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List of legendary monarchs of Ethiopia

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Menelik I, founder of the Solomonic dynasty according to Ethiopian tradition.
Menelik I, founder of the Solomonic dynasty according to Ethiopian tradition.

This is a list of legendary monarchs of Ethiopia, based on a king list provided by Ethiopian prince regent Tafari Makonnen (later known as Emperor Haile Selassie), with reference to multiple Ethiopian traditions and legends. Other Ethiopian king lists are discussed in the Other King Lists section.

Over Ethiopia's long history, multiple kingdoms and states have ruled, with one of the earliest known being Dʿmt from the 10th century BC. The last royal dynasty of Ethiopia was the Solomonic dynasty, who ruled until 1975 when the monarchy was abolished. Numerous king lists are in existence which chronicle the lineage of kings before the Solomonic dynasty, but often with noticeable disagreements between them. An official chronicle of the kings of Ethiopia from the royal family was published in Charles Fernand Rey's book In the Country of the Blue Nile in 1927, and is the longest Ethiopian king list published in the Western world. However, there is considerable debate on the historicity of this king list, in particular from archeologists such as E. A. Wallis Budge. Many of the claimed ancient monarchs of Ethiopia, such as Ethiopis, Angabo, Makeda, Menelik I and Abreha and Atsbeha are not archeologically attested as of yet, and information on them largely comes from oral traditions within Ethiopia or from texts written centuries after they are claimed to have lived.

Discover more about List of legendary monarchs of Ethiopia related topics

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east and northeast, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west, and Sudan to the northwest. Ethiopia has a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres. As of 2022, it is home to around 113.5 million inhabitants, making it the 13th-most populous country in the world and the 2nd-most populous in Africa after Nigeria. The national capital and largest city, Addis Ababa, lies several kilometres west of the East African Rift that splits the country into the African and Somali tectonic plates.

Haile Selassie

Haile Selassie

Haile Selassie I was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. He rose to power as Regent Plenipotentiary of Ethiopia (Enderase) for Empress Zewditu from 1916. Haile Selassie is widely considered a defining figure in modern Ethiopian history, and the key figure of Rastafari, a religious movement in Jamaica that emerged shortly after he became emperor in the 1930s. He was a member of the Solomonic dynasty, which claims to trace lineage to Emperor Menelik I, believed to be the son of King Solomon and Makeda the Queen of Sheba.

Dʿmt

Dʿmt

D mt was a kingdom located in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia that existed between the 10th and 5th centuries BC. Few inscriptions by or about this kingdom survive and very little archaeological work has taken place. As a result, it is not known whether Dʿmt ended as a civilization before the Kingdom of Aksum's early stages, evolved into the Aksumite state, or was one of the smaller states united in the Kingdom of Aksum possibly around the beginning of the 1st century.

Solomonic dynasty

Solomonic dynasty

The Solomonic dynasty, also known as the House of Solomon, was the ruling dynasty of the Ethiopian Empire formed in the thirteenth century. Its members claim lineal descent from the biblical King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Tradition asserts that the queen gave birth to Menelik I after her Biblically described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty was overthrown by Yekuno Amlak, who claimed descent from Solomon and founded the Solomonic era of Ethiopia. The dynasty lasted until 1974, ended by a coup d'état and the deposition of Haile Selassie, who was a Solomonic prince through his grandmother.

E. A. Wallis Budge

E. A. Wallis Budge

Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East. He made numerous trips to Egypt and the Sudan on behalf of the British Museum to buy antiquities, and helped it build its collection of cuneiform tablets, manuscripts, and papyri. He published many books on Egyptology, helping to bring the findings to larger audiences. In 1920, he was knighted for his service to Egyptology and the British Museum.

Ethiopis

Ethiopis

Ethiopis or Etiyopus is the name of a legendary king from Ethiopian tradition who was supposedly the inspiration behind the name of the country.

Queen of Sheba

Queen of Sheba

The Queen of Sheba is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. In the original story, she brings a caravan of valuable gifts for the Israelite King Solomon. This account has undergone extensive Jewish, Islamic, Yemenite and Ethiopian elaborations, and it has become the subject of one of the most widespread and fertile cycles of legends in the Middle East.

Menelik I

Menelik I

Menelik I was the claimed first Emperor of Ethiopia. According to Kebra Nagast, a 14th-century national epic, in the 10th century BC he is said to have inaugurated the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia, so named because Menelik I was the son of the biblical King Solomon of ancient Israel and of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba.

Abreha and Atsbeha

Abreha and Atsbeha

Abreha and Atsbeha were brothers and Aksumite rulers who were said to have adopted Christianity in the 4th-century, although this claim is dubious. The story of Abreha and Atsbeha is lifted from that of the historical personages King Ezana and his brother Saizana. Stuart Munro-Hay has also speculated that the myth may have emerged from a confusion with two other religious Aksumite figures: Kaleb of Axum, whose throne name was Ella Atsbeha, and Abraha, an Aksumite general who promoted Christianity in Yemen.

Tradition

Depiction of the Queen of Sheba, named Makeda in Ethiopian tradtion, from the medieval manuscript "Bellafortis" by Conrad Kyeser (c. 1405).
Depiction of the Queen of Sheba, named Makeda in Ethiopian tradtion, from the medieval manuscript "Bellafortis" by Conrad Kyeser (c. 1405).

Ethiopian traditions record a range of different monarchs from earlier times whose existence has not been verified by modern-day archeology. Their stories and legends may have elements of truth but it is unclear to what extent this is the case. Numerous king lists have been recorded either on manuscripts or via oral tradition. However, surviving information on the kings prior to the reign of emperor Yekuno Amlak (1270–1285) is often scattered, incomplete or contradictory.[1][2] The king lists that do refer to pre-1270 Ethiopia rarely match completely with one another.[3] This variation is likely because the lists were compiled over a long time period across several different monasteries.[4]

Notable legendary Ethiopian monarchs include:

  • Arwe – Mythical serpent king who ruled for 400 years before being killed by the father of the Queen of Sheba.
  • Ethiopis – A king who was said to have inspired the name of the country of Ethiopia.
  • Makeda – The biblical queen of Sheba who, according to Ethiopian tradition, is believed to be the mother of Menelik I.
  • Menelik I – Son of the queen of Sheba and king Solomon of Israel and founder of the Solomonic dynasty in the 10th century BC. Much information on this king comes from the 14th century text Kebra Nagast, however he remains historically unverified. In reality, the Solomonic dynasty began in 1270 AD with the reign of Yekuno Amlak.
  • Abreha and Atsbeha – Two brothers who supposedly brought Christianity to Ethiopia, however their existence is doubted by some historians. Some scholars believe that the story of Abreha and Atsbeha may in fact be based on the Axumite kings Ezana and Saizana.[5]
  • Gudit – Legendary queen who supposedly laid waste to the Kingdom of Axum. Her deeds are recorded in oral tradition, but the various stories about her occasionally have differing or conflicting details.

This article will be mostly focusing on a 1922 king list written by the then Prince Regent of Ethiopia Tafari Makannon (the future emperor Haile Selassie) and published in 1927.[6] It is the only known king list that attempts to provide a timeline of Ethiopian monarchs from the 46th century B.C. up to modern times without any gaps.[7] There are however different versions that exist of this king list, and it is not clear when the first version was written. Ethiopian foreign minister Heruy Wolde Selassie is a contender for the author of the king list.[8] His book Wazema contains a version of the list that begins later, in 2545 B.C., instead of 4530 B.C. like on Tafari's list.[9] Aleka Taye Gabra Mariam also wrote a variation of this king list which has some slight differences in names and reign dates.[10] These variations will be mentioned and discussed in this article.

The 1922 king list will be referred to as "Tafari's list" in this article in order to differentiate it from other versions. However, Tafari himself did not claim authorship and instead stated that he had made a copy of an already existing list.[11]

It is also important to note that this king list contains a great deal of conflation between the history of modern-day Ethiopia and Aethiopia, a term used in ancient times and in some Biblical translations to refer to a generalised region south of Egypt, most commonly in reference to the Kingdom of Kush in modern-day Sudan. As a result, many parts of this article will deal with the history of ancient Sudan and how this became interwoven into the history of the Kingdom of Axum, Abyssinia (which includes modern-day Eritrea) and the modern-day state of Ethiopia.

Discover more about Tradition related topics

Queen of Sheba

Queen of Sheba

The Queen of Sheba is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. In the original story, she brings a caravan of valuable gifts for the Israelite King Solomon. This account has undergone extensive Jewish, Islamic, Yemenite and Ethiopian elaborations, and it has become the subject of one of the most widespread and fertile cycles of legends in the Middle East.

Manuscript

Manuscript

A manuscript was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten – as opposed to mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way. More recently, the term has come to be understood to further include any written, typed, or word-processed copy of an author's work, as distinguished from the rendition as a printed version of the same. Before the arrival of printing, all documents and books were manuscripts. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, maps, music notation, explanatory figures, or illustrations.

Oral tradition

Oral tradition

Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication wherein knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved, and transmitted orally from one generation to another. The transmission is through speech or song and may include folktales, ballads, chants, prose or poetry. In this way, it is possible for a society to transmit oral history, oral literature, oral law and other knowledge across generations without a writing system, or in parallel to a writing system. Religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Catholicism, and Jainism, for example, have used an oral tradition, in parallel to a writing system, to transmit their canonical scriptures, rituals, hymns and mythologies from one generation to the next.

Arwe

Arwe

Arwe, also known as Wainaba, in Ethiopian mythology, is a serpent-king who rules for four hundred years before being destroyed by the founder of the Solomonic dynasty. His story comes in a number of versions, all of which have him as a tyrannical ruler who demands sacrifice. The myth is part of a wider tradition of serpent- or dragon-kings, such as the Babylonian dragon.

Ethiopis

Ethiopis

Ethiopis or Etiyopus is the name of a legendary king from Ethiopian tradition who was supposedly the inspiration behind the name of the country.

Menelik I

Menelik I

Menelik I was the claimed first Emperor of Ethiopia. According to Kebra Nagast, a 14th-century national epic, in the 10th century BC he is said to have inaugurated the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia, so named because Menelik I was the son of the biblical King Solomon of ancient Israel and of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba.

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

The United Monarchy is a political entity described in the deuteronomistic history of the Hebrew Bible as, under the reigns of Saul, David, and Solomon, encompassing the territories of both the later Kingdom of Judah and Samarian Kingdom of Israel. Whether the United Monarchy actually existed is a matter of ongoing academic debate, and scholars remain divided between those who support the historicity of the biblical narrative, those who doubt or dismiss it, and those who support the kingdom's theoretical existence while maintaining that the biblical narrative is exaggerated. Proponents of the kingdom's existence traditionally date it to between c. 1047 BCE and c. 930 BCE.

Kebra Nagast

Kebra Nagast

The Kebra Nagast, var. Kebra Negast, or The Glory of the Kings, is a 14th-century national epic from Ethiopia, written in Ge'ez by Nebure Id Ishaq of Axum, by the office of Abuna Abba Giyorgis and at the command of the governor of Enderta Ya'ibika Igzi'. The text, in its existing form, is at least 700 years old and although clearly legendary is considered by many Ethiopian Christians to be a historically reliable work. It is considered to hold the genealogy of the Solomonic dynasty, which followed the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

Abreha and Atsbeha

Abreha and Atsbeha

Abreha and Atsbeha were brothers and Aksumite rulers who were said to have adopted Christianity in the 4th-century, although this claim is dubious. The story of Abreha and Atsbeha is lifted from that of the historical personages King Ezana and his brother Saizana. Stuart Munro-Hay has also speculated that the myth may have emerged from a confusion with two other religious Aksumite figures: Kaleb of Axum, whose throne name was Ella Atsbeha, and Abraha, an Aksumite general who promoted Christianity in Yemen.

Christianity

Christianity

Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. It is the world's largest and most widespread religion with roughly 2.4 billion followers representing one-third of the global population. Its adherents, known as Christians, are estimated to make up a majority of the population in 157 countries and territories, and believe that Jesus is the Son of God, whose coming as the messiah was prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and chronicled in the New Testament.

Ezana of Axum

Ezana of Axum

Ezana was ruler of the Kingdom of Axum, an ancient kingdom located in what is now Eritrea and Ethiopia.. He himself employed the style "king of Saba and Salhen, Himyar and Dhu-Raydan". Tradition states that ‘Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida (Ousanas) as king while still a child but his mother, Sofya then served as regent until he came of age. He conquered the Kingdom of Kush around the year 350 AD.

Gudit

Gudit

Gudit is the Classical Ethiopic name for a personage also known as Yodit in Tigrinya, and Amharic, but also Isato in Amharic and Ga'wa in Ţilţal. The personage behind these various alternative names is portrayed as a powerful female ruler, probably identical to Māsobā Wārq, the daughter of the last Aksumite king, Dil Na'ad, mentioned in an early Arabic source. She is said to have been responsible for laying waste the Kingdom of Aksum and its countryside, and the destruction of its churches and monuments. If she is the same as the Tirda' Gābāz in other Ethiopian sources, she is also said to have attempted to exterminate the members of the ruling dynasty. The deeds attributed to her are recorded in oral tradition and in a variety of historical narratives.

Tafari Makonnen's King List

Background

Tafari Makonnen in 1923.
Tafari Makonnen in 1923.

Charles Fernand Rey's 1927 book In the Country of the Blue Nile included a 13-page appendix with a list of Ethiopian kings written by the Prince Regent Tafari Makonnen, who later became the emperor of Ethiopia in 1930.[6] Tafari's list stretches back to 4530 BC and ends in 1779 AD, with dates following the Ethiopian Calendar.[12] Tafari's cover letter was written in the town of Addis Ababa on the 11th day of Sane, 1914 (Ethiopian Calendar), which was 19 June 1922 on the Gregorian Calendar according to Rey.[11] Rey himself was awarded Commander of the Order of the Star of Ethiopia by Tafari.[13]

The goal of Tafari's list was to showcase the immense longevity of the Ethiopian monarchy. The list does this by providing precise dates over 6,300 years and drawing upon various historical traditions from both within Ethiopia and outside of Ethiopia (see "Historicity" section below).

The king list includes 312 monarchs divided into eight dynasties:

  • Tribe of Aram (4530–3244 BC) (21 monarchs)
  • Tribe of Kam (2713–1985 BC) (24 monarchs)
  • Agdazyan dynasty (1985–982 BC) (52 monarchs)
  • Dynasty of Menelik I (982 BC–493 AD) (132 monarchs)
  • Dynasty of Kaleb (493–920) (27 monarchs)
  • Zagwe dynasty (920–1253) (11 monarchs)
  • Solomonic dynasty (1253–1555) (26 monarchs) and its Gondarian branch (1555–1779) (18 monarchs)

In addition to the above, there is an "Israelitish" dynasty with 8 unnumbered kings from the time of Zagwe rule which did not ascend to the throne of Ethiopia.

The first three dynasties are likely legendary and take various elements from the Bible, as well as Egyptian, Nubian, Greek, Coptic and Arab sources. The monarchs of the Menelik and Kaleb dynasties appear on various other king lists, but these lists often contradict one another and many of the kings themselves have not been archeologically verified, though some of the later kings on Tafari's list are confirmed by Aksumite coinage. Many of the historically verified rulers of the Agdazyan and Menelik dynasties did not rule over Ethiopia but rather over Egypt and/or Nubia. It is only from the dynasty of Kaleb onwards that the monarchs are certainly Ethiopian or Aksumite in origin. The Zagwe and Solomonic dynasties are both historically verified, though only the Solomonic line has a secure dating of 1270 to 1975, which somewhat contradicts Tafari's list.

The following table outlines the origins of the dynasties of the 1922 king list:

# Dynasty Cultural Sources
1 Ori Egyptian (Coptic, Islamic and Pharaonic), Biblical
2 Kam Biblical, Greek, Egyptian (Pharaonic)
3 Agdazyan Biblical, Greek, Egyptian (Pharaonic), Nubian, Native Ethiopian
4 Menelik (B.C. era) Native Ethiopian, Nubian, Egyptian (Pharaonic), Biblical
5 Menelik (A.D. pre-Christian era) Native Ethiopian, Nubian, Biblical
6 Menelik (Christian era) Native Ethiopian
7 Kaleb Native Ethiopian
8 Zagwe Native Ethiopian
9 Solomonic Native Ethiopian
10 Gondar Native Ethiopian

Because of the length of the Menelik dynasty, Tafari's king list breaks up the line of monarchs into three sub-sections, concerning the time periods 982 BC–9 AD (the monarchs who reigned before the birth of Jesus Christ), 9–306 AD (Pre-Christian monarchs who reigned after the birth of Christ) and 306–493 AD (Monarchs of this line who were Christian themselves). Tafari's list names the kings from Kaleb to Dil Na'od as a separate dynasty, however other Ethiopian king lists do not make the same distinction and the Solomonic dynasty even claimed descent from Menelik I through Dil Na'od.

Each monarch has their respective reign dates and number of years listed. Two columns of reign dates were used in the list. One column uses dates according to the Ethiopian calendar from 4530 BC to 1779 AD. The other column lists the "Year of the World", placing the creation of the world in 5500 BC. Other Ethiopian texts and documents have also placed a similar date for the creation of the world, such as a manuscript in which the year 7260 was equivalent to the Gregorian date 1768, placing the creation of the world at 5492 BC.[14] Another manuscript in dated to the year 7276 A.M. and is equivalent to 1784 A.D., which would place the beginning of the world in 5492 B.C. as well.[15] Considering that the Ethiopian calendar is roughly 7 or 8 years behind the Gregorian calendar, this would match very closely with the date given on Tafari's list of 5500 B.C. (Ethiopian calendar). E. A. Wallis Budge noted that the Abyssinians/Ethiopians believed that the world was created "at the autumnal equinox 5500 years before the birth of Christ" and had previously used this as their main dating system.[16] The dating of 5500 BC as the creation of the world on this list is likely influenced by calculations from the Alexandrian and Byzantine eras which placed the world's creation in 5493 BC and 5509 BC respectively.[17]

Response to the King List

E. A. Wallis Budge in 1920.
E. A. Wallis Budge in 1920.

Egyptologist E. A. Wallis Budge was dismissive of the claims of great antiquity made by the Abyssinians, whom he described as having a "passionate desire to be considered a very ancient nation", which has been aided by the "vivid imagination of their scribes" who borrowed traditions from the Semites (such as Yamanites, Himyarites and Hebrews) and modified them to "suit [their] aspirations".[18] He noted the lack of pre-Christian king lists and believed that there was no 'kingdom' of Abyssinia/Ethiopia until the time of king Zoskales.[18] Budge additionally stated that all extant manuscripts date to the 17th–19th centuries and believed that any king lists found in them originated from Arab and Coptic writers.[1] Budge felt that Tafari's king list "proves" that "almost all kings of Abyssinia were of Asiatic origin" and descended from "Southern or Northern Semites" before the reign of Yekuno Amlak.[19] However, native Ethiopian rule before Yekuno Amlak is evidenced by the kingdoms of D'mt and Aksum, as well as by the rule of the Zagwe dynasty.

Budge divided Abyssinian/Ethiopian history into the following sections:[20]

  1. 5500–1000 B.C. (Mythical)
  2. 1000–Nativity of Jesus (Traditional)
  3. Nativity–1268 A.D. (Semi-historical)
  4. 1268–present (Historical)

With the above groupings, it is clear that Budge does not consider any of the kings of Tafari's list who reigned from 4530 to 1013 B.C. (i.e. before the reign of Makeda) to be historically verifiable.

The Geographical Journal reviewed In the Country of the Blue Nile in 1928, and noted the king list, which contained "many more names [...] than in previously published lists" and was "evidently a careful compilation" which helps to "clear up the tangled skein of Ethiopian history".[21] However, the reviewer did also notice that it "[contained] discrepancies" which Rey "makes no attempt to clear up".[21] The reviewer points to how king Dil Na'od is said to have reigned for 10 years from 910 to 920 A.D., yet James Bruce noted that the deposition of this dynasty occurred in 960 A.D., 40 years later.[21] The reviewer does admit, however, that Henry Salt's dating of this event to 925 A.D. may have had "more reason" to it compared to Bruce's dating, considering that Salt's dating is seemingly backed up by Tafari's king list.[21]

Historian Manfred Kropp described the king list as an artfully woven document developed as a rational and scientific attempt by an educated Ethiopian from the early 20th century to reconcile historical knowledge of Ethiopia.[22] Kropp noted that king list has often been viewed by historians as little more than an example of a vague notion of historical tradition in north-east Africa.[22] However he did also note that the working methods and sources used by the author of the king list remain unclear.[22] Kropp further stated that despite some rulers' names having astonishing similarities to those of Egyptian and Meroitic rulers, there has been little attempt to critically examine the king list in relation to other Ethiopian sources.[23]

Kropp further noted that Tafari's king list was the first Ethiopian king that attempted to provide the names of kings from the 970th year of the world's creation onwards without any chronological gaps.[7] In particular, it was the first Ethiopian king list to consistently fill in all dates from the time of Solomon to the Zagwe dynasty.[7] Kropp felt that the king list was a result of incorporating non-native traditions of Ethiopia into the native Ethiopian history.[7]

Historicity and Sources

Coin of king Endubis.
Coin of king Endubis.

The king list includes a mixture of legendary and historically verifiable rulers. The earliest monarchs are likely legendary, particularly one king named Hogeb who is listed as having a 100-year reign. Some rulers are of ancient Egyptian, ancient Nubian, ancient Greek, Biblical, Coptic and Arab origin. Many kings from the reigns of Makeda and Menelik I onwards appear to be verified through their appearances on other existing king lists from Ethiopia itself. However, these king lists are not always supported by archeological evidence. Aksumite kings from approximately the third century onwards minted coins, a practice that may have begun either with the reign of Endubis or a short time before and continued until the 7th century. These coins help to prove the historicity of some kings on Tafari's list, but there are also many kings named on these coins who do not appear on Tafari's list. Likewise, there are numerous kings on Tafari's list who allegedly reigned during the Aksumite period that are otherwise unattested in the archeological record beyond the king lists that were written centuries after the fall of the kingdom of Aksum. While there are undoubtedly traces of historical fact on Tafari's king list, it is only from the Zagwe dynasty onwards that the names and order of the kings match the opinion of historians and archeologists who study Ethiopia. Although even the Zagwe dynasty has differing traditions on the kings (see Alternate Zagwe dynasty lists).

Heruy Wolde Selassie and Wazema

Heruy Wolde Selassie in a photograph taken prior to 1939.
Heruy Wolde Selassie in a photograph taken prior to 1939.

Historian Manfred Kropp believed the author of the king list was Ethiopian foreign minister Heruy Wolde Selassie (1878–1938).[8] Selassie was later foreign minister to Haile Selassie and was a philosopher and historian, as well as being able to master several European languages.[8] He had previously served as secretary to Menelik II.[8] Kropp noted that Selassie's historical sources include the Bible, Christian Arab writers Jirjis al-Makin Ibn al-'Amid and Ibn al-Rāhib, and Christian traveler and writer Sextus Julius Africanus.[24] Kropp argued that Selassie was one of a number of Ethiopian writers who sought to synchronize Ethiopian history with the wider Christian-Oriental histories.[24] This was aided by the translation of Arabic texts in the 17th century.[24] Kropp also felt that the developing field of Egyptology influenced Selassie's writings, particularly from Eduard Meyer, Gaston Maspero and Alexandre Moret, whose works were published in French in Addis Ababa in the early 20th century.[24] Manfred Kropp additionally noted the existence of multiple versions of the king list, which suggest that Selassie grew increasingly critical of the sources he used for the first version of the list in 1922.[24] Kropp believed that Selassie was also assisted by French missionaries and the works they held in their libraries.[22]

Selassie wrote a book called Wazema which contained a variation of the king list.[9] Kropp stated that there were three different versions of the king list published in the works of Heruy Wolde Selassie.[9] Selassie's king list omits the first dynasty of Tafari's list – the so-called "Tribe of Ori or Aram" – and also the first three rulers of the second dynasty, instead beginning in 2545 B.C. with king Sebtah.[9] Selassie stated that he used European literature amongst his sources, including James Bruce's Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile.[9]

Manfred Kropp noted one important source for the information in Wazema. Selassie himself told the reader that if they wish to find out about more about Joktan, the supposed founder of the Agazyan dynasty, they could consult page 237 of a book by "Moraya".[25] At first Kropp thought this was referring to Alexandre Moret,[25] but it was later made clear that Selassie's king list had been inspired by a book called Histoire de l'Éthiopie (Nubie et Abyssinie) by Louis J. Morié, published in 1904.[26]

Louis J. Morié's Histoire de l'Éthiopie

Louis J. Morié was a French historian who wrote a history of Ethiopia in the early 20th century. The book, titled Histoire de l'Éthiopie (Nubie et Abyssinie), was published in 1904 and was the first volume of a series on the history of Africa.[27] Historian Manfred Kropp identified this book as a key source in the creation of the Ethiopian king list that was copied by Tafari Makannon in 1922 and published in Charles F. Rey's book In the Country of the Blue Nile in 1927.[26] Kropp provided examples from Morie's text, specifically page 237 which provides information on Piori I (no. 46 on the king list) and pages 304–305 which provide information on the High Priests of Amun that appear on the Ethiopian king list, including the additional "Pinedjem" whose existence was an error of early Egyptology.[26] Kropp described the discovery of the king list's source as exciting but mixed with some "bitterness" as Morié's book is more imaginative than scientific in its approach to Ethiopian history.[26] Kropp blamed Selassie's European friends and contemporaries for the influence of Morié's book on Selassie's writing of Ethiopian history.[26]

Louis J. Morié believed that it was during the reign of an Egyptian pharaoh, either Pepi I or Pepi II, that a colony of Sabaeans came to Aethiopia.[28] This may have been the inspiration behind the narrative of the Ag'azyan dynasty on the 1922 king list, in which a Sabaean dynasty arrived in Ethiopia and became its rulers. Morié's book is also possibly the inspiration behind the inclusion of the "Tribe of Ori or Aram" on the 1922 king list, which was very similar to the legendary "Soleyman" dynasty from Coptic and Arabic folklore of Egypt.[29] While Selassie's original king list did not include this dynasty, Morié's book may have nonetheless been retained and used by another Ethiopian writer who expanded the king list.

Morié's book displays his desire to hold on to religion and Biblical narratives in a world that was increasingly looking towards science. He showed concern with the possibility of abandoning religion, which would result in the "civilized" peoples of the world to descend down the moral scale.[30] Morié felt that it was possible for science and religion to be in agreement.[31] He described Atheism as one of the greatest scourges of nations and a cause of moral and political decadence.[32] Because of his anxieties of the decline of religion, Morié sought to base his historical narrative around the Biblical timeline. One result of this is that his dating of Egyptian history is vastly different to what is commonly accepted in mainstream Egyptology today, such as his dating of the reign of Narmer/Menes to 5004 B.C. compared to modern day estimate of c. 3150 to 3000 B.C.[33] Morié also described the Book of Genesis as the best source to consult on the most remote parts of human history.[34]

Morié believed that the "Ethiopian state of Meroe" was the oldest empire of the post-Flood world, having been founded by Cush of the Bible, and went on to birth the kingdoms of Egypt, Uruk, Babylon, Assyria and Abyssinia.[35] Morié followed the Biblical tradition by crediting Nimrod, a son of Cush, with founding Uruk and Babylon, and crediting Mizraim, a son of Ham, with founding Egypt.[31] He additionally identified Mizraim with the Egyptian god Osiris, Ham with Amun and Cush with Khonsu.[36] Morié defined the history of "Ethiopia" as divided into two parts; Ancient Nubia and Christian Abyssinia,[37] and defined "Ethiopians" as the Nubian and Abyssinian peoples.[38]

The following collapsible table includes a list of possible sources for the names and information on the 1922 Ethiopian king list:

Monarch Reference Ref.
Ori or Aram (no. 1) The so-called "Soleyman" dynasty from Coptic and Arabic folklore that ruled over Egypt in the Antediluvian era. The order is the same as recorded on the 1922 Ethiopian king list. The majority of the names also match, though some were altered for the Ethiopian king list ("Zeyn al-Zaman" to "Zeenabzamin", "Riyan" to "Elaryan", "Dalukah" to "Eylouka", "Sahalok" to "Saloug", "Scharid" to "Kharid" and "Malinos" to "Milanos"). [29]
Gariak I (no. 2)
Gannkam (no. 3)
Borsa (no. 4)
Gariak II (no. 5)
Djan I (no. 6)
Djan II (no. 7)
Zeenabzamin (no. 9)
Sahlan (no. 10)
Elaryan (no. 11)
Nimroud (no. 12)
Eylouka (no. 13)
Saloug (no. 14)
Kharid (no. 15)
Hogeb (no. 16)
Makaws (no. 17)
Affar (no. 19)
Milanos (no. 20)
Soliman Tehagui (no. 21)
Kam (no. 22) Morié refers to Ham as "Kham" and dates his reign to 5880–5802 B.C. (78 years), the same length of time that Kam has on the 1922 Ethiopian king list, though with much later dates used. [39]
Habassi (no. 24) Morié names a king called "Habesch" who was the father of the Abyssinians.[40] He later claimed that Habesch was a son of Cush who ruled in Axum while the other sons of Cush ruled different regions.[41] [40][41]
Nehasset Nais (no. 29) Morié mentioned a story of a Nubian courtesan named "Nahaset Nais" ("Nahaset the black") who drowned all her lovers in the Red Sea until she suffered the same fate at the hands of the Egyptian king "Hor-ka-am" (Horus), who is placed directly after Nehasset Nais on the 1922 Ethiopian king list. [41]
Horkam (no. 30) An alternate name for the Egyptian god Horus used by Morié. He is identified by Morié with Raamah, a son of Cush. Morié also claims that Horkam/Raamah ruled over a coastal region of Ethiopia. [41]
Saba I (no. 31) Morié named Seba, son of Cush, as "Sheba I". [41]
Manturay (no. 38) Morié named "Mentou-Rai" as a Meroitic king and identified him with the Iranian god Mithra or Mithras. Morié equated Mithras with the Egyptian god Mentu (or "Mentou-Ra") [42]
Rakhu (no. 39) Morié named "Ra-khou" as a Meroitic king who succeeded "Mentou-Rai" and identified him with Phlegyas. [42]
Sabe I (no. 40) Morié named this king as the successor to Manturay and Rakhu and identified him with Cepheus. [42]
Sousel Atozanis (no. 42) Morié used the name "Attozanes" as one of a number of alternate names for the Kushite king Aktisanes. [43][44]
Ramenpahte (no. 44) Morié claimed that this was the name of an Ethiopian nobleman who was supposed to marry "Béroua" (or Meroe), a daughter of "Ba-en-Khons"/Cambyses, but she was taken by the king to be his own wife. [45]
Piori I (no. 46) Morié named "Poeri I" as a ruler of Ethiopia at some point between 3817 and 1800 B.C., who reigned during a time when Rama (a Hindu god that Morié claimed was originally Maharaja of Magadha and Ayodhya) was able to conquer the whole of India, Ceylon and Arabia before arriving in Egypt and fought against the Pharaoh, who was killed in the fighting. The Pharaoh's successor then became a tributary to Rama and the king of Ethiopia, "Poeri", followed his example without engaging in battle with Rama. The empire of Rama did not survive its founder.

Morié claimed that a second invasion, that of the Hyksos, led to the king of Aethiopia having to recognize their suzerainty in 2000 B.C. and this lasted throughout the duration of Hyksos rule and was directly followed by rule over Aethiopia by the Egyptian Eighteenth dynasty. Morié claimed that that Abyssinians called the Hyksos "Agaazi", a name which supposedly inspired the name of the Ge'ez language. However, Morié later claimed that some Hyksos had remained in Aethiopia and were ancestors of the Tigrayian people in modern-day Ethiopia.[46] While the king of Ethiopia at this time is not named, the decision to date the beginning of Hyksos rule to 2000 B.C. may have inspired the author of the 1922 Ethiopian king list to use this date as the start of Piori I's reign.
[47]
Akbunas Saba II (no. 47) Morié named Sheba, son of Raamah, as "Sheba II" and specifically notes that he ruled a part of Ethiopia. Morié also claimed that Sheba II built the city of "Sheba" in Ethiopia, named after himself, and also built "Hasabo" (the "City of the South") which later became Meroe. This narrative may be partially based on Josephus's text Antiquities of the Jews, in which he described Sheba as a walled city in Aethiopia that was renamed Meroe by Cambyses II.[48]

The name "Akbunas" may be based on "Ba-en-Khons" ("Soul of Khons"), a named used by Morié for a king of Aethiopia called Cambyses.[45] Morié claimed that Cambyses/Ba-en-Khons chose one of his youngest daughters as his wife, in a similar fashion to pharaoh Ramesses II.[45] This woman was named "Béroua" (or Meroe) and after her death, Cambyses/Ba-en-Khons renamed Saba, the capital of Aethiopia, to Meroe in her honour.[45] This narrative was likely also inspired by Josephus's writings on Meroe and Cambyses II. Despite the obvious similarity with the name of the famous Achaemenid emperor Cambyses II, Morié insisted that the name of Cambyses/Ba-en-Khons should not be confused with the Persian conquerer with this name. He believed that Cambyses/"Be-en-Khons" had been the inspiration behind the name of the Kambaata people of modern-day Ethiopia.[49] Morié additionially claimed that "Ba-en-Khons"/Cambyses had two other wives, one named "Doud-ew-ra" ("Daughter of Greatness") and the other being a daughter of "Har-hat", and also had 14 children, 9 sons and 5 daughters.[49]

Another potential source for the name "Akbunas" is "Ankhnas", a supposedly "little-known" ruler of Aethiopia named by Morié who believed the name to be translated into Greek as Oceanus.[46] King "Akhnas" reigned for 29 years (1914–1885 B.C.) and was directly succeeded by "Nekhti I", who may be identified with Nakehte Kalnis, the next king on the Ethiopian king list after Akbunas Saba.[46]

While Morié considered "Sheba II" and "Ba-en-Khons" to be two separate individuals, the 1922 king list combines them into one king.
[50]
Nakehte Kalnis (no. 48) Morié names a king of Ethiopia called "Nyktée, of the Nekhti".[51] He could be referring to Nycteus, a king of Thebes in Greece, although the name "Thebes" was also used to refer to a place in Upper Egypt.

Morié later mentions a king named "Nekhti I" who directly succeeds "Ankhnas" and reigned for 55 years (1885–1830 B.C.), mirroring the succession of Akbunas Saba II by Nakehte Kalnis on the 1922 Ethiopian king list.[46] The reign length of 55 years seems to have been used for king Aknas/Akbunas Saba II on the 1922 king list instead. Morié appears to identify "Nekhti I" as the husband of Amalthea, though does not give an explanation why.[46]
[51][46]
Kasiyope (no. 49) Cassiopeia or "Kassiopée" is named as a monarch of Ethiopia and is, for unclear reasons, identified with the priest Khonsuemheb from the ancient Egyptian ghost story "Khonsuemheb and the Ghost".[51] Morié also uses the name "Kassiopée I" to refer to an otherwise unnamed queen of Ethiopia who plotted with Set the assassination of Osiris according to one version of the Osiris myth as recounted by Plutarch.[52] [51]
Sabe II (no. 50) Morié named king "Sebi II (Képhée)", who reigned for 15 years (1830–1815 B.C.), as the successor of "Nekhti I" and husband of "Kassiopée the Elder". This is mirrored on the 1922 Ethiopian king list which names "Sabe II" as the direct successor of "Kasiyope", who succeeded "Nakehte Kalnis". The 15-year reign length of "Sebi II" is replicated on the 1922 king list for "Sabe II". However, one major difference that while Morié identified this king with Cepheus, the author of the 1922 king list instead identified the third king named Sabe as Cepheus.

