Bouvet Island, located in the Subantarctic, is a dependency of Norway; it also lays claims to the Antarctic territories of Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land. The capital and largest city in Norway is Oslo.

List of Norwegian writers

List of Norwegian writers

This is a list of Norwegian literature authors in the order of their year of birth. The century assignment is the period of their most significant works.

Ludvig Holberg

Ludvig Holberg

Ludvig Holberg, Baron of Holberg was a writer, essayist, philosopher, historian and playwright born in Bergen, Norway, during the time of the Dano-Norwegian dual monarchy. He was influenced by Humanism, the Enlightenment and the Baroque. Holberg is considered the founder of modern Danish and Norwegian literature. He is best known for the comedies he wrote in 1722–1723 for the Lille Grønnegade Theatre in Copenhagen. Holberg's works about natural and common law were widely read by many Danish law students over two hundred years, from 1736 to 1936.

Henrik Ibsen

Henrik Ibsen

Henrik Johan Ibsen was a Norwegian playwright and theatre director. As one of the founders of modernism in theatre, Ibsen is often referred to as "the father of realism" and one of the most influential playwrights of his time. His major works include Brand, Peer Gynt, An Enemy of the People, Emperor and Galilean, A Doll's House, Hedda Gabler, Ghosts, The Wild Duck, When We Dead Awaken, Rosmersholm, and The Master Builder. Ibsen is the most frequently performed dramatist in the world after Shakespeare, and A Doll's House was the world's most performed play in 2006.

Gunnar Heiberg

Gunnar Heiberg

Gunnar Edvard Rode Heiberg was a Norwegian poet, playwright, journalist and theatre critic.

Helge Krog

Helge Krog

Helge Krog was a Norwegian journalist, essayist, theatre and literary critic, translator and playwright.

Nordahl Grieg

Nordahl Grieg

Johan Nordahl Brun Grieg was a Norwegian poet, novelist, dramatist, journalist and political activist. He was a popular author and a controversial public figure. He served in World War II as a war correspondent and was killed while on a bombing mission to Berlin.

Pakistan

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Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country, with a population of almost 243 million people, and has the world's second-largest Muslim population just behind Indonesia. Pakistan is the 33rd-largest country in the world by area and 2nd largest in South Asia, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. It has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south, and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China to the northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a maritime border with Oman. Islamabad is the nation's capital, while Karachi is its largest city and financial centre.

List of Pakistani writers

List of Pakistani writers

This is a List of Pakistani writers, writers of fiction and nonfiction who are native to, or born in Pakistan, writing in any language.

Mirza Adeeb

Mirza Adeeb

Mirza Adeeb,, also known as Meerza Adeeb,, was a Pakistani Urdu writer of dramas and short stories. His plays and short stories won him six prizes and awards from the Pakistan Writers' Guild.

Haseena Moin

Haseena Moin

Haseena Moin was a Pakistani dramatist, playwright and scriptwriter. She wrote several plays for stage, radio, and television. She was the recipient of the Pride of Performance award for her services to the performing arts in Pakistan. She wrote Pakistan's first original script Kiran Kahani aired in the early-1970s. Before this, PTV relied on novel-based scripts for dramas. She was considered to be the best playwright and dramatist Pakistan has ever witnessed.

Poland

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Poland

Poland

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called voivodeships, covering an area of 312,696 km2 (120,733 sq mi). Poland has a population of 37.7 million and is the fifth-most populous member state of the European Union. Warsaw is the nation's capital and largest metropolis. Other major cities include Kraków, Wrocław, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Andreas Gryphius

Andreas Gryphius

Andreas Gryphius was a German poet and playwright. With his eloquent sonnets, which contains "The Suffering, Frailty of Life and the World", he is considered one of the most important Baroque poets of the Germanosphere. He was one of the first improvers of the German language and German poetry.

Aleksander Fredro

Aleksander Fredro

Aleksander Fredro was a Polish poet, playwright and author active during Polish Romanticism in the period of partitions by neighboring empires. His works including plays written in the octosyllabic verse (Zemsta) and in prose as well as fables, belong to the canon of Polish literature. Fredro was harshly criticized by some of his contemporaries for light-hearted humor or even alleged immorality which led to years of his literary silence. Many of Fredro's dozens of plays were published and popularized only after his death. His best-known works have been translated into English, French, German, Russian, Czech, Romanian, Hungarian and Slovak.

Adam Mickiewicz

Adam Mickiewicz

Adam Bernard Mickiewicz was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator and political activist. He is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism, he is one of Poland's "Three Bards" and is widely regarded as Poland's greatest poet. He is also considered one of the greatest Slavic and European poets and has been dubbed a "Slavic bard". A leading Romantic dramatist, he has been compared in Poland and Europe to Byron and Goethe.

