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List of journalists killed in the Philippines

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This is a list of journalists killed in the Philippines,[1] sorted by date of death.

Background

Statistics

Reporters Without Borders (RSF) had said that the Philippines is one of the world's deadliest country for journalists, adding that violence against them continued even with the establishment of the Presidential Task Force on Media Security (PTFoMS) in 2016. In its press freedom index for 2022, the country, out of 180 evaluated by RSF, ranks 147th.[2][3] Prior to that, the 2009 Ampatuan massacre caused the country to be ranked 3rd in the Global Impunity Index by the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) in 2009, 2011–2014, the country's worst. In 2018, the country was given a special citation as one of those with an improved ranking. Likewise, the country was reported by the RSF as one of the five deadliest countries for journalists in the world from mid-2010s until being delisted in 2018. One of the causes is the PTFoMS' immediate action on various cases of killings and threats against the press.[4]

Based on the data by the National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP), 197[a] media workers have been killed since 1986, with all deaths included were in relation to their job. The highest number was under the administration of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo with 103; including 32 of those murdered in Maguindanao in what was called the world's worst single attack on journalists,[3][7][8] which made the year 2009 the deadliest for them.[2]

Meanwhile, other groups also document such. A data from the CPJ shows 156 killed since 1992; UNESCO reported 115 since 1996, with majority of them having publicized responses from Member States to Director General's request for information on judicial follow-up. Both includes the most recent, the death of Percy Lapid in October 2022.[9][10]

Journalists and media workers killed
Presidency Number
NUJP CMFR, PCIJ Bulatlat
(PMPF, et al.)
Marcos Sr.[b] n/a n/a 32
(since 1972)
C. Aquino 17[a] 21[a] 34
Ramos 15 11 19
Estrada 5 6 5
Arroyo 103 80 14
(until 2003)
B. Aquino III 32 31[3]
Duterte 23
Marcos Jr.
(until Oct. 2022)
2
NOTES:

Most deaths, according to NUJP, were radio personalities, especially blocktime commentators, many affiliated to local politicians, as suggested by a research from CPJ.[2][19] Most incidents occurred in Mindanao, according to PTFoMS.[4]

Various data show similarities seen in most of the killings. Incidents usually occurred in the provinces,[7] wherein victims working there as journalists exposed wrongdoings in their locality. On the other hand, suspects, unknown and presumably hired killers, were hardly caught;[20] very often they are motorcycle-riding assailants.[19]

Both CMFR and the Philippine National Police reported in 2005 that of the journalists slain in the line or duty, seven were killed in crossfire: five during encounter with or being killed by the New People's Army (including two in an ambush in 1986); two during coup attempt especially in 1989 perpetrated by RAM–SFP–YOU.[21][22]

The Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility (CMFR) has recorded, by April 2015, ten of those "killed in the line of duty since 1986" are women, four of them in the 2009 Maguindanao massacre case. Excluding more than a hundred arrested in connection with the 2009 murders, four alleged gunmen in two of the six cases were arrested, one of them has been released.[23]

Data show few out of the cases of media killings since 1986 People Power Revolution having developments. Combined data from CMFR (Nov. 2014) and PTFoMS (Jan. 2020) show at least 53 of the cases resulted in convictions;[4] CMFR reported, by Apr. 2016, six in acquittals.[24][c] Meanwhile, CMFR recorded, by 2011, 54% of the monitored cases considered "cold or dead" where police have been unable to identify and arrest any suspect.[26] Furthermore, both the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ; in a February 2015 report) and CMFR stated that none of masterminds has been prosecuted and convicted.[27][28][26][29]

PTFoMS, created through Administrative Order No. 1 issued by Pres. Rodrigo Duterte in October 2016, has been acting on the later cases; also, it has been gathering all data from various sources to map prior cases in the country and to exercise investigative powers on them; the results (shown at the table) until the 2019 verdict on the Ampatuan massacre case are recorded.[4]

Cases recorded by PTFoMS
(since 1986, as of Jan. 2020)
Description No.
Killing (180) Work-related (22) Under investigation
(including those cases with unidentified suspects, unavailable witnesses or evidence)
5
Ongoing trial
17
Not-work related
56
Closed cases (102) Reached conviction
(including the Ampatuan massacre case)[d]
49
Deemed prescribed and with unavailable records
26
Suspects died
8
Victim's family is no longer interested to file a complaint or pursue the case
8
Reached acquittal
5
Dismissed
6
Not killing (64) Threats
58
Survivors of physical attacks with the intention to kill
6
Cases involving journalists and media workers
244
Source: Presidential Task Force on Media Security[4]

For those cases prior to 1986, various sources document such. According to the National Press Club (NPC), about 35 journalists were killed during the Marcos administration.[11] NPC, as well as the military and a journalists' group in Manila, both reported more cases from mid-1984 to mid-1985, more than twice than the previous decade. Either military personnel or paramilitary units were the perpetrators in several cases. Few of these were said to be solved, few suspects were arrested, and at least a conviction was reported.[13][12][b]

In 2006, Pres. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo created Task Force Usig following increase of murders of journalists and activists. While the supervisory body reportedly accomplished police reform and increased coordination, among others, it was criticized by media activists for failure to provide its logistics, as well as being toothless; as working from Camp Crame, relies on local police investigators vulnerable to political pressure.[26]

"Media killings" defined

The term has various definitions:

  • NUJP considers all media killings as work-related, assuming as such those cases that are uncertain if work-related or whose motives are unknown, unless there is proof otherwise.[26][15]
  • CMFR defines media killings "as the murder of journalists and media workers", anyone who works regularly in certain media and its aspects regardless of work quality or status, but with clarification on categorizing as work-related the cases of targeted killings due to their reports.[26] The case is classified as "in the line of duty" regardless of reported certain abuses in the practice being provoked the killing. Meanwhile, while CMFR acknowledges a case that maybe not work-related, it finds any evidence to indicate such motives until it is verified, delisting the case.[27]
  • For TF Usig, a journalist's murder must be "work-related" to be considered a media killing.[26]
  • PTFoMS initially presumes all reported killings of media personnel as work-related and takes initiative in the investigation as a matter of protocol.[4]

In the case of 32 journalists slain in 2009 in Maguindanao, they are said killed in the line of duty, thus recorded by both CMFR and NUJP. This is contrary to what was said by the TF Usig that the incident is considered to be election-related; they were not the target of the killers and are considered "collateral damage". Moreover, media activists had been concerned with the task force's count beginning from 2001 as they recorded only a few percent of those in the tally of CMFR and NUJP.[26]

Discover more about Background related topics

Committee to Protect Journalists

Committee to Protect Journalists

The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York, with correspondents around the world. CPJ promotes press freedom and defends the rights of journalists. The American Journalism Review has called the organization, "Journalism's Red Cross." Since late 1980s, the organization has been publishing an annual census of journalists killed or imprisoned in relation to their work.

National Union of Journalists of the Philippines

National Union of Journalists of the Philippines

The National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP) is a Filipino non-governmental trade association that represents the interests of Filipino journalists. Among its leadership are representatives from ABS-CBN, DZMM, GMA, the Philippine Daily Inquirer, The Philippine Star, CNN Philippines, Central Luzon Television, SunStar, and TV5 (Interaksyon). It has campaigned in support of journalists it sees as being under attack, such as Maria Ressa of Rappler and organizations such as ABS-CBN. It is often quoted in the Philippine and international media in relationship to press freedom issues in the country.

Presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

The presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, also known as the Arroyo administration, spanned nine years from January 20, 2001, to June 30, 2010. She served the remainder of her predecessor Joseph Estrada's term after he was deposed, and she was elected to a full second term in 2004 which ended in 2010. Arroyo is the daughter of 9th president Diosdado Macapagal.

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal Arroyo, often referred to by her initials GMA, is a Filipino academic and politician serving as one of the House Deputy Speakers since 2022, and previously from 2016 to 2017. She previously served as the 14th president of the Philippines from 2001 until 2010. She is the longest serving president of the Philippines since Ferdinand Marcos. Before her accession to the presidency, she served as the 10th vice president of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001 under President Joseph Estrada, making her the country's first female vice president, despite having run on an opposing ticket. She was also a senator from 1992 to 1998. After her presidency, she was elected as the representative of Pampanga's 2nd district in 2010 and later became the speaker of the House of Representatives from 2018 until her retirement in 2019. She later came out of retirement to be elected as representative of the same district in 2022. She is one of the only 2 Filipinos to hold at least three of the four highest offices in the country: vice president, president, and house speaker, alongside former President Sergio Osmeña.

Maguindanao massacre

Maguindanao massacre

The Maguindanao massacre, also known as the Ampatuan massacre, named after the town where mass graves of victims were found, occurred on the morning of November 23, 2009, in the town of Ampatuan in then-undivided Maguindanao province, on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. The 58 victims were on their way to file a certificate of candidacy for Esmael Mangudadatu, vice mayor of Buluan, when they were kidnapped and later killed. Mangudadatu was challenging Datu Unsay mayor Andal Ampatuan Jr., son of the incumbent Maguindanao governor Andal Ampatuan Sr. and member of one of Mindanao's leading Muslim political clans, in the forthcoming Maguindanao gubernatorial election, part of the national elections in 2010. The people killed included Mangudadatu's wife, his two sisters, journalists, lawyers, aides, and motorists who were witnesses or were mistakenly identified as part of the convoy.

Killing of Percy Lapid

Killing of Percy Lapid

On October 3, 2022, Percy Lapid, a radio journalist and radio broadcaster, was shot dead while on his way home in Las Piñas, Metro Manila, Philippines.

Presidency of Corazon Aquino

Presidency of Corazon Aquino

The Presidency of Corazon Aquino began following the triumph of the peaceful People Power Revolution or EDSA 1 when Corazon Aquino became President of the Philippines, and spanned a six-year period from February 25, 1986, to June 30, 1992.

Presidency of Fidel V. Ramos

Presidency of Fidel V. Ramos

The presidency of Fidel V. Ramos, also known as the Ramos administration spanned for six years from June 30, 1992, to June 30, 1998. At the time of his assumption into power, Fidel Ramos was the fourth oldest person to become president of the Philippines at the age of 64. He is also the first Protestant president of the country and the only Filipino officer in history to have held every one hundred rank in the Philippine military from second lieutenant to commander-in-chief. the first few years of his administration (1992–1995) were characterized by economic boom, technological development, political stability and efficient delivery of basic needs to the people. During his time, he advocated party platforms as outline and agenda for governance. He was the first Christian Democrat to be elected in the country, being the founder of Lakas-CMD. He was one of the most influential leaders and the unofficial spokesman of liberal democracy in Asia.

Presidency of Joseph Estrada

Presidency of Joseph Estrada

The presidency of Joseph Estrada, also known as the Estrada administration, spanned 31 months from June 30, 1998, to January 20, 2001. Estrada was elected president of the Philippines in the May 11, 1998 national elections, receiving almost 11 million votes.

Presidency of Benigno Aquino III

Presidency of Benigno Aquino III

The presidency of Benigno Aquino III began on June 30, 2010, when he became the 15th president of the Philippines, succeeding Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. His term ended on June 30, 2016. Aquino, the third-youngest person elected president, is the only son of the 11th president, Corazon Aquino, and former senator Benigno Aquino Jr.