Morié lists an alternate name for this king, "Sebi-Meiamoun", and stated that some people believed he was deified as the Semitic god Adrammelech. Aleka Taye called this king "Sabe II Ayibe" on his king list, possibly inspired by the name "Adrammelech" being associated with Sabe II.[10]
[46]
Etiyopus I (no. 51) Morié called this king "Atew I (Ethiops)" and named him as a son of the Roman god Vulcan, following the narrative written by Pliny the Elder.[53] Morié claimed this king ruled Aethiopia for 60 years (1760–1700 B.C.), similar to the 56-year figure used on the 1922 Ethiopian king list. Morié also claimed that a king called "Nekhti II" reigned for 55 years between "Sebi II" and "Atew I", but this king was omitted from the 1922 king list. [54]
Lakndun Nowarari (no. 52) Morié claimed that a king of Aethiopia called "Nower-Ari" was the father of Ahmose-Nefertari, wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose I. Morié additionally claimed that "Nower-Ari"'s wife was called "Ahhotep", similar to Ahmose's mother Ahhotep I, though Morié clarified that she should not be confused with Ahmose's mother. However, Ahmose-Nefertari's father was in fact the Egyptian pharaoh Seqenenre Tao.

Morié dated this king's reign to 1700–1670 B.C., which lasted 30 years. The 1922 Ethiopian king list likewise gives this king a 30-year reign.
[54]
Tutimheb (no. 53) Morié claimed that "Nower-Ari"'s successor was called "Thout-em-heb" and was defeated by Moses, who was the head of the army of pharaoh Amenemhat I. Morié also dated this king's reign to 1670–1650 B.C. (20 years). This 20-year reign length was also used in the 1922 Ethiopian king list, although the actual dates were one century earlier than Morié's dates. [55]
Her Hator I (no. 54) Morié claimed that pharaoh Amenhotep I replaced "Thout-em-heb" with one of his astrologers named "At-Hor" (identified with Jethro, father of Zipporah and father-in-law of Moses), son of "Ra-oëri" (or "Raguel").[56] King "At-Hor" reigned for 25 years (1650–1625 B.C.) according to Morié and was succeeded by his son "Kheb-ab" (Hobab),[57] who is omitted from the 1922 Ethiopian king list.

In an earlier part of his book, Morié names Hephaestus as father of "Aethiops" (Etiyopus II is the 55th king of the 1922 Ethiopian king list).[58] It appears that this piece of information was combined with the later section on king "At-Hor" to provide the placement of king "Her Hator I" on the 1922 king list. Aleka Taye called this king "Yotor" on his version of the king list, likely based on the name "At-Hor".[10]
[56][58]
Etiyopus II (no. 55) Morié named a king called "Atew II (Ethiops)" who reigned for 2 years (1572–1570 B.C.), supposedly during the time of Thutmose III and Amenhotep II, although modern Egyptology would not consider these dates accurate for these pharaohs. According to Morié, "Atew II"'s daughter married "Danaos", nomarch of Tanis, possibly the same person as the mythical figure Danaus. Morié additionally claimed this king was succeeded by "Nekhti III" (r. 1570–1515 B.C.), although he is omitted from the 1922 Ethiopian king list.[59] [60][58]
Senuka I (no. 56) Morié gave the name "Snouka I Menken" to the Kushite king Aktisanes and stated that he dethroned the last king of the Thirteenth dynasty and founded the Fourteenth dynasty.[43] "Snouka I Menken" ruled Egypt for 13 years (from 2398 B.C. to 2385 B.C.) before being deposed and expelled by the second king of the Fourteenth dynasty, called "Hakori III" or "Akhoréos".[43] This statement was clearly inspired by a narrative told by Diodorus.[61] Morié's dating is also wildly out of sync with modern day Egyptological dating of the reigns of these pharaohs.

Later in his book, Morié mentiones another king called "Snouka II Menken" who ruled Aethiopia for 16 years (1515–1499 B.C.) and had "Aktisanès" and "Attozanès" as alternate names, like with the first king named "Snouka".[44] According to Morié's narrative, "Snouka II Menken" was also the High Priest of Amun and had support from the Egyptian people, who were revolting aginst Akhenaten and the Atenist religion at the time.[44] "Snouka II Menken" was able to defeat Akhenaten in 1512 B.C. and became ruler of Egypt until his death, afterwards allowing Egyptians to choose a native Egyptian as the next king.[44] Modern Egyptology however dates Akhenaten's reign to much later, c. 1351–1334 B.C., unlike Morié's dating.

The 1922 Ethiopian king list more closely follows the narrative of the second king named "Snouka", as his chronological placement comes after "Atew"/Etiyopus II and the 16-year reign length is similar to the 17-year reign length that appears on the 1922 list.

Aleka Taye's version of the king list calls the 56th king "Senuka Menkon".[10]
[43][44]
Bonu I (no. 57) or Bonu II (no. 70) For unclear reasons, Morié identified the Egyptian god Bennu (or "the Phoenix, Bennou") as a king of Ethiopia (i.e. Nubia).[62] It is possible that the reason why Morie names Bennu as a king is because of his belief that the name of the ancient Egyptian city of Hebenu meant "home of the phoenix".[63]

Morié names "Bennou I" as the successor to "Snouka II Menken", reigning for 8 years (1449–1491 B.C.).[64] Both the line of succession and the reign length match with what is written on the later 1922 Ethiopian king list.
[62][64]
Mumazes (no. 58) Morié claimed that "Bennou I" was succeeded by his daughter "Moumésès (Moso)", who reigned for 4 years and was said to ride a chariot dragged by bulls. Her name supposedly meant "Child of water, of the Nile". The line of succession and reign-length are both replicated on the 1922 Ethiopian king list.

This name was possibly inspired an alternate name used by Morié for Moses, "Moumësès (Moïse)".[65] Morié claimed that, according to ancient Greek scholar Alexander Polyhistor, "Moso" had apprently been a female legislator to the Jews.[66] Morié believed that there had been some confusion with accounts claiming that "Moso" was a legislator of the Jews, and other accounts claiming that Moses was a legislator for the Aethiopians.[66] He believed that it was more likely that "Moso" referred to woman ruling over Aethiopia.[66]
[66]
Aruas (no. 59) Morié claimed that Queen "Moumésès (Moso)" was succeeded by her son "Arouas", who reigned for 7 months. His name supposedly means "Precious Existence" and he allegedly has sometimes been confused with Aaron, elder brother of Moses. The 1922 Ethiopian king list replicated the name, order of succession and reign length, but changed the gender of "Arouas"/Aruas to female. [66]
Amen Asro I (no. 60) Morié claimed that "Arouas" was directly succeeded by "Amenasro I", who reigned for 17 years (1487–1470). He supposedly briefly ruled Egypt as well for 2 years (1477–1475).[67] [68]
Amen Emhat I (no. 63) The inclusion of this king on the 1922 list could be due to Morié identifying the first pharaoh of the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt as beginning an era of Egyptian conquests of Aethiopia. [69]
Protawos (no. 67) Morié mentions Proteus as a king of Egypt from Greek mythology. [70]
Konsi Hendawi (no. 69) Morié names "Gangès, a Khonsi" as a ruler of Ethiopia. He may have been referring to the Ganges river in India and possibly associated this with the Egyptian god Khonsu for unclear reasons. [51]
Sebi III (Kefe) (no. 71) Morié names Cepheus or "Képhée, of the Sebi" as a ruler of Ethiopia. [51]
Djagons (no. 72) Morié names a king of Ethiopia called "Gigon" (possibly referring to the Gigantes in Greek mythology), described as a "Se-Khons". Aleka Taye's version of the king list calls the 72nd king "Jagonis Sekones".[10] [51]
Helena (no. 76) It is possible that the name of this queen came from "Hemera", an alternate name Morié uses for Eos, wife of Tithonus. Hemera is more commonly known as a personification of day in Greek mythology but is sometimes identified with Eos. [71]
Her Hator II (no. 78) Morié names a king called "Her Hator", who he identified with the ancient Greek mythical figure Erythras for unclear reasons. Morié believed that this king was a contemporary of Esau. Even though Morié called this particular king "Her Hator I", Aleka Taye called Her Hator II "Herhator Ertas" on his king list.[10] [72]
Titon Satiyo (no. 81) Morié recorded Tithonus as one of the kings of Ethiopia and the father of Memnon, following Greek mythology. [73]
Hermantu I (no. 82) Morié names a king of Ethiopia from Greek mythology called "Emathion", described as a "Her-Mentou". [51]
Amenemhat II (no. 83) Morié claimed that Memnon from Greek mythology was an Ethiopian king named "Amenemhat". Peter Truhart also recorded this equivalence in his book Regents of Nations.[74] [73]
Konsab (no. 84) Morié mentions an individual named "Khons-ab". [75]
Herhor (no. 89) Morié divided the history of "Pagan Nubia" into three sections, the first which running from Ham to "Her-Hor". [76]
Makeda (no. 98) The reign dates of 1013–982 B.C. may have been inspired by Morie's dating of Solomon's reign to 1004–964 B.C. [77]
Aksumay Ramissu (no. 102) Morié wrote the name of Ramesses II as "Ramessou". [78]
Erda Amen Awseya (no. 112) Morié mentioned a king called "Ourd-Amen" who ruled over both Egypt and Nubia.

It is also possible that the dating of this king's reign to 681 B.C. on the 1922 Ethiopian king list may have been inspired by Morié's dating of Assyrian king Esarhaddon's reign to 680–667 BC.[79] Esarhaddon was able to rule Egypt and Morié believed that he also ruled a part of Aethiopia.[79]
[33]
Nuatmeawn (no. 114) Morié used the name "Noaut-Meiamoun" to refer to one of the Nubian Pharaohs of the Twenty-Fifth dynasty, likely Tantamani. [33]
Zaware Nebret Aspurta (no. 118) Morié used the name "Aspourta" to refer to the Kushite king Aspelta. [80]
Arkamen (no. 138) Morié claimed the Nubian monarchy was hereditary until the time of Taharqa and then became elective, only to return to hereditary succession with king "Erk-Amen I", likely referring to either Arqamani or Arakamani under the Greek name "Ergamenes". [76]
Messelne Kerarmer (no. 150) Morié refers to a number of cities in Sudan, including one named "Mesalamieh" or "Messalanieh". [81]
Akaptah Tsenfa Arad (no. 167) Morié names "Ha-ka-ptah" as a child of Zeus. [58]
Horemtaku (no. 168) Morié listed names of "kings of the Selenites", who originated from the "country of the Pygmies". One of these kings was called "Hor-em-tekhou". [82]

Aleka Taye's History of the People of Ethiopia

Aleka Taye Gabra Mariam (1861–1924) was a Protestant Ethiopian scholar, translator and teacher whose written works include books on grammar, religion and Ethiopian history.[83] Taye was sent to Germany in 1905 by Emperor Menelik II to teach Ge'ez and Amharic at the School of Oriental Studies in Berlin, and to recover some rare Ethiopian books that had been taken to Germany.[84] Taye ultimately brought back 130 books for the Emperor.[85]

Taye was ordered by Menelik II to write a complete history of Ethiopia using Ethiopian, European and Arab sources.[86] Taye's work was not published in his lifetime. His book History of the People of Ethiopia was published in Asmara in 1928 (1920 E.C.) and is believed by historiographers to be part of a larger unpublished manuscript that also dealt with the history of the world and the history of the Ethiopian kings.[86] However, the book on the Ethiopian kings was only half-printed due to the Italian Occupation of Ethiopia in 1935 and was never completed.[86] There is also some controversy over whether Taye was truly the author of this book.[86]

As Taye died in 1924, his text would have pre-dated the publication of Charles Fernand Rey's book In the Country of the Blue Nile in 1927 but it is unclear if it pre-dated the writing of Tafari's king list in 1922. It is possible that Taye's text could have influenced Tafari's list, especially as it was written for the benefit of the Ethiopian monarchy in the first place.

Taye's History of the People of Ethiopia contains a king list that matches closely with the one written by Tafari.[10] The names, order, reign lengths and dates of monarchs from the Agadazyan dynasty to the Solomonic dynasty mostly match with what is written on Tafari's list, though with some occasional differences.[10]

Other Ethiopian King Lists

Tafari ultimately did not reveal the sources of information for his king list in his brief cover letter, but there are clear references to Ethiopian tradition and many historically verified kings appearing in later portions of the list. Tafari stated that he had "taken a copy" of the list and sent it to Rey, writing in his cover letter that he would be happy to send more information on the history of Ethiopia if asked again.[11] This would suggest that the king list already existed in some form and that Tafari had simply copied down the information included, possibly from the work of Heruy Wolde Selassie or Aleka Taye mentioned above. In any case, the list was clearly intended to be a royal chronicle of the Ethiopian monarchy presented for an English-speaking and reading audience. E. A. Wallis Budge believed that Tafari's king list was likely compiled by the "most competent of scholars and scribes in Adis Ababa", though likely also contained the "considered opinions of Government officials in Abyssinia".[87]

Manfred Kropp noted that numerous king lists exist that date back to the 13th century and these are reliable documents.[23] However, for the period before this there are only legendary memories of the Axumite rulers.[2] King lists were created to provide a connection between the Solomonic dynasty and the legendary Axumite kings while skipping the Zagwe dynasty.[88] Such lists were written for the purpose of proving the legitimacy of the ruling Solomonic emperors and had information drawn from chronicles held in monasteries.[88] Kropp believed that Ethiopian king lists were intended to fill in the gaps between major events, such as the meeting of Makeda and Solomon, the arrival of Frumentius and the beginning of the Zagwe dynasty.[4] The great variation in names and order between king lists was likely because this process took place across several different monasteries and were also passed on orally.[4]

E. A. Wallis Budge felt that any written information on the period of Ethiopian history before the 13th century was "incomplete" and "untrustworthy".[1] However, he felt that this was likely because any king lists or chronological works held in Axum were likely burned or destroyed before Yekuno Amlak ascended the throne in 1270.[1] Budge noted that numerous king lists were known to exist in which the number and order of kings were rarely the same.[3] He felt that it was clear that the chronographers of Abyssinia from the 13th and 14th centuries "did not know how many kings had reigned over [their country] from the time of Makeda [...] or the exact order of succession".[3] Budge theorized that while the kings lists showed evidence that they were based on legend and tradition, some parts of the list suggested that the scribes did indeed "[have] access to chronological and historical documents of some kind", including Coptic and Arabic texts which were possibly brought over by monks fleeing Egypt and Nubia during the time of the Arab conquests.[3] Some lists began with Adam or David.[3]

European travellers James Bruce, Henry Salt and Carlo Conti Rossini all published different king lists in Europe between the late 18th and early 20th centuries.[89] The lists were written based on information gathered from local Ethiopian scribes.[90] These king lists contain a list of names from Menelik I to Dil Na'od, but both the names and order of kings only occasionally overlap between the different lists, and there are numerous kings who appear on one list but are omitted from another (see Other King Lists for further information). There are also at least two manuscripts held in the British Museum that contain differing king lists covering the same lineage of monarchs.[89] Budge theorised that the existence of multiple king lists were to due to rival claimants to the throne.[91] Tafari's king list noticeably tries to accommodate all these differing traditions by including the majority of the different kings into one longer line of succession.

Two European missionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries, Pedro Páez and Manuel de Almeida, visited Ethiopia and personally saw two different king lists on which they based their respective writings on the history of Ethiopia.[92] The manuscripts likely dated to before 1620.[92] Both Páez and de Almeida stated that the Ethiopian emperor lent them books from the church of Axum containing the king lists.[92] The king lists copied down by Páez and de Almeida include the names of several kings mentioned on Tafari's list as reigning from the 7th to the 10th centuries AD.

Manuel de Almeida read a book from a church at Axum which included a short list of kings of the Zagwe dynasty. This list states that the kings Yemrehana Krestos, Lalibela and Na'akueto La'ab all reigned for exactly 40 years each, with the last king Harbai reigning for 8 years.[93] These reign lengths match those given by Tafari, suggesting he may have used a similar source for his king list. Manuel de Almeida however stated that "those who knew the history better" said that many kings were missing from this list.[93]

A text known as the "Paris Chronicle" includes a list of kings that closely matches the order of kings numbered 247 to 256 on Tafari's list with the exception of Queen Gudit who is not mentioned on the list.[94] The chronicle dates to the eighteenth century.[92] Because the list matches so closely with Tafari's, it can be assumed that a similar text was used to draw up parts of the king list.

Unpublished sources

It is possible that Tafari's king list includes information gathered from sources that have yet to be published or are in private hands. One unpublished text, simply called the Chronicle of Ethiopia, was in the possession of Qesa Gabaz Takla Haymanot of Aksum.[95] The author of this chronicle collected information from various old chronicles from a number of different churches and monasteries, and attempted to compile the information in a "harmonic" way.[96] The chronicle covers information from the reign of Menelik I to Menelik II.[96] Some of the known information from this unpublished chronicle does support elements of Tafari's list.

Kebra Nagast

Illustration accompanying an edition of the Kebra Nagast.
Illustration accompanying an edition of the Kebra Nagast.

It is likely the author of the 1922 king list used the Kebra Nagast for information regarding the beginnings of the Solomonic dynasty. The text, also known as The Glory of the Kings, tells of how the Queen of Sheba (Makeda) met King Solomon of Israel, their son Menelik I and how the Ark of the Covenant came to Ethiopia.

The origins of the Kebra Nagast are obscure. A popular belief is that it was written in the 13th or 14th century to legitimise the ruling Solomonic dynasty.[97] However, some historians have suggested that was written in the 6th century to glorify the Axumite king Kaleb.[97] Another hypothesis is that was written before the birth of Christ.[98] The original language of the Kebra Nagast before it was translate into Ge'ez is also debated, with arguments for Arabic, Coptic or Semetic origins all being suggested.[97] Old Testament scholar David Allan Hubbard identified Patristic, Qur'anic, Rabbinical and Aporcyphal texts as sources for the Kebra Nagast.[99] The Kebra Nagast itself claims that the original text was found by the Archbishop of Rome (i.e. Constantinople) in the Church of Saint Sophia and that he read the manuscript claimed the world belonged to the Emperor of Rome and the Emperor of Ethiopia.[100]

Illustration accompanying an edition of the Kebra Nagast.
Illustration accompanying an edition of the Kebra Nagast.

The colophon of the Kebra Nagast claims that the text was translated from Arabic in the 14th century during the reign of Amda Seyon I (r. 1314–1344).[98] However, some historians have been suspicious of this statement and have suggested that the authors of the original text itself were Ethiopian scribes.[98] Historian Stuart Munro-Hay stated that there is no record of Ethiopian monarchs claiming descent from Solomon before the 13th century AD.[98]

Historian Gizachew Tiruneh felt that it was most likely that the text was written in the 6th century and was written by Monophysite Christians in Ethiopia.[99] He noted that the Solomonic dynasty had been well established by the 14th century and felt that it was unlikely they would need to be legitimised by this period.[101] Tiruneh also noted that the Kebra Nagast ends with a story that took place in c. 525 AD, when Kaleb of Axum defeated the Jewish king in south Arabia.[101] He also pointed out there was no mention of Islam in the text, despite Muslim incursions into Ethiopia and its neighbours having taken place by this time.[101] Tiruneh further noted that the story of Menelik, son of Makeda and Solomon, was known as far back as the 10th century A.D. in the Alexandrian Church.[101]

Biblical influences

The Queen of Sheba meets King Solomon of Israel, from an illustration accompanying a copy of the Kebra Nagast.
The Queen of Sheba meets King Solomon of Israel, from an illustration accompanying a copy of the Kebra Nagast.

Various Biblical figures are included in this king list. Three of Noah's descendants are named as founders of the first three dynasties; Aram, Ham and Joktan. Gether, son of Aram, and Cush, son of Ham, are both also included as kings on this list. Descendants of Cush named Sabtah, Seba and Sabtechah are also named as kings of Ethiopia. Other Biblical figures include Nimrod, son of Cush, and the Queen of Sheba, whom Ethiopians call "Makeda". Zerah the Cushite may also be included on Tafari's king list under the name "Sera" which is used for two different kings on the list.

According to Ethiopian tradition Makeda was an ancestor of the Solomonic dynasty and mother of Menelik I, whose father was king Solomon of Israel. E. A. Wallis Budge believed that the queen was more likely to have been from Yemen or Hadhramaut than from Ethiopia.[18] He also believed that the tradition of the Queen of Sheba entered the region of modern-day Ethiopia when it was conquered by a Yemeni tribe called the "Habasha", who were "the first to introduce civilization into the country", as theorized by Carlo Conti Rossini.[18] Budge also thought it was possible that the story was introduced via Jewish traders who settled in Abyssinia/Ethiopia.[18] However, by the early 21st century the theory of a south Arabian or 'Sabaean' origin for Ethiopian civilization was largely abandoned by scholars,[102] and thus some of Budge's ideas would now be considered outdated.

The Biblical events of the flood and the fall of the Tower of Babel are both included in the chronology of the king list, dated respectively to 3244 B.C. and 2713 B.C., with the 531-year period in between listed as an interregnum where no kings reigned.

Another Biblical story included is that of the Ethiopian eunuch, named Jen Daraba according to this king list, who visited Jerusalem during the reign of the 169th sovereign Queen Garsemot Kandake VI. However, the version of the story presented by Tafari has some major inaccuracies such as mistakenly stating that Philip the Apostle baptised the eunuch when it was actually Philip the Evangelist according to the Bible.

The following collapsible list names all monarchs on the 1922 king list that originate from or are inspired by the Biblical narrative:

Name on King List Biblical figure
Ori or Aram (no. 1) Aram
Gariak I (no. 2) Gether
Nimroud (no. 12) Nimrod
Kam (no. 22) Ham
Kout (no. 23) Cush
Sebtah (no. 25) Sabtah
Saba I (no. 31) Seba
Sabe I (no. 40) Sabtechah
Akbunas Saba II (no. 47) Sheba
Makeda (no. 98) Queen of Sheba
Awseyo Sera II (no. 104) Zerah the Cushite

Coptic and Arabic influences

1760 Coptic prayer book written in Arabic.
1760 Coptic prayer book written in Arabic.

The first dynasty of Tafari's list, the Tribe of Ori, is almost certainly taken from medieval Coptic and Arabic texts on the kings of Egypt who ruled before the Great Flood. French historian Louis J. Morié, in his 1904 book Histoire de L'Ethiopie, recorded an almost identical list of kings and queens to those found on the first dynasty of Tafari's list.[29] Morié stated that the king list he saw was recorded by the Copts in their annals and was found in both Coptic and Arabic tradition.[103] He however felt that the Egyptian Delta would not have been habitable in the Antediluvian era and thus theorized that these kings ruled Thebes and "Ethiopia" (i.e. Nubia).[104] Morié noted that there had originally been a list of 40 kings, but only 19 of them had been preserved up to the early 20th century.[104] He believed that the king list originated from the works of Murtada ibn al-Afif, an Arab writer from the 12th century who wrote a number of works, though only one, titled The Prodigies of Egypt, has partially survived to the present day.[104][105] The Coptic king list begins with Aram, son of Shem, in the same way that Tafari's king list begins with Aram, otherwise known as Ori.[104]

A medieval Arab text called Akhbar al-Zaman (The History of Time), dated to between 940 and 1140, may have been an earlier version of the king list Morié saw.[106] The authorship is unknown, but may have been written by historian Al-Masudi based on earlier Arab, Christian and Greek sources.[106] Another possible author is Ibrahim ibh Wasif Shah who lived during the Twelfth century.[106] The text contained a list of kings of Egypt who ruled before the Great Flood and shows some similarities with the list of kings of the "Tribe of Ori or Aram" included on Tafari's list, who also ruled before the Great Flood. Several kings show similarities in names and chronological order, though not all kings on one list appear on the other. The kings included on Akhbar al-Zaman are not archeologically verified and do not appear on any ancient Egyptian king lists.

A number of Coptic monks from Egypt came to Ethiopia in the 13th century and brought with them many books written in Coptic and Arabic.[107] These monks also translated many works into Ge'ez.[107] It is possible that the legends from Akhbar al-Zaman may have entered Ethiopia during this time.

Manfred Kropp theorized that this Ethiopian king list may have been influenced by the works of Ibn al-Rāhib, a 13th-century Coptic historian whose works were translated into Ge'ez by Ethiopian writer Enbaqom in the 16th century, and Jirjis al-Makin Ibn al-'Amid, another 13th century Coptic historian whose work Al-Majmu' al-Mubarak (The Blessed Collection) was also translated around the same time.[108] Both writers partially based their information on ancient history from the works of Julius Africanus and through him quote the historical traditions of Egypt as recorded by Manetho.[108] Jirgis was known as "Wälda-Amid" in Ethiopia.[108] Kropp believed that some of the names of the early part of Tafari's king list were taken from a king list included within Jirgis' text which draws upon traditions from Manetho and the Old Testament.[109]

Ancient Egyptian and Nubian influences

Reconstructions of six statues of Kushite kings discovered at Dukki-Gel in Sudan.
Reconstructions of six statues of Kushite kings discovered at Dukki-Gel in Sudan.

Many of the Egyptian and Nubian monarchs included on the list are historically verified but are not proven to have ruled the area of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea, and often have reign dates that do no match dates used by modern-day archeologists. The rulers numbered 88 to 96 on the list are the High Priests of Amun who ruled Upper Egypt during the time of the Twenty-first dynasty, whose influence was limited to Lower Egypt. The order of the priests on the list is mostly confirmed by archeology, though their rule did not extend to modern day Ethiopia and Eritrea. Several other kings on the list have names that are clearly influenced by those of Egyptian pharaohs such as Senefrou (8), Tutimheb (53), Amen Emhat I (63), Amen Emhat II (83), Amen Hotep Zagdur (102), Aksumay Ramissu (103) and Apras (127).

Numerous Nubian rulers from the Kushite kingdom in modern-day Sudan are also included on Tafari's king list. In particular, most of the pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, who ruled over both Nubia and Egypt, are listed as part of the dynasty of Menelik I. However, the Kushite Pharaohs are not known to have ruled much further south than the area of modern-day South Sudan. Kushite monarchs from after the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty of Egypt are also occasionally mentioned on this list, specifically Aktisanes, Aspelta, Harsiotef, Nastasen and two kings named "Arkamen", whose name could match with various different Kushite kings. Additionally, there are six queens on this list who are referred to as "Kandake", the Meroitic term for the king's sister used by the rulers of Kush.

Apart from the monarchs listed above, there were also some Viceroys of Kush who ruled over Nubia during the time of the New Kingdom after Egypt conquered the Kingdom of Kerma in c. 1500 BC. Some of the names on Tafari's king list may be based on these Viceroys of Kush, including the aforementioned High Priests of Amun from the time of the Twenty-First dynasty.

The Axumite empire at its maximum extent of influence.
The Axumite empire at its maximum extent of influence.

The reasons for the inclusion of Egyptian and Nubian monarchs may stem from the Axumite conquest of Meroë, the last capital of the Kingdom of Kush, by King Ezana in c. 325 AD.[110] It was from this point onward that the Axumites began referring to themselves as "Ethiopians", the Greco-Roman term previously used largely for Nubians.[111] Following this, the inhabitants of Axum/Ethiopia were able to claim lineage from the "Ethiopians" or "Aethiopians" mentioned in the Bible, including the Kandakes, who were actually Kushites. The claiming of the term "Ethiopian" by the Axumites may, however, pre-date Christianity. For example, Axumite king Ezana is called "King [...] of the Ethiopians" on a Greek inscription where he also calls himself "son of the invincible Mars", suggesting that this pre-dates his conversion to Christianity.[112]

Shanakdakhete, the earliest recorded reigning Kandake of Kush, who was in power in the mid-2nd century BC.
Shanakdakhete, the earliest recorded reigning Kandake of Kush, who was in power in the mid-2nd century BC.

The inclusion of Kushite rulers on the king list suggests that the traditions of ancient Nubia were considered culturally compatible with those of Axum.[113] Makeda, the biblical Queen of Sheba, was referred to as "Candance" or "Queen Mother" in the Kebra Nagast,[114] suggesting a cultural connection between Ethiopia and the ancient kingdom of Kush. Portuguese missionary Francisco Álvares, who travelled to Ethiopia in 1520, recorded one Ethiopian tradition which claimed that Yeha was "the favourite residence of Queen Candance, when she honoured the country with her presence".[115]

As some Egyptian monarchs were able to rule over Nubia, the inclusion of these monarchs on Tafari's king list may have also stemmed from the Axumite conquest of Meroë. Additionally, some Nubian objects from the Napatan and Meroitic periods have been found in Ethiopian graves dating to the 8th to 2nd centuries BC.[116] There have also been discoveries of red-orange sherds similar to those from the pre-Axumite period in sites of the Jebel Mokram Group in Sudan, showing contacts along caravan routes toward the Nile Valley in the 1st millennium BC.[117] This shows that interactions between Nubia and modern day Ethiopia long pre-date the Axumite conquest. Archaeologist Rodolfo Fattovich believed that the people of the pre-Axumite culture had contacts with the kingdom of Kush, the Achaemenid Empire and the Greeks, but that these contacts were "mostly indirect".[118]

Stele with Egyptian hieroglyphs found in Axum, as shown in James Bruce's Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile.
Stele with Egyptian hieroglyphs found in Axum, as shown in James Bruce's Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile.

Scottish traveler James Bruce, in his multi-volume work Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile included a drawing of a stele found in Axum and brought back to Gondar by the Ethiopian emperor.[119] The stele had carved figures of Egyptian gods and was inscribed with hieroglyphs.[119] E. A. Wallis Budge believed the stele to be a "Cippi of Horus" which were placed in homes and temples to keep evil spirits away.[119] He noted that these date from the end of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty (c. 664–525 BC) onwards.[119] Budge believed this was proof of contacts between Egypt and Axum in the early 4th century BC.[119] Archeological excavations in the Kassala region have also revealed direct contact with Pharaonic Egypt.[120] Some tombs excavated in the Yeha region, the likely capital of the Dʿmt kingdom, contained imported albastron dated to c. 770–404 B.C. which had a Napatan or Egyptian origin.[121]

The world according to Herodotus. He defined "Aethiopes" as being south of Egypt and including Meroe.
The world according to Herodotus. He defined "Aethiopes" as being south of Egypt and including Meroe.

The earliest known Greek writings that mention "Aethiopians" date to the 8th century BC, in the writings of Homer and Hesiod. Herodotus, in his work Histories (c. 430 BC), defined "Aethiopia" as beginning at the island of Elephantine and including all land south of Egypt, with the capital being Meroe.[122] This geographical definition confirms that in ancient times the term "Aethiopia" was commonly used to refer to Nubia and the Kingdom of Kush rather than modern day Ethiopia. The first writer to use the name "Ethiopia" for the region of the Kingdom of Axum was Philostorgius around 440 AD.[123]

Budge theorised that one of the reasons why the name "Ethiopia" was applied to Abyssinia was because Syrian monks identified Kush and Nubia with Abyssinia when translating the Bible from Greek to Ge'ez.[124] Budge further noted that translators of the Bible into Greek identified Kush with Ethiopia and this was carried over into the translation from Greek to Ge'ez.[125] He argued that it was unlikely that the "Ethiopians" mentioned in ancient Greek writings were the Abyssinians, but instead were far more likely to be the Nubians of Meroë.[126] He believed that the native name of the region around Axum was "Habesh" from which "Abyssinia" is derived and originating in the name of the Habasha tribe from southern Arabia.[125] He did note however that the modern day people of the region did not like this term and preferred the name "Ethiopia" due to its association with Kush.[125] The ancient Nubians are not known to have used the term "Ethiopian" to refer to themselves, however Silko, the first Christian Nubian king of Nobatia, in the early sixth century described himself as "Chieftain of the Nobadae and of all the Ethiopians".[127]

Taharqa, Nubian pharaoh of Kush and Egypt from 690 to 664 BC.
Taharqa, Nubian pharaoh of Kush and Egypt from 690 to 664 BC.

Budge noted that none of the Egyptian and Nubian kings appear on other known king lists from Ethiopia.[128] He believed that contemporary Ethiopian priests had been "reading a modern European History of Egypt" and had incorporated in the king list Egyptian pharaohs who had "laid Nubia and other parts of the Sudan under tribute", as well as the names of various Kushite kings and Priest kings.[129] To support his argument, he stated that while the names of Abyssinian kings have meanings, the names of Egyptian kings would be meaningless if translated into the Ethiopian language.[19] Historian Manfred Kropp likewise noted that no Ethiopian manuscript prior to Tafari's king list included names of monarchs resembling those used by ancient Egyptian rulers.[7]

A comparison of Tafari's list with other known Ethiopian king lists shows that most of the kings on Tafari's list with Egyptian or Nubian names do not have these elements in their names on the other king lists (see Alternate King lists from Menelik I to Bazen). For example, the 102nd king on Tafari's list, Amen Hotep Zagdur, only appears as "Zagdur" on one British Museum manuscript and on Rossini's list.[130] The next king, Aksumay Ramissu, is only known as "Aksumay" on the same two lists.[130] The 106th king, Abralyus Wiyankihi II, only appears as "Abralyus" on the same manuscript.[130] The 111th king, Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash, is a combination of multiple kings. One king named "Sawe" or "Za Tsawe" is listed as the fifth king following Menelik I, according to one British Museum manuscript and the lists recorded by Bruce and Salt.[89] Another king named "Warada Nagash" is named as the eighth king following Menelik I on a different manuscript.[130] No known list includes both kings, and Tafari's list combined the two different kings as a single entry, with the addition of the name "Terhak", to be equated with the Nubian pharaoh Taharqa, who otherwise does not appear on other Ethiopian king lists.[130] The reason for Taharqa's inclusion is likely because he is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (2 Kings 19:9; Isaiah 37:9) and was described as the "King of Ethiopia", in reference to Kush in modern-day Sudan.[131] Also missing from other Ethiopian king lists are the six "Kandake" queens numbered 110, 135, 137, 144, 162 and 169. It is likely that these queens refer to the reigning female monarchs of Kush, although it is unclear who exactly they are based on as their names do not match any known queens of Kush. The second Kandake queen, Nikawla (no. 135), has a name which was sometimes used to the refer to the Queen of Sheba.[132]

Herihor, High Priest of Amun of Upper Egypt between c. 1080 and 1074 BC, shown here with wife Nodjmet.
Herihor, High Priest of Amun of Upper Egypt between c. 1080 and 1074 BC, shown here with wife Nodjmet.

If Budge is correct in his assumption that the inclusion of Egyptian and Nubian monarchs was largely due to contemporary European Egyptological writings, then this may explain why the High Priests of Amun of the early Third Intermediate Period were included on Tafari's king list numbered 88 to 96. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, several major Egyptologists (such as Heinrich Brugsch, James Breasted and George Reisner) believed that the rise of the Kush kingdom was due to the influence of the High Priests of Amun moving into Nubia towards the end of the Twentieth Dynasty because of political conflict arising at the end of the New Kingdom.[133] Brugsch in particular entertained the idea that the early Kushite kings were lineal descendants of the priests from Egypt, though this was explicitly rejected by Breasted.[134] Later Egyptologists A. J. Arkell and Walter Emery theorized that a priestly "government in exile" had influenced the Kushite kingdom.[135] Budge himself would agree with these ideas and suggested that the High Priests of Amun moved south to Nubia due to the rise of the Libyan pharaohs in Lower Egypt, and consolidated their high position by intermarrying with Nubian women.[136] Budge further theorised that the name of the Nubian pharaoh Piye or "Piankhi" was taken from that of the High Priest of Amun Piankh and he was possibly Piankh's descendant.[137] Such ideas around the Kushite monarchy originating from this specific line of priests are now considered outdated, but the popularity of these theories in the early 20th century could explain their inclusion, in almost exact chronological order, on Tafari's king list from 1922.