Solomon Ettinger

Solomon Ettinger

Solomon Ettinger was a 19th-century Yiddish- and Hebrew-language playwright, poet and writer of songs and fables whose emblematic play Serkele has remained a classic of the Yiddish theatre. His given name has appeared variously as Salomon or Shlomo or Shloyme and his family name has also been rendered as Ettingher.

Juliusz Słowacki

Juliusz Słowacki

Juliusz Słowacki was a Polish Romantic poet. He is considered one of the "Three Bards" of Polish literature — a major figure in the Polish Romantic period, and the father of modern Polish drama. His works often feature elements of Slavic pagan traditions, Polish history, mysticism and orientalism. His style includes the employment of neologisms and irony. His primary genre was the drama, but he also wrote lyric poetry. His most popular works include the dramas Kordian and Balladyna and the poems Beniowski, Testament mój and Anhelli.

Apollo Korzeniowski

Apollo Korzeniowski

Apollo Korzeniowski was a Polish poet, playwright, translator, clandestine political activist, and father of Polish-English novelist Joseph Conrad.

Gabriela Zapolska

Gabriela Zapolska

Maria Gabriela Stefania Korwin-Piotrowska (1857–1921), known as Gabriela Zapolska, was a Polish novelist, playwright, naturalist writer, feuilletonist, theatre critic and stage actress. Zapolska wrote 41 plays, 23 novels, 177 short stories, 252 works of journalism, one film script, and over 1,500 letters.

Jerzy Żuławski

Jerzy Żuławski

Jerzy Żuławski was a Polish literary figure, philosopher, translator, alpinist and patriot whose best-known work is the science-fiction epic, Trylogia Księżycowa, written between 1901 and 1911.

Sholem Asch

Sholem Asch

Sholem Asch, also written Shalom Ash, was a Polish-Jewish novelist, dramatist, and essayist in the Yiddish language who settled in the United States.

Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz

Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz

Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, commonly known as Witkacy, was a Polish writer, painter, philosopher, theorist, playwright, novelist, and photographer active before World War I and during the interwar period.

Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death in 2005. He was later canonised as Pope Saint John Paul II.

Portugal

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Portugal

Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira. It features the westernmost point in continental Europe, and its Iberian portion is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, the sole country to have a land border with Portugal. Its two archipelagos form two autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Lisbon is the capital and largest city by population.

Gil Vicente

Gil Vicente

Gil Vicente, called the Trobadour, was a Portuguese playwright and poet who acted in and directed his own plays. Considered the chief dramatist of Portugal he is sometimes called the "Portuguese Plautus," often referred to as the "Father of Portuguese drama" and as one of Western literature's greatest playwrights. Also noted as a lyric poet, Vicente worked in Spanish as much as he worked in Portuguese and is thus, with Juan del Encina, considered joint-father of Spanish drama.

António Gedeão

António Gedeão

António Gedeão was a Portuguese poet, essayist, writer and playwright, who also published several works related to science. António Gedeão was an alter ego of Rómulo de Carvalho, who, using his real name was also a professor, teaching chemistry and history of science.

José Saramago

José Saramago

José de Sousa Saramago, GColSE ComSE GColCa, was a Portuguese writer and recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Literature for his "parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony [with which he] continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality." His works, some of which can be seen as allegories, commonly present subversive perspectives on historic events, emphasizing the theopoetic human factor. In 2003 Harold Bloom described Saramago as "the most gifted novelist alive in the world today" and in 2010 said he considers Saramago to be "a permanent part of the Western canon", while James Wood praises "the distinctive tone to his fiction because he narrates his novels as if he were someone both wise and ignorant."

Romania

See also: List of Romanian playwrights and List of Romanian writers

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Romania

Romania

Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, and the Black Sea to the southeast. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate, and an area of 238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi), with a population of around 19 million. Romania is the twelfth-largest country in Europe and the sixth-most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, followed by Iași, Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Constanța, Craiova, Brașov, and Galați. It is member of the European Union (EU), NATO, European Council (EUCO), BSEC, and WTO.

List of Romanian playwrights

List of Romanian playwrights

This is a list of Romanian playwrights:Vasile Alecsandri (1821-1890) Gheorghe Asachi (1788-1869) Aurel Baranga (1913-1979) Ion Băieșu (1933-1990) Ion Luca Caragiale (1852-1912) George Ciprian (1883-1968) Alexandru Davila (1862-1929) Puși Dinulescu Victor Eftimiu (1889-1972) Paul Everac (1924-2011) Horia Gârbea Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu (1838-1907) Eugen Ionescu (1909-1994) Alexandru Kirițescu (1888-1961) Petre Locusteanu (1883-1919) Paul Ioachim (1930-2002) Tudor Mușatescu (1930-1980) Victor Ion Popa (1895-1946) Dumitru Radu Popescu Mihail Sebastian (1907-1945) Dumitru Solomon (1932-2003) Mihail Sorbul (1885-1966) Marin Sorescu (1936-1997) Barbu Ștefănescu Delavrancea (1858-1918) Matei Vișniec Ana Maria Bamberger

List of Romanian writers

List of Romanian writers

This is a list of Romanian writers.