Presidency of Bongbong Marcos

Presidency of Bongbong Marcos

The presidency of Bongbong Marcos began at noon on June 30, 2022, following his inauguration as the 17th president of the Philippines, succeeding Rodrigo Duterte. His term is expected to end six years later, on June 30, 2028.

Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility

Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility

The Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility (CMFR) is a private, non-stock, non-profit foundation in the Philippines that has focused its endeavor on press freedom protection along with the establishment of a framework of responsibility for its practice. Its programs represent efforts to protect the press as well as to promote professional and ethical values in journalistic practice.

Pre-1980s

  • Antonio Abad Tormis, Republic News editor and columnist, was shot on July 3, 1961, in front of the Masonic Temple building in Cebu City. Felipe Pareja, city treasurer at that time, had been the subject of Tormis' commentaries on graft. Pareja, the mastermind, and the gunman, Cesario Orongan, were convicted and imprisoned. This is the only such case in Cebu considered work-related.[27][30]
  • Celso Tan, DYRL commentator, was shot dead in May 1967 in his home in Bacolod City. He had been exposing in his program a criminal syndicate, which was later believed to be behind the killing. This is the first such killing in the city and the Negros Occidental area.[31]
  • Ermin Garcia Sr. of Sunday Punch newspaper in Dagupan City was shot dead sometime in late 1960s or early 1970s because of his fight against criminality.[32]

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Cebu City

Cebu City

Cebu City, officially known as the City of Cebu, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines and capital of the Cebu Province. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 964,169 people,  making it the sixth-most populated city in the nation and the most populous in the Visayas.

Cebu

Cebu

Cebu, officially the Province of Cebu, is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas (Region VII) region, and consists of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets. Its capital and largest city is Cebu City, nicknamed "the Queen City of the South", the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, which is politically independent from the provincial government.

DYRL-AM

DYRL-AM

DYRL Radyo Pilipino is a radio station owned and operated by Radyo Pilipino Media Group through its licensee Radyo Pilipino Corporation. Its studio and transmitter are located along Cameroli Ave., Brgy. Rodriguez Baybay, Bacolod. Despite its current branding, it is still known as Abyan Radyo.

Bacolod

Bacolod

Bacolod, officially known as the City of Bacolod, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the region of Western Visayas, Philippines. It is the capital of the province of Negros Occidental, where it is geographically situated but governed administratively independent.

Negros Occidental

Negros Occidental

Negros Occidental is a province in the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Its capital is the city of Bacolod. It occupies the northwestern half of the large island of Negros, and borders Negros Oriental, which comprises the southeastern half. Known as the "Sugarbowl of the Philippines", Negros Occidental produces more than half the nation's sugar output.

Dagupan

Dagupan

Dagupan, officially known as the City of Dagupan, is a 2nd class independent component city in the Ilocos Region, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 174,302 people. 

1980s

Pre-1986

  • Demosthenes "Demy" Dingcong, Lanao provincial correspondent of Bulletin Today, was shot by an unidentified gunman in his house in Iligan City, Lanao del Norte on Dec. 5, 1980. He had wrote exposés about anomalies in the local government activities, including that on the missing fund intended for the students of Mindanao State University; also on military abuses, and the situation of the political prisoners in the province. He had already received threats from local officials.[6][33]
  • Geoffrey Siao, radio commentator and writer of the Philippine Post in Iligan City, was murdered on Mar. 2, 1984.[6][33]
  • Atty. Florante "Boy" de Castro, lawyer and news commentator worked at DXCP, who had reported suspicious local government activities in South Cotabato, was gunned down on Mar. 9, 1984 inside his house in General Santos City.[6][33][e]
  • Vicente (Vic) Villordon, DYLA anchor, a critic of both government and communism, was shot by two gunmen on Dec. 28, 1984 outside the station in Cebu City. Case has been unsolved. In a 2006 report by The Philippine Star, a former communist rebel claimed Villordon and Leo Enriquez III (killed in 1987), his former colleagues in the Communist Party of the PhilippinesNew People's Army (CPP–NPA), were killed by their comrades.[27][30]
  • Charles (or Charlie) Aberilla, DXWG (Iligan City) commentator, on Apr. 29, 1985, was killed by three armed men who had entered the announcer's booth while on-air.[13][35]
  • Nabokodonosor "Nabing" Velez, 47, DYLA anchor-commentator in Cebu, was attacked by six gunmen on June 1, 1985, while watching a beauty contest. Case had been unsolved.[27][30]
  • Joselito Paloma, provincial journalist and publisher in Surigao, was fatally shot in his car on Aug. 19, 1985.[12]
  • Eddie Suede, died 1985.[15]
  • Edgar Nagar of DXDC, Davao City.[36]
  • Gorge Batoctoy of defunct National Media Production Center, Davao City.[36]
  • Alexander Orcullo, worked for a newspaper in Davao, was shot down.[13]
  • Noe Alejandrino of Bulacan, one of the killed journalists, is claimed by the military as a Communist rebel leader who engaged soldiers in a firefight.[13]

1986

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Pete Mabazza[f] Local correspondent for Manila Bulletin Attack:
Apr. 24
Gattaran, Cagayan

Deaths:
Mabazza died same day; Vicoy died Apr. 25 in Tuguegarao, same province
A convoy of army soldiers and journalists was ambushed by the NPA; also killed were eight soldiers. Mabazza and Vicoy, 45, who died later in a hospital, were the first journalists killed while covering the communist insurgency. NUJP
CMFR

[5][25][34]
[37][38][22]

Wilfredo Vicoy[f] Veteran combat photographer for United Press International and (at the time of death) Reuters NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[37][38][22]

1987

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Virgilio Pacala Manila Hotline magazine Mar. 24
San Pablo City, Laguna
Fatally shot. Motive remains unclear. CMFR [25][34][37]
Dionisio Perpetuo Joaquin[f] Olongapo News Apr. 12
Subic, Zambales or Olongapo City
Nicomedes Fabro, Francisco Dimalanta and Amado Alcala were convicted for the killing. NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[22]
Manuel Sanchez Television cameraman June 9 Had hitched a ride with Bernabe Buscayno after the latter's television appearance; killed when gunmen ambushed the leftist politician. [34][37]
Narciso Balani[f] All were from DXRA of Rizal Memorial Colleges (Davao City):

Palo: news commentator
Maglalang: assistant
Zagado: reporter; commentator
Balani: technician-on-board
Aug. 27
Davao City
Along with five civilian guests, died on the spot when NPA gunmen attacked the radio station, then known for its anti-communist broadcasts, in what would be the worst crime against the press in the city.
Fernando "Ferdie" Lintuan survived the attack but would be assassinated in 2007.
NUJP
CMFR
[36][5][25]
[34][37]
Cesar Maglalang CMFR [36][25][34]
Leo Palo[f] NUJP
CMFR
[36][5][25]
[34][37]
Rogie Zagado[f] NUJP
CMFR
[36][5][25]
[34][37]
Ed Palomares Aug. 27 [34]
Robert Macdonald New Zealander freelance photographer working for Pacific Defense Reports Aug. 28 Shot while covering a coup attempt. [34][37]
Martin Castor Pilipino Ngayon (Manila) reporter; photographer Aug. 28
Manila
Shot during a coup attempt when members of a mutinous army faction fired on his press van. NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[37]
Ramon Noblejas DYVL (Tacloban City) production manager; reporter Oct. 4
Tacloban City
Shot. Had denounced local corruption and human rights violations. Case remains unsolved. NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[37]
Leo Enriquez III People's Journal correspondent; news reporter also worked in Kyodo News Service and Washington Times
Local anti-communist activist
Oct. 10
Mandaue City
Shot dead near his house. Case has been unsolved. CPP–NPA had been reported as the perpetrators; further claimed by a former communist rebel, former colleagues of Enriquez and Vic Villordon (killed in 1984), in a 2006 report by the The Philippine Star. CMFR [27][30][25]
[34][37]

1988

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Noel Miranda[f] Mindanao Scanner as publisher, editor, owner Mar. 29
Tagum, Davao del Norte
NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
Jose Naperos Pampanga [34]
Ricardo Ribano People's Journal correspondent June 22 Ribano, 26, was killed allegedly by member of anti-communist group Alsa Masa in an argument. Suspect later released on bail. [34][37]
Oscar Apolinario Reporter for the weekly San Francisco Times July 23
Surigao City, Surigao del Norte
Reportedly killed at his home by a gunman identified as a sergeant. Motive is unknown. [34][37]
Ruben Manrique[f] Luzon Tribune (Bataan) publisher-editor Aug. 12
Balanga, Bataan
Shot. His murder is believed related to his reports on local illegal gambling. Case dismissed at the trial court. NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[37]
Josef Aldeguer Nava[f] Editor & publisher of Visayan Life Today (Iloilo); also worked in DYRP Oct. 30
Iloilo City
Shot dead by unidentified assailant. Known for his exposés of corruption and human rights abuses by the military. No leads reported. NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[37][15]
Noli Resurreccion Laguna correspondent for Metro Manila-based Balita and DZMM Nov. 17 Killed. A local businessman was reportedly identified as suspect and later charged, but has eluded arrest by Feb. 1990. The killing is believed connected to his exposé of local illegal gambling. [34][37]

1989

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Mandangan Abedin Mar. 17 [34]
Severino Arcones[f] DYFM Bombo Radyo (Iloilo City) manager, commentator, and reporter

Arcones was the first husband of Marlene Garcia–Esperat, who would be murdered in 2005.
Oct. 17
Iloilo City
Murdered in front of his house. Responsibility for the murder was unclear; though Arcones, an anti-communist, was generally believed to be killed by NPA because of his stance. He had also criticized local politicians in Iloilo province. NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[37][39][40]
[15]
Cesario de Vera Nov. 23
Biñan, Laguna
[34]
Eddie Telan[f] Manila-based; Newscaster as publisher, editor; also worked in radio Dec. 1
Quezon City
NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]

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Manila Bulletin

Manila Bulletin

The Manila Bulletin, is the Philippines' largest English language broadsheet newspaper by circulation. Founded in 1900, it is the second oldest extant newspaper published in the Philippines and the second oldest extant English newspaper in the Far East. It bills itself as "The Nation's Leading Newspaper", which is its official slogan.

Iligan

Iligan

Iligan, officially known the City of Iligan, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the region of Northern Mindanao, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 363,115 people. 

Mindanao State University

Mindanao State University

Mindanao State University, commonly referred to as MSU Main, is a regional state, coeducational, research higher education institution in the city of Marawi, Philippines. Founded in 1961, it is the flagship and the largest campus of the Mindanao State University System.

DXCP

DXCP

DXCP Radyo Totoo is a radio station owned and operated by South Cotabato Communications Corporation, the media arm of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Marbel. The station's studio and transmitter are located along National Highway, Brgy. Lagao, General Santos.

General Santos

General Santos

General Santos, officially known as the City of General Santos, and abbreviated as GenSan, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the region of Soccsksargen, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 697,315 people. 