The following collapsible list names all monarchs on the 1922 king list that originate from or are inspired by Egyptian rulers or gods:

Name on King List Historical figure or Egyptian god
Senefrou (no. 8) Sneferu
Assa (no. 18) Djedkare Isesi
Horkam (no. 30) Horus
Manturay (no. 38) Montu or Montu-Ra
Ramenpahte (no. 44) Men-pekhti-Ra (Ramesses I)
Bonu I (no. 57) and Bonu II (no. 70) Bennu
Amen Emhat I (no. 63) and Amen Emhat II (no. 83) A pharaoh named Amenemhat (e.g. Amenemhat I)
Amen Astate (no. 88) Amenhotep
Herhor (no. 89) Herihor
Wiyankihi I (no. 90) Piankh
Pinotsem I (no. 91) and Pinotsem II (no. 92) Pinedjem I
Massaharta (no. 93) Masaharta
Ramenkoperm (no. 94) Menkheperre
Pinotsem III (no. 95) Pinedjem II
Sabi IV (no. 96) Pasebakhaennuit III
Amen Hotep Zagdur (no. 102) A pharaoh named Amenhotep (e.g. Amenhotep I)
Aksumay Ramissu (no. 103) A pharaoh named Ramesses (e.g. Ramesses II)
Psmenit Waradanegash (no. 124) A pharaoh named Psamtik (e.g. Psamtik II)
Apras (no. 127) Apries

The following collapsible list names all monarchs on the 1922 king list that originate from or are inspired by Kushite rulers:

Name on King List Historical figure
Amen Asro I (no. 60) and Amen Asero II (no. 116) Amanislo
Aktissanis (no. 65) Aktisanes
Abralyus Wiyankihi II (no. 106) Piye or "Piankhi"
Kashta Hanyon (no. 108) Kashta
Sabaka (no. 109) Shabaka
Nicauta Kandake I (no. 110) Unspecified Kandake queen
Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash (no. 111) Taharqa
Nuatmeawn (no. 113) Tantamani
Tomadyon Piyankihi III (no. 114) Piye or "Piankhi"
Piyankihi IV (Awtet) (no. 116) Piye or "Piankhi"
Zaware Nebret Aspurta (no. 118) Aspelta
Saifay Harsiataw (no. 119) Harsiotef
Ramhay Nastossanan (no. 120) Nastasen
Safelya Sabakon (no. 122) Shabaka
Agalbus Sepekos (no. 123) Shebitku?
Awseya Tarakos (no. 125) Taharqa
Kashta Walda Ahuhu (no. 128) Kashta
Elalion Taake (no. 129) Talakhamani?
Nikawla Kandake II (no. 135) Unspecified Kandake queen
Akawsis Kandake III (no. 137) Unspecified Kandake queen
Arkamen (no. 138) Arqamani
Nikosis Kandake IV (no. 144) Unspecified Kandake queen
Ramhay Arkamen (no. 145) Arakamani
Nicotnis Kandake V (no. 162) Unspecified Kandake queen
Garsemot Kandake VI (no. 169) Unspecified Kandake queen

Greek influences

The ancient Greek mythical queen of Aethiopia, Cassiopeia, is claimed as part of Ethiopia's ancient history according to Tafari's list, which lists her as the 49th monarch and the third of the Agdazyan dynasty. Her grandson Electryon also makes an appearance on this list, though oddly he is placed six centuries before Cassiopeia, as part of the Tribe of Kam. Cassiopeia's husband, Cepheus also makes an appearance on the king list, but is numbered 71st and is dated to over 400 years after her reign.

The legendary Cretian king Minos is listed as the 66th monarch under the name "Mandes", a variation of the name used by Diodorus in his work Bibliotheca Historia,[61] though oddly he was listed as a king of Egypt in Diodorus' text rather than Crete. Diodorus' text seems to have influenced other parts of the king list, such as the 122th monarch named "Sabakon" (an alternate name for the Nubian pharaoh Shabaka, who is already mentioned earlier in the list) and the 127th monarch named "Apras", the Greek name for Egyptian pharaoh Wahibre Haaibre.

In addition to the above, the Egyptian king Proteus is also included on the list as part of the Agdazyan dynasty, however he only appears in Greek writings and is otherwise unattested in the Egyptian archeological record.

Memnon, a mythical king of "Aethiopia" who fought in the Trojan war, is not directly mentioned on Tafari's king list. However, he may be named "Amen Emhat", a name used by several Egyptian pharaohs that may have inspired the name "Memnon". Peter Truhart identified the 83rd king of Tafari's list, "Amen Emhat II", as Memnon and the 81st king, "Titon Satiyo", as Memnon's father Tithonus.[74]

The following collapsible list names all monarchs on the 1922 king list that originate from or are inspired by Greek mythology:

Name on King List Mythical figure
Elektron (no. 26) Electryon
Rakhu (no. 39) Phlegyas[42][138]
Kasiyope (no. 49) Cassiopeia
Her Hator I (no. 54) Hephaestus[58]
Mandes (no. 66) Minos
Protawos (no. 67) Proteus
Bonu II (no. 70) Belus
Sebi III (Kefe) (no. 71) Cepheus
Titon Satiyo (no. 81) Tithonus
Hermantu (no. 82) Emathion
Amen Emhat II (no. 83) Memnon[74]

Conflict with other Ethiopian traditions

Abreha and Atsbeha
Abreha and Atsbeha

Tafari's list occasionally does not match with other Ethiopian traditions. One example is Abreha and Atsbeha, who are believed by Ethiopians to have been two brothers who brought Christianity to Ethiopia. However, Tafari lists 'Abreha Atsbeha' as a single monarch numbered 201st on his list and as a son of queen Sofya. In reality, the son of Sofya was king Ezana who was the first Christian king of Axum. Ezana is however placed much later in the list, over 150 years after the reign of Sofya. Queen Sofya ruled as a regent for her son Ezana, though Tafari considers her to be a reigning monarch in her own right, even allowing for her regency to be counted as a period of co-rule with her son. The listing of 'Abreha Atsbeha' as a single figure may be a transcribable error, as Aleka Taye's version of the king list clearly states that 'Abreha' and 'Atsbeha' are two separate individuals.[10]

Another example is that of king Angabo I, who is placed in the middle of the Agdazyan dynasty on the 1922 king list. However some Ethiopian legends claim that this king was the founder of a new dynasty.[139] In both cases the dating is given as the late 14th century BC.

E. A. Wallis Budge noted that there were differing versions of the chronological order of the Ethiopian kings, with some lists stating that a king named Aithiopis was the first to rule while other lists claim that the first king was Adam.[140] Tafari's list instead begins with Aram.

The list also has its own internal conflicting information. Tafari claims that it was during the reign of the 169th monarch, queen Garsemot Kandake VI, in the first century AD when Christianity was formally introduced to Ethiopia. However, this is in direct conflict with the story of the later queen Sofya, who ruled 249 years later.

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Dil Na'od was the last King of Aksum before the Zagwe dynasty. He lived in either the 9th or 10th century. Dil Na'od was the younger son of Ged'a Jan, and succeeded his older brother 'Anbasa Wedem as negus. According to E. A. Wallis Budge, "The reign of Delna'ad was short, perhaps about ten years." However, James Bruce has recorded another tradition, that Dil Na'od was an infant when Gudit slaughtered the princes imprisoned at Debre Damo, his relatives, and forced some of his nobles to take him out of his kingdom to save his life.

List of monarchs

Gregorian Dates: Tafari's king list uses dates according to the Ethiopian Calendar. According to Charles Fernand Rey, one can estimate the Gregorian date equivalent by adding a further seven or eight years to the date.[141] As an example, he states that 1 AD on the Ethiopian calendar would be 8 AD on the Gregorian calendar.[141] He notes that the calendar of Ethiopia likely changed in some ways throughout history but argued that this was a good enough method for estimates.[141] E. A. Wallis Budge stated that the Ethiopian calendar was 8 years behind the Gregorian calendar from 1 January to 10 September and 7 years behind from 11 September to 31 December.[16]

Tribe of Ori or Aram (1,286 years)

"Tribe or Posterity of Ori or Aram"[142]

1894 map of the theoretical location of the so-called "Mountains of the Moon".
1894 map of the theoretical location of the so-called "Mountains of the Moon".

The first dynasty of Tafari's king list consists of 21 monarchs who ruled before the Biblical "Great Flood". This dynasty is almost certainly legendary and borrowed from a list of pre-flood kings of Egypt that is found in Coptic and Arab texts. French historian Louis J. Morié recorded a similar list of 19 monarchs in his 1904 book Histoire de L'Éthiopie.[29] These kings are not archeologically verified and it is likely that the stories around them developed in later times. The medieval Arab text Akhbar al-Zaman contains a king list that may have been an earlier version of the list Morié saw centuries later. This list contained a total of 19 kings and the majority had similar names to those found on the later version in 1904 (See the Akhbar al-Zaman section of this article for more information on this text).[106] Morié noted that the kings were supposed to be rulers of Egypt, but believed that they had actually ruled what he referred to as "Ethiopia", although he specifically was writing about Nubia.[29] He pointed to a story of the third king, Gankam, who had a palace built beyond the Equator at the Mountains of the Moon, as proof that these kings resided in "Ethiopia".[143][105] The kings of this dynasty are described as Priest-kings in Coptic tradition and were called the "Soleyman" dynasty.[105] Louis J. Morié may well have been the inspiration behind the appropriation of this legendary Egyptian dynasty into the Ethiopian king list as his book shows clear influence over the next two dynasties of this king list.[26]

The "Soleyman" dynasty was said to have been "Priest-kings" who ruled before the Great Flood for 9,000 years, though Morié personally believed the period of rule was closer to 2,000 years.[104] Their capital city was called either "Fanoun" or "Kanoun" and they ruled over much of North and East Africa according to Coptic legend.[104] They also founded other cities named "Gevherabad" (capital of the province of "Schadoukiam"), "Ambarabad" (or "Anbarabad") and "Gabkar" and used a now lost language called "Bialban".[104]

Due to its non-native origin, the tradition of the Ori/Aram dynasty has often been treated as irrelevant to wider Ethiopian tradition. Ethiopian writer and foreign minister Heruy Wolde Selassie ignored this dynasty in his book Wazema.[9] Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa, in his book Ethiopia's 5,000-year history, completely omitted this dynasty and instead begins with the Ham/Kam dynasty.[144] In his book Regents of Nations, Peter Truhart described this dynasty as "non-historical".[145]

Other Ethiopian traditions name a completely different line of kings as the first to rule Ethiopia. Egyptologist E. A. Wallis Budge stated that in his time the contemporary Ethiopians could not "tell us [anything] about the reigns of their [pre-Flood] kings" and relied on Biblical genealogy for a list of names.[146] The list that Budge provided for the pre-Flood kings varies considerably from the one on Tafari's list (see Other King Lists section below), essentially using the Biblical genealogy from Adam to Solomon.[147] Budge noted that some Ethiopian king lists stretched back to 5500 B.C. (the year the world was believed by the Ethiopians to have been created) and began with Adam.[3] Other Ethiopian traditions instead state that the Ethiopians descend from Ham, a grandson of Noah.[148] There are some brief king lists that outline a genealogy from Ham and his son Cush to kings representing Ethiopia and Axum.[149]

By contrast, Tafari's list names neither Adam or Ham as the founder of the Ethiopian line, but instead chooses Aram, son of Shem, a grandson of Noah, to be the "great ancestor" of the Ethiopian monarchy.[150] E. A. Wallis Budge believed that the reason for this was because contemporary Ethiopians wanted to distance themselves from Ham and the Curse of Ham.[150] The Curse of Ham had been used as an ideological justification for the Atlantic slave trade during the 16th to 19th centuries.[151] Likewise, it was also used to justify the European Scramble for Africa during the 1880s to 1910s, when nearly 90 percent of Africa was colonized by European powers and Ethiopia was one of only two countries to remain independent (the other being Liberia). The medieval Ethiopian text Kebra Nagast stated that "God decreed sovereignty for the seed of Shem, and slavery for the seed of Ham".[150] The original writer of Tafari's king list appears to have deliberately relegated Ham to being the founder of the second Ethiopian dynasty instead of the first dynasty as was done on older king lists.

The only rulers of this dynasty who do not originate from the Coptic Antediluvian king list are "Senefrou" and "Assa", which E. A. Wallis Budge equated with the Egyptian pharaohs Sneferu and Djedkare Isesi. The historical reign dates of these pharaohs are far later than what is stated on this king list. Their inclusion as rulers of Ethiopia may be due to some kind of interaction with Nubia (i.e. "Aethiopia").

One issue with the Ori dynasty is that the king list dates the Great Flood to 3244 B.C. and yet states that Aram, who was born after the Flood, ruled over 1,200 years before it took place. This also causes problems with the dating given for Gether and Nimrod who both lived after the Flood.

#
[142]
Monarch
[142][nb 1]
Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[142]
"Year of the World"
[142]
Reign Length
[142]
Alternate Names Notes
1 Ori I
ኦሪ
4530–4470 B.C. 970–1030 A.M. 60 years Aram[142][105]
  • Son of Shem in Biblical tradition.[150]
  • The Coptic tradition of the "Soleyman" dynasty however names Aram as a son of Adam.[152]
  • The name "Ori" may have originated from the Kebra Nagast, which includes an additional king named "Orni" in the biblical genealogy from Adam to Solomon whose identity remains unclear and who is placed directly before Aram.[153]
2 Gariak I
ጋርያክ
4470–4404 B.C. 1030–1096 A.M. 66 years Gether
3 Gannkam
ጋንካም
4404–4321 B.C. 1096–1179 A.M. 83 years
  • Descendant of Gariak I.[152][105]
  • Coptic tradition credits this king with building a palace out of iron and bronze at the foot of the Mountains of the Moon after foreseeing the Great Flood and its future destruction.[143][105] It was said that the palace had 35 bronze statues that spouted water from their mouths.[143] Gannkam was also credited by Coptic tradition as the author of several history books.[143]
4 Queen Borsa
ቦርሳ
4321–4254 B.C. 1179–1246 A.M. 67 years
  • Coptic tradition credits Borsa with "administering justice to the people sitting on a throne of fire".[105]
5 Gariak II
ጋርያክ
4254–4194 B.C. 1246–1306 A.M. 60 years
6 Djan I
ጃን
4194–4114 B.C. 1306–1386 A.M. 80 years Gian[154]
Giyan[145]
  • "Djan" is an old Ethiopian title meaning "chief", "king" or "royalty".[156]
  • Medieval Coptic tradition claims the word "Jinn" supposedly came from the name of this king.[154]
7 Djan II
ጃን
4114–4054 B.C. 1386–1446 A.M. 60 years Gian[154]
Giyan[145]
  • Son of Djan I.[145][154]
  • Built 3 pyramids in Egypt according to Coptic tradition.[154]
8 Senefrou
ሰነፍሩ
4054–4034 B.C. 1446–1466 A.M. 20 years Sneferu[145]
  • Egyptian Pharaoh Sneferu (r. 2613–2589 B.C.) who raided Nubia during his reign.[128]
9 Zeenabzamin
ዘእናብዛሚን
4034–3976 B.C. 1466–1524 A.M. 58 years Zayn az-Zaman[145]
Zeyn al-Zaman[154]
  • Founded the Iraninan city of Anbarabad according to Coptic tradition.[154]
  • The name "Zeyn al-Zaman" means "Ornament of the century".[154]
10 Sahlan
ሳህላን
3976–3916 B.C. 1524–1584 A.M. 60 years
  • Coptic tradition records nothing beyond this king's name.[154]
11 Elaryan
ኤላርያን
3916–3836 B.C. 1584–1664 A.M. 80 years El-Rian[154]
Riyan[154]
Rujan[154]
  • Pyramid builder according to Coptic tradition.[154]
12 Nimroud
ኒምሩድ
3836–3776 B.C. 1664–1724 A.M. 60 years Nimrod[128]
Youssef[154]
  • Descendant of Ham and builder of the Tower of Babel.[128]
  • Coptic tradition differentiates this king from the Biblical Nimrod and instead claims his original name was Youssef, that he was a minister to king Elaryan and was a pyramid builder.[154]
  • Louis J. Morié claimed Nimrod attempted to conquer Egypt but was defeated by the descendants of Osiris and later died after ruling for 65 years.[40]
13 Queen Eylouka
ኤይሉካ
3776–3731 B.C. 1724–1769 A.M. 45 years Dalukah[145][154]
  • Pyramid builder according to Coptic tradition.[154]
  • Louis J. Morié noted that it "appeared" that she succeeded Nimrod without interruption but Coptic tradition is uncertain about her chronological placement.[154]
14 Saloug
ሳሉግ
3731–3701 B.C. 1769–1799 A.M. 30 years Sahlok[145]
Saluq[145]
Sahalok[154]
  • Originally the 34th ruler of this dynasty according to Coptic tradition.[154] The surviving list of kings by the early 20th century was apparently incomplete.[29]
15 Kharid
ኃሪድ
3701–3629 B.C. 1799–1871 A.M. 72 years Harid[145]
Sarid[145]
Scharid[154]
Surid Ibn Salhouk
  • Eldest son of Saloug.[154]
  • Coptic tradition credits this king with building 3 pyramids and reigning 390 years before the Great Flood.[154] Tafari's list dates the end of this king's reign to a similar period of 385 years before the Flood.
  • Coptic and Arabic tradition also claimed a second king named Surid ruled Egypt a few centuries before the time of Abraham.[154]
16 Hogeb
ሆገብ
3629–3529 B.C. 1871–1971 A.M. 100 years Hugib[145]
Houjb[157]
  • The longest-reigning monarch of this king list.
  • Second son of Saloug and brother of Kharid.[157]
17 Makaws
ማካውስ
3529–3459 B.C. 1971–2041 A.M. 70 years Makaos[145]
Manos[145]
Makaos[157]
18 Assa
አሳ
3459–3429 B.C. 2041–2071 A.M. 30 years Isesi[145]
  • Possibly identifiable with Pharaoh Djedkare Isesi, who had a pygmy brought back to him from the "Land of the Spirits" (Punt).[128]
19 Affar
አፋር
3429–3379 B.C. 2071–2121 A.M. 50 years Afros[145]
Aphar[157]
  • Coptic tradition claimed that this king's name was the inspiration behind the word "Africa".[157]
20 Milanos
ሚላኖስ
3379–3317 B.C. 2121–2183 A.M. 62 years Malinos[145][157]
21 Soliman Tehagui
ሶሊማን ታጊ
3317–3244 B.C. 2183–2256 A.M. 73 years Soliman Cagi[145]
Soleyman Tchaghi[158]
Pharaan[158]
Pharaon[158]
  • Originally the 40th and last ruler of the "Soleyman" dynasty in medieval Coptic tradition.[158]
  • Coptic and Arabic tradition claimed that this king sent his general "Sourkhrag" and priest "Philemon" to discuss with Noah the worship of God and of idols prior to the Great Flood.[158]
"Total: 21 sovereigns of the Tribe of Ori."[142]

Interregnum (531 years)

Painting of the Tower of Babel by Abel Grimmer (1604).
Painting of the Tower of Babel by Abel Grimmer (1604).

"From the Deluge until the fall of the Tower of Babel".[159]

This 531-year period is the only gap in Tafari's king list where no monarchs are named. Tafari leaves this gap unexplained, but some older Ethiopian king lists state that the monarchs who reigned between the Great Flood and the fall of the Tower of Babel were pagans, idolators and worshippers of the "serpent", and thus were not worthy to be named.[150]

The Tower of Babel was, according to the Bible, built by humans in Shinar at a time when humanity spoke a single language. The tower was intended to reach the sky, but this angered God, who confounded their speech and made them unable to understand each other and caused humanity to be scattered across the world. This story serves as an origin myth to explain why so many different languages are spoken around the world. The builder of the Tower, Nimrod, reigned 1,063 years before it fell according to this king list.

The dating of the fall of the tower to directly before the beginning of the Kam dynasty suggests that it was at this point that Ham came to Aethiopia and became its king.

#
[159]
Monarch
[159]
Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[159]
"Year of the World"
[159]
Reign Length
[159]
Alternate Names Notes
3244–2713 B.C. 2256–2787 A.M. 531 years

Tribe of Kam (728 years)

1913 map of the earliest-known civilizations by Edward Sylvester Ellis.
1913 map of the earliest-known civilizations by Edward Sylvester Ellis.

"Sovereignty of the tribe of Kam after the fall of the tower of Babel."[159]

This dynasty begins with the second son of the Biblical prophet Noah, Ham, whose descendants populated the African continent and adjoining parts of Asia according to Biblical tradition. Ham was the father of Cush (Kush/Nubia), Mizraim (Egypt), Canaan (Levant) and Put (Libya or Punt). One of Ham's descendants, Nimrod, is named as part of the previous dynasty which raises questions over how closely Tafari's Ethiopian king list is following Biblical tradition.

According to Heruy Wolde Selassie's book Wazema, the Kamites originated from the Middle East and conquered Axum, Meroe, Egypt and North Africa.[160]

Most Ethiopian traditions present a very different line of kings descending from Ham. E. A. Wallis Budge stated that in his time there was a common belief in Ethiopia that the people were descended from Ham, his son Cush and Cush's son Ethiopis, who is not named in the Bible, but from whom the country of Ethiopia gets its name.[161] Budge however found it doubtful that the Kushites were the first to inhabit the region of modern-day Ethiopia.[161] Nonetheless, Ham has often been considered the founder of Ethiopia according to many Ethiopian king lists. Some lists explicitly state the names "Ethiopia" and "Axum" come from descendants of Ham that are not named in the Bible.[149] See Alternate Hamitic dynasty section below for more information.

Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa's book Ethiopia's 5,000-year history begins this dynasty with Noah and omits Habassi, but otherwise has a similar line of kings as this list.[144] Heruy Wolde Selassie omitted the first three rulers of this dynasty in his book Wazema and begins the dynasty with Sebtah in 2545 BC.[9]

Peter Truhart, in his book Regents of Nations, dated the monarchs of this dynasty to 2585–1930 BC and stated that the capital during this period was called 'Mazez'.[145] He believed that the first king Kam was a representation of Egypt (or "K.mt") and a reference to Egyptian contacts with the Land of Punt (or modern-day Ethiopia as Truhart identifies it) that took place around 3000 BC.[145] He thus identifies king Kout as the first king of this dynasty instead of Kam.[145] Truhart identified the monarchs from Kout to Lakniduga as the "Dynasty of Kush" based at 'Mazez' and ruled from 2585 to 2145 BC,[145] while the monarchs from Manturay to Piori I are listed as the "Kings of Ethiopia and Meroe" who ruled from 2145 to 1930 BC.[138]

#
[159]
Monarch
[159][nb 2]
Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[159]
"Year of the World"
[159]
Reign Length
[159]
Alternate Names Notes
22 Kam
ካም
2713–2635 B.C. 2787–2865 A.M. 78 years Ham
Kmt[150]
Kham[145]
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa provided alternate reign dates for this king of 3500–2787 BC (713 years) and listed Noah as the first king of this dynasty with reign dates of 3844–3500 BC (344 years).[144] Noah does not appear on Tafari's list.
  • According to French historian Louis J. Morié, Kam/Ham was killed in a battle against the Assyrians 480 years after the Great Flood after attempting to invade their territories, at the age of 576.[162] Morié identified Kam/Ham with the Egyptian god Amun[162] and thus his wife was Mut.[163]
  • E. A. Wallis Budge theorized that this king's name was actually a reference to "k.mt", the name of Egypt before the Greco-Roman period and noted that some kings of this dynasty had clearly Egyptian-inspired names (such as Amen, Horkam and Ramenpahte).[150]
  • Peter Truhart identified this king as a son of Noah who migrated to Africa and whose name inspired Egypt's pre-Greco-Roman name "k.mt".[145] He believed this king's inclusion on the king list represented Egyptian contacts with Punt (which he identifies with modern-day Ethiopia) that took place around 3000 B.C.[145]
23 Kout
ኩሳ
2635–2585 B.C. 2865–2915 A.M. 50 years Cush
  • Often considered a representation of the Kingdom of Kush in modern-day Sudan. Some translations of the Bible identify Kush with "Ethiopia", leading to the traditional Ethiopian identification with ancient Kush, which is seen throughout this list.
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa provided alternate reign dates for this king of 2787–2545 B.C. (242 years).[144]
  • Louis J. Morié claimed that Kout/Cush was the original builder of Axum and settled in Abyssinia after departing from Upper Egypt.[164]
24 Habassi
ሀባሢ
2585–2545 B.C. 2915–2955 A.M. 40 years Habisi[53]
Habesch[41]
  • Son of Cush/Kout.[53][40]
  • Ethiopian sources claim the word "Abyssinia" is derived from the name of this king.[53][145]
  • While many historians link the word "Abyssinia" with the Arabic word "Habesh", this link was rejected by Ethiopian scholar Aleqa Asras Yenesaw.[53]
  • Louis J. Morié claimed this king ruled over Axum while other sons of Cush ruled over different regions.[41]
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa omitted this king from his list of monarchs of the Kam dynasty.[144]
25 Sebtah
ሰብታ
2545–2515 B.C. 2955–2985 A.M. 30 years Sabtah
Sabeta[165]
  • Son of Cush/Kout.[145]
  • An Ethiopian tradition states that Sebtah was king of Kush and Wurd Bashir was the capital during his reign.[166] This legend states the he traveled to the source of the Nile and built Wurd Bashir with a great wall and nine gates.[167]
26 Elektron
ኤሌክትሮን
2515–2485 B.C. 2985–3015 A.M. 30 years Electryon
27 Neber
ነቢር
2485–2455 B.C. 3015–3045 A.M. 30 years Nabir[165]
28 Amen I
አሜን
2455–2434 B.C. 3045–3066 A.M. 21 years
29 Queen Nehasset Nais
ነሕሴት ናይስ
2434–2404 B.C. 3066–3096 A.M. 30 years Nahset Nays[165]
30 Horkam
ሆርካም
2404–2375 B.C. 3096–3125 A.M. 29 years Tarkim[165]
Herkam[145]
Raema[145][169]
Horus[41]
31 Saba I
ሳባ
2375–2345 B.C. 3125–3155 A.M. 30 years Seba
32 Sofard
ሶፋሪድ
2345–2315 B.C. 3155–3185 A.M. 30 years Sofarid[165]
33 Askndou
እስከንዲ
2315–2290 B.C. 3185–3210 A.M. 25 years Eskendi[165]
34 Hohey
ሆህይ
2290–2255 B.C. 3210–3245 A.M. 35 years Hohey Satwo[165]
35 Adglag
አህያጥ
2255–2235 B.C. 3245–3265 A.M. 20 years Ahyat[165]
Adeldag[138]
36 Adgala I
አድጋስ
2235–2205 B.C. 3265–3295 A.M. 30 years Adgas[165]
Adgale
37 Lakniduga
ላከንዱን
2205–2180 B.C. 3295–3320 A.M. 25 years Bakundon Malis[165]
38 Manturay
ማንቱራይ
2180–2145 B.C. 3320–3355 A.M. 35 years Manturay Haqbi[165]
Mithra[42]
Mithras[42][138]
Mentu-Ra[138]
Montu?
  • Louis J. Morié believed that the Iranian god Mithra could be equated with the Egyptian god Montu (or "Mentou-Rai") and was a king of Meroe.[42]
  • Morié additionally described Manturay and his successor Rakhu as the first legislators of Ethiopia, calling them the "Ethiopian Menes and his son".[42] Morié also believed they regulated the order and ceremonies of the solar cult in Aethiopia.[42]
  • Peter Truhart named Manturay as the first king of this dynasty to rule in Meroe, following Morié's narrative of Ethiopian history.[138]
39 Rakhu
ራክሁ
2145–2115 B.C. 3355–3385 A.M. 30 years Rakhu Dedme[165]
Rahu[138]
Phlegyas[42][138]
  • Louis J. Morié identified this king with Phlegyas, a king of the Lapiths who appears in Greek mythology.[42][138] The reason for this identification is, however, unclear.
40 Sabe I
ሰቢ
2115–2085 B.C. 3385–3415 A.M. 30 years Sobi[165]
Kepheas[42][138]
Sabtechah
  • Could be the Biblical figure Sabtechah, a son of Cush.
  • Louis J. Morié equated this king as the Greek mythical figure Cepheus and named him as a direct successor to Manturay and Rakhu.[42] However, Tafari's king list instead identifies Cepheus with Sebi III (no. 71).
  • Morie also stated that it was during the reign of this king that a Kushite tribe went to Chaldea and lived alongside the Jewish population there.[28]
41 Azagan
አዘጋን
2085–2055 B.C. 3415–3445 A.M. 30 years Azagan Far'on[165]
42 Sousel Atozanis
ሱሹል አቶዛኒስ
2055–2035 B.C. 3445–3465 A.M. 20 years Sosahul Atonzanes[165]
Aktisanes[43]
  • Louis J. Morié used "Attozanes" as an alternate name for the Kushite king Aktisanes.[43]
43 Amen II
አሜን
2035–2020 B.C. 3465–3480 A.M. 15 years Amen Sowiza[165]
44 Ramenpahte
ራመንፓህቲ
2020–2000 B.C. 3480–3500 A.M. 20 years Raminpahti Masalne[165]
Menpekhtira[150][138]
  • E. A. Wallis Budge believed this king's name was based on "Men-pekhti-Ra",[150] the throne name of Ramesses I, who ruled Egypt from 1292 to 1290 BC. Peter Truhart agreed with this identification.[138]
45 Wanuna
ዋኑና
2000 B.C. 3500 A.M. 3 days
46 Piori I
ጲኦሪ
2000–1985 B.C. 3500–3515 A.M. 15 years Poeri[49]
  • According to Heruy Wolde Selassie, this king was defeated by Rama (a Hindu god) of India.[160] This narrative was likely inspired by Louis J. Morié and his book Historie de l'Ethiopie, in which he claimed that Rama had a vast empire stretching across India and Arabia and had defeated the Egyptian Pharaoh.[49] According to Morié, the Ethiopian king, "Poeri I", then became a tributary to Rama.[49] While Morié did not make this identification, it is possible that the author of the 1922 Ethiopian king list identified Rama with Raamah, son of Cush and father of Sheba, who founds the next dynasty of this king list.
"Total: 25 sovereigns of the tribe of Kam, plus 21 sovereigns of the tribe of Ori – Grand total, 46 sovereigns."[142]

Agdazyan Dynasty (1,003 years)

"Agdazyan dynasty of the posterity of the kingdom of Joctan."[170]

Note: Historian Manfred Kropp stated the word "Agdazyan" is likely a transcribal error and meant to say "Ag'azyan", as the Ethiopian syllable signs da and 'a are relatively easy to confuse with each other.[171]

1861 map of the distribution of the Human race, according to the Book of Genesis.
1861 map of the distribution of the Human race, according to the Book of Genesis.

The third dynasty of this king list is descended from Joktan, a son of Eber, grandson of Shem and great-grandson of Noah. The first ruler of the dynasty, Akbunas Saba, is likely meant to be Sheba, son of Joktan.[172] The dynasty ends with the famous Queen of Sheba, whose name is Makeda in Ethiopian tradition. According to Genesis 10:7 and 1 Chronicles 1:9, Sheba was a grandson of Cush through Raamah, which provides a link between this Semitic dynasty and the Hamitic dynasty that preceded it. The so-called Agdazyan dynasty includes a number of kings whose names clearly reference ancient Egypt and Kush, most notably the line of High Priests of Amun that reigned near the end of this dynastic period. While most of these monarchs are archaeologically verified, they did not rule modern-day Ethiopia, but rather ruled over or had some contact with ancient Nubia and Kush, which is equated with Ethiopia in some translations of the Bible and these translated editions have influenced modern Ethiopia's belief in an affinity with ancient Nubia.

Four panels by an unknown 17th to 19th century Ethiopian painter showing the killing of Arwe.
Four panels by an unknown 17th to 19th century Ethiopian painter showing the killing of Arwe.

While this dynasty takes some inspiration from foreign sources, it does include some notable kings that developed within indigenous tradition. These include Ethiopis, whose name supposedly inspired the name of the country Ethiopia, and Angabo, a king who killed the mythical serpent Arwe. One Ethiopian tradition claims that Angabo was the founder of a new dynasty consisting of three further kings and queen Makeda.[173][174] Tafari's king list includes these monarchs, but not as direct successors of each other. Angabo is numbered 74th, while his successors are numbered 77th, 80th, 97th and 98th. (See Angabo dynasty for more information).

The word Ag'azyan means "free" or "to lead to freedom" in Ge'ez.[175][160] According to Heruy Wolde Selassie in his book Wazema, this originated from the liberation of Ethiopia from the rule of the Kamites/Hamites.[160] Selassie also claimed that three of Joktan's sons divided Ethiopia between themselves.[160] Sheba received Tigray, Obal received Adal and Ophir received Ogaden.[160] If this is to be believed, then presumably the later monarchs who followed Sheba/Akbunas Saba ruled from the Tigray Region. It is unclear who ruled the other territories and whether they ever came under rule of the Tigrayian monarchs in later times. It is possible that Sheba/Akbunas Saba may have conquered the other territories and thus became king of all of Ethiopia.

E. A. Wallis Budge had a different theory of the origin of the term Aga'azyan, believing that it referred to several tribes that migrated from Arabia to Africa either at the same time as or after the Habashat had migrated.[175] He stated that the word "Ge'ez" had come from "Ag'azyian".[175] The term "Agdazyan" may also refer to the Agʿazi region of the Axumite empire located in modern-day Eastern Tigray and Southern Eritrea

Sheba is usually considered by historians to have been the south Arabian kingdom of Saba, in an area that later became part of the Aksumite Empire. The Kebra Nagast however specifically states that Sheba was located in Ethiopia.[176] This has led to some historians arguing that Sheba may have been located in a region in Tigray and Eritrea, which was once called "Saba".[177] American historian Donald N. Levine suggested that Sheba may be linked with the historical region of Shewa, where the modern Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is located.[178] Additionally, a Sabaean connection with Ethiopia is evidenced by a number of settlements on the Red Sea coast that emerged around 500 BC and were influenced by Sabaean culture.[179] These people were traders and had their own writing script.[179] Gradually over time their culture merged with that of the local people.[179][180] The Sabaean language was likely the official language of northern Ethiopia during the pre-Axumite period (c. 500 BC to 100 AD).[181]

Ancient blocks from Yeha, the likely capital of D'mt, with Sabaean inscriptions.
Ancient blocks from Yeha, the likely capital of D'mt, with Sabaean inscriptions.

Some historians believe that the kingdom of Dʿmt was Sabaean-influenced, possibly due to Sabaean dominance of the Red Sea or due to mixing with the indigenous population.[182][183] D'mt had developed by the first millennium B.C. in modern-day northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, and had "a veneer of cultural affinities adopted largely from the Saba'an culture centred across the Red Sea in the area of modern Yemen".[184] The D'mt area had a written language that appeared "almost entirely Saba'an in origin".[121] Historian Jacke Phillips argued that "some form of underlying political unification must have allowed its dispersal".[121]

Older hypotheses on the origin of the pre-Axumite culture suggested that it developed due to migrations of population from south Arabia in pre-modern times or that there had been some kind of Sabaean colonization of the modern-day Ethiopia/Eritrea region.[185] More recent theories instead suggest that the culture developed out of a long process of contacts dating back to the 2nd millennium BC.[185]

Taking into account the proof of Sabaean-Ethiopian contacts, this dynasty, while likely legendary, is nonetheless a clear reference to the historical interactions with southern Arabia that occurred in the ancient past and influenced Ethiopian culture and tradition. The mix of Egyptian, Nubian, Greek and Biblical figures in this dynasty showcases the many cultural interactions that Ethiopians had with their neighbours.

Depiction of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, from an Ethiopian Chapel in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Depiction of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, from an Ethiopian Chapel in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Roman-Jewish historian Josephus wrote that that Achaemenid king Cambyses II conquered the capital of Aethiopia and changed its name from "Saba" to "Meroe".[186] Josephus also stated the Queen of Sheba came from this region and was queen of both Egypt and Ethiopia.[187] This suggests that a belief in a connection between Sheba and Kush was already in place by the 1st century AD. Josephus also associated Sheba/Saba with Kush when describing a campaign led by Moses against the Ethiopians, in which he won and later married Tharbis, the daughter of the king of 'Saba' or Meroe.

Due to the alleged Sabaean origin of this dynasty, it is possible that some of the names of kings may be drawn from a south Arabian tradition that identifies a legendary figure named Qahtan (ancestor of the Qahtanite Arabs) with the Biblical figure Joktan.[188][160] The Arab genealogy from Joktan names his great-grandson as Saba (representing the Sabaean kingdom or "Sheba") and his great-great-grandson Kahlan (who represents an Arab confederation in Ancient Yemen). Saba and Kahlan may be represented by the first two kings of this dynasty, Akbunas Saba and Nakehte Kalnis, due to the similarity of their names.