Vasile Alecsandri

Vasile Alecsandri

Vasile Alecsandri was a Romanian patriot, poet, dramatist, politician and diplomat. He was one of the key figures during the 1848 revolutions in Moldavia and Wallachia. He fought for the unification of the Romanian Principalities, writing "Hora Unirii" in 1856 and giving up his candidacy for the title of prince of Moldavia, in favor of Alexandru Ioan Cuza. He became the first minister of foreign affairs of Romania and was one of the founding members of the Romanian Academy. Alecsandri was a prolific writer, contributing to Romanian literature with poetry, prose, several plays, and collections of Romanian folklore, being considered, alongside Mihai Eminescu, which admired and was inspired by the writings of Alecsandri, as one of the most important Romanian writers in the second half of the 19th century.

Ion Luca Caragiale

Ion Luca Caragiale

Ion Luca Caragiale was a Romanian playwright, short story writer, poet, theater manager, political commentator and journalist. Leaving behind an important cultural legacy, he is considered one of the greatest playwrights in Romanian language and literature, as well as one of its most important writers and a leading representative of local humour. Alongside Mihai Eminescu, Ioan Slavici and Ion Creangă, he is seen as one of the main representatives of Junimea, an influential literary society with which he nonetheless parted during the second half of his life. His work, spanning four decades, covers the ground between Neoclassicism, Realism, and Naturalism, building on an original synthesis of foreign and local influences.

Eugène Ionesco

Eugène Ionesco

Eugène Ionesco was a Romanian-French playwright who wrote mostly in French, and was one of the foremost figures of the French avant-garde theatre in the 20th century. Ionesco instigated a revolution in ideas and techniques of drama, beginning with his "anti play", The Bald Soprano which contributed to the beginnings of what is known as the Theatre of the Absurd, which includes a number of plays that, following the ideas of the philosopher Albert Camus, explore concepts of absurdism. He was made a member of the Académie française in 1970, and was awarded the 1970 Austrian State Prize for European Literature, and the 1973 Jerusalem Prize.

Russia

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Russia

Russia

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, with its internationally recognised territory covering 17,098,246 square kilometres (6,601,670 sq mi), and encompassing one-eighth of Earth's inhabitable landmass. Russia extends across eleven time zones and shares land boundaries with fourteen countries. It is the world's ninth-most populous country and Europe's most populous country, with a population of 146 million people. The country's capital and largest city is Moscow. Saint Petersburg is Russia's cultural centre and second-largest city. Other major urban areas include Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan.

Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger

Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger

Friedrich Maximilian von Klinger was a German dramatist and novelist. His play Sturm und Drang (1776) gave its name to the Sturm und Drang artistic epoch. He was a childhood friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and is often closely associated with Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz. Klinger worked as a playwright for the Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft for two years, but eventually left the Kingdom of Prussia to become a General in the Imperial Russian Army.

Maxim Gorky

Maxim Gorky

Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, popularly known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian writer and socialist political thinker and proponent. He was nominated five times for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Before his success as an author, he travelled widely across the Russian Empire changing jobs frequently, experiences which would later influence his writing.

Peretz Hirschbein

Peretz Hirschbein

Peretz Hirshbein was a Yiddish-language playwright, novelist, journalist, travel writer, and theater director. Because his work focused more on mood than plot, he became known as "the Yiddish Maeterlinck". His work as a playwright and through his own short-lived but influential troupe, laid much of the groundwork for the second golden age of Yiddish theater that began shortly after the end of World War I. The dialogue of his plays is consistently vivid, terse, and naturalistic. Unusually for a Yiddish playwright, most of his works have pastoral settings: he had grown up the son of a miller, and made several attempts at farming.

H. Leivick

H. Leivick

H. Leivick was a Yiddish language writer, known for his 1921 "dramatic poem in eight scenes" The Golem. He also wrote many highly political, realistic plays, including Shop. He adopted the pen name of Leivick to avoid being confused with Moyshe-Leyb Halpern, another prominent Yiddish poet.

Serbia

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Georgije Magarašević

Georgije Magarašević

Georgije Magarašević, was a Serbian writer, historian, bibliographer, editor and publisher, dramatist, translator and collector of folk proverbs. He belongs to the same generation of Serbian writers as Dimitrije Davidović, Teodor Pavlović, Danilo Medaković, all of whom expressed in some degree their indebtedness to Dositej Obradović and Vuk Karadžić.

Jovan Sterija Popović

Jovan Sterija Popović

Jovan Sterija Popović was a Serbian playwright, poet, lawyer, philosopher and pedagogue who taught at the Belgrade Higher School. Sterija was recognized by his contemporaries as the one of the leading Serbian intellectuals and he is regarded as one of the best comic playwrights in Serbian literature.