DYLA

DYLA

DYLA is a radio station owned and operated by Vimcontu Broadcasting Corporation, the broadcast arm of the Visayas-Mindanao Confederation of Trade Unions. The station's studio is located at 2nd Floor, JSU-PSU Mariners' Court-Cebu, ALU-VIMCONTU Welfare Center, Pier 1, Cebu City, and its transmitter is located at Alumnos, Brgy. Mambaling, Cebu City.

Cebu City

Cebu City

Cebu City, officially known as the City of Cebu, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines and capital of the Cebu Province. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 964,169 people,  making it the sixth-most populated city in the nation and the most populous in the Visayas.

Communist Party of the Philippines

Communist Party of the Philippines

The Communist Party of the Philippines is a far-left, Marxist-Leninist-Maoist revolutionary organization and communist party in the Philippines, formed by Jose Maria Sison on 26 December 1968. It is designated as a terrorist group by the United States Department of State together with Sison and its armed wing New People's Army (NPA) in 2002. The European Union renewed its terrorist designation on the organization in 2019, though a 2009 ruling by the EU's second highest court delisted Sison as a "person supporting terrorism" and reversed a decision by member governments to freeze assets. According to the US' Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook, the CPP and the NPA aims to destabilize the Philippines' economy and overthrow the national government.

Cebu

Cebu

Cebu, officially the Province of Cebu, is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas (Region VII) region, and consists of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets. Its capital and largest city is Cebu City, nicknamed "the Queen City of the South", the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, which is politically independent from the provincial government.

DXDC

DXDC

DXDC RMN Davao is a radio station owned and operated by the Radio Mindanao Network. The station's studio is located at the 2/F San Vicente Bldg., Iñigo St. cor. Bonifacio St., Davao City, and its transmitter is located at Gatdula Heights, Madapo Hills, Davao City.

Davao City

Davao City

Davao City, officially known as the City of Davao, is a first class highly urbanized city in the Davao Region, Philippines. The city has a total land area of 2,443.61 km2 (943.48 sq mi), making it the largest city in the Philippines in terms of land area. It is the third-most populous city in the Philippines after Quezon City and Manila, and the most populous in Mindanao.  According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 1,776,949 people.

Bulacan

Bulacan

Bulacan, officially the Province of Bulacan, is a province in the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. Its capital is the city of Malolos. Bulacan was established on August 15, 1578, and part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway Super Region.

1990s

1990

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Benito Mercado Jan. 4
Iligan City
[34][41]
Enrique Lingan The Luzon Times, The Midway Star Feb. 4
Lucena City
CMFR [25][34][41]
Joseph "Joe" Kreuger Mindoro Weekly Reporter Feb. 6
Pinamalayan, Oriental Mindoro
CMFR [25][34][41]
Enrique Ger Feb. 7
Oriental Mindoro
[34]
Reynaldo Catindig Sr.[f] Northern Sierra Madre Express (Isabela) as publisher, editor May 15
Tumauini, Isabela
NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[41]
Jean Ladringan[f] Publisher-editor of the weekly Southern Star (General Santos City) July 8
General Santos City
Along with her husband, shot dead by unidentified men in what was said a robbery case. An exposé published by Ladringan implicating top Muslim officials at the Mindanao State University (MSU) in graft and corruption, which led to their dismissal, was seen as a possible motive. NUJP
CMFR
[23][5][25]
[34][42][41]
[43]
Mahaidin Abdullah Radio show host in Cotabato City July 9
Cotabato City
Shot dead by unknown gunmen [34][42][41]
Francisco (Frank) Mararac Reporter and commentator in DWDW; staffer (Sunday Punch newspaper, Dagupan City) July 10
Lingayen, Pangasinan
With his son, shot dead by unknown gunmen. [34][32][42]
[41][43]
Jaime Ramoros Dec. 25
Iligan City
[34]

1991

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Nesino Paulin Toling[f] Publisher-editor (and owner) of Panguil Bay Monitor (Ozamiz City) Apr. 14
Ozamiz City, Misamis Occidental
Shot and killed. Toling had been exposing organized crime activities. Two suspects were arrested for the murder. Gerry Sarabia was convicted for the killing and had to serve a term of 17–20 years at the San Ramon Penal Colony. NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[44][22]
Candido Basilisco Philippine Punch editor (Cebu) May 1 or 5
Cebu City
His support to the workers in a local labor dispute was linked to the killing. Several arrests were made in connection with the murder; but the case was unsolved by year-end. [34][32][44]
Nicasio (Nick) Enciso Reporter and columnist for dailies, Manila Bulletin and its sister publication Tempo
President of the Pambansang Katipunan ng mga Barangay and of the Federation of Provincial Press Clubs of the Philippines
May 26
Tagaytay City, Cavite
Enciso, 67, was killed in an attack by two armed soldiers who had barged into his house, reportedly due to a land dispute. [34][45]

1992

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Danilo Vergara[f] Philippine Post publisher-editor July 1
Iligan City
NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[14][5][25]
[34]
Abdulajid/Ladjid "Jade" Ladja Prensa Zamboanga reporter July
Zamboanga City
NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[14][5][25]
[34]
Rev. Greg Hapalla[f] DXAS commentator (Zamboanga City)
Preacher
Sept. 21
Zamboanga City
NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[14][5][25]
[34]
Anwar Utto DXMS reporter in Cotabato City July 28 [14][34]
Gloria Martin[f] DXXX correspondent and commentator based in Isabela, Basilan Dec. 2
Isabela, Basilan
Died on the spot as being shot by two unidentified motorcycle-riding gunmen while driving on her way home. She had received death threats as she was criticizing the alleged failure of the government to stop the kidnappings in the municipality. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[14][23][5]
[25][34]

1993

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Romeo Andrada Legaspi[f] Voice of Zambales publisher-columnist Disappearance and reported death:
Jan. 11
Olongapo City
Abducted after a conflict with law enforcement intelligence in the city. He had not been seen since then. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[14][5][25]
[34]
Alfredo M. Noblefranca Davao Observer columnist Apr. 3 Killed [14][34]
Elpidio Monteclaro DZNC commentator in Isabela June 2 or 3 Killed [14][34]
Ding Sade Reporters for Cotabato News
(Cotabato Ngayon in another source.)
Nov. 22
Cotabato City
Shot dead. No motive had been established. NUJP
CPJ
[5][34][46]
Rosauro Lao NUJP
CPJ
[5][34][46]

1995

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Refs.
Ambrosio Iyas DYLA blocktimer Apr. 14
Lapu-Lapu City
Iyas, 63, was shot at his home. He was said to be the campaign manager of an incumbent city vice mayor contesting a mayor's reelection bid in the elections. Case had been unsolved. [27][30][34]
Geronimo "Boy" Creer Broadcaster once wrote a sports column for The Freeman
Lawyer
May 11
Cebu City
With his lover, were stabbed dead near a street corner. The charge against Jecknel Inso, who had spent five years in jail as a suspect, was dismissed upon prosecution's failure to present witnesses. Case had been unsolved. [27][30]

1996

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Atty. Ferdinand Reyes[f] Editor (and publisher) of the weekly Press Freedom (Dipolog City)
Human rights lawyer
Feb. 12
Dipolog City, Zamboanga del Norte
Murdered by a lone gunman. A soldier, contracted by military officials, was suspected as he had been critical to the army on alleged abuses of their power. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[47]
Jose Tiongson Provincial journalist Mar. 31
Southern Philippines
Killed by the driver of a passenger jeep, who was at large by mid-1996 as his motives were unclear. [34][47]
Alberto Berbon DZMM (Metro Manila) deskman Dec. 15
Imus, Cavite
Jose Espinelli, reportedly the killer, was convicted. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[22]

1997

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Evelyn Joy Militante GMA Channel 2 (Legazpi City) August
Legazpi City, Albay
NUJP [5][15]
Daniel (Danny) Hernandez News editor and columnist at People's Journal Tonight (Metro Manila) June 3
Quezon City
Shot dead while riding a taxi. Known for being a critic of crimes and corruption. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[32]
Regalado Mabazza[f] Polaris Cable Network (Cauayan, Isabela) as announcer Dec. 17
Cauayan, Isabela
NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]

1998

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Atty. Odilon Mallari DXCP (General Santos City) reporter (and commentator)
Lawyer
Feb. 15
General Santos City
Shot and killed. Elias Bravo and Lucio Beating, suspected NPA Sparrow hitmen, were convicted for the killing. Case archived for other suspects. NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[32][22]
Rey Bancairin[f]

Other records: Reynaldo Bancairin
DXLL (Zamboanga City) commentator Mar. 29
Zamboanga City
Gunned down while broadcasting in the radio booth. Abdulwarid Ada was accused.
Another journalist from the same station, Candelario Cayona, would be murdered in 2001; Ada would be also involved.
NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[48][15][32]
Nelson Catipay DXMY (Cotabato City) correspondent Apr. 16
Sultan Kudarat
Shot and killed NUJP
CPJ
[5][34][32]
Danny Llasos Volunteer-reporter for Radio Mindanao Network (RMN)–DYHB Radyo Agong (Bacolod City) May 13
Bacolod City
Shot dead in a betting station by unidentified motorcycle-riding men. This was said not work-related, killers have not been arrested. In 2004, the city's Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG) reopened its investigation on the case. [34][31][32]
[49]
Dominador "Dom" Bentulan[f] DXGS (General Santos City) Oct. 30
General Santos City or Digos City, Davao del Sur
NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]

1999

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Bienvenido Dasal DXKR Radyo Agong Jan. 21
Koronadal, South Cotabato
CMFR [25][34]
Frank Palma DYWB Bombo Radyo (Bacolod City) senior reporter
Pastor
Apr. 25
Bacolod City
Murdered near his home. Gerardo Tocana, said to be the killer, was sentenced to life imprisonment for the killing in one of the first convictions among other cases over almost the past two decades (post-1986 revolution). NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[15][31][22]

Unknown date

  • In early 1990s, Pedro "Pete" Dahan, DXUM block-timer announcer, was shot dead in Davao City. The killing was linked to various angles more than being a journalist.[36]

Discover more about 1990s related topics

Lucena

Lucena

Lucena, officially known as the City of Lucena, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Calabarzon region of the Philippines. It is the capital city of the province of Quezon where it is geographically situated but, in terms of government and administration, the city is politically independent from the province. For statistical and geographical purposes, Lucena is grouped with the province of Quezon. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 278,924 people. 

Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility

Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility

The Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility (CMFR) is a private, non-stock, non-profit foundation in the Philippines that has focused its endeavor on press freedom protection along with the establishment of a framework of responsibility for its practice. Its programs represent efforts to protect the press as well as to promote professional and ethical values in journalistic practice.

Isabela (province)

Isabela (province)

Isabela, officially the Province of Isabela is the second largest province in the Philippines in land area located in the Cagayan Valley region. Its capital and the largest local government unit is the city of Ilagan. It is bordered by the provinces of Cagayan to the north, Kalinga to the northwest, Mountain Province to the central-west, Ifugao and Nueva Vizcaya to the southwest, Quirino and Aurora to the south, and the Philippine Sea to the east.