This dynasty is notable for including a line of Egyptian High Priests of Amun numbered 88 to 96 which closely matches archaeological evidence but is not entirely correct. Manfred Kropp felt that these monarchs were the clearest borrowings from Egyptological knowledge and he theorized that Heruy Wolde Selassie deliberately altered the chronological order when writing this king list.[189]

Peter Truhart, in his book Regents of Nations, dated the kings from Akbunas Saba II to Lakndun Nowarari to 1930–1730 BC and listed them as a continuation of the line of "Kings of Ethiopia and Meroe" that begun in 2145 BC.[138] However, Truhart's king list then jumps forward and dates the kings from Tutimheb onwards as contemporaries of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth dynasties of Egypt, with a date range of 1552–1185 BC.[138] Truhart also identified modern-day Ethiopia with the Land of Punt.[138] His list however omits the High Priests of Amun from Herihor to Pinedjem II without giving a clear reason.[74] Despite this, he still acknowledges the rule of the High Priests in Thebes as taking place from c. 1080 to 990 BC.[74]

#
[170]
Monarch
[170][nb 3]
Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[170]
"Year of the World"
[170]
Reign Length
[170]
Alternate Names Notes
47 Akbunas Saba II
አክሁናስ ሳባ
1985–1930 B.C. 3515–3570 A.M. 55 years Sheba
Ahnahus Seba[10]
Ankhnas[138]
Akhunas Saba[160]
Aknunas Saba[160]
48 Nakehte Kalnis
ነክህቲ ካልንስ
1930–1890 B.C. 3570–3610 A.M. 40 years Nakhati Kalenso[160]
Nekhite Kalas[10]
Kahlan?
49 Queen Kasiyope
ካሲዮጲ
1890–1871 B.C. 3610–3629 A.M. 19 years Cassiopeia
Kesayopi[10]
Kasiopo[138]
50 Sabe II
ሰቢ
1871–1856 B.C. 3629–3644 A.M. 15 years Sebi Ayibe[10]
Cepheus[46]
Sebi-Meiamoun[46]
Adrammelech[46]
  • Louis J. Morié identified this king with Cepheus, husband of Cassiopeia.[46] However, this king list instead identifies Cepheus with Sabe III (no. 71).
  • Morié also stated that some people believe this king was deified as the Semitic god Adrammelech.[46]
  • Aleka Taye stated this king was the son of a man named "Amin", though it is unclear who this is meant to be.[10]
51 Etiyopus I
ኢትዮጲስ
1856–1800 B.C. 3644–3700 A.M. 56 years Ethiopis[190]
Aethiopis[53]
Atew[54][138]
Ityepis[138]
Itiyopp'is[191][160]
  • This king's name references the ancient Greek word "Aethiopia", which was originally used to denote Sub-Saharan Africa, though often more specifically the Nubian people.
  • Ethiopian legend claims that "Ethiopia" is derived from the name of king Ethiopis.[190] Likewise, Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder believed that the word "Aethiopia"/"Ethiopia" came from a king named Aethiopis, who was the son of the Roman god Vulcan.[53]
  • Some Ethiopian traditions trace the word "Ethiopia" to Itan, a Ge'ez word for incense, a reference to the Ethiopian plateau which has long traded in incense.[53]
  • One tradition states that Etiyopus was a son of Cush and grandson of Kam.[53]
  • Another tradition additionally claims that Etiyopus' son was named Aksumawi, and he had a son named Malayka Aksum, who then had six sons named Sum, Nafas, Bagi'o, Kuduki, Akhoro and Farheba.[148] The names of Etiyopus' son, grandson and great-grandson are not found on Tafari's king list.
  • According to the Book of Axum, this king built Ethiopia's first capital, Mazaber.[192]
  • Some Ethiopian king lists claim this king was the first to rule Ethiopia.[193]
  • One tradition states Etiyopus was buried in Aksum and that fire used to burn in his grave.[194]
52 Lakndun Nowarari
ላከንዱን ኖወር አሪ
1800–1770 B.C. 3700–3730 A.M. 30 years Lakendun Nowar Ori[160]
Lakundu Neworos[10]
Laknidun Nowarawi[138]
Arwe[138]
Newer-Ari[138]
Nower-Ari[54]
  • Louis J. Morié claimed this king was the father of the Egyptian queen Ahmose-Nefertari.[54] In reality, her father was the Egyptian pharaoh Seqenenre Tao.
  • Peter Truhart seemingly identified this king with the mythical serpent of Ethiopian legend "Arwe", though it is unclear why.[138]
53 Tutimheb
ቱት ኤምሄብ
1770–1750 B.C. 3730–3750 A.M. 20 years Tehuti-em-heb[128]
Thout-em-heb[54]
Tharbos[65]
  • E. A. Wallis Budge theorised that this king's name was drawn from "Tehuti-em-heb",[128] referring to the original Egyptian name for the god Thoth. This would appear to be the correct interpretation, as Louis J. Morié called this king "Thout-em-heb", which is closer to the name "Thoth".[54]
  • Louis J. Morié claimed this king was the father of Tharbis,[65] a Cushite princess who married Moses after he defeated the Aethiopians as head of the Egyptian army, according to a narrative by Josephus.[195]
  • Peter Truhart stated that this king was deposed by the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep I,[138] likely following Morié's narrative that this king was defeated by Moses, who was the head of the army of Amenhotep I.[196] However, the estimated reign dates of Amenhotep I (c. 1524–1503 B.C.) are far later than the reign dates of Tutimheb.
54 Her Hator I
ሔርሐቶር
1750–1730 B.C. 3750–3770 A.M. 20 years Yotor[10]
At-Hor[56][138]
Jethre[138]
Hephaestus[58]
  • Ancient Greek god Hephaestus who was the father of Ethiopis according to Pliny the Elder.[53]
  • Louis J. Morié claimed that the previous king "Thout-em-heb" was replaced by Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep I with one of the pharaoh's astronomers, "At-Hor", who is Jethro of the Bible.[56] This would mean that At-Hor/Jethro was the father of Zipporah, wife of Moses, the latter having lead the army of Amenhotep I against Thout-em-heb/Tutimheb according to Morié's narrative.[196] The author of the 1922 Ethiopian king list may have combined the two seperate narratives of Hephaestus and Jethro into one king.
55 Etiyopus II
ኢትዮጲስ
1730–1700 B.C. 3770–3800 A.M. 30 years Atew[60][138]
Ityopis[160]
56 Senuka I
ሰኑካ
1700–1683 B.C. 3800–3817 A.M. 17 years Senka Menkon[10]
Snouka-Menkon[43][138]
Snouka-Menken[44]
Sanuka[160]
Aktisanes[43]
  • Louis J. Morié used "Snouka Menkon" as an alternate name for the Kushite king Aktisanes in his 1904 book Historie de l'Éthiopie.[43] Though he used the name twice, and claimed the second of these kings ruled Egypt after defeating Akhenaten.[44]
57 Bonu I
ቦኑ
1683–1675 B.C. 3817–3825 A.M. 8 years Tsawente Ben(n)u[138]
Bennu?
  • Name could be based on Bennu, an Egyptian god (see note on Bonu II, no. 70, below).
58 Queen Mumazes
ሙማዜስ
1675–1671 B.C. 3825–3829 A.M. 4 years Moso[66][138]
59 Queen Aruas
አሩአስ
1671 B.C. 3829 A.M. 7 months Arwas[138]
Aru'aso[160]
  • Daughter of Mumazes according to Tafari.[198]
  • However, Louis J. Morié originally claimed that Aruas was a son of Mumazes.[66] Both Aleka Taye and Peter Truhart retained this identification on their respective king lists.[10][138]
60 Amen Asro I
አሚን አስሮ
1671–1641 B.C. 3829–3859 A.M. 30 years Amanislo[128]
Asru-meri-Amen[138]
Ra-anh-ne-wer.het[138]
Amen Asero
Amen Asaro[160]
  • E. A. Wallis Budge believed this king to be identifiable with Amanislo, a Nubian king of Kush who ruled from c. 260 to 250 BC and whose name is inscribed on a granite lion statue currently held in the British Museum.[128][199]
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to before 1400 B.C. and stated he invaded Egypt.[138] This was likely inspired by Louis J. Morié's original narrative that Amen Asro I had ruled Egypt briefly for 2 years.[67]
61 Ori II
ኦሪ
1641–1611 B.C. 3859–3889 A.M. 30 years Aram[170]
62 Piori II
ጲኦሪ
1611–1596 B.C. 3889–3904 A.M. 15 years Perahu[138]
  • Peter Truhart believed this king is identifiable with Perahu, the only known king of Punt, who was a contemporary of Pharaoh Hatshepsut (r. 1479–1458 B.C.).[138]
63 Amen Emhat I
አሜን ኤምሐት
1596–1556 B.C. 3904–3944 A.M. 40 years Aminswamhat Behas[10]
  • Likely identifiable with one of several kings named "Amenemhat" who ruled Egypt between 1991 and 1765 BC, all much earlier than this legendary king. The kings named Amenemhat of the Twelfth Dynasty did rule over Nubia, but are not known to have ruled as far south as modern day Ethiopia.
  • Perhaps coincidentally, pharaoh Amenemhat I was the son of a Nubian woman. However, he also took part in military campaigns against the Nubians.[200]
  • Peter Truhart believed this king was a contemporary of Ramesses II of Egypt (r. 1279–1213 B.C.).[138]
64 Tsawi
ፃውዕ
1556–1541 B.C. 3944–3959 A.M. 15 years Dawe[10]
Sawe[160]
65 Aktissanis
አክቲሳኒስ
1541–1531 B.C. 3959–3969 A.M. 10 years Aktisanes
Oktisanisa[10]
  • Kushite king who ruled Nubia in the early third century B.C.
  • According to Diodorus, this king defeated the Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose II.[61]
66 Mandes
ማንዲስ
1531–1514 B.C. 3969–3986 A.M. 17 years Minos
Menden
Marron
67 Protawos
ጵሮቶውስ
1514–1481 B.C. 3986–4019 A.M. 33 years Pretowes Seshul[10]
Protaws[160]
68 Amoy I
አሞይ
1481–1460 B.C. 4019–4040 A.M. 21 years Amoya[10]
69 Konsi Hendawi
ኮንሲ ሕንዳዊ
1460–1455 B.C. 4040–4045 A.M. 5 years Khonsu?
  • This king's name means "Konsi the Indian".[10][160]
  • The name "Konsi" may be based on the name of the Egyptian god Khonsu. Louis J. Morié associated Khonsu with the Ganges river for unclear reasons and claimed he was a ruler of Aethiopia.[51] Peter Truhart seemingly followed this narrative and claimed Konsi Hendawi originated from a region along the Ganges river.[138]
70 Bonu II
ቦኑ
1455–1453 B.C. 4045–4047 A.M. 2 years Phoenix[138]
Bennou[138]
Belus?
  • Peter Truhart gave "Phoenix" as an alternate name for this king.[138] This could be a reference to the Egyptian god Bennu, who may have inspired the phoenix legends in Greek mythology. Alternatively, this may refer to the Greek mythical figure Phoenix who was sometimes named as the father of Cepheus.[201]
  • If the next king is to be identified with Cepheus, then this king could be his father Belus, a mythical king of Egypt from Greek mythology.
71 Sebi III (Kefe)
ሰቢ
1453–1438 B.C. 4047–4062 A.M. 15 years Adar Melek[138]
Mihrag[138]
Adrammelech[138]
Cepheus[51]
  • Third son of Bonu II.[10]
  • The name "Kefe" may be a reference to the Ethiopian king Cepheus from Greek mythology, as Louis J. Morié called Cepheus "Képhée, of the Sebi" in his book Histoire de l'Éthiopie.[51] The placement of this king on this list is however problematic as his wife, Cassiopeia, is placed 418 years before him.
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with the Semitic god Adrammelech,[138] likely inspired by Louis J. Morié's narrative. However, Morié actually claimed Sabe II was the king who was deified as Adrammelech.[46]
72 Djagons
ጀጎንስ
1438–1418 B.C. 4062–4082 A.M. 20 years Jagonis Sekones[10]
Jagonso[160]
Sekhons[138]
Gigon[138]
Danaus?
  • Could be identifiable with Danaus, a king of Libya from Greek mythology who is sometimes named as a brother of Cepheus and son of Belus.
73 Senuka II
ሰኑካ
1418–1408 B.C. 4082–4092 A.M. 10 years Senuka Felias[10]
Snouka-menken[138]
Raskhoperen[138]
Sanuka[160]
74 Angabo I (Zaka Laarwe)
አንጋቦ
1408–1358 B.C. 4092–4142 A.M. 50 years Za Besi Angabo[174][138]
Angabos[110][160]
  • King who killed a mythical serpent called Arwe or Wainaba.[202]
  • Some sources claim that this ruler was the founder of a new dynasty in 1370 B.C.[139]
  • Some variations of the Arwe myth claim that Angabo was of non-royal origin and was made king as reward for slaying Arwe.[194] This version of the legend states that Angabo was a stranger who saved Makeda (the future Queen of Sheba) from being sacrified to Arwe and that her father was chief minister to king "Za Sebado".[203]
  • Some Ethiopian sources place Arwe at the beginning of Ethiopian history,[204] though this is obviously not the case with Tafari's list.
  • Some traditions claim that Angabo was king for 200 years.[205]
  • According to Aleka Taye, Angabo was the son of "Adhana", though it is unclear what their relation, if any, is to this dynastic line.[10]
  • According to some Ethiopian traditions, Angabo was the father of Makeda.[206]
75 Miamur
ሚአሙር
1358 B.C. 4142 A.M. 2 days
76 Queen Helena
ከሊና
1358–1347 B.C. 4142–4153 A.M. 11 years Belina[10]
Kalina[160]
Eleni?[nb 4]
77 Zagdur I
ዘግዱር
1347–1307 B.C. 4153–4193 A.M. 40 years Gedur[173]
  • Son of Angabo I.[173]
  • Some Ethiopian traditions claim that this king ruled for 100 years.[174][173]
  • According to Aleka Taye, this king devised the phonetic Ge'ez alphabet.[10]
78 Her Hator II
ሔርሐቶር
1307–1277 B.C. 4193–4223 A.M. 30 years Herhator Ertas[10]
Erythras[72][138]
79 Her Hator (Za Sagado) III
ሔርሐቶር
1277–1276 B.C. 4223–4224 A.M. 1 year Herhator Zesbado[10]
Erythras[138]
80 Akate (Za Sagado) IV
ኔክቴ
1276–1256 B.C. 4224–4244 A.M. 20 years Zazebass Besaso[174]
Sebado[173]
Nekate[209]
Nikti Zesbado[10]
81 Titon Satiyo
ቲቶን ሶትዮ
1256–1246 B.C. 4244–4254 A.M. 10 years Tinton Sotio[10][209]
Tetuni[74]
Tithonus
  • While Truhart identified the previous king Akate as the father of Memnon,[74] the name of Memnon's father was Tithonus which has a much stronger similarity with the name of Titon Satiyo.
82 Hermantu
ሔርመንቱ
1246 B.C. 4254 A.M. 5 months Emathion[51]
  • Emathion, a king of Aethiopia in Greek mythology who was a son of Tithonus (no. 81) and brother of Memnon (no. 83).[51]
  • An illegitimate son of Titon Satiyo according to Peter Truhart.[74]
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa stated that this king reigned for only 1 month.[211] One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's king list also lists a 1-month reign for this king while another lists 5 months.[209] Manfred Kropp theorized that the confusion could be a transcibal error resulting from the similarity of the Ethiopian numbers for 1 and 5.[189]
83 Amen Emhat II
አሜን ኤምሐት
1246–1241 B.C. 4254–4259 A.M. 5 years Memnon[74]
Meiamun Amenemhat[74]
  • See note above for Amen Emhat I.
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with Memnon, who, according to Greek myth, fought in the Trojan war.[74] The dating on Tafari's list for this king makes this identification plausible.
  • Truhart additionally stated that this king was a son of Akate Za Sagado,[74] though this could be an error and he may have meant to name Titon Satiyo as the father of Amenemhat II, as Titon Satiyo's name is far closer to the name of Memnon's father Tithonus.
  • Historian Martin Bernal, in his controversial work Black Athena, argued that it was plausable for the name "Memnon" to have originated from the Egyptian name "Amenemhat".[212]
84 Konsab
ኮንሳብ
1241–1236 B.C. 4259–4264 A.M. 5 years Khons-Ab[74]
Kus-awil-dendan[74]
85 Sannib
ሳኒብ
1236–1231 B.C. 4264–4269 A.M. 5 years Konseb[10]
Khons-Ab[74]
  • This king's name could be an error. Aleka Taye called this king "Konseb II" rather than Sannib and this may explain why Tafari called this king "Sannib II" on his king list despite no prior king named Sannib appearing on this king list. This also may be why he refers to the prior king as "Konsab I" despite no further kings of name appearing on this list. It is possible that "Sannib" may be a mistakenly transcribed name combining the prior king "Konsab" with the next king "Sanuka".
86 Sanuka III
ሰኑካ
1231–1226 B.C. 4269–4274 A.M. 5 years Snuka-Menken[74]
87 Angabo II
አንጋቦ
1226–1186 B.C. 4274–4314 A.M. 40 years Angabo Hezbey[10]
88 Amen Astate
አሜን አስታት
1186–1156 B.C. 4314–4344 A.M. 30 years Amenhotep[213]
Monostatos[74]
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Amenhotep.[213]
  • According to Ethiopian historian Tekletsadiq Mekuria, this king was the father of Herihor.[213] However, there is no archaeological evidence to prove this.
  • Unlike the later High Priests of Amun on this list, Amenhotep did not style himself as Pharaoh of Upper Egypt.
89 Herhor
ሔርሆር
1156–1140 B.C. 4344–4360 A.M. 16 years Herihor
Arhor[10]
90 Wiyankihi I
ፒያንኪያ
1140–1131 B.C. 4360–4369 A.M. 9 years Piankh
Piyankihi
Piyankiya[209]
Pianki Henquqay[10]
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Piankh, who succeeded Herihor and is believed by Egyptologists to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 1074 to c. 1070 B.C., over half a century after the dates on this list.
  • Piankh was also Viceroy of Kush and led a campaign into Nubia.
  • Peter Truhart omitted this king from his king list.[74]
91 Pinotsem I
ፕኖትሲም
1131–1114 B.C. 4369–4386 A.M. 17 years Pinedjem
Tenot Sem[10]
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Pinedjem I,[128] who succeeded Piankh and is believed by Egyptologists to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 1070 to c. 1032 B.C.
  • Peter Truhart omitted this king from his king list.[74]
92 Pinotsem II
ፕኖትሲም
1114–1073 B.C. 4386–4427 A.M. 41 years Tenot Sem[10]
Pinedjem
  • Although there was a second High Priest of Amun named Pinedjem, his line of succession fits more closely with the position of Pinotsem III below.
  • Manfred Kropp noted that the existence of a third High Priest of Amun named Pinedjem was an error in late 19th-century Egyptology, which suggests that the writer of Tafari's king list had used European sources for compiling the list.[25]
  • Peter Truhart omitted this king from his king list.[74]
93 Massaherta
ማሳሔርታ
1073–1057 B.C. 4427–4443 A.M. 16 years Masaharta
Mashirtar Tuklay[10]
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Masaharta,[128] who is believed by Egyptologists to have succeeded Pinedjem I and to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 1054 to c. 1045 B.C.
  • Peter Truhart omitted this king from his king list.[74]
94 Ramenkoperm
ራመንከፐር
1057–1043 B.C. 4443–4457 A.M. 14 years Menkheperre
Ramenkopirm Sehel[10]
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Menkheperre,[128] who came to power shortly after the end of Masaharta's reign (though not a direct successor) and is believed by Egyptologists to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 1045 to c. 992 B.C.
  • Peter Truhart omitted this king from his king list.[74]
95 Pinotsem III
ፒኖትሲም
1043–1036 B.C. 4457–4464 A.M. 7 years Pinedjem
Tenot Sem[10]
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Pinedjem II, who is believed by Egyptologists to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 990 to c. 976 B.C.
  • His predecessor Nesbanebdjed II is not included on this king list.
  • Peter Truhart omitted this king from his king list.[74]
96 Sabi IV
ሰቢ
1036–1026 B.C. 4464–4474 A.M. 10 years Pasebakhaennuit
Psusennes
Za Sebadh[74]
  • Egyptian High Priest of Amun Pasebakhaennuit III, who succeeded Pinedjem II and is believed by Egyptologists to have ruled Upper Egypt from c. 976 to c. 943 B.C.
97 Tawasaya Dews
ተዋስያ ዴውስ
1026–1013 B.C. 4474–4487 A.M. 13 years Zakawsya b'Axum[174]
Kawnasya[173]
Tawasya
Za Qawasya[74]
98 Queen Makeda
ማክዳ
1013–982 B.C. 4487–4518 A.M. 13 years Saba[10]
Nicaula[132]
Bilqis
  • The Biblical Queen of Sheba in Ethiopian tradition. She is believed by Ethiopians to have visited king Solomon of Israel and had a son with him named Menelik.
  • Daughter of Tawasaya Dews.[74][174][173]
  • According to some Ethiopian traditions, Makeda's father was named Angabos and he became king of Ethiopia after killing the serpent king Arwe.[110]
  • One version of the tradition states her father was chief minister to king "Za Sebado" and she was rescued from the serpent Arwe by Angabo, who later became king.[214]
  • The Kebra Nagast refers to this queen as the "Queen of the South [who] was the Queen of Ethiopia".[215] In this text she is described as "very beautiful in face", having a "superb" stature and possessing intelligence and understanding of "high character".[215] Because of this she travelled to Jerusalem to "hear the wisdom of Solomon".[215] The Kebra Nagast also states that she was very rich and traded "by sea and by land" to regions such as India and Aswan in Egypt.[215]
  • An alternate tradition states that Makeda ruled for 50 years, dying in c. 955 B.C., aged about 60.[216] She also supposedly forbade women from ruling Ethiopia in the future,[216] though this is contradicted by thirteen reigning queens who appear later in this list. The Kebra Nagast claims that she abdicated in favour of her son Menelik I.
  • E. A. Wallis Budge theorised that the name "Makeda" may be based on "Maatkare", the throne name of pharaoh Hatshepsut.[128] Alternatively, the name may be based on "mlkt", a Sabaean term for "queen" that appears on some Sabaean inscriptions.[217]
  • According to the Book of Axum, Makeda rebuilt Axum in the territory of Aseba and this was the reason why the Bible refers to her as the "Queen of Saba" and "Queen of Azeb" (i.e. South).[218]
"Of the posterity of Ori up to the reign of Makeda 98 sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia before the advent of Menelik I."[170]

Dynasty of Menelik I (1,475 years)

A new dynasty begins with Menelik I, son of Queen Makeda and King Solomon. The Ethiopian monarchy claimed a line of descent from Menelik that remained unbroken — except for the reign of Queen Gudit and the Zagwe dynasty — until the monarchy's dissolution in 1975. Tafari's 1922 king list divides up the Menelik dynasty into three sections:

  • Monarchs who reigned before the birth of Christ (982 B.C.–9 A.D.)
  • Monarchs who reigned after the birth of Christ (9–306 A.D.)
  • Monarchs who were Christian themselves (306–493 A.D.).

Additionally, a fourth line of monarchs descending from Kaleb is listed as a separate dynasty on this king list but most Ethiopian king lists do not acknowledge any dynastic break between Kaleb and earlier monarchs. This line of monarchs is dated to 493–920 A.D. and is made up of the last kings to rule Axum before it was sacked by Queen Gudit. The line of Menelik was restored, according to tradition, with the accession of Yekuno Amlak.

Heruy Wolde Selassie considered Makeda to be the first of a new dynasty instead of Menelik.[219]

Monarchs who reigned before the birth of Christ (991 years)

The Ark of the Covenant arriving in Ethiopia with Menelik I.
The Ark of the Covenant arriving in Ethiopia with Menelik I.

Ethiopian tradition credits Makeda with being the first Ethiopian monarch to convert to Judaism after her visit to king Solomon, before which she had been worshipping Sabaean gods.[220] However, Judaism did not become the official religion of Ethiopia until Makeda's son Menelik brought the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia.[221] While Ethiopian tradition asserts that the kings following Menelik maintained the Jewish religion, there is no evidence that this was the case and virtually nothing is known of Menelik's successors and their religious beliefs.[119]

Other Ethiopian king lists, based on either oral or textual tradition, present an alternate order and numbering of the kings of this dynasty (see Alternate King lists from Menelik I to Bazen). If any other Ethiopian king list is taken individually, then the number of monarchs from Menelik I to Bazen is not enough to realistically cover the claimed time period from the 10th century B.C. to the birth of Jesus Christ. Tafari's list appears to try to bring together various different king lists into one larger list by naming the majority of kings that are scattered across various oral and textual records regarding the line of succession from Menelik. The result is a more realistic number of monarchs reigning over the course of ten centuries. Of the 67 monarchs on Tafari's list from Menelik I to Bazen, over half are attested in other known king lists.

Tafari's king list names various Nubian and Egyptian rulers as part of Menelik's dynasty. These Nubian and Egyptian rulers did not follow the Jewish religion, so their status as alleged successors of Menelik calls into question how strong the 'Judaisation' of Ethiopia truly was in Menelik's reign. In several cases, the kings do not have Egyptian and Nubian elements in their names on king lists from before the 20th century and it appears that these elements were added in the 20th century to provide a stronger link to ancient Kush.

Peter Truhart, in his book Regents of Nations, believed that an "Era of Nubian Supremacy" began with the reign of Amen Hotep Zagdur, as from this point onwards many kings' names show clear links to the kings of Napata and Kush.[74] Truhart believed that the kings from Safelya Sabakon to Apras were likely related to or possibly identifiable with the Pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth dynasties (c. 730–525 BC).[74] He additionally believed that an "Era of Meroen Influence" began with the reign of Kashta Walda Ahuhu.[74]

Some historians refer to this dynasty as the "Solomon" dynasty, in reference to its claimed descent from king Solomon and because of the use of the term to the refer to the later Solomonic dynasty that was descended from this earlier line of kings.[74]

Monarchs highlighted in  green  appear on traditional Ethiopian king lists from before the 20th century that were written on manuscripts or transmitted orally. However, many of their names have been expanded or altered for the 1922 king list.