Matija Ban

Matija Ban

Matija Ban was a Serbo-Croatian poet, dramatist, and playwright. He is known as one of the earliest proponents of the Serb-Catholic movement in Dubrovnik.

Kosta Trifković

Kosta Trifković

Kosta Trifković was a Serbian writer and one of the best comediographers of the time. Trifković wrote lighthearted comedies about city life in Vojvodina which were popular with the public, especially his best play, The Choosy Bride-to-Be (Izbiračica).

Milovan Glišić

Milovan Glišić

Milovan Glišić was a Serbian writer, dramatist, translator, and literary theorist. He is sometimes referred to as the Serbian Gogol.

Dragutin Ilić

Dragutin Ilić

Dragutin Ilić was a Serbian playwright, poet, novelist, journalist and politician. Along with Matija Ban and Djordje Maletić, Ilić dominated the Serbian stage during the late 19th century.

Branislav Nušić

Branislav Nušić

Branislav Nušić was a Serbian playwright, satirist, essayist, novelist and founder of modern rhetoric in Serbia. He also worked as a journalist and a civil servant.

Mir-Jam

Mir-Jam

Milica Jakovljević, better known under the pen name Mir-Jam was a Serbian writer whose many period novels have been successfully adapted to popular TV series.

Dušan Vasiljev

Dušan Vasiljev

Dušan Vasiljev was a Serbian-Yugoslavian poet, novelist and playwright. He was one of the most significant expressionists in Serbian literature.

Danko Popović

Danko Popović

Slobodan "Danko" Popović was a Serbian writer, playwright and screenwriter.

Milorad Pavić

Milorad Pavić

Milorad Pavić was a Serbian novelist, poet, short story writer, and literary historian. Born in Belgrade in 1929, he published a number of poems, short stories and novels during his lifetime, the most famous of which was the Dictionary of the Khazars (1984). Upon its release, it was hailed as "the first novel of the 21st century." Pavić's works have been translated into more than thirty languages. He was vastly popular in Europe and in South America, and was deemed "one of the most intriguing writers from the beginning of the 21st century." He won numerous prizes in Serbia and in the former Yugoslavia, and was mentioned several times as a potential candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature. He died in Belgrade in 2009.

Borislav Pekić

Borislav Pekić

Borislav Pekić was a Serbian and Yugoslav writer and political activist.

Slovenia

See also: List of Slovenian playwrights

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Slovenia

Slovenia

Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest. Slovenia is mostly mountainous and forested, covers 20,271 square kilometres (7,827 sq mi), and has a population of 2.1 million. Slovenes constitute over 80% of the country's population. Slovene, a South Slavic language, is the official language. Slovenia has a predominantly temperate continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral and the Julian Alps. A sub-mediterranean climate reaches to the northern extensions of the Dinaric Alps that traverse the country in a northwest–southeast direction. The Julian Alps in the northwest have an alpine climate. Toward the northeastern Pannonian Basin, a continental climate is more pronounced. Ljubljana, the capital and largest city of Slovenia, is geographically situated near the centre of the country.

List of Slovenian playwrights

List of Slovenian playwrights

This is a list of Slovenian playwrights.

Fran Levstik

Fran Levstik

Fran Levstik was a Slovene writer, political activist, playwright and critic. He was one of the most prominent exponents of the Young Slovene political movement.

Fran Saleški Finžgar

Fran Saleški Finžgar

Fran Saleški Finžgar was perhaps the most popular Slovene folk writer. He is particularly known for his novels and short stories, although he also wrote poems and plays.

Ivan Cankar

Ivan Cankar

Ivan Cankar was a Slovene writer, playwright, essayist, poet, and political activist. Together with Oton Župančič, Dragotin Kette, and Josip Murn, he is considered as the beginner of modernism in Slovene literature. He is regarded as the greatest writer in Slovene, and has sometimes been compared to Franz Kafka and James Joyce.

Oton Župančič

Oton Župančič

Oton Župančič was a Slovene poet, translator, and playwright. He is regarded, alongside Ivan Cankar, Dragotin Kette and Josip Murn, as the beginner of modernism in Slovene literature. In the period following World War I, Župančič was frequently regarded as the greatest Slovenian poet after Prešeren, but in the last forty years his influence has been declining and his poetry has lost much of its initial appeal.

Gregor Strniša

Gregor Strniša

Gregor Strniša was a Slovenian poet, playwright, and songwriter. He is considered one of the most important Slovene-language poet of the second half of the 20th century. He spent most of his life away from public light, and has gained widespread recognition only after his death.