National Union of Journalists of the Philippines

National Union of Journalists of the Philippines

The National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP) is a Filipino non-governmental trade association that represents the interests of Filipino journalists. Among its leadership are representatives from ABS-CBN, DZMM, GMA, the Philippine Daily Inquirer, The Philippine Star, CNN Philippines, Central Luzon Television, SunStar, and TV5 (Interaksyon). It has campaigned in support of journalists it sees as being under attack, such as Maria Ressa of Rappler and organizations such as ABS-CBN. It is often quoted in the Philippine and international media in relationship to press freedom issues in the country.

General Santos

General Santos

General Santos, officially known as the City of General Santos, and abbreviated as GenSan, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the region of Soccsksargen, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 697,315 people. 

Mindanao State University

Mindanao State University

Mindanao State University, commonly referred to as MSU Main, is a regional state, coeducational, research higher education institution in the city of Marawi, Philippines. Founded in 1961, it is the flagship and the largest campus of the Mindanao State University System.

Dagupan

Dagupan

Dagupan, officially known as the City of Dagupan, is a 2nd class independent component city in the Ilocos Region, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 174,302 people. 

Bureau of Corrections (Philippines)

Bureau of Corrections (Philippines)

The Bureau of Corrections is an agency of the Department of Justice which is charged with the custody and rehabilitation of national offenders, who have been sentenced to three years of imprisonment or more. The agency has its headquarters in the New Bilibid Prison Reservation in Muntinlupa.

Cebu City

Cebu City

Cebu City, officially known as the City of Cebu, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines and capital of the Cebu Province. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 964,169 people,  making it the sixth-most populated city in the nation and the most populous in the Visayas.

Manila Bulletin

Manila Bulletin

The Manila Bulletin, is the Philippines' largest English language broadsheet newspaper by circulation. Founded in 1900, it is the second oldest extant newspaper published in the Philippines and the second oldest extant English newspaper in the Far East. It bills itself as "The Nation's Leading Newspaper", which is its official slogan.

Liga ng mga Barangay

Liga ng mga Barangay

The Liga ng mga Barangay sa Pilipinas and the Asosasyon ng mga Kapitan ng Barangay or ABC are formal organizations of all the barangays in the Philippines. Presently, almost 42,000 barangays are part of this organization, making it the association of Philippine local government units with the largest membership.

Iligan

Iligan

Iligan, officially known the City of Iligan, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the region of Northern Mindanao, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 363,115 people. 

2000s

2000

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
William Yap Yu[f] Publisher of local Pagadian City Star May
Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur
Reportedly shot dead. None has been arrested despite the assassin being described by witnesses. Incident is unresolved by 2011. [34][50][51]
Vincent Rodriguez DZMM correspondent (Pampanga-based) May 23
Guagua, Pampanga
Murdered in an assignment covering the visit of the son of Pres. Estrada. On June 4, 2001, three accused in the killing, all Communist rebels of Rebolusyonaryong Hukbong Bayan, a dissident group of the NPA, were arrested in the same province. Case has filed but no update yet. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[48]
Olimpio Jalapit Jr.[f] RMN–DXPR as commentator Nov. 17
Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur
Murdered. By end of 2001, a former military officer accused of the killing had not been apprehended; RSF was uncertain if the case is work-related. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[48]

2001

RSF reported two work-related cases: that of Ureta and Cayona. On the other hand, RSF said that by year-end, the killings of two other journalists could not be established if work-related.[g]

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Rolando Ureta[f] Program director (and commentator) for RMN–DYKR Kalibo, Aklan
Had worked for IBC–DYIG and for Panay News; former member of municipal council
Jan. 3
Lezo, Aklan
Killed by gunmen on motorcycles while on his way home from his evening broadcast. Ureta, had tackled issues on illegal gambling and illegal drugs in Aklan, was reported to had received death threats within five months due to his commentaries. Murder charge against four suspects was filed in 2004 but was dismissed by the provincial prosecutor's office, rejecting the lone witness' testimony. In 2007, the Department of Justice (DOJ) reversed the dismissal of two of the suspects, who then filed a motion for reconsideration asking for the retention of the case's dismissal. In 2008, the Supreme Court (SC) granted a petition by the Freedom Fund for Filipino Journalists (FFFJ) and the NUJP to transfer the venue of the cases of Ureta and of Herson Hinolan from Aklan to Cebu; both cases were raffled to the Cebu City Regional Trial Court (RTC). Accomplice convicted of homicide; gunman, being dead, cleared. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[40][48][54]
[15]
Mohammad Yusop[f]

Other records: Muhammad Yusop; Mohammad Yusoph
Commentator of DXID of the Islamic Radio Broadcasting network (Pagadian City) Feb. 24
Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur
While on his way home on his motorcycle, was reportedly shot and killed by two unidentified individuals. The police had no leads in the case. He had hosted a religious program and was not known to have broadcast any controversial reports. The station manager said that he was not aware of any threats against Yusop. Case underwent investigation. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[48]
Candelario "Jhun" Cayona Jr.[f] Presenter on DXLL Radyo Ukay (UMBN; Zamboanga City) and print journalist May 30
Zamboanga City
Murdered by two unidentified gunmen on the way to the radio's offices. By that time, he was investigating drug trafficking in the region. He had received death threats as he carried out several interviews with leaders of the rebel group Abu Sayyaf especially during the Jolo hostage crisis, which angered the authorities, especially the army. On May 28, 2002, the main suspect, hired killer Abduwarid Adda, was arrested in same city. Adda was said to be involved in the 1998 murder of another journalist from the same station, Reynaldo Bancayrin. Case dismissed at the trial court. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[39][48][55]
Joy Mortel Mindoro Guardian as reporter May 31
Occidental Mindoro
Shot and killed by two armed people who had entered her home. Being an administrator of agricultural cooperatives, she was accused of corruption and became the target by Communist rebels. Although the motive for her murder remains unclear, police did not exclude the possibility that this was work-related. NUJP
CPJ
[5][34][48]
Dennis Ramos[f] Boses tabloid Aug. 24
Bacoor, Cavite
Case dismissed at the trial court CMFR [25]

2002

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Benjaline "Beng" Hernandez[f] Vice president of the College Editors Guild of the Philippines for Mindanao and editor of Ateneo de Davao student newspaper Atenews
Researcher for the human rights organization Karapatan in Davao City
Apr. 5
Arakan, Cotabato
Hernandez, 22, and her three companions, were shot reportedly by a group of Army troopers and paramilitary men while conducting a research in the area for the organization and for local newspapers. In August, a complaint was submitted by her family; after more than a year, none of the perpetrators had been held. NUJP [16][5][34]
[55]
Edgar Damalerio Pagadian City-based; commentator and reporter at RPNDXKP, managing director and editor of local The Zamboanga Scribe, editor (and correspondent) of Mindanao Gold Star; also worked in RPN-9 May 13
Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur
An award-winning journalist, Damalerio, 32 or 33, was dead on arrival as he was fatally shot by one of two unidentified motorcycle-riding men that had stopped their open vehicle while about to return to his home from a press conference, along with two friends. He had criticized local politicians and city police, even its chief, on corruption and the failure to crack down on illegal drugs and criminal activities. He had received death threats. Even National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) started their own investigation, series of cover-ups by the local police were reported. Two of three witnesses of the killing were later killed. After a trial in 2005 in Cebu, in November, police officer Guillermo Wapile, an alleged hired killer identified as gunman by victim's companions, was sentenced to life in prison for the murder. Wapile had refused to name his accomplices and the instigators of the murder.
One of two witnesses killed was Damalerio's fellow journalist, Edgar Amoro, who had identified the former's gunman, in 2005.
NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[39][55][56]
[57][58][59]
[15]
Sonny Alcantara[f] San Pablo City-based; presenter of a political program on private Celestron Cable TV and managing editor (and publisher) of the local biweekly magazine Kokus; also radio broadcaster Aug. 22
San Pablo City, Laguna
Fatally shot by an unknown man as he rode from home. He had regularly criticized the municipal opposition and the former mayor, a businessman, which was said to had been behind the murder. He had received threats weeks prior to the killing. A witness later withdrew his evidence after being threatened. By year-end, the NBI had yet to finish the investigation. Cold case; murder suspects later killed. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[55][56]

2003

CPJ reported six work-related murders; all had been unsolved and none had been charged.

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
John Belen Villanueva Jr.[f] Had cultural programs at DZGB (Legazpi City, Albay) Apr. 28
Camalig, Albay
Gunned down. By 2005, those involved and the reason are still unknown. NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][34]
[39][15]
Apolinario "Polly" Pobeda[f] DWTI-am (Lucena) commentator May 17
Lucena City
Pobeda, 35, was declared dead on arrival when was shot by two unidentified gunmen on motorcycles who had stopped him while riding his motorcycle to work. He often criticized corrupt local officials, especially the city mayor whom he had accused of involvement in the local illegal drug trade; he had received repeated numerous anonymous death threats. By early 2005, three suspects were arrested, all linked to mayor's family, including brothers identified as bodyguards of the mayor's son, also a city councilor; a third said shot and killed Pobeda; those behind the murder is still unidentified. Case underwent trial. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[39][60][15]
Bonifacio Gregorio[f] Reporter and columnist of the weekly Dyaryo Banat (Tarlac)
Former village chief in La Paz town
July 8
La Paz, Tarlac
Later pronounced dead on arrival when was shot by an unidentified gunman in front of his house. Gregorio wrote many articles critical to municipal officials including the mayor. No arrests had been made. Widow reportedly no longer pursuing case. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[56][60]
Noel Villarante[f] Blocktimer worked in DZJV and in local periodical Laguna Score Aug. 19
Santa Cruz, Laguna
Fatally shot by a gunman in front of his house. Villarante was believed killed because of his reports on drug trafficking, illegal gambling and local government corruption; other possible angle was his activity as a police informer. Concerns were expressed on the hesitant investigation as high-profile individuals are said to be involved. A suspect, a civilian police agent arrested few days after the killing, was released on bail in Dec. 2004 as the investigation was shelved for lack of evidence. The former town police chief and three other policemen then shared a cash reward for the arrest of the presumed killer. For sometime, police ransacked his house, confiscating articles he had written. Case dismissed at the trial court. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[39][60]
Rico Ramirez[f] Commentator at DXSF (Butuan City); also reporter and cameraman Aug. 20
San Francisco, Agusan del Sur
Ramirez, 25, was shot on the roadside, but the murder was announced only on Sept. 2. He had engaged in critical reporting on local politicians. The murder was believed because of his investigations into drug trafficking in the region. No progress was made in the police investigation; the motive is unclear. Underwent preliminary investigation. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[39][60]
Juan "Jun" Pala Jr.[f] Program host and commentator on DXGO Aksyon Radyo (Davao City)
Former Davao City councilor; known anti-communist activist
Sept. 6
Davao City
Known for his anti-communist commentaries, pronounced dead on arrival when was shot by two unidentified motorcycle-riding gunmen while walking home with a bodyguard and a friend. The motive is unclear. Pala had survived first two attacks, the last was in April. Thereafter, Pala had been airing from his home his show that had exposed corruption among local politicians. None has been apprehended by 2011. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[17][36][5]
[25][34][39]
[50][60][15]
Nelson Nadura[f] DYME commentator (Masbate City)
President of the Union of Print and Broadcast Journalists of Masbate; NPA rebel-turned-returnee
Dec. 2
Masbate City, Masbate
While on his motorcycle leaving the station after his daily broadcast, died on the spot as he was shot by two unidentified gunmen. The motive is unclear. Nadura, a blocktimer, had a hard-hitting news program wherein he criticized local officials. The NPA, said to be the suspects, denied their involvement. By 2014, trial ongoing, other suspects at-large. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[17][5][25]
[34][39][60]
[58]

Pala, Juan "Jun"

Juan "Jun" Pala worked for DXGO in Davao City. He died on September 6.