#
[222]
Monarch
[222][nb 5]
Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[222]
"Year of the World"
[222]
Reign Length
[222]
Alternate Names Notes
99 Menelik I
ቀዳማዊ ምኒልክ
982–957 B.C. 4518–4543 A.M. 25 years Ebna El-Hakim[18][74]
Ibn Hakim[89]
Dawit[74][10]
  • According to Ethiopian tradition, Menelik was the son of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, and King Solomon of Israel.
  • The Kebra Nagast states he ruled in the 10th century B.C., which matches with the dates listed here.
  • Some Ethiopian traditions state Menelik 'built' Aksum,[1] while some chronicles claim this was done by Solomon.[18]
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of Menelik's reign to c. 950 AD.[74]
  • Other king lists claim Menelik's reign lasted between 4 and 29 years.[89][130]
100 Hanyon
ሃንዮን
957–956 B.C. 4543–4544 A.M. 1 year Handeyon[10][219]
Za Handadyo[74][89]
Handedya[89]
Za Handedya[89]
Zagdur[89]
  • Other king lists claim this king's reign lasted to between 1 and 8 years.[89]
101 Sera I (Tomai)
ሲራህ
956–930 B.C. 4544–4570 A.M. 26 years Sirah Tomay[10]
Ab-Rakid[130]
Tomas[130]
102 Amen Hotep Zagdur
አመንሆቴፕ ቶማ
930–899 B.C. 4570–4601 A.M. 31 years Zagduru[130]
  • The name "Amenhotep" was used by four Pharaohs who ruled Egypt and Nubia during the Eighteenth Dynasty, but they are not known to have ruled the area of modern-day Ethiopia. These four kings also ruled more than four centuries before these dates. Additionally, there were multiple Viceroys of Kush named Amenhotep, any of whom may be the inspiration behind this king's inclusion on this king list.
  • This king may be identifiable with the Aksumite king GDRT, who appears in some king lists under the name "Gedur", "Zegdur" or "Zegduru" ("Ze" meaning "of" in Ge'ez). However the estimated period of GDRT's reign used by archeologists (c. 200 A.D.), more closely matches the similarly named king "Gaza Agdur" who appears as the 188th monarch on this list.
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's king list and Aleka Taye's king list both state that this king ruled for 41 years, from 930 to 889 B.C., resulting in all of the following monarchs of this dynasty until Safelya Sabakon (no. 122) having their reign dates pushed forward by 10 years compared to Tafari's list.[219][10]
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 900 B.C.[74]
  • This king is only known as "Zagdur" or "Zagduru" on pre-20th century king lists.[130]
103 Aksumay Ramissu
አክሱማይ ራሚሱ
899–879 B.C. 4601–4621 A.M. 20 years Za Awda[74]
  • This king's name references both the kingdom of Aksum and the Egyptian Pharaohs named Ramesses who ruled Egypt during the Nineteenth and Twentieth dynasties. Ramesses II is the most likely pharaoh referenced here because he had the longest reign and is known to have led campaigns into Nubia. However, the reign of Ramesses II took place much earlier than these dates, at c. 1279–1213 B.C.
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 860 B.C.[74]
  • Only known as "Aksumay" on pre-20th century king lists.[130]
104 Awseyo Sera II
አውስዮ ሲራህ
879–841 B.C. 4621–4659 A.M. 38 years Sirah[10]
Za Awesyo[89][74]
Awsabyos[74][130]
Aufyi[89]
Za Awsyu[89]
105 Tawasya II
ተዋስያ
841–820 B.C. 4659–4680 A.M. 21 years Tawasaya
Za Sawe[74][89]
Ta'asya[130]
Tahawasya[130]
106 Abralyus Wiyankihi II
ፒያንኪ አብራልዩስ
820–788 B.C. 4680–4712 A.M. 32 years Piye
Piankhi
Piyankihi
Abralyus[130]
Abralios Piankhi[10]
Abralyos Piyankiya[219]
  • Piye or "Piankhi",[128][74] a Kushite king who ruled Nubia c. 744 to 714 B.C. and conquered Egypt in 720 B.C.
  • Only known as "Abralyus" on pre-20th century king lists.[130]
107 Aksumay Warada Tsahay
አክሱማይ ዋራዳ ጸሃይ
788–765 B.C. 4712–4735 A.M. 23 years Aksumay Werede Tsehay[10]
Warada Dahay[130]
  • The second king on this list whose name references the ancient kingdom of Aksum.
  • Only known as "Warada Tsahay" on pre-20th century king lists.[130]
108 Kashta Hanyon
ካሽታ ሃንዮን
765–752 B.C. 4735–4748 A.M. 13 years Kashta
Kaseheta Handeyon[10][219]
Handadyo[130]
  • Kushite king Kashta who was Piye/Piankhi's immediate predecessor.[74]
  • Only known as "Hanyon" on pre-20th century king lists.[130]
109 Sabaka
ሻባካ
752–740 B.C. 4748–4760 A.M. 12 years Shabaka
  • Kushite Pharaoh Shabaka[128][74] who ruled Nubia and Egypt from 705 to 690 B.C.
  • Some historians have theorized that there may be some affinity between the word "Saba" and the name of the so-called Aethiopian king Sabaka.[223]
110 Queen Nicauta Kandake I
ኒካንታ ቅንዳኬ
740–730 B.C. 4760–4770 A.M. 10 years Nikanta Qendeke[10][219]
  • The first of 6 Queens on this list named Kandake, after the Meroitic term for the sister of the king of Kush, who sometimes ruled over Kush and Nubia as regent or as a monarch in her own right. None of the reigning Kandakes are known to have ruled as far back as the 8th century B.C., with the earliest known reigning queen of Kush having ruled during the 2nd century B.C.
111 Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash
ፃውዕ ተርሃክ ዋራዳ ናጋሽ
730–681 B.C. 4770–4819 A.M. 49 years Taharqa
Dawe' Tirhaq (Werede Negash)[10]
Sawe[89]
Za Tsawe[89]
Za Sawe[89]
Warada Nagasha[130]
112 Erda Amen Awseya
እርዳመን አውስያ
681–675 B.C. 4819–4825 A.M. 6 years Awesya[74]
Awsayo[130]
Za Awesyo[89]
Asanya[74]
Aufyi[89]
Za Awsyu[89]
Awsabyos[130]
Ardamen Awsia[10]
Ardamen Awseya[219]
Esarhaddon?
  • E. A. Wallis Budge believed this king to be Rudamun, a Libyan pharaoh of the Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt.[128] Rudamun ruled over Upper Egypt from c. 759 to c. 755 B.C., more than 70 years before the dates on this king list, and is not known to have extended any influence over Nubia.
  • Only known as "Awseya" on pre-20th century king lists.[89]
  • The name "Erda Amen" may be based on "Ourd-Amen", a name used by Louis J. Morié to refer to a king who ruled both Nubia and Egypt and succeeded Taharqa according to his Historie de l'Éthiope.[33] Alternatively, the name "Erdamen" may derive from "Esarhaddon", an Assyrian king who defeated the Kushite pharaoh Taharqa and whose reign was dated by Morié to 680–667 B.C.[79]
113 Gasiyo Eskikatir
ጋሲዮ እስክካቲር
Gesiyo[10]
Gasyo[219]
Za Gasyo[74][89]
Za Gesyu[89]
  • The only monarch on Tafari's king list with no dates.[224]
  • "Eskikatir" means "until Noon".
  • Ethiopian historians Aleka Taye and Fisseha Yaze Kassa both state that this king reigned for only six hours.[10][225]
  • Peter Truhart stated that this king reigned for half a day.[74]
114 Nuatmeawn
ታኑታሙን
675–671 B.C. 4825–4829 A.M. 4 years Tantamani
Nuatmiomun[219]
Nuatmiamen[10]
Za Mawat[74]
Mouta[89]
Za Maute[89]
  • Kushite Pharaoh Tantamani,[128] who ruled Nubia from 664 to 653 B.C. and ruled Egypt from the beginning of his reign until he lost control of it in 656 B.C.
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with "Za Mawat", who appears on some Ethiopian king lists.[74]
  • Other king lists claim the reign of "Mawat"/"Maute" lasted from 8 years and 4 months to 20 years and 1 month.[89][130]
  • The name "Nuatmeawn" may have originated from Louis J. Morié's Historie de l'Éthiope, in which this name is used to refer to Tantamani.[33]
115 Tomadyon Piyankihi III
ቶማድዮን ፒያንኪ
671–659 B.C. 4829–4841 A.M. 12 years Toma Dahay[74][130]
Toma Seyon[130]
Wiyankihi
Tomaseyon Piyankiha[219]
  • Only known as "Tomadyon" on pre-20th century king lists.[130]
116 Amen Asero II
አሜን አሰሮ
659–643 B.C. 4841–4857 A.M. 16 years Amen Asro
Amanislo?
117 Piyankihi IV (Awtet)
ፒያንኪሂ
643–609 B.C. 4857–4891 A.M. 34 years Piankhi IV (Awtio)[10]
Biyankiya (Awteyo)[219]
118 Zaware Nebret Aspurta
ዛዋሬ ንብረት አስፑርታ
609–568 B.C. 4891–4932 A.M. 41 years Aspelta
Zuwarenbret Aspurta[10][219]
Zaware Nebrat
119 Saifay Harsiataw
ሳይፋይ ሃርሲያታው
568–556 B.C. 4932–4944 A.M. 12 years Harsiotef
Serfay Harsiatew[10]
120 Ramhay Nastossanan
ራምሃይ ናስቶሳናን
556–542 B.C. 4944–4958 A.M. 14 years Nastasen
Ramahay
  • Kushite king Nastasen,[128] who ruled Nubia from c. 335 to c. 315 B.C.
  • An unpublished chronicle from Aksum states that a king named "Ramahay" reigned at the time of Alexander the Great and asked for Greek technicians and engineers to build palaces, monuments and stelae, one of which was destroyed centuries later by Gudit.[226] Alexander's rule of Egypt did not take place until 332 B.C., over two centuries after these dates, and thus either the dating is wrong or this legend refers to the second king named Ramhay on this list (no. 145). Perhaps coincidentally, the Nubian king Nastasen did in fact reign during the time of Alexander the Great. It is unknown if this is the reason why Tafari associated Nastasen with Ramahay despite the Nubian king's absence on other Ethiopian king lists.
121 Handu Wuha Abra
ሀንዱ ዉሃ አብራ
542–531 B.C. 4958–4969 A.M. 11 years Handar[130]
Handew Abra[10]
Handiwa'bra[219]
122 Safelya Sabakon
ሴፌሊያ ሳባኮን
531–500 B.C. 4969–5000 A.M. 31 years Sofelia Nekibon[10]
Zafelya Sabakon[74]
Sofelya Nabikon[219]
123 Agalbus Sepekos
አጋልበስ ሴፔኮስ
500–478 B.C. 5000–5022 A.M. 22 years Shebitku?
Agelbul Sewekos[10]
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with a Pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth or Twenty-sixth dynasties.[74] Truhart may be referreing to Shebitku.
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's king list and Aleka Taye's king list state that this king reigned for 21 years, from 490 to 469 B.C.[10][219] This, combined with the addition of 10 years to Amen Hotep Zagdur's reign earlier, results in all monarchs of this dynasty until Feliya Hernekhit (no. 146) on Selassie's list and Queen Nicotnis Kandake V (no. 162) on Taye's list having their reign dates pushed forward by 11 years compared to Tafari's list.
124 Psmenit Waradanegash
ጸሜኒት ዋርዳነጋሽ
478–457 B.C. 5022–5043 A.M. 21 years Psmeret (Werede Negash)[10][219]
125 Awseya Tarakos
አውሴያ ታራኮስ
457–445 B.C. 5043–5055 A.M. 12 years Asanya[130]
Awesya[130]
Awesia Burakos[219][10]
  • Possibly an alternate name for Taharqa.[74]
  • Only known as "Awseya" on pre-20th century king lists.[130]
126 Kanaz Psmis
ካናዝ ሲምስ
445–432 B.C. 5055–5068 A.M. 13 years Qaniz Peshmez[219]
Qeniz Pismes[10]
Katzina[89]
Kanazi[89]
Za Qanaz[89][74]
Kanati[74]
  • Son of Awseya Tarakos.[228]
  • Other king lists claim this king's reign lasted 9 or 10 years.[89]
127 Apras
አፕራስ
432–422 B.C. 5068–5078 A.M. 10 years Apries
Apraso[219][10]
128 Kashta Walda Ahuhu
ካሽታ ዋልዳ አሁሁ
422–402 B.C. 5078–5098 A.M. 20 years Walda Mehrat[130]
Keshita Welde Equh[10]
Kasheta Walda Ekhuhu[219]
129 Elalion Taake
ኤላዮን ታአኬ
402–392 B.C. 5098–5108 A.M. 10 years Elalion Te'niki[229][10]
Ilalyos[130][230]
Talakhamani?
  • This monarch may be the Nubian king Talakhamani who ruled Kush from 435 to 431 B.C.
  • Only known as "Elalion" on pre-20th century king lists.
130 Atserk Amen III
አሰርክ አሜን
392–382 B.C. 5108–5118 A.M. 10 years Atsirkamin[10][229]
  • Peter Truhart re-numbered this king as "Atserk Amen I".[230]
  • Truhart also believed that the four kings named "Atserk Amen" were based on the name of a Merotic king.[74][230] He may be referring to Senkamanisken.
131 Atserk Amen IV
አሰርክ አሜን
382–372 B.C. 5118–5128 A.M. 10 years Atsirkamen[10][229]
132 Queen Hadina
ሃዲና
372–362 B.C. 5128–5138 A.M. 10 years Haduna[89]
Za Hadena[89]
  • Other king lists claim this monarch ruled for 9 years.[89]
133 Atserk Amen V
አሰርክ አሜን
362–352 B.C. 5138–5148 A.M. 10 years Atsirkamin[10][229]
134 Atserk Amen VI
አሰርክ አሜን
352–342 B.C. 5148–5158 A.M. 10 years Atsirkamin[10][229]
135 Queen Nikawla Kandake II
ኒካውላ ካንዳኬ
342–332 B.C. 5158–5168 A.M. 10 years
136 Bassyo
ባስዮ
332–325 B.C. 5168–5175 A.M. 7 years Za Bahas[230]
Ba'os[130][230]
Basei[10]
Bas'u[229]
Baskakeren?
  • This king may be the Nubian king Baskakeren, who ruled Kush around 400 B.C.
137 Queen Akawsis Kandake III
አካውሲስ ካንዳኬ
325–315 B.C. 5175–5185 A.M. 10 years Nikawsis Qendeke[10]
Akawkis Qendeke[229]
138 Arkamen I
አርካመን
315–305 B.C. 5185–5195 A.M. 10 years Arqamani
  • Likely a Meroitic king,[230] either Arakamani or Arqamani, who ruled Kush in the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C.
  • This king may be tentatively identified with Arqamani if the second king named Arkamen on this list (no. 145) is indeed intended to be Arakamani (see note on this king below).
  • Aleka Taye swapped this king's position with Awtet Arawura below.[10]
139 Awtet Arawura
አውቴት አራውራ
305–295 B.C. 5195–5205 A.M. 10 years Awtet Arawra[10]
Awestet[130][230]
Awetet[130]
140 Kolas (Koletro)
ቆላስ
295–285 B.C. 5205–5215 A.M. 10 years Kalas[89]
Za Kal'aku[89][230]
Kalas Kalito[229]
Kels'a (Kelitro)[10]
141 Zawre Nebrat II
ዛውሬ ነበራት
285–269 B.C. 5215–5231 A.M. 16 years Zewarienebret[10][229]
Zaware Nebret
142 Stiyo
ስቲዮ
269–255 B.C. 5231–5245 A.M. 14 years Stoyo[229]
Sotio[10]
Satyo[230]
Za Satyo[89]
Solaya[89]
  • Other king lists claim this king ruled for 16 years.[89]
143 Safay
ሳፋይ
255–242 B.C. 5245–5258 A.M. 13 years Sayfay[229]
Sodofay[10]
144 Queen Nikosis Kandake IV
ኒኮሲስ ካንዳኬ
242–232 B.C. 5258–5268 A.M. 10 years Nikosis Qendeke[229]
145 Ramhay Arkamen II
ራምሃይ አርካመን
232–222 B.C. 5268–5278 A.M. 10 years Arakamani
Ergamenes
Ramahay
Remhay Armin[10]
  • Likely a Nubian king,[230] either Arakamani or Arqamani, who ruled Kush in the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C.
  • However, it is more likely this king is intended to be Arakamani, often equated with Ergamenes, a Nubian king reported by Greek historian Agatharchides to have reigned during the time of Pharaoh Ptolemy IV of Egypt (r. 221–204 B.C.).
  • An unpublished chronicle from Axum states that a king named "Ramahay" reigned at the time of Alexander the Great and asked for Greek technicians and engineers to build palaces, monuments and stelae, one of which was destroyed centuries later by Gudit.[226] Alexander's rule of Egypt took place during 332–323 B.C., and thus this king's reign is a century too late to be a contemporary of Alexander. However, this story of king Ramahay bears notable similarities with the story of Ergamenes, who was said to have been instructed in Greek philosophy, interested in Greek art and the general Greek way of life.[234] It is therefore possible that naming this king "Ramhay Arkamen" is intended to reflect that "Ramahay" is to be identified with "Ergamenes".
  • Only known as "Ramhay" on pre-20th century king lists.[130]
146 Feliya Hernekhit
ፌሊያ ሄርነኺት
222–207 B.C. 5278–5293 A.M. 15 years Falaya[89]
Za Filya[89][230]
Fielya Hurnekhet[10]
Felya Hurnekeht[229]
Aphilos[230]
Aphilas?
  • E. A. Wallis Budge suggested that this king could be Aphilas,[235] although the reign dates on this list are far too early.
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 240 or 230 B.C. and believed he was a contemporary of Pharaoh Ptolemy III.[230]
  • Other king lists state this king reigned for 26 years.[89]
147 Hende Awkerara
ሄንዴ አውቄራ
207–187 B.C. 5293–5313 A.M. 20 years Henden[130]
Handu[130]
Hende(n) Awkerarq[230]
Hendor[230]
Endybis[230]
Endubis?
  • Truhart identified this king with the Axumite king Endubis, although Endubis reigned in the late 3rd century A.D.
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's king list claims this king reigned for 22 years.[229] This, along with the addition of 10 years to the reign of Amen Hotep Zagdur (no. 102) and the removal of 1 year from the reign of Agalbus Sepekos (no. 123) results in all monarchs up to Queen Nicotnis Kandake V (no. 162) having their reign dates pushed forward by 11 years compared to Tafari's list.
148 Agabu Baseheran
አጋቡ ባሰሄራን
187–177 B.C. 5313–5323 A.M. 10 years Aghabu Bisehran[10][229]
Bahas[89]
Za Bahse[89]
Za Bahas[89]
  • Other king lists claim this king ruled for 9 years.[89]
149 Sulay Kawawmenun
ሱለይ ካዋውመኑን
177–157 B.C. 5323–5343 A.M. 20 years Kawida[89]
Kawuda[89]
Za Taweda[89]
Sulay Awawminun[10]
Salay(a) Kawawmenun[230]
  • Other king lists claim this king ruled for 2 years.[89]
150 Messelme Kerarmer
መሰለሜ ከራመር
157–149 B.C. 5343–5351 A.M. 8 years Masleni Qurarmer[229]
Meslni Qurarmer[10]
Kanata?[89]
  • Similar name to Egyptian pharaoh Narmer, who first unified Egypt over 2,900 years before these dates.
151 Nagey Bsente
ናጌይ ብሰንቴ
149–139 B.C. 5351–5361 A.M. 10 years Nagsay Besinti[229]
Negsay Bisiniti[10]
152 Etbenukawer
እትበንካወር
139–129 B.C. 5361–5371 A.M. 10 years
153 Safeliya Abramen
ሴፍኢሊያ አብራምን
129–109 B.C. 5371–5391 A.M. 20 years Sifelya Abramin[10]
Za Felya Abramen[230]
Aphilas?
154 Sanay
ሰናይ
109–99 B.C. 5391–5401 A.M. 10 years Senay[10]
155 Queen Awsena
አውሴና
99–88 B.C. 5401–5412 A.M. 11 years Awasina[229]
Asisena[89]
Za Awzena[89]
Za 'Awsina[89]
  • Other king lists claim this monarch ruled for only 1 year.[89]
156 Dawit II
ዳዊት
88–78 B.C. 5412–5422 A.M. 10 years
  • The reason why Tafari called this king "Dawit II" may be because Aleka Taye numbered the king this way and referred to Menelik I as "Dawit" earlier in his king list.[10]
157 Aglbul
አጉልቡል
78–70 B.C. 5422–5430 A.M. 8 years Aglebu[89]
Engeleb[89][230]
Za Aglebu[230][130]
Aglebel[230][89]
Aghelbuls[10]
  • Other king lists claim this king ruled for 3 years.[89]
158 Bawawl
ባዋውል
70–60 B.C. 5430–5440 A.M. 10 years Bawel[130]
Bawawel[130]
Bewawl[10]
159 Barawas
ባራዋስ
60–50 B.C. 5440–5450 A.M. 10 years Za Birwas[89][230]
Bawaris[130][230]
Berewas[10]
Brus[89]
Za Ber-was[89]
  • Other king lists claim this king ruled for 29 years.[89][236]
160 Dinedad
ዲኔዳድ
50–40 B.C. 5450–5460 A.M. 10 years Danidad[10][229]
Dinedas[230]
161 Amoy Mahasse
አሞይ ማሀሴ
40–35 B.C. 5460–5465 A.M. 5 years Mohesa[89]
Za Mahasi[89]
Mahasi[130]
Za Mahele[89]
Za Masih[230]
  • Other king lists claim this king ruled for 1 year.[89]
162 Queen Nicotnis Kandake V
ኒኮትኒስ ካንዳኬ
35–25 B.C. 5465–5475 A.M. 10 years Nicotris Hendeke[229][10]
Nitocris?
Amanirenas?
  • Kushite queen Amanirenas reigned during this period, but her rule is not known to have extended to modern day Ethiopia.
  • This queen's name bears similarities to Nitocris, a likely legendary queen who was said to have ruled Egypt at the end of the sixth dynasty, and appears in the writings of numerous ancient Greek writers. Aleka Taye called this queen "Nicotris Hendeke",[10] which is even closer to the name Nitocris.
  • Peter Truhart stated that this queen ruled for 25 years.[230]
163 Nalke
ናልካ
25–20 B.C. 5475–5480 A.M. 5 years Nolkee[10]
Nolki[229]
164 Luzay
ሉዛይ
20–8 B.C. 5480–5492 A.M. 12 years Laka[130][230]
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's king list and Aleka Taye's king list both state that this king reigned for 2 years, from 10 to 8 B.C.[229][10]
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa stated that this king reigned for 8 years.[237]
165 Bazen
ባዘን
8 B.C.–9 A.D. 5492–5509 A.M. 17 years Za B'esi Bazen[89]
Tazen[130][230]
  • Other Ethiopian king lists claim this king ruled for 16 years, but are consistent in stating his reign began 8 years before the birth of Jesus Christ.[89][130]
  • Ethiopian historian Fisseha Yaze Kassa stated that this king reigned for 6 years.[237]
  • Egyptologist Henry Salt claimed that he saw an ancient inscription on a stone in a church in Axum stating "This is the sepulchral stone of Bazen".[238] He did however claim that this was the name of several Abyssinian kings, so he may not have been referring to this specific king.[238]
"Before Christ 165 sovereigns reigned."[222]

Monarchs who reigned after the birth of Christ (297 years)

Text accompanying this section:
"These thirty-five sovereigns at the time of Akapta Tsenfa Arad had been Christianised by the Apostle Saint Matthew. There were few men who did not believe, for they had heard the words of the gospel. After this Jen Daraba, favourite of the Queen of Ethiopia, Garsemat Kandake, crowned by Gabre Hawariat Kandake, had made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem according to the law of Orit (the ancient law)[nb 6], and on his return Philip the Apostle taught him the gospel, and after he had made him believe the truth he sent him back, baptising him in the name of the trinity. The latter (the Queen's favourite), on his return to his country, taught by word of mouth the coming of our Saviour Jesus Christ and baptised them. Those who were baptised, not having found an Apostle to teach them the Gospel, had been living offering sacrifices to God according to the ancient prescription and the Jewish Law."[240]

Despite the text above claiming that Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia during this line of monarchs, Charles F. Rey pointed out that this retelling of events contradicts both the known information around the Christianisation of Ethiopia and the story of Queen Ahwya Sofya and Abreha Atsbeha in the next section.[241]

The story of Garsemot Kandake VI and Jen Daraba may have been influenced by the biblical story of the Ethiopian eunuch, who was the treasurer of Kandake, queen of the Ethiopians and was baptised after travelling to Jerusalem. However, the eunuch was actually baptised by Philip the Evangelist, not Philip the Apostle as Tafari mistakenly states. The apparent contradiction in story of the Christianisation of Ethiopia according to this king list is likely due to an attempt to accommodate both the native Ethiopian tradition around Abreha and Atsbeha and the Biblical traditions of "Ethiopia" (i.e. Nubia).

It is possible that some of these monarchs were the earliest kings of Axum. This section is also the last part of the king list that directly refers to ancient Nubia and the Kingdom of Kush, which came to an end in the 4th century AD following its conquest by Ezana.

Peter Truhart believed that the line of Axumite kings begins with Gaza Agdur (no. 188) and dated the beginning of his reign to c. 150.[242]

Note: All monarchs numbered 166 to 200 (with the exception of 168 and 169) appear on other Ethiopian king lists (see Alternate King lists from Bazen to Abreha and Atsbeha). The other lists suggest there are multiple distinct traditions regarding the order of succession from Bazen to Abreha and Atsbeha, which this king list attempts to combine into a longer line of succession. Numerous monarchs also have their names expanded or altered specially for the 1922 king list.

#
[222]
Monarch
[222][nb 7]
Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[222]
"Year of the World"
[222]
Reign Length
[222]
Alternate Names Notes
166 Sartu Tsenfa Assegd
ሰርቱ ፅንፋ አሰግድ
9–30 5509–5530 A.M. 21 years Za Senatu[243][230]
Za Sartu[243]
Seretu (Tsenfe Aseged)[10]
Sartu Tsenfa Asegad
  • Other king lists claim this king ruled for 26 years.[243]
167 Akaptah Tsenfa Ared
አካፕታህ ተስፋ አሬድ
30–38 5530–5538 A.M. 8 years Akatatah (Senfa Ared)[244]
Tzenaf Segued[245]
Tsenfe Are'd[10][245]
  • Tafari claimed that this king was Christianised by Matthew the Apostle.[246] This could be because some Ethiopian traditions state that Tsenfa Ared was the father of Abreha and Atsbeha[247] though this is not reflected by Tafari's list and E. A. Wallis Budge personally believed that the second king of this name (no. 195 on this list) was more likely to be the father of Abreha and Atsbeha.[247]
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's king list and Aleka Taye's king list both claim this king ruled for only 2 years, from 30 to 32 A.D.[244][10]
  • Taye claimed this king was followed by a king named "Settah" who reigned for 8 years, from 32 to 40 A.D., and is not mentioned on Tafari's list.[10]
  • Only known as "Senfa Arad" on pre-20th century king lists.[245]
168 Horemtaku
ሆሪምታኩ
38–40 5538–5540 A.M. 2 years Heremteku[244]
Horemteku[10]
169 Queen Garsemot Kandake VI
ጋርሰሞት ካንዳኬ
40–50 5540–5550 A.M. 10 years Amanitore
Gersmot[10]
Garsamot (Hendeke)[244]
  • The only Kandake whose period of rule may align with this monarch is Amanitore, who some historians believe may have been the Kandake in the story of the Ethiopian eunuch.[248][249][250][251][252] It is however unclear how this queen's name became "Garsemot" on Tafari's Ethiopian king list.
  • According to some Ethiopian traditions, the first church of Ethiopia, the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion, was built during this queen's reign by eunuch after her converstion to Christianity.[253] However, it is more likely the church was built by Ezana in the 4th century after his conversion to Christianity.[254]
  • One version of Heruy Wolde Selassie's king list claimed this queen ruled for 8 years from 34 to 42.[244]
  • Aleka Taye likewise claimed this queen ruled for 8 years, but dated her reign to 42–50.[10]
170 Hatoza Bahr Asaged
ሃቶዛ ባህር አሳገድ
50–78 5550–5578 A.M. 28 years Baher [A]sgad[245]
Hatez Baher Asged[10]
Hatoza Bahr Asgad[230]
  • Only known as "Baher Asagad" on pre-20th century king lists.[245]
171 Mesenh Germasir
ሚሲንህ ጀርመናዊ
78–85 5578–5585 A.M. 7 years Meshin Germasor[10]
Masenh Germa Sor[230]
Za Masenh[243]
Za Museneh[243][230]
  • Other king lists claim this king ruled for 6 years.[243]
  • Only known as "Masenh" or "Museneh" on pre-20th century king lists.[243]
172 Metwa Germa Asfar
የመተዋ ገርማ አስፋር
85–94 5585–5594 A.M. 9 years Za Setet[230]
Za Shetet[243]
Za Sutuwa[243]
Setwa Germa Asfir[10]
  • Only known as "Sutuwa" or "Shetet" on pre-20th century king lists.[243]
173 Adgale II
አድጋሌ
94–104 5594–5604 A.M. 10 years and 6 months Adgala
Za Adgaba[243]
Za Adgasa[243][230]
Bahr Argad[230]
  • Some king lists claim this king ruled for 16 years.[243][230]
174 Agba
አጊባ
104–105 5604–5605 A.M. 6 months Za Agabos[230][243]
Za Agba[243]
175 Serada
ሰሪዳ
105–121 5605–5621 A.M. 16 years
176 Malis Alameda I
ማሊስ አላሜዳ
121–125 5621–5625 A.M. 4 years Za Malis[243]
Za Malik[243]
Melis Alamida[10]
Malis e la Ameda[230]
  • Some king lists claim this king ruled for 6 years.[243]
  • Only known as "Malis" or "Malik" on pre-20th century king lists.[243]
177 Hakabe Nasohi Tsyion
ሃካበ ናሶሂ ፂዮን
125–131 5625–5631 A.M. 6 years Tzion[245]
Haqabi Kulu Tsion[10]
Hakabe Nasohi Seyon[230]
  • Only known as "Tsyion" on pre-20th century king lists.[245]
178 Hakli Sergway
ሃክሊ ሰርግዌይ
131–143 5631–5643 A.M. 12 years Zoskales?
Za Hakli[243][230]
Za Hakale[243]
Sargai[245]
Sharguay[245]
Hakale Sergway[230]
  • Could be the Aksumite king Zoskales, the earliest known king of Axum who ruled in c. 100. Egyptologist Henry Salt and Ethiopian scholar Sergew Hable Sellassie both theorised that Zoskales was the king known as "Za Haqala" or "Za Hakale" that appears on some Ethiopian king lists.[255][256] However, G.W.B. Huntingford felt that there is not enough evidence to support this identification.[257]
  • The names "Hakli" and "Sergway" are often listed independently on other Ethiopian king lists, which could mean that they are two different kings. However, no known king lists (apart from Tafari's) have both names included.[245][243]
  • Some king lists claim that king "Hakli" reigned for 13 years.[243][230]
179 Dedme Zaray
ዴድመ ዘርዓይ
143–153 5643–5653 A.M. 10 years Za Demahe[243][242]
Zaray[245]
Dedeme Zeray[10]
  • The names "Dedme" and "Zaray" are often listed independently on other Ethiopian king lists, which could mean that they are two different kings. However, no known king lists (apart from Tafari's) have both names included.[245][243]
180 Awtet
አወት
153–155 5653–5655 A.M. 2 years Za Awtet[243][242]
181 Alaly Bagamay
አላሊ ባጋማይ
155–162 5655–5662 A.M. 7 years Bagamai[245]
Bagam Jan[242]
Ela Arka[242]
El Herka[243]
Za Ela-Herka[243]
  • The names "Bagamai" and "Arka"/"Herka" are often listed independently on other Ethiopian king lists, which could mean that they are two different kings.[245][243] However, no king list (apart from Tafari's) includes both names, so it is possible they are meant to be two names for the same person.
182 Awadu Jan Asagad
አዋዱ ጃን አሳጋድ
162–192 5662–5692 A.M. 30 years Za Elawda[243]
Za El-'Aweda[243]
Jan Segued[245]
Sabe Asgad[258]
Saba Asgad[242]
Awadu Jan Asgad[242]
  • The names "Awadu" and "Jan Asagad" are often listed independently on other Ethiopian king lists, which could mean that they are two different kings.[245][243] However, no known king lists (apart from Tafari's) have both names included.
183 Zagun Tsion Hegez
ዛጉን ጽዮን ሄገዝ
192–197 5692–5697 A.M. 5 years Za Zigen[243]
Zamare[243]
Zagen Tsion Hagez[10]
Dezta?[242]
  • Some king lists claim that Zagun was a co-ruler with the next king Rema.[243] These lists state that they ruled for either 20 or 40 years, though do not state if they were co-rulers for this entire length of time.[243]
  • Only known as "Zagun" or "Zamare" on pre-20th century king lists.[243]
184 Rema Tsion Geza
ሬማ ጽዮን ገዛ
197–200 5697–5700 A.M. 3 years Betza[243]
Seyon Geza[245][258]
Reima Tsion Geza[10]
Zamare?[242]
  • Some king lists claim that Rema was a co-ruler with the previous king Zagun.[243] These lists state that they ruled for either 20 or 40 years, though do not state if they were co-rulers for this entire length of time.[243]
  • The names "Rema" and "Seyon Geza" are often listed independently on other Ethiopian king lists, which could mean that they are two different kings.[245][243] However, no known king lists (apart from Tafari's) have both names included.
185 Azegan Malbagad
አዘጋን ማልባጋድ
200–207 5700–5707 A.M. 7 years Moal Genba[245]
Azeigan Me'albagad[10]
  • Aleka Taye stated that this king reigned either 5 or 7 years.[10]
  • Only known as "Moal Genba" on pre-20th century king lists.[245]
186 Gafale Seb Asagad
ጋፋሌ ሰብ አሳጋድ
207–208 5707–5708 A.M. 1 year Za Gafali[243][242]
Gefelie Seb' Aseged[10]
  • Only known as "Gafale" on pre-20th century king lists.[243]
187 Tsegay Beze Wark
ጸጋይ ቢዝ ዋርክ
208–212 5708–5712 A.M. 4 years Za Baesi Serk[243]
Tsegayon Be'esie Serq[10]
Segay Besi Sarq[242]
  • Only known as "Besi Sark" on pre-20th century king lists.[243]
188 Gaza Agdur
ጋዛ አግዱር
212–221 5712–5721 A.M. 9 years GDRT?
Zagdur?
Agedar[245]
Agdur[245]
Gadar(at)[242]
  • This king may be identifiable with the Aksumite king GDRT, who appears in some king lists under the name "Gedur", "Zegdur" or "Zegduru" ("Ze" meaning "of" in Ge'ez). A similarly named king "Amen Hotep Zagdur" appears earlier in Tafari's list as no. 102. However, archeologists believe that king GDRT reigned at some point in the early third century AD, which more closely matches the date of the 188th king on this list.
  • Peter Truhart believed this is the first Axumite king on this list and dated the beginning of his reign to c. 150 or c. 160.[242]
  • Only known as "Agdur" on pre-20th century king lists.[245]
189 Agduba Asgwegwe
አዱባ አስግዌግዌ
221–229 5721–5729 A.M. 8 years Za Elasguaga[243]
Za El-Azwagwa[243]
Agdur Asguaga[10]
Adbah[242]
ʽDBH[242]
Agduba ela Asgwagwa[242]
  • Some chronicles claim that a king named "Azguagua" was the son of a king named "Alada" and was converted to Christianity by Frumentius and his brother Edesius.[1] Tafari's list rejects this tradition and instead dates the conversion of Ethiopia to Christianity in the reign of Ahywa Sofya. The reign dates for Asgwegwe on this list are also far too early to be in line with the lifetime of Frumentius.
  • Other king lists claim this king reigned for 76 years.[243]
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with the Axumite king ʽDBH or "Adhebah".[242]
  • Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 200.[242]
  • Only known as "Asgwegwe" on pre-20th century king lists.[243]
190 Dawiza
ዳዊዛ
229–230 5729–5730 A.M. 1 year Za Baesi tsawera[243]
Za Be'si Saweza[243][242]
Wasanas[242]
191 Queen Wakana
ዋካና
230 5730 A.M. 2 days Za Wakena[243]
Za Wakna[243]
  • According to Aleka Taye, this queen reigned for 2 months instead of 2 days.[10]
192 Hadawz
ሃዳውዝ
230 5730 A.M. 4 months Za Hadus[243]
Za Hadawesa[243][242]
Hawdes[10]
Haduws[242]
  • Some king lists claim this king ruled for 2 months.[243]
193 Ailassan Sagal
አላይሳን ሳጋል
230–233 5730–5733 A.M. 3 years El Segel[243]
Za Ela-Sagal[243][242]
Aslal Sen Segel[10]
Za Asgal[242]
Zoskales[242]
  • Some king lists claim this king ruled for 2 years.[243]
  • Peter Truhart identified this king as the Axumite king Zoskales and dated the beginning of his reign to c. 210 or 220.[242]
194 Asfehi Asfeha
አስፈሂ አስፈሃ
233–247 5733–5747 A.M. 14 years El Asfeh[243]
Za Ela Asfeha[243][242]
Asfeho Asfeha[10]
  • Some king lists claim this king ruled for 10 years.[243]
  • Only known as "Asfeha" on pre-20th century king lists.[243]
195 Atsgaba Seifa Arad
አጽጋባ ሰይፋ አራድ
247–253 5747–5753 A.M. 6 years Saif Araad[245]
Senda 'Ar'ad[245]
Atsgebe Seyfe Are'd[10]
Asgaba Sayfa Arad[242]
  • One Ethiopian tradition states that the father of Abreha and Atsbeha was a king named "Senfa Arad".[247] E. A. Wallis Budge referred to this king as "Senfa Arad (II)",[247] suggesting that the king should be identified with the 195th king of this list, rather than Akaptah Tsenfa Ared above (no. 167). This identification however still raises questions over Tafari's list, as this king is followed by four further kings before the mother of Abreha and Atsbeha becomes ruler of Ethiopia.
  • One king list quoted by Carlo Conti Rossini claimed that "Seifa Arad" was the throne name of king Tazer (no. 199 on this list).[258]
  • Only known as "Seifa Arad" on pre-20th century king lists.[245]
196 Ayba
አይባ
253–270 5753–5770 A.M. 17 years Za Aiba[243]
El Aiga[242][243]
Za Ela Ayba[242]
Za Ela Ayga[242][243]
  • Other king lists claim this king ruled for 16 years.[243]
  • Possibly identifiable with king "Ayga", who ruled for 18 years according some king lists.[243][242]
197 Tsaham Laknduga
ጻሃም ላክንዱጋ
270–279 5770–5779 A.M. 9 years El Tshemo[243]
Za Ela Saham[243]
Tseham Lakdun[10]
Za Ela Saham Laknduga[242]
Tesama[242]
  • Son of Ayba.[242]
  • Only known as "Tsaham" on pre-20th century king lists.[243]
198 Tsegab
ፀጋብ
279–289 5779–5789 A.M. 10 years El Tsegaba[243]
Za Ela Segab[243]
Ze Ela Segab(a)[242]
Wazebas?[242]
  • Other king lists claim this king ruled for 23 years.[243]
  • Peter Truhart tentatively identified this king as the Axumite king Wazeba.[242] This idenfication allows for Tafari's list to match with archaeological evidence that shows that Wazeba was succeeded by Ousanas, who Truhart identifies with the next king Tazer.
  • Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 300 and stated his reign lasted for either 10 or 13 years.[242]
199 Tazer
ታዘር
289–299 5789–5799 A.M. 10 years Tazier Tazena[10]
Seifa Arad[258]
Tazena Ela Ameda[242]
Tazer Sayfa Arad[242]
  • One king list quoted by Carlo Conti Rossini claimed that Tazer's throne name was "Seifa Arad" (no. 195).[258]
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with "Ela Ameda" or Ousanas.[242] This idenfication allows for Tafari's list to match with archaeological evidence that shows Ousanas was succeeded by his wife Sofya as regent before their son became king of Axum.
  • Truhart stated that this king's reign lasted for either 10 or 30 years.[242]
200 Queen Ahywa Sofya
አህዋ ሶፍያ
299–306 5799–5806 A.M. 7 years Sofya[242]
El Ahiawya[243]
Za Ela 'Ahyawa[243][242]
Eguala Anbasa[243][242]
  • Tafari's king list notes that "her regnal name was Sofya, and she was the mother of Abreha Atsbeha".[259]
  • An Aksumite queen named Sofya ruled Axum as regent following the death of her husband Ousanas (otherwise known as Ella Allada) in c. 330. Her son was king Ezana. However, her husband is not mentioned by name on this list and her son's reign on this list is dated to over 150 years after her reign ends.
  • Other king lists name a monarch called "Ahywa" who reigned for 3 years and was the predecessor of Abreha and Atsbeha.[243]
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this queen's reign to c. 325.[242]
  • Manfred Kropp theorised that the story of Queen Ahywa Sofya and her sons Abreha and Atsbeha was modeled on Roman Empress Helena and her son Constantine I, and that the traditional date of the conversion of Ethiopia to Christianity (317) is deliberately placed before the time of the First Council of Nicaea.[260]

Christian Sovereigns (187 years)

"Chronological table of the Christian sovereigns who received baptism and followed completely the law of the Gospel."[259]

Church of Abreha and Atsbeha
Church of Abreha and Atsbeha

Brothers Abreha and Atsbeha are frequently cited in Ethiopian tradition as the first Christian kings of Ethiopia, although Tafari's list strangely considered them to be one person and this may have been an error that arose when transcribing the list. According to Tyrannius Rufinus, Christianity was introduced to this region by Frumentius and his brother Edesius.[261] They were sailing down the Red Sea with a Syrian merchant named Meropius when they landed on the coast and were seized by the native people, who spared the two brothers and took them to the king.[261] Frumentius was made the king's chancellor and Edesius was made cupbearer or butler.[261] After the king's death, the widowed queen asked both men to stay until her son was grown up and Frumentius assisted her in ruling the kingdom.[261] During his time in power, Frumentius had many churches built and obtained facilities to allow more trade with Christians and years later asked Athanasius, the Pope of Alexandria, to send a bishop to Abyssinia to teach the Christians there who had no leader.[261] E. A. Wallis Budge believed that the brothers had initially arrived at Adulis.[247]

Tafari's king list appears to reflect the above tradition by specifically crediting Frumentius, under the name of Aba Salama, with introducing Christianity during the rule of queen Ahywa Sofya, who is likely intended to be the widowed queen of the story.

According to Tyrannius Rufinus, the Axumites converted to Christianity during the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine I (306–337).[262] The dating of Tafari's list aligns with this narrative.

John Stewart's book African States and Rulers provides alternate reign dates and succession order for these monarchs, likely based on alternate Ethiopian traditions and legends surrounding this dynasty.[263]

Peter Truhart believed that a "period of disintegration" began with the reign of Queen Adhana I during which there may have been multiple reigning monarchs at the same time.[264] Truhart dated this period to c. 375–450.[264] E. A. Wallis Budge previously stated that he believed there were "kinglets" who ruled parts of Ethiopia between 360 and 480 separate from other lines of kings.[265] This theory was used to explain why there was so much variation between different Ethiopian king lists. Budge identified most of the monarchs from Adhana I to Lewi as "kinglets",[265] while the later kings were those who appear more frequently on king lists.