Drago Jančar

Drago Jančar

Drago Jančar is a Slovenian writer, playwright and essayist. Jančar is one of the most well-known contemporary Slovene writers. In Slovenia, he is also famous for his political commentaries and civic engagement. Jančar's novels, essays and short stories have been translated into 21 languages and published in Europe, Asia and the United States. The most numerous translations are into German, followed by Czech and Croatian translations. His dramas have also been staged by a number of foreign theatres, while back home they are frequently considered the highlights of the Slovenian theatrical season. He lives and works in Ljubljana.

Spain

See also: List of Spanish language authors

Catalonia

See also: List of Catalan-language writers

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Spain

Spain

Spain, or the Kingdom of Spain, is a country primarily located in southwestern Europe with parts of territory in the Atlantic Ocean and across the Mediterranean Sea. The largest part of Spain is situated on the Iberian Peninsula; its territory also includes the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla in Africa. The country's mainland is bordered to the south by Gibraltar; to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea; to the north by France, Andorra and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the second-largest country in the European Union (EU) and, with a population exceeding 47.4 million, the fourth-most populous EU member state. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Zaragoza, Málaga, Murcia, Palma de Mallorca, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Bilbao.

Juan del Encina

Juan del Encina

Juan del Encina was a composer, poet, and playwright, often called the founder, along with Gil Vicente, of Spanish drama. His birth name was Juan de Fermoselle. He spelled his name Enzina, but this is not a significant difference; it is two spellings of the same sound, in a time when "correct spelling" as we know it barely existed.

Lucas Fernández (musician)

Lucas Fernández (musician)

Lucas Fernández was a Spanish dramatist and musician, writer in Leonese language.

Miguel de Cervantes

Miguel de Cervantes

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was an Early Modern Spanish writer widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. He is best known for his novel Don Quixote, a work often cited as both the first modern novel and "the first great novel of world literature". A 2002 poll of around 100 well-known authors voted it the "most meaningful book of all time", from among the "best and most central works in world literature".

Juan de la Cueva

Juan de la Cueva

Juan de la Cueva de Garoza (1543–1612) was a Spanish dramatist and poet. He was born in Seville to an aristocratic family; his younger brother Claudio, with whom he spent some time in Guadalajara, Mexico, went on to become an archdeacon and inquisitor. He was acquainted with a number of major contemporary intellectual figures, including Fernando de Herrera and Juan de Mal Lara, and took part in the Casa de Pilatos literary academy in Seville. After his return to Spain in 1577, he began writing for the stage and produced a total of ten comedies and four tragedies. He appears never to have married, though some of his poetical works are dedicated to a Felipa de la Paz. After apparently spending some time in Cuenca after 1610, he died in Granada in 1612.

Lope de Vega

Lope de Vega

Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio was a Spanish playwright, poet, and novelist. He was one of the key figures in the Spanish Golden Age of Baroque literature. His reputation in the world of Spanish literature is second only to that of Miguel de Cervantes, while the sheer volume of his literary output is unequalled, making him one of the most prolific authors in the history of literature. He was nicknamed "The Phoenix of Wits" and "Monster of Nature" by Cervantes because of his prolific nature.

Feliciana Enríquez de Guzmán

Feliciana Enríquez de Guzmán

Feliciana Enríquez de Guzmán was a Spanish playwright of the Spanish Golden Age and one of the first women to write a play in Spanish. She is known for a two part play Los jardines y campos sabeos with several comic interludes. Its second print edition includes theoretical texts in which she asserts her position within the world of theatre.

Antonio Mira de Amescua

Antonio Mira de Amescua

Antonio Mira de Amescua, Spanish dramatist, was born at Guadix (Granada) about 1578. He is said, but doubtfully, to have been the illegitimate son of one Juana Perez. He took orders, obtained a canonry at Guadix, and settled at Madrid early in the 17th century. He is mentioned as a prominent dramatist in Rojas Villandrandos Loa (1603), which was written several years before it was published. In 1610, being then arch-dean of Guadix, he accompanied the count de Lemos to Naples, and on his return to Spain was appointed (1619) chaplain to the Cardinale-Infante Ferdinand of Austria; he is referred to as still alive in Montalbán's Para todos (1632), and he collaborated with Montalbán and Calderón in Polifemo y Circe, printed in 1634. The date of his death is not known.

Pedro Calderón de la Barca

Pedro Calderón de la Barca

Pedro Calderón de la Barca y Barreda González de Henao Ruiz de Blasco y Riaño was a Spanish dramatist, poet, writer and knight of the Order of Santiago. He is known as one of the most distinguished Baroque writers of the Spanish Golden Age, especially for his plays.

Juan Claudio de la Hoz y Mota

Juan Claudio de la Hoz y Mota

Juan Claudio de la Hoz y Mota (1630?–1710?) was a Spanish dramatist. He was born in Madrid, and became a Knight of Santiago in 1653, and soon afterwards succeeded his father as regidor of Burgos.