Pala survived two earlier attempts on his life on 14 June 2001 and 29 April 2003.

At around 7 p.m. (local time), Pala was walking home with his bodyguard and cousin Roberto Porras and friend Fred Luas when attacked by unknown gunmen on board a motorcycle. They were some 300 metres from his house in Davao Empress Subdivision. The three men were returning from the adjacent Vista Verde Subdivision, where Pala had been visiting a friend. Pala, who sustained nine gunshot wounds to various parts of the body, particularly the chest and arms, was pronounced dead on arrival at San Pedro Hospital. His companions were slightly injured and treated at the same hospital.

Pala's wife, Louise, said her husband aired critical commentaries against various government officials, including Mayor Rodrigo Duterte and President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He had also exposed graft and corruption in the city involving some politicians. After the second attempt on his life, Pala claimed that Mayor Duterte was the most likely culprit.

Duterte declined to comment on Pala's death, saying only that any questions about the incident should be addressed to the police. "Today" also quoted him as saying that he "would be happy to submit to an investigation." [61]

2004

RSF, noticing surge in violence in the election period, reported 2004, when general elections were held, as the deadliest year for the press at that time.[39] That year and 2006 were the deadliest prior to the 2009 Maguindanao massacre, based on NUJP data.[2]

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Rowell Endrinal[f]

Other records: Ruel Endrinal
Blocktime program host and political commentator on DZRC (Legazpi City) and publisher of Bicol Metro News Feb. 11
Legazpi City, Albay
Shot by two assailants as was just left his home and walked to work. He was critical of local politicians, especially of an Albay governor. Endrinal had received death threats before, said to be linked to local politicians in the city. By 2005, the contract killer is not yet arrested and those behind the murder is unidentified yet. Conviction reported. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[39][62][58]
[15]
Elpidio "Ely" Binoya

Other records: Eliseo "Ely" Binoya
Manila Broadcasting Company (MBC)–Radyo Natin commentator (General Santos City) June 17
General Santos City
Gunned down by an assassin riding at the back of a motorcycle while riding home from the Prosecutor's office where he had just filed a formal complaint about being assaulted by thugs allegedly employed by the local mayor. He had criticized the mayor and corrupt local police officials. Two suspects, a village chief whom he accused of corruption and believed the mastermind, and a former police intelligence official, either surrendered or were arrested in August. Acquittal reported. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[39][56][62]
[15]
Rogelio "Roger" Mariano[f] Commentator and reporter for DZJC Aksyon Radyo (Laoag City) and Radyo Natin in Ilocos Norte
Former commentator for DZVR Bombo Radyo; had chaired a multipurpose cooperative and a group of plant growers
July 31
San Nicolas, Ilocos Norte
Gunned down by assailants while on his motorcycle after his program. Believed to be work-related. Mariano, known critical on government affairs, was about to report a story on alleged scams at a local electric company. Two of the four suspects charged with murder, including a former policeman, were arrested following a witness' testimony. Upon order from the SC in 2006, the court records, as well as suspects, were transferred from Ilocos Norte to Manila before the trial. Acquittal reported. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[40][62][63]
Arnnel Manalo Batangas-based; provincial correspondent for DZRH and Bulgar tabloid; columnist and correspondent for provincial newspapers (Dyaryo Veritas and People's Courier) Aug. 5
Bauan, Batangas
Shot dead by two motorcycle-riding gunmen. A contract killer was detained at the end of the month. The presumed instigator surrendered to the authorities the following month. Case dismissed at both the trial court and Ombudsman; accused gunman later killed. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[20][5][25]
[34][39][62]
[58][63]
Jonathan "Jun" Abayon DXBB RGMA Super Radyo reporter (General Santos City) Aug. 8 or 9
General Santos City
Shot by a former soldier, former bodyguard of a known boxer, following a heated argument; died after being under critical condition. Suspect remains at large by Jan. 2012. NUJP [5][34][62]
[58][63][19]
Fernando Consignado Radio Veritas volunteer (Laguna-based) Aug. 12
Nagcarlan, Laguna
Found dead with a gunshot wound in his home. NUJP
CPJ
[5][34][62]
[58][63]
Jose Luis Villanueva Assistant business editor of Today Sept. 24
Pasay City
Villanueva, 29, was stabbed by one of the three robbers while riding a bus bound for Baclaran; was pronounced dead in a hospital around a hour later. Suspects were arrested later that month. [34][64]
Christopher Misajon Ratsada news anchor and news reader at GMA Channel 6 (Iloilo City) Incident:
Sept. 23
Iloilo City

Death:
Sept. 25
Misajon, 28, was said accidentally shot by one of the four robbers who had stopped him, with a companion, in a vacant lot while he was driving. Another suspect was later turned as witness. In a decision issued on Dec. 2012 and promulgated the following month, Iloilo RTC convicted three of the suspects of robbery with homicide and sentenced them to prison terms. [34][49][65]
Romeo/Romy Binungcal Remate, Bulgar; Mt. Samat Forum (Bataan-based) Sept. 29
Boundary of Balanga City and Pilar, Bataan
Murdered NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[62]
Eldy Gabinales (aka Eldy Sablas) DXJR-fm Real Radio (Tandag) Oct. 19
Tandag, Surigao del Sur
Murdered NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[62]
Gene Boyd Lumawag[f] Photojournalist (Davao City-based) worked in MindaNews online publication Nov. 12
Jolo, Sulu
Lumawag, 26, had arrived on the island with a MindaNews editor; shot and killed in the pier as he was heading back to a hotel. There were various theories for the attack (including an Abu Sayyaf initiation rite and possible reprisal for a corruption story the two were pursuing.) A murder complaint was later filed against two Abu Sayyaf members, who are at large. Colleagues believed that the claimed involvement of Abu Sayyaf is difficult to verify. Case archived as suspects later killed. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[39][62]
Herson "Boy" Hinolan Station manager and program host at DYIN Bombo Radyo (Kalibo) Attack:
Nov. 13
Kalibo, Aklan

Death:
Nov. 15
Shot by a masked man in a local carnival while attempting to run. Murder charges were later filed against Alfredo Arcenio, former mayor of Lezo, Aklan, but were downgraded to homicide in 2005. In 2008, the SC granted a petition by the FFFJ and NUJP to transfer the venue of the cases of Hinolan and of Rolando Ureta from Aklan to Cebu. Arcenio had been imprisoned for eight years prior to his conviction on Aug. 10, 2016 by Cebu City RTC, sentencing to 14 years of imprisonment. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[54][62][15]
Michael Llorin Freelance photojournalist in Manila Nov. 13
Quezon City
Killed in a gas station NUJP [5][34]
Allan Dizon Photographer for dailies The Freeman and its sister periodical, Banat News tabloid (Cebu City) Nov. 27
Cebu City
Shot dead in a reclamation area by one of two men on a motorcycle as he tried to flee. Businessman Edgar Belandres, Dizon's neighbor and identified as a shooter, was convicted of murder by the RTC on Jan. 19, 2006, despite the prosecution's failure to present a motive; but was freed upon reversal of ruling by the Court of Appeals in March 2010. NUJP
CPJ
[27][30][5]
[57]
Stephen Omaois Kalinga-based; Guru News Weekly & DZRK Abduction:
Nov. 26

Death:
December
Tabuk, Kalinga
NUJP
CPJ
[5][34]

Lumawag, Gene Boyd

Davao-based photojournalist Gene Boyd Lumawag was shot dead by an unidentified gunman in Jolo, Sulu on November 12. Lumawag, 26, was photographing the sunset at the pier in Jolo on the last day of Ramadan when he was killed by a single bullet to the head. Lumawag had traveled to Jolo with his MindaNews editor Carolyn Arguillas on November 10 to work on a video documentary about transparency and local governing practices for the U.S.-based Asia Foundation. Arguillas said they suspected Abu Sayyaf members were responsible for the killing.[66]

2005

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Edgar Amoro[f] Freelance broadcaster worked as commentator at DXKP (Pagadian City)
School teacher
Feb. 2
Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur
Amoro, in the 40s, was the second and the last witness in the 2002 murder of his colleague, Edgar Damalerio, to be killed when shot by gunmen, said to be accomplices of Damalerio's killer, in front of a public secondary school where he was teaching, while walking home. Amoro was said to had received a death threat since 2002, shortly after dismissal of a city police chief. On Jan. 26, 2010, a local court sentenced to life imprisonment one of the gunmen, Muhammad Maulana, for the murder; another suspect then at large. NUJP [5][34][39]
[59][15]
Arnulfo Villanueva Asian Star Express Balita (Naic, Cavite) as columnist Feb. 28
Naic, Cavite
Shot and killed by para-military agents shortly after he left his house; case reportedly "solved" by the Philippine National Police by mid-2005. NUJP
CPJ
[5][34][56]
[22]
Romeo Sanchez DZNL (San Fernando City, La Union) as commentator Mar. 9
Baguio City
Killed by para-military agents inside a flea market. NUJP
[h]
[5][34][56]
Marlene Garcia–Esperat Tacurong City-based; columnist for provincial weekly The Midland Review and blocktime program presenter on DXKR
President of Tri-Media Association in Soccksargen Region; former employee of the Department of Agriculture–Region 12 (DA–12)

Her first husband, Severino Arcones, was murdered in 1989.
Mar. 24
Tacurong City, Sultan Kudarat
Fatally shot during a family dinner in her home. She had exposed misconducts in the local government especially in DA–12, even described as "corrupt" its officers, Osmeña Montañer and Estrella Sabay, who would be among the suspected masterminds for the murder; as well as the Fertilizer Fund scam in which then Pres. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and her Secretary of Agriculture were implicated. On Oct. 6, 2006, Cebu City RTC convicted three men, including confessed killer Gerry Cabayag, for the murder and sentenced them to life imprisonment; acquitted suspect-turned-state witness, a former military intelligence officer who admitted being the coordinator, for lack of evidence. Meanwhile, despite the witness' testimony and the support of the DOJ, charges against the suspected masterminds were dropped by the Tacurong City RTC, prompting a request to the SC to transfer the case to Cebu. In 2008, murder charges were filed again against the two, and Tacurong City RTC issued warrants of arrest. Case against masterminds reportedly archived. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[20][23][5]
[25][34][39]
[40][57][67]
[22]
Klein Cantoneros DXAA-fm commentator (and program host) (Dipolog City) May 4
Dipolog City, Zamboanga del Norte
Shot as just stepped out of the station and was about to go home. On Jan. 29, 2010, Robert Woo was convicted of murder, as an accomplice. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
[57][22]
Philip Agustin Starline Times Recorder (Dingalan, Aurora & Isabela) editor-publisher May 10
Dingalan, Aurora
Agustin, 54, was shot in his daughter's home. Charges were later filed before the municipal trial court against a hired gun and two others. Meanwhile, a former municipal mayor, the alleged mastermind, has been indicted. In 2006, the SC agreed to transfer the case from Aurora to the Manila RTC, citing safety concerns and the mayor's influence. Murder case against alleged mastermind dismissed, case archived for other suspects. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][40]
[22]
Rolando Morales RMNDXMD (South Cotabato) as anchorman July 3
Polomolok, South Cotabato
Murdered. Case archived. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][34]
Ricardo "Ding" Uy Anchor at DZRS-am (Sorsogon City)
Chair of the city chapter of Bayan Muna
Nov. 18
Sorsogon City, Sorsogon
Murdered inside his house. Uy criticized the militarization of the province, letting the military to label him as a "communist supporter and NPA recruiter". Case archived. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][56]
Robert Ramos Katapat, community paper in Laguna, as reporter November
Cabuyao, Laguna
Case archived NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25]
George Benaojan DYDD Bantay Radyo reporter and commentator (Cebu City) Dec. 1
Talisay City, Cebu
Shot to death at a market. In October 2007, Roberto Jagdon, a former professional boxer originally charged of murder, was sentenced by RTC to 8–12 years in prison for homicide. Jagdon is believed a hired gun; mastermind remains free. No motive has been established. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[27][30][5]
[25]