#
[259]
Monarch
[259][nb 8]
Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[259]
"Year of the World"
[259]
Reign Lengths
[259]
Alternate Names Notes
"In the year 327 after Jesus Christ - 11 years after the reign of these two sovereigns (mother and son) - the gospel was introduced to Ethiopia by Abba Salama, and the Queen Sofya, who was baptised, became a good Christian."[259]
Joint rule of Queen Ahywa Sofya
አህዋ ሶፍያ
and her son
Abreha Atsbeha
አብረሀ አጽብሃ
306–332 5806–5832 A.M. 26 years Abreha
Atsbeha
Ella Abreha[266]
Ella Atsbeha[266]
Ezana[243][264]
Saizana[243]
Aizanas[264]
Za Ela Asbeha[264]
Za Ela Asfeha Masqal[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) for Abreha and Atsbeha from John Stewart: 356–370.[263]
  • According to Tafari, it was during this joint reign that Aba Salama introduced the Gospel to Ethiopia in 327 and the Queen Ahwya Sofya was baptised.[259] Manfred Kropp argued that this date was wrong and it should be 317.[267] Some Ethiopian traditions state that it was in the year 333 that the people converted to Christianity.[247]
  • Ethiopian tradition states that two brothers named Abreha and Atsbeha ruled the country in the 4th century and were the first to adopt Christianity.[268] Tafari however lists 'Abreha Atsbeha' as a single figure, seemingly merging several myths and historical facts. A king named Ezana is known to be the son of Queen Sofya and was a minor at the time of his accession, but is usually considered separate from the legend of Abreha and Atsbeha. It is also known that it was Ezana who was the first king to convert to Christianity, due to the teachings of Aba Salama. Despite this, Ezana is largely absent from many Ethiopian king lists.[269]
  • According to Aleka Taye, the joint 26-year reign from 306 to 322 was of that of Abreha and Atsbeha, not of queen Sofya with any other ruler.[10] Taye states that Sofya ruled for 7 years (299-306) followed by Abreha and Atsbeha for 26 years (306-332) and then followed by the sole rule of Abreha by himself for 12 years (332-344).[10] It is possible that Tafari may have erroneously misread this information when compiling the king list. Historian Manfred Kropp likewise argued that this joint reign should be read as the joint reign of brother Abreha and Atsbeha not mother and son.[267]
201 Atsbeha
አጽብሃ
332–344 5832–5844 A.M. 12 years
  • Despite previously listing 'Abreha Atsbeha' as a single person who "partly [ruled] with his mother",[259] Tafari's king list now states that Atsbeha ruled separately for 12 years, similar to what was stated on Aleka Taye's list, except that Taye named Abreha as sole ruler rather than Atsbeha.[10] This may confirm that a transcribing error took place in the writing of Tafari's king list, and Abreha and Atsbeha were indeed meant to be listed as two different kings.
  • There is a possibility that names 'Abreha' and 'Atsbeha' may corruptions of the names of Ezana and his brother Shiazana.[270][271] However, E. A. Wallis Budge was skeptical of this and suggested that the chroniclers deliberately avoided mentioning Ezana and Shizana and instead preferred to claim conversion took place through members of the so-called Solomonic line, which Ezana and Shizana may not have been part of.[272]
  • Stuart Munro-Hay theorized that the story of Abreha and Atsbeha resulted from a confusion over two historical figures; The Aksumite king Kaleb, whose throne name was Ella Atsbeha, and Aksumite general Abraha, who promoted Christianity in Yemen.[273] The dates on this list roughly correspond with the estimated period of Ezana's reign by historians (c. 320s-360).
  • Heruy Wolde Selassie equated 'Abreha Atsbeha' with Ezana on his king list.[274]
  • One king list quoted by Egyptologist Henry Salt equated Abreha with Ezana and Atsbeha with Saizana.[275]
  • Peter Truhart dated Ezana's reign to c. 339–365 (26 years).[264]
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of Saizana's reign to c. 365 and believed he reigned 17 years.[264]
202 Asfeh Dalz
አስፍህ ዳልዝ
344–351 5844–5851 A.M. 7 years Asfeh[276]
Asfeha[277]
203 Sahle I
ሳህሌ
351–365 5851–5865 A.M. 14 years Sahel[10]
Ella Shahel[266]
Ela Sahl[264]
Asael[242]
Saizana?[264]
  • One tradition states that this king was a co-ruler with Abreha and Atsbeha from 356 to 370, and that each day of their joint reign was divided into three parts, so that each king was absolute during a specific part of the day.[265]
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 365 and theorised that he may be the same king as Saizana.[264]
204 Arfed Gebra Maskal
አርፈድ ገብራ ማስካል
365–369 5865–5869 A.M. 4 years Arphad[277]
Arfasked[276]
Arfaked[264]
Arshad[264]
Gabra Masqal[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 370–374.[263]
  • Son of Ezana/Abreha.[264]
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 370.[264]
205 Queen Adhana I
አድሀና
369–374 5869–5874 A.M. 5 years Ella 'Adhana[266][264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 374–379.[263]
  • One king list claims this monarch ruled for 14 years.[266]
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this queen's reign to c. 375.[264]
206 Riti
ሪቲ
374–375 5874–5875 A.M. 1 year Ella Rete'a[266][264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 379–380.[263]
207 Asfeh II
አስፌህ
375–376 5875–5876 A.M. 1 year Asfeha[10]
Ella Asfeh[266][242]
Jan Asfeha[277]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 380–381.[263]
208 Atsbeha II
አጽብሃ
376–381 5876–5881 A.M. 5 years Ella 'Asbeha[266][264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 381–386.[263]
209 Amey I
አሜይ
381–396 5881–5896 A.M. 15 years Ameda[277][242][10]
Ella 'Amida[266]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 386–401.[263]
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 385.[264]
210 Abreha II
አብረሃ
396 5896 A.M. 7 months Ella 'Abreha[266][264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 401.[263]
  • Some king lists claim this king ruled for 6 months.[266][264]
211 Ilassahl
ኢላሳሃል
396 5896 A.M. 2 months Ella Shahel[266][10]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 401–402.[263]
  • According to one Ethiopian tradition, this king was murdered by his successor Elagabaz.[265][264]
212 Elagabaz I
ኤላጋባዝ
396–398 5896–5898 A.M. 2 years WʽZB?
Ella Gaboz[266]
Ella Gobaz[266]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 402–404.[263]
  • Possibly the Axumite king WʽZB who reigned during the mid 6th century, also known as "Ella Gabaz" on an inscription where he states that he is the son of "Ella Atsbeha" or king Kaleb, who is placed much further down Tafari's list.[278] Alternatively WʽZB may be the second king named Elagabaz on this list (no. 222).
  • One Ethiopian tradition claims that Elagabaz killed his predecessor, Ilassahl, and married a princess named Admas before proclaiming himself king.[265] Elagabaz later married a pagan queen named Lab, who was from a neighbouring district.[265] This resulted in a brother of Admas, named Shahel (or Suhal), to rise up and kill both Elagabaz and Lab, and proclaim himself king.[265]
213 Suhal
ሱሃል
398–402 5898–5902 A.M. 4 years Sahel[10]
Ella Shahel[266]
Ella Sehal[266]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 404–408.[263]
  • According to one Ethiopian tradition, this king was the brother-in-law of Elagabaz, and slew him to become king.[265][264]
  • E. A. Wallis Budge dated the beginning of this king's reign to 394.[265]
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 395.[264]
214 Abreha III
አብረሃ
402–412 5902–5912 A.M. 10 years Abraha[10]
Ella Abreha[266][264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 408–418.[263]
  • Some king lists claim this king was a co-ruler with Adhana for 16 years.[266]
  • Peter Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 400.[264]
215 Queen Adhana II
አድሀና
412–418 5912–5918 A.M. 6 years Ella Adhana[266][264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 418–424.[263]
  • Some king lists claim this monarch was a co-ruler with Abreha III for 16 years.[266]
  • With the exception of the usurper Gudit, Adhana II is the last queen named on this king list and it appears that no legitimate female monarch reigned over Ethiopia until Empress Zewditu in 1913. Mentewab had herself crowned co-ruler on the accession of her son Iyasu II in 1730 but this is not noted in the king list.
216 Yoab
ኢዮብ
418–428 5918–5928 A.M. 10 years Eyoab[10]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 424–434.[263]
217 Tsaham I
ጸሃም
428–430 5928–5930 A.M. 2 years Ella Saham[266][264]
Sehma[264]
Tesama[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 434–436.[263]
  • Some king lists claim this king ruled for 28 years.[266]
218 Amey II
አሜይ
430–431 5930–5931 A.M. 1 year Ameda[10]
Ela Ameda[264]
Sembrouthes?[264]
Semrat?[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 436–446.[263]
  • Peter Truhart identified this king with the Axumite king Sembrouthes.[264]
  • Truhart dated the beginning of this king's reign to c. 430 and believed he may have reigned for between 1 and 12 years.[264]
  • Truhart also considered that this king may be identical with Amey I.[264]
219 Sahle Ahzob
ሳህለ አህዞብ
431–433 5931–5933 A.M. 2 years Sahel[10]
Ella Shahel[266][264]
Lalibala[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 446–448.[263]
220 Tsebah Mahana Kristos
ጽባሕ ምኻና ክርስቶስ
433–436 5933–5936 A.M. 3 years Ella Sebah[266]
Ela Sabah[264]
Tsebah Meharene Christos[10]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 448–451.[263]
221 Tsaham II
ጸሃም
436–438 5936–5938 A.M. 2 years Ella Saham[266][264]
Sehma[264]
Tesama[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 451–466.[263]
  • Stewart lists the next king Elagabaz II as his co-ruler from 463 to 466.[263]
  • Some king lists claim this king ruled for 15 years.[266][264]
  • Peter Truhart suggested that this king could be identitical with Tsaham I.[264]
222 Elagabaz II
ኤላጋባዝ
438–444 5938–5944 A.M. 6 years Ella Gobaz[266][264]
Elle Gabaz[10]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 463–474.[263]
  • Stewart lists the previous king Tsaham II as his co-ruler from 463 to 466.[263]
  • This king may be the Aksumite king WʽZB who reigned during the sixth century (see note for Elagabaz I, no. 212).
  • Some king lists claim this king ruled for 21 years.[266][264]
223 Agabi
አጋቢ
444–445 5944–5945 A.M. 1 year Agabie[10]
Angabo[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from E. A. Wallis Budge and John Stewart: 474–475.[266][263]
  • Stewart lists both Agabi and Lewi as co-rulers.[263]
  • Some king lists state that these kings were co-rulers, and E. A. Wallis Budge dated their joint reign to c. 474–475.[265]
224 Lewi
ሌዊ
445–447 5945–5947 A.M. 2 years Liewee[10]
225 Ameda III
አሜዳ
447–450 5947–5950 A.M. 3 years Amoy
Alla Amidas?
Ousanas?
Yacob[10]
Ela Ameda[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 475–486.[263]
  • The reason why Tafari calls this king "Ameda III" despite no prior king of this name appearing on his list could be due to Aleka Taye numbering the king this way on his king list.[10] Taye referred to the two kings named "Amey" as "Ameda", hence the numbering.[10]
  • John Stewart believes this king was Alla Amidas,[263] who other historians believe reigned in the mid 6th century. Alternatively, this king may be Ousanas, also known as Ella Allada or Ella Amida, who reigned in the 4th century.
  • Stewart lists joint kings Jacob and David (who do not appear on Tafari's list) as ruling between Alla Amidas and Armah from 486 to 489.[263] E. A. Wallis Budge also confirmed one Ethiopian tradition that states that Yakob (Jacob) and Dawit (David) ruled jointly for three years following Alla Amidas.[279] Aleka Taye called this king "Ameda III (Yacob)", seemingly combining Yakob with Alla Amidas, and Dawit being combined with Armah.[10]
226 Armah Dawit
አርማህ ዳዊት
450–464 5950–5964 A.M. 14 years Najashi
Ashamah
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from E. A. Wallis Budge and John Stewart: 489–504.[266][263]
  • Possibly the Axumite king who is also known as Najashi and is believed by historians to have reigned from 614 to 630.
  • John Stewart lists two kings after Armah who do not appear on Tafari's list: Zitana (504–505) and Jacob II (505–514).[263] Budge also gives the same kings' names and dates, adding that one Ethiopian tradition claimed Jacob II (Yakob II) was called "Arwe" because of his cruelties and was defeated by 'Ella 'Asbeha, otherwise known as Kaleb.[279]
  • One king list claimed this king ruled for 14 years, 6 months and 10 days.[266]
  • Peter Truhart stated this king ruled for between 6 and 14 years.[264]
227 Amsi
አምሲ
464–469 5964–5969 A.M. 5 years Amzi[277][264]
  • Descendant of Queen Adhana I.[264]
228 Salayba
ሰላይባ
469–478 5969–5978 A.M. 9 years Saladoba[277][264]
Aladeb[276]
Seladoba[10]
Al'adoeb[264]
229 Alameda II
አላሜዳ
478–486 5978–5986 A.M. 8 years Ousanas?
Alla Amidas?
Ellamida[10]
230 Pazena Ezana
ፓዜና ዒዛና
486–493 5986–5993 A.M. 7 years Tazena[276]
Tazena (Ezana)[10]
Ezana
Ousanas?
Tazena?
Wazena?
Zitana?[264]
Ela Asbeha[264]
Tezshana[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 325–356.[263]
  • Son of Alameda II.[264]
  • Possibly Axumite king Ezana, although he reigned much earlier than these dates and should be placed earlier in this list chronologically.
  • There is also a possibility that this king may be Tazena, father of Kaleb, the next king on this list.
  • Alternatively, this king could also be Wazena, who succeeded Alla Amidas (if the previous king is to be identified with Alla Amidas), however his reign predates that of Ella Gabaz who already appears earlier in this list.
  • A further possibility is that this king meant to be Zitana, a king who does not appear on all king lists but is said to be the father of Kaleb,[280] which would match with this king list as Kaleb follows as the next king.
  • John Stewart places Ezana much earlier in chronological placement compared to Tafari, putting him in a similar position to Queen Ahywa Sofya on Tafari's list which would closer match the archeological evidence. Stewart also lists a co-ruler named Shiazana who ruled alongside Ezana from 328 to 356.[263]
  • Aleka Taye called this king "Tazena II (Ezana)",[10] seemingly equating Ousanas (Tazena) with Ezana even though archeological evidence would suggest they were two different kings.
  • Peter Truhart called this king "Ezana II", having previously acknowledged Abreha I as the same person as Ezana of Axum.[264]
"Of the posterity of Sofya and Abreha Atsbeha until the reign of Pazena Ezana 31 sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia: from Ori until the reign of Pazena Ezana 230 sovereigns."[259]

Dynasty of Atse (Emperor) Kaleb until Gedajan (427 years)

Coin of Kaleb.
Coin of Kaleb.

The majority of the following monarchs are attested on other king lists (see Alternate King lists from Abreha and Atsbeha to Dil Na'od). A manuscript held in the British Museum appears to show the closest similarity in names and chronological order of kings compared to Tafari's list.

Many other Ethiopian king lists do not acknowledge a dynastic break between Kaleb and earlier kings. It is possible that this list marks a break here only because it considers Kaleb to be the first emperor of Ethiopia.

Despite this section's heading, three further rulers are named after Gedajan, with Dil Na'od being the actual last king of this line of Axumite kings. The choice of title for this section may be due the interruption of the Axumite line by queen Gudit, although most Ethiopian traditions state that she usurped the throne after Dil Na'od, and thus her reign is often dated later compared to this king list.

#
[281]
Monarch
[281][nb 9]
Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[281]
"Year of the World"
[281]
Reign Lengths
[281]
Alternate Names Notes
231 Kaleb
ካሌብ
493–523 5993–6023 A.M. 30 years Constantine[280]
David[280]
Ella 'Asbeha[266]
Elesbaan
Elasboas[264]
Helestaios[264]
Dawit[264]
Questantinos[264]
Hellesthaeus
Ellestheaeus
Eleshaah
Elesboam
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from E. A. Wallis Budge and John Stewart: 514–542.[280][263]
  • James Bruce on the other hand stated that this king came to power in 522.[277]
  • Son of Pazena Ezana or Zitana.[264][280]
  • Kaleb had two sons named Beta 'Esra'el and Gabra Maskal, who follow him as kings on this list.[280]
  • Some king lists claim Kaleb ruled for 28 or 40 years.[276][266]
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to c. 493–533 and claimed he abdicated.[264]
232 Za Israel
እስራኤል
523 6023 A.M. 1 month Beta Israel[282][263][264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 542–550.[263]
  • Elder son of Kaleb.[282]
  • Previously governor of Adwa[283] or Himyar.[264]
  • Aleka Taye did not give this king a reign length and simply stated that it was "undocumented".[10] Taye additionally states that a king named "Gebru" reigned for 1 month between Za Israel and Gabra Maskal.[10] This king is not named on Tafari's list.
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to either 533 or 534.[264]
233 Gabra Maskal
ጋብራ ማስካል
523–537 6023–6037 A.M. 14 years Guebra Maskal[277]
Gebra Maskal
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 550–564.[263] E. A. Wallis Budge also believed that this king's reign begun around 550.[284]
  • Son of Kaleb.[264]
  • This king's name means "Servant of the Cross".[284]
  • Budge noted that at least one king list gave this king a reign length of 14 years, but he also noted that some traditions state that the king did not die until between 570 and 580, at least 20 years after his reign began.[284]
  • Some king lists claim Gabra Maskal ruled for 40 years.[276]
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to 534–548.[264]
234 Kostantinos
ኮስታንቲኖስ
537–565 6037–6065 A.M. 28 years Constantine[277]
Constantinus[277]
Yeshak[276]
Kuostantinos[276]
Kostantinos (Sahel)[10]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 564–578.[263]
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to 548–576.[264]
  • Son of Gabra Maskal II.[264]
235 Wasan Sagad
ዋሳን ሳጋድ
565–580 6065–6080 A.M. 15 years Wusen Segued[277]
Wosen Seged Meharene Christos[10]
Bazagar?[264]
Bazer?[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 578–591.[263]
  • Son of Gabra Maskal II.[264]
  • Wasan Sagad could be the king named Saifu in Chinese sources based on dating and a possible similarity in the names. Stuart Munro-Hay identified "Saifu" as a grandson of Kaleb.[285]
236 Fere Sanay
ፍረ ሰናይ
580–603 6080–6103 A.M. 23 years Fre Sennai[277]
Fere Shanaya[276]
Fere Shanay[276]
Ferie Senay[10]
Fere Sanaya[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 591–601.[263]
237 Advenz
አድቬንዝ
603–623 6103–6123 A.M. 20 years Aderaaz[277]
Aderarz[277]
Adreazar[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 601–623.[263]
  • Aleka Taye claimed that the reign of this king coincided with the ascendance of Prophet Muhammad.[10] However, the ruler of Ethiopia during this time was actually Armah (r. 614–630).
238 Akala Wedem
አካላ ዌደም
623–631 6123–6131 A.M. 8 years Akul Woodem[277]
Zeray Akala Wedem[264]
Eklewudem[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 623–633.[263][264]
  • Aleka Taye stated this king reigned for 10 years, from 623 to 633 (Ethiopian dates).[10]
239 Germa Asafar
ገርማ አሳፋር
631–646 6131–6146 A.M. 15 years Gersum?
Grim Sofer[277]
Germa Sor[277]
Germa Safar[276][264]
Germay Asafar[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 633–648.[263][264]
  • Could be Aksumite king Gersem, who ruled at the beginning of the 7th century.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king reigned from 633 to 648 (Ethiopian dates).[10]
240 Zergaz
ዘርጋዝ
646–656 6146–6156 A.M. 10 years Deraz[277]
Zeray Zergaz[264]
Germa Sor[264]
Gergaz[264]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 648–656.[263][264]
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 8 years, from 648 to 656 (Ethiopian dates).[10]
241 Dagena Mikael
ዳጌና ሚካኤል
656–682 6156–6182 A.M. 26 years Degna Mikael[276]
Zergaz Degna Mikael[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 656–677.[263][286]
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 21 years, from 656 to 677 (Ethiopian dates).[10]
242 Bahr Ekla
ባህር ኤክላ
682–701 6182–6201 A.M. 19 years Bahra Ekala[277]
Baher Ikla[276][286]
Ekle Bahre Ekil[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 677–696.[263][286]
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 14 years, from 677 to 691 (Ethiopian dates).[10]
243 Gum
ጉም
701–725 6201–6225 A.M. 24 years Gouma[277]
Hezba Seyon Gum[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 696–720.[263][286]
244 Asguagum
አስጉጉም
725–730 6225–6230 A.M. 5 years Asgoungum[277]
Ashagum[276]
Asguomgum[276][286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 720–725.[263][286]
245 Latem
ላተም
730–746 6230–6246 A.M. 16 years Let-um[276]
Letem[276]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 725–741.[263][286]
246 Talatam
ታላታም
746–767 6246–6267 A.M. 21 years Thala-tum[276]
Talatem[276][286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 741–762.[263][286]
247 Gadagosh
ጎዳጎሽ
767–780 6267–6280 A.M. 13 years Woddo Gush[276]
Adhsha[276]
Oda Sasa[276][286]
Ode Gosh[10]
Adegos[286]
Lul Sagad[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 762–775.[263][286]
248 Aizar Eskakatir
አይዛር እስክካቲር
780 6280 A.M. Half a day Ayzor[276]
Izoor[276]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 775.[263][286]
  • "Eskakatir" means "until Noon".
  • One manuscript from Gojjam claims that this king was the father of Gudit and had a wife named Makia Maryam who was Gudit's mother.[287] Like Tafari's list, this manuscript states that Aizar only reigned for half a day and reigned two decades before Wudme Asfare (who is claimed to be Gudit's grandfather in other sources).[287]
  • One Ethiopian source states that Aizar (or Ayzur) died due to suffocation by a crowd on the same day he was crowned, which is why it became illegal afterwards to approach the emperor.[288]
  • Heruy Wolde Selassie specified that this king ruled for 7 hours while Aleka Taye simply noted that this king's reign lasted "until noon".[10]
249 Dedem
ደደም
780–785 6280–6285 A.M. 5 years Didum[276]
Dedem Almaz Sagad[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 775–780.[263][286]
250 Wededem
ወዴዴም
785–795 6285–6295 A.M. 10 years Awdamdem[276]
Wedemdem[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 780–790.[263][286]
251 Wudme Asfare
ውድመ አስፋሬ
795–825 6295–6325 A.M. 30 years Woodm Asfar[276]
Wedem Masfere[276]
W'dma Asferie[10]
Demawedem Wedem Asfare[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 790–820.[263][286]
  • An unpublished chronicle from Aksum states that this king was the grandfather of Gudit through his daughter.[287][286]
  • Ethiopian historian Sergew Hable Selassie estimated that Wudme Asfare's 30-year reign to have taken place from 792 to 822 A.D.[287] Selassie felt that the actual reign dates could differ by as much as 100 years compared to written sources.[287]
  • Some chronicles claim this king ruled for 150 years.[287]
252 Armah II
አርማህ
825–830 6325–6330 A.M. 5 years Remha Armah[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 820–825.[263][286]
253 Degennajan
ደጀናጃን
830–849 6330–6349 A.M. 19 years Degna Djan
Degjan[276]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart and Peter Truhart: 825–845.[263][286]
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 19 years and 1 month.[10]
254 Gedajan
ገዳጃን
849–850 6349–6350 A.M. 1 year Degna Djan?
Dagajan[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 845–846.[263]
  • This name has been suggested as an alternate name for Degnnajan,[289] though Tafari considers them to be separate kings and the Paris Chronicle names Gedajan as a separate king.[94]
  • Aleka Taye and Peter Truhart both claimed this king ruled for 10 months.[10][286]
255 Queen Gudit
ጉዲት
850–890 6350–6390 A.M. 40 years Yodït[290]
Judith[263]
Juditta[239]
Ester[107]
Esato[287]
Saat[107]
Asaat[291]
Ga'wa[287]
Terde Gomaz Yodit[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 846–885.[263]
  • A queen who was said to have laid waste to the kingdom of Aksum, according to oral tradition.[292]
  • Moved the capital of Ethiopia to Lasta after sacking Axum.[291]
  • One version of the legend places Gudit after Del Naad, who she supposedly had overthrown.[293]
  • Some Ethiopian traditions state that Gudit was a granddaughter of Wudme Asfare.[286]
  • Scottish traveler James Bruce noted a version of the story of Gudit which stated that she was a cousin of Mara Takla Haymanot, who took over rule of Ethiopia following the reigns of Gudit's successors and founded the Zagwe dynasty.[294] Bruce also recorded one legend that stated that Gudit was a princess and a wife of a governor of the district of Bugna who wanted to overthrow the Christian religion and place her infant son on the throne.[295] According to this version of the story Gudit had 400 royal princes killed and Del Naad (who was an infant) was taken to Shewa as the last survivor of his line.[295]
  • Páez and de Almeida mentioned a different version of the legend where Gudit was a woman who ruled the kingdom of Tigre for 40 years, destroying all the churches there and was followed by Anbase Wedem (as also shown on Tafari's list).[296] A different Queen named Ecato was said to have ruled in Amhara and was part of "a generation of traitors".[296] Queen Ecato however does not appear on Tafari's list.
  • Another legend is recorded by Louis J. Morié in his book Histoire de l'Ethiope in which Gudit (or Judith) was a Falasha or Jewish queen who established a new dynasty, moving the capital to Lasta and was succeeded by her daughter Judith II, with the dynasty lasting from 937 to 977.[297] Morie claimed that Judith II was called Terda'e Gabaz, however other sources claim that this name was given to Gudit/Judith I.[297]
  • Gudit's historicity appears to be confirmed in the writings of traveller Ibn Hawqal, who mentions that Ethiopia (called "the country of the Habasha") had been ruled by a woman for many years by the time of his visit and that she assumed power after killing the previous king.[298] Ibn Hawqal's travels took place between 943 and 969, which would mean that Gudit's reign is dated later than what is suggested on this list.
  • E. A. Wallis Budge dated Gudit's accession to roughly 300 years before the beginning of Yekuno Amlak's reign (c. 970).[107]
  • The name "Gudit" is likely a nickname, as it means "the freak, the monster, the unnatural or unusual or surprising or strange one".[290]
  • "Yodït" may be her real name, given its similarity with the more common "Gudït".[290]
  • The alternate name "Esato" means "Fire".[287]
  • The alternate name "Ga'wa" is likely a conflation with the much later Tigray queen Ga'ewa from the sixteenth century.[287]
256 Anbase Wedem
አንባሴ ወዴ
890–910 6390–6410 A.M. 20 years Ambasa Woodim[276]
Degnajan Anbasa Wedem[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 885–905.[263]
  • Usually considered son and successor of Degna Djan and older brother of Dil Na'od.
  • The placement of Anbase Wedem's reign as following that of Gudit's is corroborated by an unpublished chronicle from Aksum.[299] Páez and de Almeida also read of one version of the Gudit legend which named Anbase Wedem as her successor.[296]
  • However, this is not supported by all sources. A version of the Gudit legend recounted by James Bruce places Gudit after Dil Na'od.[293] King lists seen by Páez and de Almeida,[92] Salt[277] and Budge[276] all state that Anbase Wedem succeeded Degna Djan, not Gudit.
  • Peter Truhart claimed this king had been a "pretender" to the throne from 875 until his accession in 885.[286]
257 Del Naad
ዴል ናአድ
910–920 6410–6420 A.M. 10 years Dil Na'od
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 905–c. 950.[263]
  • James Bruce stated that this king's reign ended in 960.[277]
  • Henry Salt dated the end of this king's reign to c. 925.[291]
  • Some Ethiopian traditions claim he was the son of Anbase Wedem,[286] while other traditions claim his father was Degna Djan.
  • Last king of Axum.
"27 sovereigns of the posterity of Kaleb; 257 in all."[281]

Sovereigns issued from Zagwe (333 years)

The Zagwe kingdom in c. 1200.
The Zagwe kingdom in c. 1200.

The following monarchs are historically verified, though exact dates remain unclear among historians. Some historians, such as Carlo Conti Rossini, believe that this dynasty did not come to power until the 12th century,[300] disagreeing with the much earlier dates suggested by Tafari's list. Some Ethiopian king lists omit the Zagwe dynasty altogether.[90] Many king lists state that after the reign of Dil Na'od the kingdom was ruled by "another people who were not of the tribe of Israel" (i.e. not descended from king Solomon).[295]

Multiple versions of the Ethiopian tradition around the Zagwe dynasty exist, most commonly stating that the dynasty was in power for 133 or 333 years. Tafari follows the longer tradition for his king list. Carlo Conti Rossini suggested that the Zagwe dynasty was actually founded shortly before 1150.[93] E. A. Wallis Budge noted another version of the Zagwe tradition states that 11 kings ruled for 354 years, meaning that each king reigned for an average of 32 years, which Budge felt was unrealistic.[297] James Bruce theorized that five kings of this dynasty were Jewish and descendants of Gudit, while the other six kings were Christians and originated from Lasta.[297] Bruce specifically named Tatadim, Jan Seyum, Germa Seyum, Harbai and Mairari as the "Pagan" or Jewish kings, while Mara Takla Haymanot, Kedus Harbe, Yetbarak, Lalibela, Yemrehana Krestos and Na'akueto La'ab (in these chronological orders) were Christians.[301]

E. A. Wallis Budge noted another tradition that claimed that Na'akueto La'ab abdicated the throne in favour of Yekuno Amlak.[302] If this was the case, then according to Budge the dynasty may have continued to claim the title of Negus until c. 1330, with their descendants governing Lasta for centuries after this.[302]

Three inscriptions discovered in Axum mention the names of two kings, Dabra Ferem and his son Hasani Dan'el, who were Christian but are not recorded on Ethiopian king lists.[303] The first inscription tells how Hasani Dan'el attacked rebel tribes in Kassala and claims that he conquered thirty peoples.[303] The second inscription tells how the people of Welkait rebelled and laid waste to Axum, and in response he carried off large numbers of cattle and other animals from them.[303] Dan'el then went to the country of the Maya and took 10,000 sheep and 3,000 cattle.[304] The third inscription tells of how Dan'el went to Axum after his campaigns to be acknowledged as king and imprisoned the old king.[304] It is difficult to date the reigns of these kings, but it likely occurred in the early 10th century when the power of the Solomonic line was in decline.[305] Enno Littmann theorized that these kings were forerunners of the Zagwe dynasty and Budge believed that they may have even founded the Zagwe line.[304]

The following list includes seven consecutive kings ruling for 40 years each. This is also reported in other king lists, although there is no confirmed proof that these seven kings ruled for these exact number of years. The suspiciously round numbers given for their reign lengths may suggest certain gaps in Ethiopia's history that were filled in by extending the reigns of the Zagwe kings. The existence of multiple traditions for this dynasty, ranging from 133 to 333 years in power, further suggest great uncertainty over this period in Ethiopian history. See Alternate Zagwe dynasty lists section for more information on the alternate lines of succession for this dynasty.

#
[306]
Monarch
[306]
Picture Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[306]
"Year of the World"
[306]
Reign Lengths
[306]
Alternate Names Notes
258 Mara Takla Haymanot
ማራ ታክላ ሃይማኖት
920–933 6420–6433 A.M. 13 years Zagwe[306]
Mararah[307]
Takla Haymanot[308]
Mera Taqla Haymanot[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 1117–1133.[263]
  • A text from Dabra Libanos claimed this king reigned for 40 years, like most kings of this dynasty.[309]
  • Ethiopian traditions differ on the exact circumstances around the rise of the Zagwe dynasty. One tradition states that Mara married a daughter of Dil Na'od and overthrew him to become king.[300]
  • Another tradition states that Dil Na'od was instead overthrown by Gudit who was succeeded to the throne by several of her own family before her cousin Mara ascended to the throne.[310]
259 Tatawdem
ታታውደም
933–973 6433–6473 A.M. 40 years Tatadim
Tetewedem[286]
260 Jan Seyum
ጃን ስዩም
973–1013 6473–6513 A.M. 40 years Jan Sheyum[308]
Akotet Jan Seyon[286]
261 Germa Seyum
ገርማ ስዩም
1013–1053 6513–6553 A.M. 40 years Germa Sheyum[308]
Bemnet Germa Seyon[286]
262 Yemrhana Kristos
ይምርሃና ክርስቶስ
1053–1093 6553–6593 A.M. 40 years Yemrehana Krestos
Yemreha[309]
Yemrehna Krestos[308]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 1133–1172.[263]
  • Traditionally accepted as a son of Germa Seyum.
263 Kedus Arbe
ከዱስ ሀርቤ
1093–1133 6593–6633 A.M. 40 years Samt[306]
Kedus Harbe
Qedus Arbe Gabra Maryam[286]
264 Lalibala
ላሊበላ
Gebre Mesqel Lalibela.png 1133–1173 6633–6673 A.M. 40 years Lalibela
Gebre Meskel
Lalibela Gabra Masqal[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 1172–1212.[263]
  • Another set of accepted Gregorian reign dates by some historians for this king are 1181 to 1221.[313][311]
  • Son of Jan Seyum.
265 Nacuto Laab
ናኩቶ ላብ
Priest with Large Canvas at the Church of the Monastery of Na’akuto La’ab (3425155404).jpg 1173–1213 6673–6713 A.M. 40 years Na'akueto La'ab
Ne'akuto Le'ab[286]
  • Alternate reign dates (Gregorian) from John Stewart: 1212–1260.[263]
  • This king's name means "Let us give thanks to the Father".[314]
  • Son of Kedus Harbe.
266 Yatbarak
ይትባረክ
1213–1230 6713–6730 A.M. 17 years Yetbarak
267 Mayrari
ሜራሪ
1230–1245 6730–6745 A.M. 15 years
268 Harbay
ሃርባይ
1245–1253 6745–6753 A.M. 8 years
"Of the posterity of Mara Takla Haymanot (whose regnal name was Zagwe) until the reign of Harbay 11 sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia; 268 sovereigns in all."[306]

Claimants during the Zagwe period

"Chronological table of the 8 generations of an Israelitish dynasty, who were not raised to the throne, during the period of the reign of the posterity of the Zagwe."[306]

The Shewa province in Ethiopia.
The Shewa province in Ethiopia.

Tafari provides no background information on this list of kings, however E. A. Wallis Budge stated that these kings reigned at Shewa and were descendants of Dil Na'od.[301] Henry Salt likewise stated that the Axumite royal family fled to Shewa after Axum was destroyed by Gudit and reigned there for 330 years until the accession of Yekuno Amlak.[291] The names and order of kings on Tafari's list matches that found in René Basset's 1882 book Études sur l'histoire d'Éthiopie.[301]

A manuscript from Dabra Libanos included an alternate list which numbered a total of 44 kings and a woman named Masoba Wark.[315] In some traditions, Masoba Wark is claimed to be a daughter of Dil Na'od who married Mara Takla Haymanot.[300] Yekuno Amlak would claim his descent from king Solomon through this line of kings (see Emperors of Ethiopia Family Tree).

The description of this dynasty as an "Israelitish" dynasty is likely a reference to the claim of the Ethiopian monarchy being descended from Solomon of Israel.

#
[306]
Monarch
[306]
Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[306]
"Year of the World"
[306]
Reign Lengths
[306]
Alternate Names Notes
Mahbara Wedem
ማህባራ ወዴም
Mahbera Wedem[286]
Mkhbara Widam
Maimersa Woodim[316]
Mahbere-Widam
Agbea Tsyon
አግቤአ ጽዮን
Agva Sion[316]
Agba Seyun
Yakob
Tsinfa Arad
ፅንፋ አራድ
Sin Farat[316]
Nagash Zare
ናጋሽ ዘር
Nagasa Zare[317]
Negus Zaré
Negush Záree[316]
Asfeh
አስፍህ
Asfeha[317]
Atzfé[316]
Yakob
ያቆብ
Bahr Asagad
ባህር አሳጋድ
Bahr Seggad
Birasgud[316]
  • Peter Truhart dated this king's reign to after 1100.[317]
  • Henry Salt listed an additional king named "Asgud" between Bahr Asagad and Edem Asagad.[316]
Edem Asagad
ኤደም አሳጋድ
Adam Asgad
Widma Asgad
Woodem Asgud[316]
"These eight did not mount the throne."[306]

Solomonic dynasty before the Ethiopian-Adal war (247 years)

"Chronological table of the sovereigns from Yekuno Amlak, Emperor, and of his posterity, all issued from the ancient dynasties which were raised to the throne".[318]

Note: The following emperors are historically verified. However, some of the reign dates listed below are not used by Ethiopian historians and are inaccurate. For the correct reign dates, see List of emperors of Ethiopia.

The Solomonic dynasty is historically verified, but the dates included on Tafari's king list do not always match with the generally accepted dates used by historians, even when taking into account the 7 or 8-year gap between the Ethiopian calendar and the Gregorian calendar.

Historian Manfred Kropp was skeptical of the way this dynasty is often referred to as the "Solomonic" or "Solomonid" dynasty, which he believes was a creation of European Renaissance scholars.[319] He noted that Ethiopian chronicles refer to the throne of the monarchy as the "Throne of David", not Solomon.[319] Tafari's king list certainly makes no direct reference to this dynasty being called the "Solomonic" line, only that they were descended from the earlier ancient dynasties.