Juan Bautista Diamante

Juan Bautista Diamante

Juan Bautista Diamante, minor Spanish dramatist of the school of Calderón, was the son of a Portuguese mother and a Sicilian merchant of Greek parentage who came to Madrid some time before 1631. He began writing for the stage in the early 1650s, gained favour at the courts of Philip IV and Charles II, and became a knight of St. John in 1660. It has been suggested  that Juan Bautista may have been of Jewish stock, and that the Diamante family, including the playwright's half-brothers Pablo and Francisco Diamante who also achieved success in their different spheres, falsified public records of marriage, baptism, etc. in order to obscure their marrano origins.

José de Cañizares

José de Cañizares

José de Cañizares y Suárez was a Spanish playwright. Cavalry officer, public official, and author of around one hundred works, he was one of the most important dramatists of the early 18th century.

Sweden

See also: List of Swedish language writers

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Sweden

Sweden

Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Nordic country located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north, Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge–tunnel across the Öresund. At 447,425 square kilometres (172,752 sq mi), Sweden is the largest Nordic country, the third-largest country in the European Union, and the fifth-largest country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Stockholm. Sweden has a total population of 10.5 million, and a low population density of 25.5 inhabitants per square kilometre (66/sq mi), with around 87% of Swedes residing in urban areas, which cover 1.5% of the entire land area, in the central and southern half of the country.

August Strindberg

August Strindberg

Johan August Strindberg was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter. A prolific writer who often drew directly on his personal experience, Strindberg wrote more than sixty plays and more than thirty works of fiction, autobiography, history, cultural analysis, and politics during his career, which spanned four decades. A bold experimenter and iconoclast throughout, he explored a wide range of dramatic methods and purposes, from naturalistic tragedy, monodrama, and history plays, to his anticipations of expressionist and surrealist dramatic techniques. From his earliest work, Strindberg developed innovative forms of dramatic action, language, and visual composition. He is considered the "father" of modern Swedish literature and his The Red Room (1879) has frequently been described as the first modern Swedish novel. In Sweden, Strindberg is known as an essayist, painter, poet, and especially as a novelist and playwright, but in other countries he is known mostly as a playwright.

Hjalmar Bergman

Hjalmar Bergman

Hjalmar Fredrik Elgérus Bergman was a Swedish writer and playwright.

Pär Lagerkvist

Pär Lagerkvist

Pär Fabian Lagerkvist was a Swedish author who received the 1951 Nobel Prize in Literature.

Werner Aspenström

Werner Aspenström

Karl Werner Aspenström was a Swedish poet.

Stig Dagerman

Stig Dagerman

Stig Halvard Dagerman was a Swedish author and journalist prominent in the aftermath of World War II.

Lars Forssell

Lars Forssell

Lars Hans Carl Abraham Forssell was a Swedish writer and member of the Swedish Academy. Forssell was a versatile writer who worked within many genres, including poetry, drama and songwriting. He was married from 1951 until his death to Kerstin Hane, and was the father of Jonas and Malte Forssell.

Ninna Tersman

Ninna Tersman

Ninna Tersman is a Swedish playwright, dramaturg and translator. She has written more than twenty plays, and has won the Critic's Prize for Best Production of the Year, and the Adam NZ Play Award.

Switzerland

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Switzerland

Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe. It is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east.

James Joyce

James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist, poet, and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde movement and is regarded as one of the most influential and important writers of the 20th century. Joyce's novel Ulysses (1922) is a landmark in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles, particularly stream of consciousness. Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners (1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1939). His other writings include three books of poetry, a play, letters, and occasional journalism.

Oskar Kokoschka

Oskar Kokoschka

Oskar Kokoschka was an Austrian artist, poet, playwright, and teacher best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes, as well as his theories on vision that influenced the Viennese Expressionist movement.

Fritz Hochwälder

Fritz Hochwälder

Fritz Hochwälder also known as Fritz Hochwaelder, was an Austrian playwright. Known for his spare prose and strong moralist themes, Hochwälder won several literary awards, including the Grand Austrian State Prize for Literature in 1966. Most of his plays were first performed at the Burgtheater in Vienna.

Max Frisch

Max Frisch

Max Rudolf Frisch was a Swiss playwright and novelist. Frisch's works focused on problems of identity, individuality, responsibility, morality, and political commitment. The use of irony is a significant feature of his post-war output. Frisch was one of the founders of Gruppe Olten. He was awarded the 1965 Jerusalem Prize, the 1973 Grand Schiller Prize, and the 1986 Neustadt International Prize for Literature.

Friedrich Dürrenmatt

Friedrich Dürrenmatt

Friedrich Dürrenmatt was a Swiss author and dramatist. He was a proponent of epic theatre whose plays reflected the recent experiences of World War II. The politically active author's work included avant-garde dramas, philosophical crime novels, and macabre satire. Dürrenmatt was a member of the Gruppe Olten, a group of left-wing Swiss writers who convened regularly at a restaurant in the city of Olten.