2006

Years 2006 and 2004 were the deadliest prior to the 2009 Maguindanao massacre, based on NUJP data.[2]

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Rolly Cañete Freelancer worked in DXPR (Pagadian City), as well as DXPA and DXBZ Jan. 20
Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur
Case dismissed at the trial court NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25]
Graciano Aquino Central Luzon Forum (Bataan) Jan. 21
Balanga, Bataan
Killed inside the cockfight arena NUJP
[h]
[5]
Orlando Mendoza Freelancer worked in Tarlac Profile and Tarlac Patrol, both as editor-in-chief Apr. 2
Tarlac City, Tarlac
Killed while riding from his farm. Case underwent investigation NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25]
Elpidio "Jojo" dela Victoria DYRF Cebu City anchor
Market administrator in Cebu City and project director of the city's Bantay Dagat Commission
Apr. 12
Talisay City, Cebu
Shot while entering his house. Motives considered include his vigilance against illegal fishing. In September of that year, SPO1 Marcial Ocampo was sentenced by the court to a 40 years in jail for murder. Two alleged accomplices and the mastermind have been unidentified. [27][30]
Nicolas Cervantes Reportedly a freelance columnist worked in Surigao Daily & Daily Tribune (Surigao) May 2
Mandaluyong
Killed in front of his residence NUJP [5]
Albert Orsolino Saksi Ngayon tabloid (Metro Manila) as reporter May 16
Boundary of the cities of Caloocan and Malabon
Killed while driving along the C4 Road. On June 26, 2013, Rommel Lirazan was convicted of murder by the Caloocan City RTC. NUJP
[h]
[5][4]
Fernando "Dong" Batul Commentator and program host at DYPR (Palawan Broadcasting Corporation; Puerto Princesa); also worked in DZRH May 22
Puerto Princesa City
A policeman, had criticized by the victim for alleged gun display and arrested later and identified as one of the two gunmen, underwent trial at Puerto Princesa City. The death had an effect even on the journalists in the Palawan, especially when DYPR clashed with its competitor, politician-run DYER, over the issue. Acquittal reported. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[20][5][25]
[40]
George Vigo Both Kidapawan City-based; couple were part-time journalists, program hosts at Church-run DXND (Notre Dame Broadcasting Corporation). Also:

Mr. Vigo: contributor for the Union of Catholic Asian News
Mrs. Vigo: columnist

Couple were founders of a local periodical; both also peace advocates
June 19
Kidapawan City, Cotabato
George, 36, and Maricel, 39, were gunned down by two or three motorcycle-riding assassins while on their way home from the city's public market. They had later reported and commented on local government issues. A case was filed against Juniver Madangguit, an alleged member of the Sparrow Unit of the New People's Army (NPA) identified as a suspect along with three unknown individuals, which was later dismissed in late 2006 for lack of evidence. Human rights advocates saw evidences of whitewash as the authorities linked NPA guerillas to the killing. When a new case was to be filed, this was become difficult as the task force investigating the case had been deactivated and with the suspicious death of Madangguit in 2007 in Makilala town. On the other hand, the NBI reportedly stated that the gunmen were military operatives and that a politician might be the mastermind. Case underwent preliminary investigation. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[20][23][5]
[25][40][50]
Maricel (Macel) Alave–Vigo NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[20][23][5]
[25][40][50]
Armando "Rachman" Pace Blocktimer and commentator at DXDS Radyo Ukay (Digos City) July 18
Digos City, Davao del Sur
Shot dead by two motorcycle-riding assailants on his way home from work. He had been facing libel lawsuits filed by politicians. On Apr. 29, 2009, the gunman, identified as Joy Anticamara, was convicted for the murder and sentenced to 17 years in prison. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[20][36][5]
[25][57]
Ralph Ruñez RPN-9 (Metro Manila) as cameraman July 28
Metro Manila
NUJP [5]
Prudencio "Dick" Melendrez Tanod tabloid (Metro Manila); also in Saksi Ngayon as photographer July 31
Malabon City
Killed by gunmen near his house while on his way to work. NUJP [5][68]
Ponciano Grande Former reporter for The Recorder and The Nueva Ecija Times (Nueva Ecija-based) and former assistant information writer for DWNE; also worked in DWJJ Dec. 7
Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija
Killed by two motorcycle-riding men in his farm. Robbery was considered as the motive. NUJP
CPJ
[5][40]
Andres "Andy" Acosta Reporter for DZJC Aksyon Radyo (Laoag City, Ilocos Norte) and the monthly Northern Light Dec. 20
Batac, Ilocos Norte
Acosta, 46, was stabbed to death by assailants while on his way home from Laoag City. Revenge is said to be the motive. NUJP
CPJ
[5][40]

2007

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Hernani Pastolero Sr. Associate publisher of a local weekly Lightning Courier (Cotabato City)
Started in the broadcast industry; former editor-in-chief of another, then-defunct local Mindanao Newscast
Feb. 19
Sultan Kudarat, Shariff Kabunsuan
Shot dead by a lone assailant outside his house. The motive is yet to be established as none has been willing to give a statement on the incident. NUJP
CPJ
[5][40]
Carmelo "Mark" Palacios Police reporter for the government-run DZRB Radyo ng Bayan (Nueva Ecija-based)
Former head of an anti-crime group based in Nueva Ecija
Apr. 18
Santa Rosa, Nueva Ecija
Palacios, 41, was last seen near police headquarters in Cabanatuan City a day before was found dead in a village. He sustained various wounds. Palacios was said to had "earned the ire" of certain people involved in crimes and corruption that he had reported. Cold case. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][40]
Dodie Nuñez Katapat (Cavite) May 21 NUJP [5]
Vicente Sumalpong Reporter worked at Radyo ng Bayan Tawi-Tawi, also production supervisor June 25
Bongao, Tawi-Tawi
Shot near his house. Despite the case transferred to NBI, incident is unresolved by 2011. NUJP [5][51]
Fernando "Batman" Lintuan DXGO Aksyon Radyo (Manila Broadcasting Company) blocktimer and SunStar columnist Dec. 24
Davao City
Survivor of the 1987 DXRA attack, was gunned down by motorcycle-riding assassins as had just left his radio program. His companions in a car he drove, two radiomen, left unhurt. In April 2009, a man charged of murder, many believed as a fall guy, was acquitted due to insufficient evidence. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[36][5][25]
[50]

Lintuan, Ferdie

On December 24 at 9:40 a.m., Ferdie "Batman" Lintuan, after finishing his morning show, left DXGO, an AM station owned by the Manila Broadcasting Company, driving his Volkswagen with two colleagues when two men on board a motorcycle, wearing helmets with visors that hid their faces, attacked them. Lintuan, 51, was hit in his head and died while companions Louie Ceniza and Edgar Banzon were unhurt. Lintuan had been on the air at DXGO for about three months, leasing airtime under a practice known as "block-timing".[69] The veteran journalist also wrote for Sunstar Daily. Lintuan, 51, was well known for his criticism of local politicians in Davao City. Days prior to his death, Lintuan was attacking the city government, led by Mayor Rodrigo Duterte for its alleged anomalous People's Park, a local development project which he called the “Crocodiles’ Park.". The mayor denied the allegation linking him to the attack.[70] Duterte pointed to retired Army General Jovito Palparan, an adviser of rival Congressman Prospero Nograles, to have a hand in the killing. [71] Lintuan had survived an August 1987 attack inside DXRA radio in Davao. Three others died in the attack.

2008

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Benefredo Acabal The Filipino Newsmen tabloid (Cavite & Bulacan) as publisher & columnist Apr. 7
Pasig City
NUJP
CPJ
[5]
Marcos Mataro D'X-Man host at UNTV-37 (Metro Manila)
Minister, Ang Dating Daan
Apr. 27
San Simon, Pampanga
Attacked by two masked gunmen at the North Luzon Expressway toll gate. Case underwent preliminary investigation. NUJP
CMFR
[5][25][67]
Fausto "Bert" Sison Correspondent (contributor) for the weekly Regional Bulletin and at the Lucena-based DZAT-am as music program host June 30
Sariaya, Quezon
Sison, 60, and his two daughters, also working for the said provincial newspaper, were on their way home from a party when two unidentified motorcycle-riding men opened fire at his car. Sison died; the daughters survived. The suspects and the motive are yet to identify. Case dismissed at the trial court due to insufficient evidence against suspects. NUJP
CMFR
[h]
[5][25][67]
Martin Roxas RMNDYVR (Roxas City) program director; program host
Auditor, NUJPCapiz
Aug. 7
Roxas City, Capiz
Roxas, 32, had engaged in denouncing government corruption, was pronounced dead on arrival in a hospital after being shot by a gunman on a motorcycle while on his way home from his noon time program. Roxas had discussed for two weeks the alleged anomalies on the financial aid during an administration of a city mayor. Two suspects were arrested few weeks later. Case underwent trial. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][56]
[67]
Dennis Cuesta Program director and commentator of RMN–DXMD (General Santos City) Attack:
Aug. 4
General Santos City

Death:
Aug. 9
Cuesta, 38, had also engaged in denouncing government corruption, was shot by one (believed to be a hired) of the motorcycle-riding assailants near a shopping mall while walking on his way home from work; died in hospital. Believed to be work-related. A month before, Cuesta had reported in his program water contamination in a village, with an association later investigated. He then received death threats. A police officer related to then city mayor, identified as the main suspect and one of the gunmen, remains at large by 2011 despite having an order from a city court in 2009 to arrest him and several others involved; the murder charge against him has been archived. Incident is unresolved by 2011. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][50]
[51][56][67]
Arecio Padrigao Sr. Anchor (and commentator) of a blocktime weekly program for DXRS-fm Radyo Natin (Gingoog City) and columnist for the local Mindanao Monitor Today Nov. 17
Gingoog City, Misamis Oriental
Padrigao, 55, was gunned down by a motorcycle-riding assassin in front of a local university. His killing seemed work-related. Padrigao, criticized local government corruption as well as illegal logging activities in his province on his program, had received threats. Conviction reported for a suspect (pled guilty to homicide while trial is ongoing for another one). NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][67]
Leo Mila Anchoring programs (and commentator) at Radyo Natin; also worked at En Peryodista Dec. 2
San Roque, Northern Samar
Mila, 38, was on his way home from his afternoon program when unknown assailants attacked and shot him. Mila had received death threats because of his commentaries. Killing is believed work-related. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25][67]