#
[318]
Monarch
[318]
Picture Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[318]
"Year of the World"
[318]
Reign Lengths
[318]
Alternate Names Notes
269 Yekuno Amlak
ይኩኖ አምላክ
Yekuno Amlak (cropped).jpg 1253–1268 6753–6768 A.M. 15 years Tasfa Iyasus
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1270–1285 (15 years).
  • 'Yekuno Amlak' means "There shall be to him sovereignty".[320]
  • While many historians accept that Yekuno Amlak became ruler of Ethiopia after defeating the last Zagwe king at the Battle of Ansata, James Bruce related a different tradition where the monk Tekle Haymanot persuaded Na'akueto La'ab to abdicate in favour of Yekuno Amlak, who was reigning at Shewa, where a line of princes from Dil Na'od had continued to rule after the original Solomonic line was deposed by Gudit.[321]
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 13 years, from 1255 to 1268.[10]
270 Yasbeo Tseyon
ይግብአ ጽዮን
YagbeaSionBattlingAdaSultan.JPG 1268–1277 6768–6777 A.M. 9 years Yagbe'u Seyon
Salomon
  • Son of Yekuno Amlak.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1285–1294 (9 years).
  • 'Yagbe'a Seyon' means "He [God] shall bring back Zion".[322]
271 Tsenfa Arad
ሰይፈ አርድ አርብእቱ
1277–1278 6777–6778 A.M. 1 year Senfa Ared
  • Son of Yagbe'u Seyon.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1294–1295 (1 year).
  • E. A. Wallis Budge called this king Senfa 'Ar'ed IV, acknowledging the reigns of Sartu Tsenfa Assegd (no. 166), Akaptah Tsenfa Ared (no. 167) and the unnumbered Tsinfa Arad from the Israelite dynasty on Tafari's list.[322]
272 Hesba Asagad
ሕዝበ አስግድ
1278–1279 6778–6779 A.M. 1 year Hezba Asgad
  • Son of Yagbe'u Seyon.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1295–1296 (1 year).
273 Kedme Asagad
ቅድመ አስግድ
1279–1280 6779–6780 A.M. 1 year Qedma Asgad
  • Son of Yagbe'u Seyon.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1296–1297 (1 year).
274 Jan Asagad
ጃን አሰግድ
1280–1281 6780–6781 A.M. 1 year Jin Asgad
  • Son of Yagbe'u Seyon.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1297–1298 (1 year).
275 Sabea Asagad
ሳባ አሰገድ
1281–1282 6781–6782 A.M. 1 year Saba Asgad
  • Son of Yagbe'u Seyon.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1298–1299 (1 year).
  • E. A. Wallis Budge called this king Sab'a Asgad (II).[322]
276 Wedma Arad
ወደም አራድ
1282–1297 6782–6797 A.M. 15 years Wedem Arad
  • Son of Yekuno Amlak.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1299–1314 (15 years).
277 Amda Tseyon
ዐምደ ጽዮን
Amda Seyon.jpg 1297–1327 6797–6827 A.M. 30 years Gebre Mesqel
  • Son of Wedem Arad.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1314–1344 (30 years).
  • 'Amda Seyon' means "Pillar of Zion".[322]
278 Saifa Ared
ሳይፋ አረድ
1327–1355 6827–6855 A.M. 28 years Newaya Krestos
  • Son of Amda Seyon I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1344–1372 (28 years).
  • 'Newaya Krestos' means "Vessel of Christ".[323]
279 Wedma Asfare
ዋድማ አሳፋሬ
1355–1365 6855–6865 A.M. 10 years Newaya Maryam
Wedem Asfare
Gemma Asfare
  • Son of Newaya Krestos.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1372–1382 (10 years).
280 Dawit
ዳዊት
1365–1395 6865–6895 A.M. 30 years
  • Son of Newaya Krestos.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1382–1413 (31 years).
281 Tewodoros
ቴዎድሮስ
1395–1399 6895–6899 A.M. 4 years Walda Anbasa
  • Son of Dawit I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1413–1414 (9 months).
282 Yeshak
ይሥሓቅ
1399–1414 6899–6914 A.M. 15 years Gabra Masqal
  • Son of Dawit I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1414–1429 (15 years).
283 Andreyas
እንድርያስ
1414 6914 A.M. 6 years
  • Son of Yeshaq I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1429–1430 (1 year).
284 Hesba Nañ
ተክለ ማርያም
1414–1418 6914–6918 A.M. 4 years and 6 months Takla Maryam
  • Son of Dawit I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1430–1433 (3 years).
  • 'Takla Maryam' means 'Plant of Mary'.[324]
285 Bedl Nan
(Sarwe Iyasus)
ሥርወ ኢየሱስ
This king's name is likely an error, as his actual name was "Sarwe Iyasus". The name "Bedl Nan" is the throne name of the next monarch.
1418–1419 6918–6919 A.M. 6 months Mehreka Nan
  • Son of Takla Maryam.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1433 (4 or 8 months)[325]
  • "Sarwe Iyasus" means "Prop of Jesus".[325]
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 1 year and 6 months, from 1418 to 1419.[10]
286 Amde Tseyon
(Amda Iyasus)
ዐምደ ኢየሱስ
This king's name is likely an error, as his actual name was "Amda Iyasus".
1419–1426 6919–6926 A.M. 7 years Badel Nan
  • Son of Takla Maryam.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1433–1434 (8 months).
287 Zara Yakob
ዘርአ ያዕቆብ
1426–1460 6926–6960 A.M. 34 years Kwestantinos
  • Son of Dawit I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1434–1468 (34 years).
288 Boeda Maryam
በእደ ማርያም
1460–1470 6960–6970 A.M. 10 years Cyriacus
  • Son of Zara Yaqob.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1468–1478 (10 years).
  • "Baeda Maryam" means "he who is in the hand of Mary".[326]
289 Iskender
እስክንድር
1470–1486 6970–6986 A.M. 16 years Kwestantinos
  • Son of Baeda Maryam I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1478–1494 (16 years).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 16 years and 5 months.[10]
290 Amda Tseyon
ዐምደ ጽዮን
1486–1487 6986–6987 A.M. 1 year
  • Son of Eskender.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1494 (6 months).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 1 year and 6 months.[10]
291 Naod
ናዖድ
1487–1500 6987–7000 A.M. 13 years
  • Son of Baeda Maryam I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1494–1508 (14 years).
"Of the posterity of Yekuno Amlak up to the reign of Naod 23 sovereigns ruled over Ethiopia; in all 291 sovereigns."[318]

Solomon dynasty during the Ethiopian-Adal war (55 years)

Note: The following emperors are historically verified. However, some of the reign dates listed below are not used by Ethiopian historians and are inaccurate. For the correct reign dates, see List of emperors of Ethiopia.

Text accompanying this section:

The following three kings are usually considered part of the Solomonic dynasty, but are separated by Tafari into a different group, likely because the conquest of three-quarters of Ethiopia by Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi took place during this time.

#
[318]
Monarch
[318]
Picture Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[318]
"Year of the World"
[318]
Reign Lengths
[318]
Alternate Names Notes
292 Lebna Dengel
ልብነ ድንግል
Cristofano dell’Altissimo, Portrait of Lebnä-Dengel. c. 1552-1568.jpg 1500–1532 7000–7032 A.M. 32 years Wanag Sagad
Dawit
  • Son of Na'od.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1507–1540 (33 years).
  • Tafari states that 15 years after Lebna Dengel ascended to the throne, "Gran devastated Ethiopia for fifteen years".[318] Historians accept the Gregorian dates for the Ethiopian–Adal war as 1529–1543, beginning 22 years after the beginning of Lebna Dengel's reign rather than the 15 year figure used by Tafari.
  • "Lebna Dengel" means "incense of the virgin".[327]
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 30 years, from 1500 to 1530.[10] This results in all kings until Sarsa Dengel having their reign dates pushed back by 2 years compared to Tafari's list.
293 Galawdewos
ገላውዴዎስ
How St. Gelawdewos Killed the Sobäd’at.png 1532–1551 7032–7051 A.M. 19 years Mar Gelawdewos
Asnaf Sagad
  • Son of Lebna Dengel.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1540–1559 (19 years).
294 Minas
ሚናስ
Menas of Ethiopia.jpg 1551–1555 7051–7055 A.M. 4 years Admas Sagad
  • Son of Lebna Dengel.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1559–1563 (4 years).
"Grand total: 294 sovereigns."[318]

The House of Gondar (224 years)

Note: The following emperors are historically verified. However, some of the reign dates listed below are not used by Ethiopian historians and are inaccurate. For the correct reign dates, see List of emperors of Ethiopia.

The Gordarian Line of the Solomonic dynasty is usually defined as beginning with the reign of Susenyos, however Tafari includes the 3 prior kings to Susenyos as part of this line as well. This is likely because Sarsa Dengel moved the centre of the Ethiopian empire away from Shewa to the Begemder province, where Gondar is located.[328]

#
[329]
Monarch
[329]
Picture Reign Dates
(Ethiopian Calendar)
[329]
"Year of the World"
[329]
Reign Lengths
[329]
Alternate Names Notes
295 Sartsa Dengel
ሠርጸ ድንግል
Sarsa Dengel and other Monarchs (cropped).jpg 1555–1589 7055–7089 A.M. 34 years Malak Sagad
  • Son of Menas.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1563–1597 (34 years).
  • "Sarsa Dengel" means "sprout of the virgin".[330]
296 Yakob
ያዕቆብ
1589–1598 7089–7098 A.M. 9 years Malak Sagad
  • Son of Sarsa Dengel.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1597–1603, 1604-1606 (8 years).
  • Historians generally consider Yakob's reign as divided into 2 parts, interrupted by the brief reign of Za Dengel. However, Tafari places Za Dengel as a direct successor at the end of Yakob's uninterrupted 9-year reign.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 7 years, from 1587 to 1594.[10] This results in all kings until Susenyos I having their reign dates pushed back by 4 years compared to Tafari's list.
297 Za Dengel
ዘድንግል
1598–1599 7098–7099 A.M. 1 year Atsnaf Sagad
  • Nephew of Sarsa Dengel.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1603–1604 (1 year).
298 Susneyos
ሱስንዮስ
King Susenyos I of Ethiopia receives the Latin Patriarch Afonso Mendes.jpg 1599–1627 7099–7127 A.M. 28 years Seltan Sagad
Malak Sagad
  • Grandson of Lebna Dengel.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1606–1632 (26 years).
299 Fasil
ፋሲለደስ
Emperor-fasilides-king-of-ethiopia.jpg 1627–1662 7127–7162 A.M. 35 years Basilide
Alam Sagad
  • Son of Susenyos I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1632–1667 (35 years).
  • Aleka Taye considered this king to be the "founder of Gondar".[10] Taye also claims this king ruled for 36 years, from 1623 to 1659.[10]
300 Degu-Johannis
ደጉ ዮሃንስ
ቀዳማዊ ዓፄ ዮሐንስ.jpg 1662–1677 7162–7177 A.M. 15 years Yohannes
  • Son of Fasilides.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1667–1682 (15 years).
  • Aleka Taye called this king "Yohannes the Benevolent".[10] Taye also claimed this king reigned from 1659 to 1674.[10]
301 Adyam Sagad Iyasu
አድያም ሳጋድ ኢያሱ
Iyasu I of Ethiopia.jpg 1677–1702 7177–7202 A.M. 25 years Adyam Sagad
  • Son of Yohannes I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1682–1706 (25 years).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 24 years, from 1674 to 1698.[10] This results in the next two kings having their reign dates pushed back by 4 years compared to Tafari's list.
302 Takla Haymanot
ተክለ ሃይማኖት
1702–1704 7202–7204 A.M. 2 years Le'al Sagad
  • Son of Iyasu I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1706–1708 (2 years).
303 Tewoflus
ቴዎፍሎስ
1704–1707 7204–7207 A.M. 3 years Walda Anbasa
  • Son of Fasilides.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1708–1711 (3 years).
304 Yostos
ዮስጦስ
1707–1711 7207–7211 A.M. 4 years Tsehay Sagad
  • Great-grandson of Yohannes I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1711–1716 (5 years).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 5 years, from 1703 to 1708.[10] This results in the next two kings having their reign dates pushed back by 3 years compared to Tafari's list.
305 Dawit
ዳዊት
1711–1716 7211–7216 A.M. 5 years Adbar Sagad
  • Son of Iyasu I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1716–1721 (5 years).
306 Bakaffa
በካፋ
Bakaffa I of Ethiopia.jpg 1716–1725 7216–7225 A.M. 9 years Asma Giyorgis
Masih Sagad
  • Son of Iyasu I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1721–1730 (9 years).
307 Birhan Sagad Iyasu
ብርሃን ሳጋድ እያሱ
Iyasu II of Ethiopia and Mentewab.png 1725–1749 7225–7249 A.M. 24 years Iyasu
Alem Sagad
  • Son of Bakaffa.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1730–1755 (25 years).
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 25 years, from 1722 to 1747.[10] This results in all kings until Tekle Giyorgis I having their reign dates pushed back by 2 years compared to Tafari's list.
308 Iyoas
ኢዮአስ
Iyoas I of Ethiopia.jpg 1749–1764 7249–7264 A.M. 15 years Adyam Sagad
  • Son of Iyasu II.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1755–1769 (14 years).
309 Johannis
ዮሐንስ
1764 7264 A.M. 5 months and 5 days
  • Son of Iyasu I.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1769 (5 months).
310 Takla Haymanot
ተክለ ሃይማኖት
1764–1772 7264–7272 A.M. 8 years Admas Sagad
  • Son of Yohannes II.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1769–1770, 1770-1777 (8 years).
  • Tafari omits the brief reign of Susenyos II from this list, possibly because of his dubious claims of Solomonic descent.
  • Aleka Taye claimed this king ruled for 7 years and 7 months.[10]
311 Solomon
ሰሎሞን
1772–1774 7272–7274 A.M. 2 years
  • Grandson of Iyasu II.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1777–1779 (2 years).
312 Takla Giyorgis
ተክለ ጊዮርጊስ
1774–1779 7274–7279 A.M. 5 years Feqr Sagad
  • Son of Yohannes II.
  • Gregorian dates generally accepted by historians: 1779–1784 (first reign) (5 years).
"Of the posterity of Sartsa Dengel up to the reign of King Takla Giyorgis 18 sovereigns reigned over Ethiopia. From Ori to Takla Giyorgis the total is 312 sovereigns."[329]

Subsequent monarchs

Empress Zauditu, the incumbent Ethiopian monarch at the time the king list was written, pictured in 1921.
Empress Zauditu, the incumbent Ethiopian monarch at the time the king list was written, pictured in 1921.

Tafari's king list concludes with the end of the first reign of Takla Giyorgis, after which the Emperors of Ethiopia had significantly diminished power compared to before. By the time Tekle Giyorgis I begun his reign, Ethiopia had already entered the "Zemene Mesafint" or Era of the Princes, during which the emperor was merely a figurehead.

Charles F. Rey provided a list of monarchs that reigned after Takla Giyorgis I, with dates following the Gregorian calendar. Rey noted that from around 1730 to 1855, the kings of Ethiopia had no real power.[329] The power was held by influential Rases, such Ras Mikael Suhul of Tigre (1730–1780), Ras Guksa of Amhara (1790–1819), his son Ras Maryre and grandson Ras Ali.[329]

Rey's list includes the majority of emperors from Iyasu III to the then-incumbent empress Zewditu and prince-regent and heir Tafari Makanannon (the future Haile Selassie).[331] Rey's list however ignored the reigns of Salomon III and Tekle Giyorgis II, as well as the repeated reigns of Tekle Giyorgis I, Demetros and Yohannes III after their first reign.[331] Rey also names Tekle Haymanot of Gondar as emperor of Ethiopia from 1788 to 1789, although he usually not accepted as a legitimate monarch of Ethiopia.[331]

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Genesis flood narrative

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Heruy Wolde Selassie

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E. A. Wallis Budge

E. A. Wallis Budge

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Adam

Adam

Adam is the name given in Genesis 1-5 to the first human. Beyond its use as the name of the first man, adam is also used in the Bible as a pronoun, individually as "a human" and in a collective sense as "mankind". Genesis 1 tells of God's creation of the world and its creatures, including adam, meaning humankind; in Genesis 2 God forms "Adam", this time meaning a single male human, out of "the dust of the ground", places him in the Garden of Eden, and forms a woman, Eve, as his helpmate; in Genesis 3 Adam and Eve eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge and God condemns Adam to labour on the earth for his food and to return to it on his death; Genesis 4 deals with the birth of Adam's sons, and Genesis 5 lists his descendants from Seth to Noah.

Ham (son of Noah)

Ham (son of Noah)

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Noah

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Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east and northeast, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west, and Sudan to the northwest. Ethiopia has a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres. As of 2022, it is home to around 113.5 million inhabitants, making it the 13th-most populous country in the world and the 2nd-most populous in Africa after Nigeria. The national capital and largest city, Addis Ababa, lies several kilometres west of the East African Rift that splits the country into the African and Somali tectonic plates.

Other King Lists

Apart from Tafari's list, various other Ethiopian king lists are known to exist with variations between them.

Alternate list of pre-Flood and post-Flood kings

Illustration of the Great Flood accompanying an edition of the Bible from 1896.
Illustration of the Great Flood accompanying an edition of the Bible from 1896.

E. A. Wallis Budge noted that a list of early kings of Ethiopia was known to exist, although it relied on Biblical chronology, particularly from the Book of Genesis. The following list was included in Budge's book A History of Ethiopia (Volume I) and was quoted from two manuscripts; One held in the British Museum and another held in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, which was published in René Basset's 1882 book Études sur l'histoire d'Éthiopie.[147] The names of these kings appear in the Kebra Nagast.[332]

The last king, 'Ebna Hakim, does not appear in the Bible and is meant to be Menelik I, the son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.[173] The name Ebna Hakim translates to "Son of the Wise Man" (i.e. Solomon) in Arabic.[173]

Order Ethiopian name[147] Biblical figure
1 'Adam Adam
2 Set Seth
3 Henos Enos
4 Kaynan Kenan
5 Malalel Mahalalel
6 Yared Jared
7 Henok Enoch
8 Matusala Methuselah
9 Lameh Lamech
10 Noh Noah
11 Shem Shem
12 Alfasked Arphaxad
13 Kaynan Cainan
14 Sala Selah
15 'Ebor Eber
16 Falek Peleg
17 Ragwe Reu
18 Seruh Serug
19 Nakor Nahor
20 Tara Terah
21 Abreham Abram
22 Yeshak Isaac
23 Ya'kob Jacob
24 Yehuda Judah
25 Fares Pharez
26 'Esrom Hezron
27 'Eram Aram
28 'Aminadab Amminadab
29 Na'ason Nahshon
30 Salmon Salmon
31 Bo'ez Boaz
32 Iyobed Obed
33 'Eshey Jesse
34 Dawit David
35 Saloman Solomon
36 'Ebna Hakim

The Kebra Nagast lists an additional king named 'Orni between Hezron and Aram, who was the son of Hezron and father of Aram.[153] Budge believes this king to be Oren, son of Jerahmeel.[153] It is unknown why this additional king appears in the Kebra Nagast, but his inclusion could explain why Tafari's list begins with a ruler named "Ori (or Aram)" as both names appear next to each other in the Kebra Nagast.

Akhbar al-Zaman

The monarchs of Tafari's "Tribe of Ori or Aram" are largely unseen on other Ethiopian king lists. These monarchs almost certainly originated from Coptic and Arab texts, as evidenced by a list of Antediluvian kings of Egypt seen by French historian Louis J. Morié that very closely matches the names on Tafari's list.[29]

This king list was possibly based on an earlier list found in the medieval Arab text Akhbar al-Zaman (whose title translates to "The History of Time"), which was written between 940 A.D. and 1140 A.D.[106] Although it is likely based on earlier works such as those of Abu Ma'shar (dated to c. 840-860 A.D.).[106] The authorship is unknown, but Al-Masudi is possible candidate.[106] The text contains a collection of lore about Egypt and the wider world in the age before the Great Flood and after it.[106] The Akhbar al-Zaman kings frequently reign for impossibly long periods of time, with only two kings showing a similarity in length of reigns with those on Tafari's list. Nineteen kings appear on both lists, with two ruling women also being mentioned.

Akhbar al-Zaman[106] Tafari's King List Notes
Naqraus I (180 years)
Naqraus II (167 years)
Misram Ori or Aram (60 years)
Gariak I (66 years)
'Anqam the Priest (Short reign) Gannkam I (83 years)
Queen Borsa (67 years)
'Arbaq Gariak II (60 years)
Lujim Djan I (80 years)
Djan II (60 years)
Senefrou (20 years)
Khaslim Zeenabzamin (58 years)
Harsal (34 years) Sahlan (60 years)
Qadrashan Elaryan (80 years)
Qadrashan's widow (de facto Queen regent) (9 years)
Shamrud Nimroud (60 years)
Tusidun's mother (Queen regent) (6 years) Queen Eylouka (45 years) Eylouka is not named in Akhbar al-Zaman, but Shamrud's successor, Tusidun, was very young at the time of his succession and his mother ruled on his behalf.
Tusidun
Sarbaq (130 years)
Sahluq (443 years) Saloug (30 years)
Surid (107 years) Kharid (72 years) Surid is the legendary king of the same name from medieval Coptic and Islamic lore.
Harjit (99 years) Hogeb (100 years)
Menaus (73 years) Makaws (70 years)
Assa (30 years)
Afraus (64 years) Affar (50 years)
Armalinus Milanos (62 years)
Far'an
Soliman Tehagui (73 years) None of the pre-Flood kings mentioned in Akhbar al-Zaman share a similar name as this king, however Armalinus' successor Far'an is named as the king who reigned at the time of the Great Flood.[106]

Alternate Hamitic dynasty

16th-century depiction of Ham by Guillaume Rouillé.
16th-century depiction of Ham by Guillaume Rouillé.

E. A. Wallis Budge noted that while the list of pre-Flood kings listed above omitted any mention of Ham, an alternate Ethiopian tradition presents a genealogy of Ethiopians descending from Ham, son of Noah.[148] Tafari's list also includes a dynasty of kings descending from Ham, however the names and order of kings is noticeably different and some kings on this alternate list are part of different dynasties entirely on Tafari's list. Budge theorized that these kings may have been pagan worshipers of the serpent Arwe.[333]

According to this tradition, Aksum was founded within a century after the Great Flood.[20]

Enno Littmann recorded a tradition from an Ethiopian priest named Gabra Wahad, who stated the following:
"Ham begot Kush, Kush begot Aethiopis, after whom the country is called Aethiopia to this day. Aethiopis was buried in Aksum, and his grave is known there to this day. It was said that a fire used to burn in it, and that if any donkey's excrement or any bit of stuff fell into it it was consumed. Aethiopis begot 'Aksumawi, 'Aksumawi begot Malayka 'Aksum, and begot also Sum, Nafas, Bagi'o, Kuduki, 'Akhoro, Fasheba. These six sons of 'Aksumawi became the fathers of Aksum. When they wished to divide their land, there came a man called May Bih, and as people say divided their land as an agent. Each of the six gave him two acres of land and he settled down with them."[194]

Order Name Relation to predecessor Numbered Position on Tafari's list Notes
Dynasty of Kush[149]
1[nb 10] Ham 22 (First of the Kam dynasty)
2 Kush Son of Ham 23 (Second of the Kam dynasty)
3 Aethiopis Son of Kush 51 (Fifth of the Agdazyan dynasty)
4 'Aksumawi Son of Aethiopis 103 (Fifth of the Menelik dynasty) Traditional founder of Aksum[333]
5 Malayka Aksum Son of 'Aksumawi 107 (Ninth of the Menelik dynasty)
Sum Son of Malayka Aksum The six sons of Malayka Aksum were the "fathers" of Aksum but were not kings of Ethiopia.[333] Budge believed that they may have "[represented] the dynasty of the serpent which was destroyed by Angabo".[333]
Nafaz
Bagi'o
Kuduki
Akhoro
Farheba

Arwe dynasty

The mythical serpent Arwe is sometimes considered to be part of his own dynasty. However, he is not named directly on the 1922 king list, except that he was killed by Angabo I. Traditions quoted by Henry Salt and E. A. Wallis Budge differ on whether Arwe himself reigned for 400 years or whether this figure refers to the dynasty as a whole.

Order Name Relation to predecessor Numbered Position on Tafari's list Notes
The Serpent Dynasty[173]
1 Arwe Not mentioned Reigned for 400 years.[174]
Arwe's successors
("20 or 30 kings of his race")[173]
Not mentioned Arwe and his successors ruled in Tigray for 400 years.[173]

Angabo dynasty

Some Ethiopian traditions consider Angabo to be the founder of a new dynasty after killing Arwe.[139] The relations between these kings are not recorded, but presumably each king was the son of the previous one.

E. A. Wallis Budge called this dynasty a "Native African dynasty" to differentiate it from the "Kush dynasty".[173]

All rulers of this dynasty were included on the 1922 king list as part of the "Agdazyan" or "Ag'azyan" dynasty. In most cases their reign lengths were shortened to be more realistic.

Order Name Relation to predecessor Numbered Position on Tafari's list Notes
1 Angabo 74 (28th of the Agdazyan dynasty) Slayer of Arwe.[173] Reigned for 200 years.[173][174]
2 Gedur[173] or Zagdur[174] 77 (31st of the Agdazyan dynasty) Reigned for 100 years.[173][174]
3 Sebado[173] or Zazebass Besedo[174] 79 or 80 (33rd or 34th of the Agdazyan dynasty) Reigned for 50 years.[173][174]
4 Kawnasya[173] or Zakawasya b'Axum[174] 97 (51st of the Agdazyan dynasty) Reigned for 1 year.[173][174]
5 Makeda[173] or Za Makeda[174] Daughter of Kawnasya/Zakawasya[173][174] 98 (52nd of the Agdazyan dynasty) Reigned for 50 years.[173][174] Went to Jerusalem in the fourth year of her reign and returned to Ethiopia in her 25th regnal year.[174]

Alternate King lists from Menelik I to Bazen

European travelers James Bruce and Henry Salt published king lists in their books Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1790) and A Voyage to Abyssinia (1814).[90][236] Bruce acquired an Ethiopian manuscript which later became part of the Bodleian Library in Oxford.[90] Bruce had gathered information for his king list from local scribes, though did not believe they were trustworthy or that his king list was complete.[90] Italian orientalist Carlo Conti Rossini edited a book titled History of the Kings of Dabra Yahanes, published in 1903, which contained another king list.[334]

E. A. Wallis Budge compared the content of Bruce's, Salt's and Rossini's lists with that of two manuscripts held in the British Museum.[89] Tafari's list is far longer and contains many additional kings. The tables below list kings whose names match those found on the other lists and the numbered position they have on Tafari's list.

Budge theorised that the existence of multiple king lists suggest that these represent rival claimants to the throne.[91] Budge regarded a line of kings as represented by the British Museum manuscript Oriental No. 831, fol. 36a to be the most authoritative.[91]

Bruce's, Rossini's and Tafari's lists are all in agreement that Christ was born in the eighth year of Bazen's reign, a statement that is also clear on one of the British Museum manuscripts.[335] If one was to calculate backwards from the Bazen's reign, then Salt's list would date Menelik I to 128–99 B.C., over 9 centuries after the traditional 10th century B.C. dating of Menelik's reign. If the same was done for Bruce's list, then Menelik's reign would be pushed back nearly a century earlier but would still fall far short of the 10th century B.C. dating.

Salt noted the existance of a "corrupt" king list.[236] This list is included in the table below but was not quoted by E. A. Wallis Budge. The only obvious inaccuracy of the "corrupt" king list is the combining of kings Tomai and Zagdur into one king. Otherwise, the list shows noticeable similarities with the one quoted by Rossini and one of the British Museum manuscripts.

Bruce (1790)[89] Salt (1814)[236][89] Salt's "corrupt" list (1814)[236] Rossini (1903)[130] British Museum manuscript
Oriental No. 821, fol. 28b[89]
British Museum manuscript
Oriental No. 821, fol. 36a[130]
Tafari's King List
Menelik I or David I (4 years) (223–219 BC) Menelik I or Ibn Hakim (29 years) (128–99 BC) Ibn Hakim Menilik (15 years) Ebna El-Hakim (24 years) (220–196 BC) Ebna Hakim Menelik I (25 years) (99)
Hendedya or Zagdur (1 year) (219–218 BC) Za Hendedyu (1 year) (99–98 BC) Za Handadyu (8 years) (196–188 BC) Hanyon (1 year) (100)
Tomai Zagdur Tomay or 'Ab-Rakid (15 years) Tomas Sera I (Tomai) (26 years) (101)
Zagduru Zagdur Amen Hotep Zagdur (31 years) (102)
Acsumai 'Aksumay 'Aksumay Aksumay Ramissu (20 years) (103)
Awida (11 years) (218–207 BC) Awda (11 years) (98–87 BC) Za 'Aweda (11 years) (188–177 BC) Aksumay Ramissu[nb 11] (20 years) (103)
Aufyi (3 years) (207–204 BC) Za Awsyu (3 years) (87–84 BC) 'Awsabyos Za 'Awesyo (3 years) (177–174 BC) 'Awsayo Awesyo Sera II (38 years) (104)
or
Erda Amen Awseya (6 years) (112)
Handar Handu Wuha Abra (11 years) (121)
Tahawasya Ta'asya Tahawasya Tawasya II (21 years) (105)
Abralius 'Abralyus Abralyus Wiyankihi II (32 years) (106)
Walda Mehrat Kashta Walda Ahuhu (20 years) (128)
Wurred-Sai Warada Dahay Warada Dahay Aksumay Warada Tsahay (23 years) (107)
Endor Handadyo Handu Wuha Abra (11 years) (121)
Sawe (31 years) (204–173 BC) Za Tsawe (3 years and 10 months) (84–80 BC) Za Sawe (31 years) (174–143 BC) Tawasya II[nb 12] (21 years) (105)
or
Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash (49 years) (111)
Wurred Negush Warada Nagasha Tsawi Terhak Warada Nagash (49 years) (111)
Zagesyu (Half a day) (80 BC) Za Gasyo (Half a day) (143 BC) Gasiyo Eskikatir (No reign length given) (113)
Gefaya (15 years) (173–158 BC)
Katar (15 years) (158–143 BC)
Mouta (20 years) (143–123 BC) Za Maute (8 years and 4 months) (80–72 BC) Za Mawat (20 years and 1 month) (143–123 BC) Nuatmeawn[nb 13] (4 years) (114)
Ausanya 'Asanya 'Awesya Awseya Tarakos (12 years) (125)
Elalior Ilalyos 'Elalyon Elalion Taake (10 years) (129)
Toma Sion Toma Seyon Tomas Dahay Tomadyon Piyankihi III (12 years) (115)
Basilios Ba'os Basyo Bassyo (7 years) (136)
Autet 'Awestet 'Awetet Awtet Aruwara (10 years) (139)
Zaware Zaware Nebrat Zawari Nebrat Zawre Nebrat (16 years) (141)
Scifi Safay Safay Safay (13 years) (143)
Rami Ramhay Ramhay Ramhay Arkamen II (10 years) (145)
Artsé
Handu Hende Awkerara (20 years) (147)
Bahas (9 years) (123–114 BC) Za Bahse (9 years) (72–63 BC) Za Bahas (9 years) (123–114 BC) Bassyo[nb 14] (7 years) (136)
or
Agabu Baseheran (10 years) (148)
Kawida (2 years) (114–112 BC) Kawuda (2 years) (63–61 BC) Za Taweda (2 years) (114–112 BC) Sulay Kawawmenun (20 years) (149)
Kanata (10 years) (112–102 BC) Messelme Kerarmer (8 years) (150)
Katzina (9 years) (102–93 BC) Kanazi (10 years) (61–51 BC) Za Kanaz (10 years) (112–102 BC) Kanaz Psmis (13 years) (126)
Haduna (9 years) (51–42 BC) Za Hadena (I) (9 years) (102–93 BC) Queen Hadina (10 years) (132)
Wazeha (1 year) (93–92 BC) Za-Wasih (1 year) (42–41 BC) Za Wanha (1 year) (93–92 BC)
Hazer (2 years) (92–90 BC) Zah-dir (2 years) (41–39 BC) Za Hadena (II) (2 years) (92–90 BC)
Kalas (6 years) (90–84 BC) Za Kal'aku (6 years) (90–84 BC) Kolas (Koletro) (10 years) (140)
Solaya (16 years) (84–68 BC) Za Satyo (16 years) (84–68 BC) Stiyo (14 years) (142)
Falaya (26 years) (68–42 BC) Za Filya (26 years) (68–42 BC) Feliya Hernekhit (15 years) (146)
Suffelia Safalya Safelya Safeliya Abramen (20 years) (153)
Aglebu (3 years) (42–39 BC) Agbul 'Engeleb Za 'Aglebu (3 years) (42–39 BC) Aglebel Aglbul (8 years) (157)
Gawras
Asisena (1 year) (39–38 BC) Za Awzena (1 year) (39–38 BC) Za 'Awsina (1 year) (39–38 BC) Queen Awsena (11 years) (155)
Bawaul Bawel Bawawel Bawawl (10 years) (158)
Henden Hende Awkerara (20 years) (147)
Brus (29 years) (38–9 BC) Za Ber-was (29 years) (38–9 BC)[nb 15] Bawaris Za Birwas (29 years) (38–9 BC) Bawaris Barawas (10 years) (159)
Mohesa (1 year) (9–8 BC) Za Mahasi (1 year) (9–8 BC) Mahassé Mahasi Za Mahele (1 year) (9– 8 BC) Mahase Amoy Mahasse (5 years) (161)
Naqué Nalke Nalke (5 years) (163)
Laka Luzay (12 years) (164)
Bazen (16 years) (8 BC–8 AD) Zabaesi Bazen (16 years) (8 BC–8 AD) Bazen Bazen Za B'esi Bazen (16 years) (8 BC–8 AD) Tazen Bazen (17 years) (165)
22 Kings
231 years
17 Kings
138 years and 10 months
24 Kings 25 Kings 21 Kings
228 years and 1 month
26 Kings
"–" means this king does not appear on this particular list.

Alternate King lists from Bazen to Abreha and Atsbeha (up to c. 333 AD)

Bruce (1790)[245] Rossini (1903)[258] British Museum manuscript
Oriental No. 821, fol. 36a[245]
Tafari's King List (1927)
Bazen (16 years) Bazen Tazen Bazen (17 years) (165)
Tzenaf Segued Senfa 'Ar'ad Akaptah Tsenfa Ared (8 years) (167)
Baher [A]sgad Hatoza Bahr Asaged (28 years) (170)
Garima Asferi Germa Sor (whose throne name was Kaleb) Germa Asfare Metwa Germa Asfar (9 years) (172)
Saraada Serada (16 years) (175)
Tzion Hakabe Nasohi Tsiyon (6 years) (177)
Sargai Sharguay Sharguay Hakli Sergway (12 years) (178)
Zaray Zar'ay Dedme Zaray (10 years) (179)
Bagamai Alaly Bagamay (7 years) (181)
Jan Segued Sabe' 'Asgad[nb 16] Sabe' 'Asgad Awadu Jan Asagad (30 years) (182)
Tzion Heges Seyon Geza Seyon Geza Rema Tsion Geza (3 years) (184)
'Ahendir
Moal Genba Azegan Malbagad (7 years) (185)
Agedar 'Agdur Gaza Agdur (9 years) (188)
Saif Araad[nb 17] Tazer (whose throne name was Sayfa 'Ar'ad) Senda 'Ar'ad Atsgaba Seifa Arad (6 years) (195)
and/or
Tazer (10 years) (199)
Abreha and Atzbeha Abreha and Asbeha 'Abreha and 'Asbeha Abreha Atsbeha (38 years) (201)
14 Kings 10 Kings 12 Kings
"–" means this king does not appear on this particular list.

Henry Salt and the British Museum manuscript Oriental No. 821, fol. 28b have a noticeably different line of kings running up to Abreha and Atsbeha. Both sources follow a similar order with the major difference being that Salt's list places Abreha and Atsbeha's reign much earlier in the chronological order.