Syria

Turkey

Ukraine

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Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest European country after Russia, which it borders to the east and northeast. Ukraine covers approximately 600,000 square kilometres (230,000 sq mi). Prior to the ongoing Russian invasion, it was the eighth-most populous country in Europe, with a population of around 41 million people. It is also bordered by Belarus to the north; by Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; and by Romania and Moldova to the southwest; with a coastline along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov to the south and southeast. Kyiv is the nation's capital and largest city. Ukraine's state language is Ukrainian; Russian is also widely spoken, especially in the east and south.

Jacob Gordin

Jacob Gordin

Jacob Michailovitch Gordin was a Russian-born American playwright active in the early years of Yiddish theater. He is known for introducing realism and naturalism into Yiddish theater.

Lesya Ukrainka

Lesya Ukrainka

Lesya Ukrainka was one of Ukrainian literature's foremost writers, best known for her poems and plays. She was also an active political, civil, and feminist activist.

Eugenia Chuprina

Eugenia Chuprina

Eugenia Volodymyrivna Chuprina is a contemporary Ukrainian poet, writer, and playwright. She is the Chair of the Organizing Committee of the International Prize, Olesya Ulyanenko; member of the Ukrainian PEN; member of the National Union of Writers of Ukraine; and the National Union of Journalists She is the winner of the Vladimir Korolenko Prize. Chuprina is the author of poem collections, Твори (Works) and Вид знизу (2002); prose Роман з Пельменем and mashup novel, Орхидеи ещё не зацвели (2010).

United Kingdom

See also: List of British playwrights; British playwrights since 1950; List of early-modern British women playwrights

England

See also: List of English writers

Scotland

See also: List of Scottish dramatists

Wales

See also: List of Welsh writers

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List of British playwrights

List of British playwrights

This is a list of British playwrights.

List of early-modern British women playwrights

List of early-modern British women playwrights

This is an alphabetical list of women playwrights who were active in England and Wales, and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland before approximately 1800, with a brief indication of productivity. Nota Bene: Authors of dramatic works are the focus of this list, though many of these writers worked in more than one genre.

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

List of English writers

List of English writers

List of English writers lists writers in English, born or raised in England , who already have Wikipedia pages. References for the information here appear on the linked Wikipedia pages. The list is incomplete – please help to expand it by adding Wikipedia page-owning writers who have written extensively in any genre or field, including science and scholarship. Please follow the entry format. A seminal work added to a writer's entry should also have a Wikipedia page. This is a subsidiary to the List of English people. There are or should be similar lists of Irish, Scots, Welsh, Manx, Jersey, and Guernsey writers.

Henry Medwall

Henry Medwall

Henry Medwall was the first known English vernacular dramatist. Fulgens and Lucrece (c.1497), whose heroine must choose between two suitors, is the earliest known secular English play. The other play of Medwall is titled Nature. He stayed at the court of Cardinal Morton, Chancellor in the time of Henry VII.

John Bale

John Bale

John Bale was an English churchman, historian and controversialist, and Bishop of Ossory in Ireland. He wrote the oldest known historical verse drama in English, and developed and published a very extensive list of the works of British authors down to his own time, just as the monastic libraries were being dispersed. His unhappy disposition and habit of quarrelling earned him the nickname "bilious Bale".

John Heywood

John Heywood

John Heywood was an English writer known for his plays, poems, and collection of proverbs. Although he is best known as a playwright, he was also active as a musician and composer, though no musical works survive. A devout Catholic, he nevertheless served as a royal servant to both the Catholic and Protestant regimes of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I.

George Gascoigne

George Gascoigne

George Gascoigne was an English poet, soldier and unsuccessful courtier. He is considered the most important poet of the early Elizabethan era, following Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey and leading to the emergence of Philip Sidney. He was the first poet to deify Queen Elizabeth I, in effect establishing her cult as a virgin goddess married to her kingdom and subjects. His most noted works include A Discourse of the Adventures of Master FJ (1573), an account of courtly intrigue and one of the earliest English prose fictions; The Supposes,, an early translation of Ariosto and the first comedy written in English prose, which was used by Shakespeare as a source for The Taming of the Shrew; the frequently anthologised short poem "Gascoignes wodmanship" (1573) and "Certayne Notes of Instruction concerning the making of verse or ryme in English" (1575), the first essay on English versification.

John Lyly

John Lyly

John Lyly was an English writer, dramatist, courtier, and parliamentarian. He was best known during his lifetime for his two books Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit (1578) and its sequel Euphues and His England (1580), but perhaps best remembered now for his plays. Lyly's distinctive and much imitated literary style, named after the title character of his two books, is known as euphuism.