2009

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Badrodin Abas (or Abbas) DXCM Radyo Ukay as blocktime program host January
Cotabato City
NUJP
CPJ
[5]
Ernesto Rollin DXSY-am (Oroquieta City) as announcer Feb. 23
Oroquieta City, Misamis Occidental
Murdered. Case underwent trial. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25]
Tiburcio "Jojo" Trajano Jr. Remate June 3
Taytay, Rizal
Killed in a dangerous assignment. Case filed; suspects later killed. CMFR
CPJ
[25]
Crispin Perez Lawyer-broadcaster; one of weekday program anchors (and commentator) at DWDO June 9
San Jose, Occidental Mindoro
Shot outside of his house; later died in the hospital. On Apr. 14, 2016, Lipa City RTC acquitted police officer Darwin Quimoyog, accused in the murder, citing that the testimonies of some witnesses were "only circumstantial evidence". NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[24][5][25]
Antonio Castillo Bigwasan tabloid as reporter June 12
Uson, Masbate
Case archived NUJP
CMFR
[5][25]
Jonathan Petalvero DXVM-fm as commentator June 25
Bayugan, Agusan del Sur
NUJP [5]
Godofredo Linao Jr. Radyo Natin Bislig City as program coordinator June or July
Barobo, Surigao del Sur
Case archived NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25]
Ismael Pasigma/Pasigna B96 FM (Zamboanga del Norte) as commentator Dec. 24
Labason, Zamboanga del Norte
Case underwent trial NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25]

Abas, Badrudin

Badrudin Abas was a peace worker and block-time radio commentator in Cotabato City.[72]

On January 21, 2009, while he was driving a red passenger multicab about 7 p.m., two unidentified motorcycle-riding gunmen shot him in the head. He died immediately. The police offered the theory that he was mistaken for his brother who is alleged to be involved in a love triangle.[73] But the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) voiced concerns that his killing may be just a continuation of the cycle of violence against journalists in the Philippines and called for a thorough investigation.[74]

Like many of the journalists killed during the presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, Abas worked for local radio and had a reputation for strong commentary on Muslim and military issues.[75]

Journalists killed in Maguindanao massacre

Thirty-two of them were among the 58 murdered on November 23, 2009 in Maguindanao as they accompanied the convoy of the family and supporters of opposition politician, then Buluan vice mayor Esmael Mangudadatu; and were about to cover the filing of candidacy on the latter's behalf for provincial governor for the 2010 election. They had departed from Mangudadatu residence and before reaching Shariff Aguak town, ruling Ampatuan's "private army" of approximately 200, allegedly led by Andal Ampatuan Jr. and with law enforcement authorities, at Ampatuan town, waylaid the group, as well as passers-by and diverted to a hill wherein they shot the victims dead, with their bodies and some of the vehicles later buried in the pits by clan members. Within few days, all were retrieved except a body of one journalist which remains missing. This incident is the world's single worst attack on the media members and the country's worst incident of electoral violence.[4][23][27][26][36][5][57][76][77][19][78]

Journalists and media workers killed in Maguindanao massacre[i]
Name Age Profile Refs.
Bengie Adolfo 20 From Gold Star Daily:

Adolfo: driver
The rest are correspondents.
Rubello Bataluna 44
Jose "Jhoy" Duhay
Ronnie Perante 43
Henry Araneta 42 DZRH correspondent
Mc Delbert "Mac-mac" Arriola 20 From UNTV:

Arriola: cameraman
Evardo: assistant cameraman
Nuñez: news anchor and reporter
Tiamzon: driver
Jolito Evardo 23
Victor Nuñez 24
Daniel Tiamzon 52
Arturo Betia From Periodico Ini:

Betia: marketing director
Caniban: news bureau chief
Decena: circulation manager
Legarta: contributor
Merisco: columnist
Razon: sales manager

Also:
Caniban: Sultan Kudarat Gazette associate publisher
Decena: worked in Rapido
Merisco: worked in Tingog MindaNOW
Legarta: Tingog Mindanao publisher, worked in Prontiera News
John Caniban 30
Noel Decena
Bienvenido Legarta Jr. 36
Rey Merisco
Fernando "Ranny" Razon 44
Romeo Jimmy "Pal-ak" Cabillo From Midland Review:

Cabillo: correspondent
Momay: photographer and messenger
Reynaldo "Bebot" Momay[j] 61
Marites Cablitas 37 From News Focus:

Cablitas: publisher
Morales: circulation manager

Cabitas: RPNDXDX news anchor
[23]
Rosell Morales 34
Hannibal Cachuela 50 Manila Star correspondent and Punto News bureau chief
Jephon Cadagdagon 28 From Saksi Balita/Saksi Mindanaoan News:

Cadagdagon: photographer
Dela Cruz, Montaño: correspondents

Montaño: DXCP (talent, reporter)
Also RGMA Super Radyo part-time reporter; sales account executive
Gina Dela Cruz 41 [23]
Marife "Neneng" Montaño [23][19]
Eleanor "Leah" Dalmacio 38 From Socsargen News Today/Socksargen Today:

Dalmacio: reporter, office secretary
Subang: publisher
[23]
Francisco "Ian" Subang Jr. 49
Santos Gatchalian Jr. 51 From Mindanao Daily Gazette:

Gatchalian: reporter
Lupogan: Davao City-based reporter; publisher

Gatchalian: DXGO Davao City
[36]
Lindo Lupogan 42 [36]
Joel Parcon 49 Prontiera News correspondent
Ernesto "Bart" Maravilla News anchor and reporter at Bombo Radyo Koronadal City
Alejandro "Bong" Reblando 54 Manila Bulletin correspondent and Reuters stringer
Napoleon "Nap" Salaysay 55 Publisher and editor-in-chief of Clear View Gazette
Andres "Andy" Teodoro 59 Mindanao Inquirer editor-in-chief, People's Forum
Attack and death:
Nov. 23, 2009
Ampatuan, Maguindanao
[5][25][78]
[4]
Sources: NUJP, CMFR, CPJ

Fifteen of the 197 accused were members of the Ampatuan clan including the masterminds, former provincial governor Andal Sr., died July 2015, and his sons, Andal Jr. and Zaldy, former Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao governor. On December 19, 2019, in a verdict by Quezon City RTC, 28 principal respondents, including eight Ampatuan clan members especially the brothers, were convicted for 57 counts of murder, including 31 media workers, and were sentenced with reclusión perpetua without parole; 15 were sentenced to lower prison terms for being accessories to the crime.[4][23][27][5][76][78]

By January 2020, four more accused, one of them among those acquitted, were under police custody; 77 remain at large.[4]

Suspects in the Maguindanao massacre case[4]
Status No.
Individuals originally indicted
197
Arrested
117
During the trial
Discharged and/or released
8
Died
8
Had faced the trial
101
Granted bail
11
Remained under detention
90
2019 verdict
Convicted (sentenced with reclusión perpetua)
28
Convicted (sentenced to 6–10 years imprisonment)
15
Acquitted
57
Remained at large at the time of the verdict
80
Accused under police custody after the verdict (by January 2020)

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Aklan

Aklan

Aklan, officially the Province of Aklan, is a province in the Western Visayas region of the Philippines. Its capital is Kalibo. The province is situated in the northwest portion of Panay Island, bordering Antique to the southwest, and Capiz to the southeast. Aklan faces the Sibuyan Sea and Romblon province to the north.

Department of Justice (Philippines)

Department of Justice (Philippines)

The Department of Justice is under the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for upholding the rule of law in the Philippines. It is the government's principal law agency, serving as its legal counsel and prosecution arm. It has its headquarters at the DOJ Building in Padre Faura Street, Ermita, Manila.

2010s

2010

In the final month of the Arroyo administration, three radio journalists were killed. Desidario Camangyan was killed while hosting a singing contest at Manay, Davao Oriental on June 14. Within 48 hours, Joselito Agustin was murdered in Bacarra, Ilocos Norte, for his political reporting.[79] Nestor Bedolido was the last journalist killed that month.

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Desiderio "Jessie" Camangyan Sunrise FM as broadcaster June 14
Manay, Davao Oriental or Mati City, Davao Oriental
Shot while onstage hosting a singing contest. Case underwent trial. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25]
Jovelito Agustin DZJC Aksyon Radyo as broadcaster June 16
Laoag City, Ilocos Norte
Ambushed by two men on motorcycles while on his way home. Nephew injured. Case underwent trial. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25]
Nestor Bedolido Mt. Apo Current and Kastigador as reporter, columnist June 19
Digos City, Davao del Sur
Killed. Case underwent preliminary investigation. NUJP
CMFR
[h]
[5][25]
Miguel "Mike" Belen Reporter of DWEB-fm in Nabua, Camarines Sur Attack: July 9
Sorsogon City, Sorsogon

Death: July 31
Shot. Murder charges were filed against suspects who were supposedly identified by him before his death. They include Eric Vargas, an alleged gunman convicted in 2015 by a court in Camarines Sur and sentenced to a 40-year prison term; another is a New People's Army member. This was cited in a 2013 report by PCIJ as the only case in the first six months of Aquino administration and considered work-related. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][26][29]
[5][25]