Salt noted that the king list he quoted dated exactly 330 years between the birth of Christ and the thirteenth year of Abreha's reign, when Christianity was introduced.[236] This is the same period of time which is quoted in other Ethiopian chronicles.[236]

Henry Salt theorised that the change of prefix from "Za" to "El" after the reign of Za Elasguaga reflected a change of dynasty.[236] He believed that this theory could be confirmed by the short reigns of Za Baesi Tsawesa, Za Wakena and Za Hadus, who all reigned for a combined total of 1 year, 4 months and 2 days after the first "El" king, El Herka.[236] He believed that the "Za" kings were the "shepherd kings" or "original Ethiopians" before being replaced by a new "race" of kings.[236] Salt suggested that this change may have been caused by colony of Syrians who were placed by Alexander the Great near the mouth of the Red Sea according to an account written by Philostorgius.[236]

Salt (1814)[336][243] British Museum manuscript
Oriental No. 821, fol. 28b[243]
Tafari's King List (1927)
Za-Senatu (26 years) (8–34) Za Sartu (26 years) (8–34) Sartu Tsenfa Assegd (21 years) (166)
Za Les (10 years) (34–44) Za L'as (10 years) (34–44)
Za Masenh (6 years) (44–50) Za Museneh (6 years) (44–50) Mesenh Germansir (7 years) (171)
Za Sutuwa (9 years) (50–59) [Za] Shetet (9 years) (50–59) Metwa Germa Asfar (9 years) (172)
Za-Adgaba (10 years and 6 months) (59–69) Za 'Adgasa (16 years and 6 months) (59–75) Adgale II (10 years and 6 months) (173)
Za Agba (6 months) (69–70) Za 'Agabos (6 months) (75–76) Agba (6 months) (174)
Za-Malis (6 years) (70–76) Za Malik (4 years?) (76–80) Malis Alameda (4 years) (176)
Za-Hakale (13 years) (76–89) Za Hakli (13 years) (80–93) Hakli Sergway (12 years) (178)
Za Demahé (10 years) (89–99) Za Demahe (10 years) (93–103) Dedme Zaray (10 years) (179)
Za Awtet (2 years) (99–101) Za 'Awtet (2 years) (103–105) Awtet (2 years) (180)
Za Elawda (30 years) (101–131) Za El-'Aweda (30 years) (105–135) Awadu Jan Asagad (30 years) (182)
Za Zigen and Rema (40 years) (131–171) Betza and Zamare (20 years - each?) (135–175) Zagun Tsion Hegez (5 years) (183)
and
Rema Tsion Geza (3 years) (184)
Za Gafale (1 year) (171–172) Za Gafali (1 year) (175–176) Gafale Seb Asagad (1 year) (186)
Za Baesi serk (4 years) (172–176) Za Be'si Sark (4 years) (176–180) Tsegay Beze Wark (4 years) (187)
Za Elasguaga (76 years) (176–252) Za El-Azwagwa (76 years) (180–256) Agduba Asgwegwe (8 years) (189)
El Herka (21 years) (252–273) [Za] Ela-Herka (21 years) (256–277) Alaly Bagamay (7 years) (181)[nb 18]
Za Baesi tsawesa (1 year) (273–274)[nb 19] Za Be'si Saweza (1 year) (277–278) Dawiza (1 year) (190)
Za Wakena (2 days) (274) Za Wakna (2 days) (278) Queen Wakana (2 days) (191)
Za Hadus (4 months) (274) Za Hadawesa (2 months) (278) Hadawz (4 months) (192)
El Segel (2 years) (274–276) Za Ela-Sagal (3 years) (278–281) Ailassan Sagal (3 years) (193)
El Asfeh (14 years) (276–290) Za Ela 'Asfeha (10 years) (281–291) Asfehi Asfeha (14 years) (194)
El Tsegaba (23 years) (290–313) Za Ela Segab (23 years) (291–314) Tsegab (10 years) (198)
El Semera[nb 20] (3 years) (313–316) Za Ela Samra (3 years (314–317)
Za Aiba (16 years) (316–332 or 342–358) Za Ela [...] (16 years) (317–333) Ayba (17 years) (196)
El Iskandi (36 years) (332–368 or 358–394) Za Ela Eskandi (36 years) (333–369)
El Tshemo (9 years) (368–377 or 394–403) Za Ela Saham (9 years) (369–378) Tsaham Laknduga (9 years) (197)
El San (13 years) (377–390 or 403–416) Za Ela San (13 years) (378–391)
El Aiga (18 years) (390–408 or 416–434) Za Ela 'Ayga (18 years) (391–409) Ayba? (17 years) (196)
El Ameda (40 years and 8 months) (408–448 or 434–474) Za Ela 'Amida (30 years and 8 months) (409–439) Ameda (3 years) (225)
El Ahiawya (3 years) (448–451 or 474–477) (*) Za Ela 'Ahyawa (3 years) (439–442) Queen Ahywa Sofya (33 years) (200)
El Abreha or Aizana
and
El Atzbeha or Saizana[nb 21]
(26 years and 6 months) (316–342 or 451–477)
Za Ela 'Arbeha and Za Ela 'Asbeha
(whose mother was 'Eguala 'Anbasa)
(26 years and 6 months) (442–468)
Abreha Atsbeha (38 years) (201)
32 Kings
466 years, 6 months and 2 days
32 Kings
461 years, 6 months and 2 days
"–" means this king does not appear on this particular list.

Alternate King lists from Abreha and Atsbeha to Dil Na'od (c. 333–960)

Mural in Qusayr 'Amra depicting an Axumite king from the first half of the eighth century.
Mural in Qusayr 'Amra depicting an Axumite king from the first half of the eighth century.

Tafari considers all kings from Kaleb onwards to be part of a different dynasty. However, other Ethiopian traditions do not state that there was any dynastic break here.

E. A. Wallis Budge mentioned a chronicle with a specific list of kings, who he believed were "kinglets" who ruled parts of Ethiopia separate from other lines of kings between 360 and 480.[265] However, he does not mention the source of this list of kings.[265]

Henry Salt noted that one chronicle explicitly stated that 330 years had passed between the birth of Christ and the thirteenth year of Abreha's reign, however the same chronicle makes a "very striking error" by placing Abreha after El Ahiawya and thus suggesting that his thirteenth reign took place 465 years after the birth of Christ.[338] As a result, Salt's personal king list alters the order slightly by placing Abreha and Atsbeha much further up the king list.[338] Salt believed that the five rulers of his list from El Ahiawya to Seladoba "should [probably] be also removed" altogether, which may explain why Budge did not name them when quoting Salt's king list.[338][277] Salt additionally believed that there should only be one king named Ameda, though his list names two kings of this name.[338]

The four kings Asfah, Arfad, Amosi and Seladoba reigned for a total of 32 years according to Salt's list,[338] though he personally felt that it was more likely they reigned for a total of 70 years.[255] Salt noted that the kings from Ameda to Dil Na'od did not have reign lengths assigned to them in the chronicles but may have reigned for a total of 354 years.[291]

Bruce
(1790)[277]
Salt
(1814)[338][291][277]
Rossini
(1903)[276]
British Museum manuscript
Oriental No. 821[276]
Unknown chronicle
(Budge)[266]
Tafari's King List (1927)[276]
Abreha and Atsbeha Abreha and Atzbeha (See above for placement) Abreha and Atsbeha Abreha and Atsbeha 'Ella 'Abreha, 'Ella 'Asbeha
and 'Ella Shahel (14 years, c. 356–370)
Abreha Atsbeha (38 years) (201)
Sahle (14 years) (203)
Asfeha Asfah (*) 'Asfeh 'Asfeh Asfeh Dalz (7 years) (202)
Arphad Arfad (*) 'Arfasked 'Arfed Arfed Gebra Maskal (4 years) (204)
'Ella 'Adhana (14 years) Queen Adhana I (5 years) (205)
'Ella Rete'a (1 year) Riti (1 year) (206)
Jan Asfeha[nb 22] 'Ella 'Asfeh (1 year) Asfeh II (1 year) (207)
Azbeha[nb 23] 'Ella 'Asbeha (5 years) Atsbeha II (5 years) (208)
'Ella 'Amida (16 years) Amey I (15 years) (209)
or
Ameda (3 years) (225)
'Ella 'Abreha (6 months) Abreha II (7 months) (210)
'Ella Shahel (2 months) Illashal (2 months) (211)
'Ella Gaboz or 'Ella Gobaz (2 years, c. 392) Elagabaz I (2 years) (212)
'Ella Shahel (III) or 'Ella Sehal (c. 394) Suhal (4 years) (213)
'Ella Abreha and
'Ella Adhana (16 years)
Abreha III (10 years) (214)
Queen Adhana II (6 years) (215)
'Ella Saham (28 years) Tsaham I (2 years) (217)
'Ella 'Amida (12 years) Amey II (1 year) (218)
'Ella Shahel (2 years) Sahle Ahzob (2 years) (219)
'Ella Sebah (2 years) Tsebah Mahana Kristos (3 years) (220)
'Ella Saham (15 years) Tsaham II (2 years) (221)
'Ella Gobaz (21 years) Elagabaz II (6 years) (222)
Agabe and Lewi (2 years, c. 474–475) Agabi (1 year) (223)
Lewi (2 years) (224)
Amzi Amosi (*) 'Amse 'Amse Amsi (5 years) (227)
Araad
Saladoba Seladoba (*) 'Aladeb Saladoba Salayba (9 years) (228)
Alamida Ameda 'Almeda 'Al-'Ameda 'Ella Amida (IV) (11 or 14 years) Ameda (3 years) (225)
or
Alameda (II) (8 years) (229)
Ya'kob and Dawit (3 years) Armah Dawit (14 years) (226)
'Armah I (14 years, 6 months and 10 days) (489–503)
Zitana (2 years) (503–505) Ezana[nb 24]
Ya'kob (II) (9 years) (505–514)
Tezhana Tazena Tazena Tazena Pazena Ezana (7 years) (230)
Caleb (A.D. 522) Caleb Kaleb (40 years) Kaleb 'Ella 'Asbeha (IV?) (also known as Kaleb) (28 years) (514–542) Kaleb (30 years) (231)
Guebra Maskal Guebra Mascal Gabra Maskal (40 years) Gabra Maskal Gabra Maskal (14 years) (233)
Constantine Constantinus Yeshak (Constantine) Kuostantinos Kostantinos (28 years) (234)
Wusen Segued Wasan Sagad[nb 25] Wasan Sagad Wasan Sagad (15 years) (235)
Bazzer Wasan Sagad[nb 26] (15 years) (235)
Armaha Armah (5 years) (252)
Jan Segued
Fere Sanai Fré Sennai Fere Shanaya[nb 27] Fere Shanay Fere Sanay (23 years) (236)
Aderaaz Adeiarz 'Adre'az Advenz (20 years) (237)
Akul Woodem 'Akala Wedem[nb 28] Akala Wedem Akala Wedem (8 years) (238)
Grim Sofer Germa Sor[nb 29] Germa Safar Germa Asafar (15 years) (239)
Zer gaz Deraz[nb 30] Zergaz Zergaz (10 years) (240)
Degna Michael Degna Mikael[nb 31] Degna Mikael Dagena Mikael (26 years) (241)
Degzan[nb 32]
Bakr-Akla Bahra Ekala[nb 33] Baher Ikla Bahr Akla (19 years) (242)
Gouma Gum Gum Gum (24 years) (243)
Asgoungum 'Ashagum 'Asguomgum Asguagum (5 years) (244)
Let-um Latem Letem Latem (16 years) (245)
Thala-tum Talatem Talatem Talatam (21 years) (246)
Woddo Gush 'Adhsha 'Oda Sasa Gadagosh (13 years) (247)
Aizor I zoor 'Ayzur (Half a day) 'Ayzur Aizar Eskakatir (Half a day) (248)
Didum Dedem Dedem (5 years) (249)
'Awdamdem Wededem Wededem (10 years) (250)
Woodm asfar Wedem Masfere Wedem 'Asfare Wudme Asfare (30 years) (251)
Armah Armah Armah Armah (5 years) (252)
Degna Jan Degjan Degna Jan Degennajan (19 years) (253)
Ambasa Woodim 'Anbasa Wedem' 'Anbasa Wedem Anbase Wedem (20 years) (256)
Del Naad (A.D. 960) Dilnaad Delna'ad (40 years) Delna'ad Del Naad (10 years) (257)
20 Kings 27 Kings 31 Kings 32 Kings 29 Kings
219 or 222 years, 2 months and 10 days
"–" means this king does not appear on this particular list.

Páez and Almeida

Pedro Páez and Manuel de Almeida saw two different manuscripts that likely dated to before 1621.[92] Both Páez and Almeida stated that they received the information from books lent to them by the Ethiopian emperor Susenyos I.[92] Notably, both lists include kings that are otherwise not mentioned on Tafari's list.

The following two lists include names of kings from before the Zagwe dynasty. Numbers in bracket state which position the kings appear on Tafari's list, while those with an asterisk do not appear at all on Tafari's list.

List Names Ref.
King List A Ayzor (248) [92]
Ma'eday (*)
Akala Wedem (238)
Germa Asafar (239)
Zergaz (240)
Degna Mika'el (241)
Badagaz (*)
Armah (252)
Hezba Nan (*)
Degna Zan (253)
Anbasa Wedem (256)
Del Na'ad (257)
King List B Aicor (248) [340]
Del Na'od (257)
Maadai (*)
Ecato/Gudit (255)
Ambaca Udem (256)
Akala Wedem (238)
Guerma Azfare (239)
Zergaz (240)
Degna Michael (241)
Badgaz (*)
Armah (252)

Paris Chronicle

This king list was written in the eighteenth century.[92] Names given below are those that ruled before the Zagwe dynasty. The numbers placed next to the name state which position the king occupies on Tafari's list. The list closely matches the order of kings in Tafari's list from 247 to 256 with the exception that it does not mention Queen Gudit.

Names Ref.
Oda Gos (247) [94]
Ayzur (248)
Dedem (249)
Wededem (250)
Wedem Asfare (251)
Armah (252)
Degna Zan (253)
Ged'a Zan (254)
Anbasa Wedem (256)

Debre Libanos Manuscript

A manuscript from the Debre Libanos monastery of unknown age.[92] The following kings are those who reigned before the Zagwe dynasty.

Names Ref.
Ayzor (248) [340]
Delne'ad (257)
Ma'eday (*)
Esato/Gudit (255)
Anbasa Wedem (256)
Kala Wedem (238)
Germa Asfare (239)
Zergaz (240)
Degna Mika'el (241)
Badagaz (*)
Armah (252)
Hezbanay (*)

Alternate Zagwe dynasty lists

Ethiopian traditions are in agreement that the Zagwe dynasty directly preceded the Solomonic dynasty, but differ regarding when this dynasty first came to power, how long it remained in power and even the number of kings who ruled. Tafari's king list acknowledges eleven kings who ruled for 333 years in total, beginning in the early 10th century. However, the fact that this list includes seven consecutive kings ruling for exactly 40 years each casts doubt on its historical accuracy. By comparison, a book seen by Pedro Páez and Manuel de Almeida claimed only 5 kings ruled for 143 years, while the Paris Chronicle states eleven kings reigned for 354 years.[341] A manuscript held in Paris (no. 64) claimed 5 kings whose rule began in either 1145 or 1147 and ended in either 1268 or 1270.[301]

A text from Dabra Libanos, quoted by Carlo Conti Rossini, claimed the following list of Zagwe kings:[309]

  1. Takla Haymanot reigned 40 years.
  2. Jan Seyum reigned 40 years.
  3. Germa Seyum reigned 40 years.
  4. Gempawedamo reigned 40 years.
  5. Yemreha reigned 40 years.
  6. Gabra Maryam reigned 40 years.
  7. Lalibala reigned 40 years.
  8. Na'akueto La'ab reigned 40 years.
  9. Yetbarak reigned 9 years.

This list omits Tatadim, Kedus Harbe, Mairari and Harbai, who appear on other king lists. The kings named Gempawedamo and Gabra Maryam do not appear on Tafari's list. The text that contains this list claims that Gempawedamo was the third son of Mara Takla Haymanot.[309]

Rossini also quoted another list that was published in 1902:[302]

  1. Pantaw
  2. Pantadem (Tatadim)
  3. Djan Seyum
  4. Djan Germe (Germa Seyum)
  5. 'Arbe (Kedus Harbe)
  6. Lalibala
  7. Na'akueto La'ab
  8. Yemrehana Krestos
  9. Yetbarak

This list moves Yemrehana Krestos further down the order of kings compared to most other Zagwe king lists. It is unclear who "Pantaw" is and whether he can be identified with the traditional Zagwe founder, Mara Takla Haymanot, or not. This list also omits the ephemeral emperors Mairari and Harbai.

A manuscript held in the British Museum (Or. 821, fol. 28b), holds a different list of kings which closer match Tafari's list, though with a noticeably short reign for Mara Takla Haymanot.[308]

  1. Takla Haymanot – 3 years
  2. Tatadem – 40 years
  3. Jan Sheyum – 40 years
  4. Germa Sheyum – 40 years
  5. Yemrehna Krestos – 40 years
  6. Kedus Harbe – 40 years
  7. Lalibala – 40 years
  8. Na'akueto La'ab – 48 years
  9. Yetbarak – 40 years
  10. Mayrari – 15 years
  11. Harbay – 8 years

In his book, Regents of Nations, Peter Truhart included a longer list of Zagwe kings, which featured many kings that do not appear on the most commonly known lists.

#
[286]
Name
[286]
Reign Dates
[286]
Notes
[286]
1 Mera Taqla Haymanot c. 920–933 (13 years) Son-in-law of Dil Na'od.[286]
2 Sibuhay Del Ne'ad II c. 933–943 (10 years)
3 Meyrary c. 943–958 (15 years)
4 Harbey (Hareyne Egzi) c. 958–966 (8 years)
5 Mengesine Yetberak c. 966–973 (7 years)
6 Yi'kebke Egzl c. 973–983 (10 years)
7 Zena Petros c. 983–989 (6 years) Murdered.[286]
8 Bahr Saf c. 989–1003 (14 years)
9 Tetewedem (Ser Asgad Pantadem) c. 1003–1013 (10 years) Descendant of Mara Takla Haymanot.[286]
10 Akotet Jan Seyon c. 1013–1033 (20 years) Brother of Tatadim.[286]
11 Bemnet Germa Seyon c. 1033–1053 (20 years) Brother of Jan Seyum.[286]
12 Yemrehana Krestos c. 1053–1093 (40 years) Son of Germa Seyum.[286]
Capital was Adefa during his reign.[286]
13 Qedus Arbe Gabra Maryam c. 1093–1133 (40 years) Son of Jan Seyum.[286]
Previously governor of Lasta.[286]
Abdicated.[286]
14 Lalibela Gabra Masqal c. 1133–1173 (40 years) Son of Jan Seyum.[286]
Previously governor of Lasta.[286]
Abdicated.[286]
Alternate dates: 1160–1211,[286] 1180–1220[286] or 1205–1255[286]
15 Ne'akuto Le'ab 1173–1213 (40 years) Son of Kedus Harbe.[286]
Abdicated.[286]
Alternate dates: c. 1145–1215,[286] 1211–1251/1259[286] or 1220–1268[286]
16 Yetbarek 1213–1253 (40 years) "Pretender" to the throne from 1173 to 1213.[286]
Died in battle at Daga Qirqos.[286]
Son of Lalibela.[286]

Discover more about Other King Lists related topics

E. A. Wallis Budge

E. A. Wallis Budge

Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East. He made numerous trips to Egypt and the Sudan on behalf of the British Museum to buy antiquities, and helped it build its collection of cuneiform tablets, manuscripts, and papyri. He published many books on Egyptology, helping to bring the findings to larger audiences. In 1920, he was knighted for his service to Egyptology and the British Museum.

Bible

Bible

The Bible is a collection of religious texts or scriptures that are held to be sacred in Christianity, Judaism, Samaritanism, and many other religions. The Bible is an anthology – a compilation of texts of a variety of forms – originally written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Koine Greek. These texts include instructions, stories, poetry, and prophecies, among other genres. The collection of materials that are accepted as part of the Bible by a particular religious tradition or community is called a biblical canon. Believers in the Bible generally consider it to be a product of divine inspiration, but the way they understand what that means and interpret the text can vary.

Book of Genesis

Book of Genesis

The Book of Genesis is the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament. Its Hebrew name is the same as its first word, Bereshit. Genesis is an account of the creation of the world, the early history of humanity, and of Israel's ancestors and the origins of the Jewish people.

British Museum

British Museum

The British Museum is a public museum dedicated to human history, art and culture located in the Bloomsbury area of London. Its permanent collection of eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence. It documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. The British Museum was the first public national museum to cover all fields of knowledge.

Bibliothèque nationale de France

Bibliothèque nationale de France

The Bibliothèque nationale de France is the national library of France, located in Paris on two main sites known respectively as Richelieu and François-Mitterrand. It is the national repository of all that is published in France. Some of its extensive collections, including books and manuscripts but also precious objects and artworks, are on display at the BnF Museum on the Richelieu site.

Kebra Nagast

Kebra Nagast

The Kebra Nagast, var. Kebra Negast, or The Glory of the Kings, is a 14th-century national epic from Ethiopia, written in Ge'ez by Nebure Id Ishaq of Axum, by the office of Abuna Abba Giyorgis and at the command of the governor of Enderta Ya'ibika Igzi'. The text, in its existing form, is at least 700 years old and although clearly legendary is considered by many Ethiopian Christians to be a historically reliable work. It is considered to hold the genealogy of the Solomonic dynasty, which followed the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

Adam

Adam

Adam is the name given in Genesis 1-5 to the first human. Beyond its use as the name of the first man, adam is also used in the Bible as a pronoun, individually as "a human" and in a collective sense as "mankind". Genesis 1 tells of God's creation of the world and its creatures, including adam, meaning humankind; in Genesis 2 God forms "Adam", this time meaning a single male human, out of "the dust of the ground", places him in the Garden of Eden, and forms a woman, Eve, as his helpmate; in Genesis 3 Adam and Eve eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge and God condemns Adam to labour on the earth for his food and to return to it on his death; Genesis 4 deals with the birth of Adam's sons, and Genesis 5 lists his descendants from Seth to Noah.

Enos (biblical figure)

Enos (biblical figure)

Enos or Enosh is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible. He is described as the first son of Seth who figures in the Generations of Adam, and is also referred to within the genealogies of 1 Chronicles.

Kenan

Kenan

Kenan is an Antediluvian patriarch first mentioned in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible.

Jared

Jared

Jared is a given name of Biblical derivation.

Enoch

Enoch

Enoch is a biblical figure and patriarch prior to Noah's flood, and the son of Jared and father of Methuselah. He was of the Antediluvian period in the Hebrew Bible.

Lamech (father of Noah)

Lamech (father of Noah)

Lamech was a patriarch in the genealogies of Adam in the Book of Genesis. He is part of the genealogy of Jesus in Luke 3:36.

Legendary monarchs from non-Ethiopian sources

Due to Ethiopia's long history and unique culture, various legends on the country and its monarchs have developed in non-indigenous sources. Such stories tell us how Ethiopia was perceived by the outside world.

Prester John

Left: A 17th century drawing by Pierre-Antoine Demachy (1723-1807) depicting Prester John, "Emperor of Abyssinia". Right: A 1573 map of Africa by Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598) showing the "Empire of Prester John, that is to say, of the Abyssinians".
Left: A 17th century drawing by Pierre-Antoine Demachy (1723-1807) depicting Prester John, "Emperor of Abyssinia". Right: A 1573 map of Africa by Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598) showing the "Empire of Prester John, that is to say, of the Abyssinians".
Left: A 17th century drawing by Pierre-Antoine Demachy (1723-1807) depicting Prester John, "Emperor of Abyssinia". Right: A 1573 map of Africa by Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598) showing the "Empire of Prester John, that is to say, of the Abyssinians".

During the 12th to 17th centuries, a popular story in Europe told of a Christian king who ruled a kingdom in the Orient which was surrounded by numerous Pagan and Muslim kingdoms.[342] Prester John's kingdom was said to be located in various regions, such as India or Central Asia, but in time came to be associated with Ethiopia, due to its relative isolation as a Christian kingdom. Ethiopia appears to have become generally accepted as the location of Prester John's kingdom by 1250.[343] Increasing interactions between Europe and Ethiopia during the 15th and 16th centuries solidified Ethiopia as the preferred home of Prester John. By 1520, Europeans knew the Ethiopian emperor Lebna Dengel by the name "Prester John".[344]

The Ethiopians themselves however never acknowledged a king named "Prester John" and such a king does not appear on their king lists. Ambassadors of Emperor Zara Yaqob who attended the Council of Florence in 1441 were left confused when the council referred to them as representatives of "Prester John".[345] The ambassadors explained that no such king by this name appeared on Zara Yaqob's regnal list, however the name "Prester John" kept being used by the Europeans.[345] Emperor Iyasu II may have been the first to hear of the "Prester John" legend when he was asked about it by a Czech Franciscan named Remedius Prutky in 1751, to which the emperor responded by stating that no kings of Ethiopia had ever called themselves by the name of "Prester John".[346]

Alchitrof

Alchitrof, "Aethiopia Rex", depicted in a 1568 painting by Cristofano dell'Altissimo.
Alchitrof, "Aethiopia Rex", depicted in a 1568 painting by Cristofano dell'Altissimo.

16th century Italian historian and biographer Paolo Giovio (1483-1552) assembled a series of 484 portraits, known as the Giovio Series. These portraits included, but where not limited to, rulers, statesmen and literary figures. Much of the original collection is now lost, but it is preserved in a series of at least 280 copies made by the Italian painter Cristofano dell'Altissimo (c. 1525–1605).

From the surviving copies by Cristifano, two portraits are of Ethiopian monarchs. The first of these was of Emperor Lebna Dengel (r. 1508–1540) while the other was of a king named "Alchitrof", who is not named in any Ethiopian king lists. The portrait of Alchitrof includes a feathered headdress and three rings on his lower lip, features which do not match with what is known about Ethiopian custom and culture during the period when the portrait was painted. It is possible that "Alchitrof" is not meant to be real person but rather "a fantastic approach" from a European perspective.[347]

Kate Lowe, a professor of Renaissance history, suggested that the name "Alchitrof" may be a corruption of the name of Lebna Dengel's eldest son al-Fiqtur.[348] Lowe also suggested that the there may be a "mismatch" between the image and its inscription, as the clothing and jewellery are often used in reference to South America rather than sub-Saharan Africa in Renaissance art.[348] Additionally, Lowe argued that "Achitrof" may be an "imagined Brazilian, Carib or Amerindian chief or ruler" with his facial features being inspired by "more realistic physiognomic features taken from black Africans in Europe".[349]

Alternatively, Alchitrof may not have been a king in the modern-day territory of Ethiopia, but rather that the "Aethiopia" mentioned refers to a more generalized region covering much of Sub-Saharan Africa and thus Alchitrof, if he existed, may have been king of a totally different geographical region to that of Lebna Dengel. The modern-day region of Ethiopia was frequently called "Abyssinia" by the Europeans at the time the painting was made and the painting of Lebna Dengel specifically calls him the "Great King of the Abyssinians" instead of "Aethiopia" as used in the portrait of Alchitrof, suggesting that the original artist (or copier) deliberately chose to differentiate their regions of rule.

Discover more about Legendary monarchs from non-Ethiopian sources related topics

Prester John

Prester John

Prester John was a legendary Christian patriarch, presbyter, and king. Stories popular in Europe in the 12th to the 17th centuries told of a Nestorian patriarch and king who was said to rule over a Christian nation lost amid the pagans and Muslims in the Orient. The accounts were often embellished with various tropes of medieval popular fantasy, depicting Prester John as a descendant of the Three Magi, ruling a kingdom full of riches, marvels, and strange creatures.

Africa

Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.4 billion people as of 2021, it accounts for about 18% of the world's human population. Africa's population is the youngest amongst all the continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4. Despite a wide range of natural resources, Africa is the least wealthy continent per capita and second-least wealthy by total wealth, behind Oceania. Scholars have attributed this to different factors including geography, climate, tribalism, colonialism, the Cold War, neocolonialism, lack of democracy, and corruption. Despite this low concentration of wealth, recent economic expansion and the large and young population make Africa an important economic market in the broader global context.

Abraham Ortelius

Abraham Ortelius

Abraham Ortelius was a Brabantian cartographer, geographer, and cosmographer. He is recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Along with Gemma Frisius and Gerardus Mercator, Ortelius is generally considered one of the founders of the Netherlandish school of cartography and geography. He was a notable figure of this school in its golden age and an important geographer of Spain during the age of discovery. The publication of his atlas in 1570 is often considered as the official beginning of the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. He was the first person proposing that the continents were joined before drifting to their present positions.

Orient

Orient

The Orient is a term for the East in relation to Europe, traditionally comprising anything belonging to the Eastern world. It is the antonym of Occident, the Western World. In English, it is largely a metonym for, and coterminous with, the continent of Asia, loosely classified into the Western Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, and sometimes including the Caucasus. Originally, the term Orient was used to designate only the Near East, and later its meaning evolved and expanded, designating also the Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, or the Far East.

India

India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia.

Central Asia

Central Asia

Central Asia, also known as Middle Asia, is a region of Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to western China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. It includes the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, which are colloquially referred to as the "-stans" as the countries all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". The current geographical location of Central Asia was formerly part of the historic region of Turkistan, also known as Turan.

Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east and northeast, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west, and Sudan to the northwest. Ethiopia has a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres. As of 2022, it is home to around 113.5 million inhabitants, making it the 13th-most populous country in the world and the 2nd-most populous in Africa after Nigeria. The national capital and largest city, Addis Ababa, lies several kilometres west of the East African Rift that splits the country into the African and Somali tectonic plates.

Council of Florence

Council of Florence

The Council of Florence is the seventeenth ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held between 1431 and 1449. It was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite Wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire. At stake was the greater conflict between the conciliar movement and the principle of papal supremacy.

Cristofano dell'Altissimo

Cristofano dell'Altissimo

Cristofano dell'Altissimo was an Italian painter in Florence.

Italians

Italians

Italians are a Romance-speaking ethnic group native to the Italian geographical region and its neighboring insular territories. Italians share a common culture, history, ancestry and language. Their predecessors differ regionally, but include the ancient Greeks in Magna Graecia, the Etruscans in northern Italy and, most notably, the Romans in central Italy, who helped create and evolved into the modern Italian identity. Legally, Italian nationals are citizens of Italy, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from ethnic Italians in general or from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian peninsula without Italian citizenship. The Latin equivalent of the term Italian had been in use for natives of the geographical region since antiquity.

Paolo Giovio

Paolo Giovio

Paolo Giovio was an Italian physician, historian, biographer, and prelate.

Giovio Series

Giovio Series

The Giovio Series, also known as the Giovio Collection or Giovio Portraits, is a series of 484 portraits assembled by the 16th-century Italian Renaissance historian and biographer Paolo Giovio. It includes portraits of literary figures, rulers, statesmen and other dignitaries, many of which were done from life. Intended by Giovio as a public archive of famous men, the collection was originally housed in a specially-built museum on the shore of Lake Como. Although the original collection has not survived intact, a set of copies made for Cosimo I de' Medici now has a permanent home in Florence's Uffizi Gallery.

Source: "List of legendary monarchs of Ethiopia", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_legendary_monarchs_of_Ethiopia.

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Notes
  1. ^ Amharic versions of names are taken from the Amharic Wikipedia page for the Kings of Ethiopia.
  2. ^ Amharic versions of names are taken from the Amharic Wikipedia page for the Kings of Ethiopia.
  3. ^ Amharic versions of names are taken from the Amharic Wikipedia page for the Kings of Ethiopia.
  4. ^ E. A. Wallis Budge used the name "Helena" when referring to Eleni, Empress Regent of Ethiopia from 1508 to 1516.[208]
  5. ^ Amharic versions of names are taken from the Amharic Wikipedia page for the Kings of Ethiopia.
  6. ^ "Orit" comes from the Syriac word "Urayta", meaning the law of Moses and the Torah.[239]
  7. ^ Amharic versions of names are taken from the Amharic Wikipedia page for the Kings of Ethiopia.
  8. ^ Amharic versions of names are taken from the Amharic Wikipedia page for the Kings of Ethiopia.
  9. ^ Amharic versions of names are taken from the Amharic Wikipedia page for the Kings of Ethiopia.
  10. ^ Earlier in his book, Budge stated that one Ethiopian tradition claimed that Ethiopians descended from Ham.[148] However, on page 192 he presents a list which instead begins with Kush followed by Ham.[149] It is unclear if this is an error or if this is a different tradition.
  11. ^ Peter Truhart identified this king with "Awda".[74]
  12. ^ Peter Truhart identified this king with "Za Sawe".[74]
  13. ^ Peter Truhart identified this king with "Za Mawat".[74]
  14. ^ Peter Truhart identified this king with "Za Bahas".[230]
  15. ^ Budge misquoted Salt by claiming that his list gave this king 26 years of rule.[89]
  16. ^ This king is placed after Seyon Geza on Rossini's list.[258]
  17. ^ This king is placed before Agedar on Bruce's list.[245]
  18. ^ Peter Truhart identified this king with "Ela Arka".[242]
  19. ^ Budge misquoted Salt by calling this king "Za Baesi tsawera".[243]
  20. ^ E. A. Wallis Budge theorised that this king could be equated with Sembrouthes,[337] although this king ruled for at least 24 years according to an inscription found at Dekemhare.
  21. ^ Salt's list places these kings between El Semera and El Aiba.[275] The original manuscript Salt quoted from placed Abreha and Atsbeha after El Ahiawya but he deliberately changed the position because the same manuscript claimed that Abreha's thirteenth regnal year was 330 years after the birth of Christ, whereas the original regnal order would have placed this 465 years after Christ's birth, in direct contradiction with what the manuscript claimed.[338]
  22. ^ Bruce places this king between Armaha and Jan Segued, as the 14th king following Abreha and Atsbeha.
  23. ^ Bruce places this king between Bazzer and Armaha, as the 12th king following Abreha and Atsbeha.
  24. ^ Budge noted that some writers believed Zitana to be the same king as Ezana, though Budge found this to be impossible due to his short reign and that his reign took place about 150 years after Ezana's rule.[339]
  25. ^ Rossini places this between Fere Shanaya and Degna Mikael, as the 11th king following Abreha and Atsbeha.
  26. ^ Peter Truhart tentatively identified Bazzer with king Wasan Sagad.[264]
  27. ^ Rossini places this between Yeshak (Constantine) and Wasan Sagad, as the 10th king following Abreha and Atsbeha.
  28. ^ Rossini places this between Germa Sor and Bahra Ekala, as the 16th king following Abreha and Atsbeha.
  29. ^ Rossini places this between Degzan and 'Akala Wedem, as the 15th king following Abreha and Atsbeha.
  30. ^ Rossini places this between Degna Mikael and Degzan, as the 13th king following Abreha and Atsbeha.
  31. ^ Rossini places this between Wasan Sagad and Deraz, as the 12th king following Abreha and Atsbeha.
  32. ^ Rossini places this between Deraz and Germa Sor, as the 14th king following Abreha and Atsbeha.
  33. ^ Beginning with this king, Rossini's list once again begins to align with the order of kings presented in other lists.
Sources
  1. ^ a b c d e f Budge, E. A. Wallis (1928). A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia (Volume I). London: Methuen & Co. p. xi.
  2. ^ a b Kropp, Manfred (2006). "Ein später Schüler des Julius Africanus zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts in Äthiopien". In Wallraf, Martin (ed.). Julius Africanus und die christliche Weltchronistik (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 304–305. ISBN 978-3-11-019105-9.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Budge, E. A. Wallis (1928). A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia (Volume I). London: Methuen & Co. p. 204.
  4. ^ a b c Kropp, Manfred (2006). "Ein später Schüler des Julius Africanus zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts in Äthiopien". In Wallraf, Martin (ed.). Julius Africanus und die christliche Weltchronistik (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 312. ISBN 978-3-11-019105-9.
  5. ^ Prouty, Chris (1981). Historical dictionary of Ethiopia. Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8108-1448-6.
  6. ^ a b Rey, C. F. (1927). In the Country of the Blue Nile. London: Camelot Press. pp. 261–274.
  7. ^ a b c d e Kropp, Manfred (2006). "Ein später Schüler des Julius Africanus zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts in Äthiopien". In Wallraf, Martin (ed.). Julius Africanus und die christliche Weltchronistik (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 315–316. ISBN 978-3-11-019105-9.
  8. ^ a b c d Kropp, Manfred (2006). "Ein später Schüler des Julius Africanus zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts in Äthiopien". In Wallraf, Martin (ed.). Julius Africanus und die christliche Weltchronistik (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 305. ISBN 978-3-11-019105-9.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Kropp, Manfred (2006). "Ein später Schüler des Julius Africanus zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts in Äthiopien". In Wallraf, Martin (ed.). Julius Africanus und die christliche Weltchronistik (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 320. ISBN 978-3-11-019105-9.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg Ghelawdewos Araia (December 7, 2009). "Brief Chronology of Ethiopian History". Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  11. ^ a b c Rey, C. F. (1927). In the Country of the Blue Nile. London: Camelot Press. p. 262.
  12. ^ Rey, C. F. (1927). In the Country of the Blue Nile. London: Camelot Press. p. 261.
  13. ^ Rey, C. F. (1927). In the Country of the Blue Nile. London: Camelot Press. p. 3.
  14. ^ G.W.B. Huntingford, "'The Wealth of Kings' and the End of the Zāguē Dynasty", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 28 (1965), p. 7
  15. ^ Budge, E. A. Wallis (1928). A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia (Volume I). London: Methuen & Co. p. 305.
  16. ^ a b Budge, E. A. Wallis (1928). A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia (Volume I). London: Methuen & Co. p. 139.
  17. ^ Elias J Bickerman (1980). Chronology of the Ancient World (Aspects of Greek & Roman Life) (2nd sub ed.). Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Press. p. 73. ISBN 0-8014-1282-X.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Budge, E. A. Wallis (1928). A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia (Volume I). London: Methuen & Co. p. x.
  19. ^ a b Budge, E. A. Wallis (1928). A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia (Volume I). London: Methuen & Co. p. xvi.
  20. ^ a b Budge, E. A. Wallis (1928). A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia (Volume I). London: Methuen & Co. p. 220.
  21. ^ a b c d F.A.E. (1928). "Reviews: Seven Years in Southern Abyssinia by Arnold Wienholt / In the Country of the Blue Nile C. F. Rey. With a foreword by Major-Gen. Lord Edward Gleichen". The Geographical Journal. 71 (3): 295.
  22. ^ a b c d Kropp, Manfred (2006). "Ein später Schüler des Julius Africanus zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts in Äthiopien". In Wallraf, Martin (ed.). Julius Africanus und die christliche Weltchronistik (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 315. ISBN 978-3-11-019105-9.
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