George Chapman

George Chapman

George Chapman was an English dramatist, translator and poet. He was a classical scholar whose work shows the influence of Stoicism. Chapman has been speculated to be the Rival Poet of Shakespeare's sonnets by William Minto, and as an anticipator of the metaphysical poets of the 17th century. Chapman is best remembered for his translations of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, and the Homeric Batrachomyomachia.

Michael Drayton

Michael Drayton

Michael Drayton was an English poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era, continuing to write through the reign of James I and into the reign of Charles I. Many of his works consisted of historical poetry, and he was also the first English-language author to write odes in the style of Horace. He died on 23 December 1631 in London.

Christopher Marlowe

Christopher Marlowe

Christopher Marlowe, also known as Kit Marlowe, was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era. Marlowe is among the most famous of the Elizabethan playwrights. Based upon the "many imitations" of his play Tamburlaine, modern scholars consider him to have been the foremost dramatist in London in the years just before his mysterious early death. Some scholars also believe that he greatly influenced William Shakespeare, who was baptised in the same year as Marlowe and later succeeded him as the pre-eminent Elizabethan playwright. Marlowe was the first to achieve critical reputation for his use of blank verse, which became the standard for the era. His plays are distinguished by their overreaching protagonists. Themes found within Marlowe's literary works have been noted as humanistic with realistic emotions, which some scholars find difficult to reconcile with Marlowe's "anti-intellectualism" and his catering to the prurient tastes of his Elizabethan audiences for generous displays of extreme physical violence, cruelty, and bloodshed.

United States

See also: List of playwrights from the United States; List of African-American writers; List of Jewish American playwrights

Puerto Rico

See also: List of Puerto Rican writers

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List of playwrights from the United States

List of playwrights from the United States

Notable playwrights from the United States include:

List of African-American writers

List of African-American writers

This is a list of Black American authors and writers, all of whom are considered part of African-American literature, and who already have Wikipedia articles. The list also includes non-American authors resident in the US and American writers of African descent.

List of Jewish American playwrights

List of Jewish American playwrights

This is a list of notable Jewish American playwrights. For other Jewish Americans, see Lists of Jewish Americans.

James Nelson Barker

James Nelson Barker

James Nelson Barker was an American soldier, playwright and politician. He rose to the rank of major in the Army during the War of 1812, wrote ten plays, and was mayor of Philadelphia.

John Neal (writer)

John Neal (writer)

John Neal was an American writer, critic, editor, lecturer, and activist. Considered both eccentric and influential, he delivered speeches and published essays, novels, poems, and short stories between the 1810s and 1870s in the United States and Great Britain, championing American literary nationalism and regionalism in their earliest stages. Neal advanced the development of American art, fought for women's rights, advocated the end of slavery and racial prejudice, and helped establish the American gymnastics movement.

Robert Montgomery Bird

Robert Montgomery Bird

Robert Montgomery Bird was an American novelist, playwright, and physician.

Anna Cora Mowatt

Anna Cora Mowatt

Anna Cora Mowatt Ritchie was a French-born American author, playwright, public reader, actress, and preservationist. Her best known work was the play Fashion, published in 1845. Following her critical success as a playwright, she enjoyed a successful career on stage as an actress. Her Autobiography of an Actress was published in 1853. Anna Cora Mowatt played a central role in lobbying and fundraising during the early years of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, the oldest national historic preservation organization in the United States.

Dion Boucicault

Dion Boucicault

Dionysius Lardner "Dion" Boucicault was an Irish actor and playwright famed for his melodramas. By the later part of the 19th century, Boucicault had become known on both sides of the Atlantic as one of the most successful actor-playwright-managers then in the English-speaking theatre. Although The New York Times hailed him in his obituary as "the most conspicuous English dramatist of the 19th century," he and his second wife, Agnes Robertson Boucicault, had applied for and received American citizenship in 1873.

George Aiken (playwright)

George Aiken (playwright)

George L. Aiken was a 19th-century American playwright and actor best known for writing the most popular of the numerous stage adaptations of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Augustin Daly

Augustin Daly

John Augustin Daly was one of the most influential men in American theatre during his lifetime. Drama critic, theatre manager, playwright, and adapter, he became the first recognized stage director in America. He exercised a fierce and tyrannical control over all aspects of his productions. His rules of conduct for actors and actresses imposed heavy fines for late appearances and forgotten lines and earned him the title "the autocrat of the stage." He formed a permanent company in New York and opened Daly's Theatre in New York in 1879 and a second one in London in 1893.

James A. Herne

James A. Herne

James A. Herne was an American playwright and actor. He is considered by some critics to be the "American Ibsen", and his controversial play Margaret Fleming is often credited with having begun modern drama in America. Herne was a Georgist and wrote Shore Acres to promote the political economy of Henry George.

Bronson Howard

Bronson Howard

Bronson Crocker Howard was an American dramatist.

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