2011

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Eight deaths were cited in a 2013 report by PCIJ and considered work-related.
Two cases underwent court trial:
Gerardo "Doc Gerry" Ortega RMN–DWAR anchor
Environmentalist
Jan. 24
Puerto Princesa City
Murdered by a lone gunman in a store. Ortega had criticized the misuse of the royalties arising from the Malampaya gas field off Palawan. The team of hired killers were arrested later. Nine suspects include the alleged masterminds, former Gov. Joel Reyes and his brother, former Coron mayor Mario Reyes, both indicted by the DOJ and later managed to escape amid issuance of arrest warrant; as well as self-confessed assailant Marlon Recamata who, in May 2013, was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][18][26]
[29][5][25]
Niel Jimena RMN–DYRI (Iloilo City) blocktimer Aug. 22
Enrique B. Magalona, Negros Occidental
Killed. Two suspects were identified. Case underwent trial. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][5][25]
Four cases are under police investigation by November 2013, suspect/s unidentified:
Cirilo Gallardo DWWM Spirit FM DJ and newscaster (Bangued) Feb. 1
Bangued, Abra
Killed NUJP [7][5]
Roy Gallego Freelancer worked as blocktimer in DXDA, DXSF, DXJM, and 92.7 Smile FM Oct. 14
Lianga, Surigao del Sur
Killed. Case archived. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][5][25]
Alfredo "Dodong" Velarde Jr. Brigada News circulation manager Nov. 11
General Santos City
Shot dead by a gunman while driving his car. NUJP [7][5][19]
Antonio Silagon Bohol Balita Daily News tabloid publisher December
Trinidad, Bohol
Killed. Case underwent trial. NUJP
CMFR
[7][5][25]
A case was under preliminary investigation by the DOJ by November 2013:
Marlina/Maria Len Flores–Sumera DZME anchor
President of a homeowners' group
Mar. 24
Malabon City
Shot dead by a gunman near her house while on her way to her work. Sumera was president of a homeowners' group, one of those involved in land disputes, the issue she had been commenting over her program. She had received threats allegedly from another group in the said city. In April, charges were filed against four alleged members of Partisanong Armadong Operatiba ng Partidong Marxista-Leninista ng Pilipinas identified as suspects. Suspects at-large by Nov. 2014. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][23][5]
[25]
Another was already classified as "cold case" by Task Force Usig, suspect/s unidentified:
Romeo (Romy) Olea DWEB-fm program host (commentator and reporter) June 13
Iriga City, Camarines Sur
Gunned down by one of two unidentified motorcycle-riding men while on his way to work. Olea had discussed issues on the city government in his program. The murder has been classified as a cold case because of lack of information for possible suspects. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][26][5]
[25]
Death not cited in a PCIJ report.
Johnson Pascual Columnist for the defunct Prime News and Northeast Journal (Maddela, Quirino)
Manager of the First Isabela Cooperative Bank in the same municipality
Oct. 7
Isabela
Died immediately as being shot by two motorcycle-riding men while driving a van from Alicia town to Cauayan City. A suspect was arrested in 2012 for the murder. [80]

2012

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Five deaths were cited in a 2013 report by PCIJ and considered work-related.
One case underwent court trial:
Aldion Layao DXRP blocktimer; also worked in GMA Super Radyo Davao
Barangay chairman
Apr. 8
Davao City
Declared dead on arrival as was shot by motorcycle-riding assassins inside his car while on his way home from work. A suspect was identified. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][36][5]
[25]
Two cases were filed with Prosecutor's Office by November 2013, suspect/s unidentified:
Christopher Guarin Publisher in local Tatak News and (blocktime) commentator also worked in Radyo Mo Nationwide and RGMA Super Radyo Jan. 5
General Santos City
Died when was shot by a gunman riding in tandem on a motorcycle that fired at his car. NUJP
CPJ
[7][5][19]
Nestor Libaton Catholic-run DXHM anchor May 8
Mati City, Davao Oriental
Shot dead by unknown motorcycle-riding assailants as he was leaving for Tarragona town. No motive was found. Case underwent trial. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][36][5]
[25]
One is under police investigation by November 2013, suspect/s unidentified:
Rommel "Jojo" Palma DXMC Bombo Radyo reporter and driver Apr. 30
Koronadal City, South Cotabato
Killed. No case filed yet. NUJP
CMFR
[7][5][25]
Another was already classified as "cold case" by Task Force Usig, suspect/s unidentified:
Julius Cauzo Political commentator and program host at DWJJ-am
Vice president of the Nueva Ecija Press Club
Nov. 8
Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija
Murdered by a motorcycle-riding gunman reportedly while on his way back to the studios of politician-owned station. Cauzo was said had received several death threats. Despite the city police having witnesses' accounts on two unidentified men at the scene prior to the crime and digital composite sketches of these men, their only lead, as well as a cash reward from local officials for their arrest, it was reported by Feb. 2013 that there had been little progress in the case. PCIJ, on its Nov. 2013 report, noticed some faults in the investigation, including reports on the existence of any evidences. Still, the motive is unknown and none were arrested. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][5][25]
[81]
Deaths not cited in a PCIJ report.
Nixon Cua Pilipino Star Ngayon July 22 NUJP [5]
Eddie Jesus Apostol DXND Sept. 1 CPJ

2013

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Nine deaths were cited in a November 2013 report by PCIJ and considered work-related.
Three cases were filed with Prosecutor's Office by November 2013:
Dr. Edgardo Adajar Hot FM 101.5 blocktimer January
San Pablo City, Laguna
Killed. Two accused were identified. Case filed, suspects at large by Nov. 2014. NUJP
CMFR
[7][5][25]
Richard Kho All were from Aksyon Ngayon tabloid:
Kho: staff member and columnist
Loreto: publisher and columnist
July
Quezon City
Two accused were also identified. On Oct. 23, 2014, Benji Bate, entering into a plea bargaining, pleaded guilty before the Quezon City RTC for the killing. Other suspect at large by Nov. 2014. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][5][25]
[4]
Bonifacio Loreto Jr. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][5][25]
[4]
Six others are under police investigation by November 2013, suspect/s unidentified:
Mario Vendiola Baylosis 101.7 FM Radyo Natin announcer and also worked in DXNC Radyo Suhnan Apr. 22
Kabasalan, Zamboanga Sibugay
Killed NUJP
CPJ
[7][5]
Miguelito "Mike" Rueras DYDD El Nuevo Bantay Radyo correspondent June 2
Pio V. Corpuz, Masbate
Killed. No case filed as suspect later found killed. CMFR [7][25]
Mario Sy Freelancer worked as photojournalist for daily tabloid Sapol News Bulletin Aug. 1
General Santos City
Shot dead at his home. Case underwent investigation by Nov. 2014. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][5][25]
[35]
Fernando "Nanding" Solijon DXLS Love Radio commentator Aug. 29
Iligan City
Murdered. Case filed; suspect at large by Nov. 2014; other suspect has been found dead. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][5][25]
[35]
Vergel Bico Kalahi editor and publisher Sept. 4
Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro
Killed. Case underwent investigation. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][5][25]
Jesus "Jessie" Tabanao DYRC Radyo Calungsod program anchor
Former Bombo Radyo assistant station manager; information officer of the Philippine Drug Enforcement AgencyRegion 7
Sept. 14
Cebu City
Tabanao, 35, died on the spot when was shot in by a gunman who has remained free by 2015. Classified as work-related. The Mandaue City police reportedly has not been finding the alleged killer in the city as the arrest warrant was said issued to them. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[7][27][5]
[25][82]
Later cases cited.
Joash (Joas) Dignos DXGT Radyo Abante Nov. 29
Valencia City, Bukidnon
Murdered. All suspects are at large by Nov. 2014; case had filed against one of them. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[18][5][25]
Michael Diaz Milo Broadcaster at Prime FM December
Tandag City, Surigao del Sur
Shot and killed NUJP
[h]
[18][5]
Jhonavin Villalba DYOK Aksyon Radyo Iloilo City Dec. 10 NUJP [5]
Rogelio "Tata" Butalid 107.9 Radyo Natin blocktimer
Former broadcaster in DXDN; village councilor
Dec. 11
Tagum City, Davao del Norte
Shot dead by a lone killer shortly after he concluded his program. This was linked to the issues in Davao del Norte Electric Cooperative (DANECO). A city mayor was implicated as said to had directed a "death squad". By Feb. 2015, no action was taken against the mayor and his accomplices. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[18][29][36]
[5][25]

2014

Name Profile Attack/death Notes Sources Refs.
Robelita/Rubylita "Ruby" Garcia Remate tabloid correspondent, DWAD blocktimer
President of a regional journalists' group and a National Press Club member
Apr. 6
Bacoor City, Cavite
Had started as radio blocktimer few weeks prior to her death when was shot by two unidentified men in her house and died five hours later in a hospital. A feud with a police officer was said to be a possible motive. Case underwent investigation by Nov. 2014. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[18][23][5]
[25]
Richard "DJ Troy" Nadjid/Najid Broadcaster at DXNN Power Myx FM and also worked in DXGD-am May 4
Bongao, Tawi-Tawi
Killed. Case underwent investigation by Nov. 2014. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[18][5][25]
Samuel "Sammy" Oliverio Program host in DXDS Radyo Ukay, owned by UM Broadcasting Network, and Supreme Radio May 23
Digos City, Davao del Sur
Fatally shot by two motorcycle-riding attackers while driving home. Police confirmed his death was work-related and politically motivated. Case underwent preliminary investigation by Nov. 2014. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[18][36][5]
[25]
Nilo Baculo Sr. DWIM Radyo Mindoro June 9
Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro
Case underwent investigation by Nov. 2014. NUJP
CMFR
CPJ
[5][25]

2015

  • Nerlita "Nerlie" Ledesma, Abante tabloid reporter based in Balanga City, Bataan, was shot and killed by unidentified motorcycle-riding gunmen on Jan. 8 while she was on the way to work.[77]
  • Maurito Lim, dyRD, died Feb. 14
  • Melinda "Mei" Magsino, Philippine Daily Inquirer, died Apr. 13[l]
  • Gregorio (Gregory) Ybañez, publisher of weekly Kabayan News, president of Davao del Norte Press and Radio-TV Club (DNRPC), and a director of the National Electrification Administration (NEA) bloc, was fatally gunned down at his residence in Tagum City on Aug. 18. This was linked to the conflict between two DANECO factions.[8][36]
  • Teodoro Escanilla, broadcaster (DZMS) and human rights activist, was waylaid and shot on Aug. 19 outside his home in Barcelona, Sorsogon.[8]
  • Cosme Diaz Maestrado, commentator (DXOC), was shot dead on Aug. 27 in front of a shopping center in Ozamiz City, Misamis Occidental.[8]
  • Jose Bernardo; DWBL & DWIZ; Bandera Pilipino; died Oct. 31

2016

  • Elvis Ordaniza, dxWO FM, died Feb. 16
  • Alex Balcoba, People's Brigada, died May 27[l]

Two cases in the first six months of Duterte administration were recorded by the NUJP.

  • Apolinario Suan Jr. of Real FM, former President of the Barangay Chairmen of Bislig City and provincial board Member; killed in Bislig City, Surigao del Sur. Motive is inconclusive by mid-2018.[83][76] He had been critical of the city mayor.[4]
  • Larry Que of Catanduanes News Now periodical, murdered in December in Virac, Catanduanes; had reported drug proliferation in Catanduanes. Case confirmed work-related.[83][76] A resolution from the DOJ was issued, dismissing the murder complaint against five individuals for lack of evidence. In Feb. 2019, the provincial police turned over the investigation to a regional unit of the CIDG.[4]

2017

Six deaths, all recorded by the NUJP, were also cited in a 2018 report by Vera Files. Three of them are confirmed work-related (That of Lozada is only considered the same by the PTFoMS):

  • Joaquin Briones of Remate periodical, murdered on Mar. 13 in Milagros, Masbate.[83][76] By 2018, four suspects were arrested for the killing. Possible motive was believed to be either local politics, which he had reported, or personal grudge.[4]
  • Leonardo (Leo) Diaz of Sapol News Bulletin periodical, also worked in Balita and Radio Mindanao Network; murdered on Aug. 7 in President Quirino, Sultan Kudarat; had reported on local corruption.[83][76] According to the provincial police, the killing is possibly due to his personal affair and activities. An arrest warrant was issued by the Tacurong City RTC against one of the two accused.[4]
  • Christopher (Chris) Iban Lozada of DXBFPrime Broadcasting Network, murdered on Oct. 24 in Bislig City, Surigao del Sur; had reported local politics and corruption.[83][76] By late 2019, suspects were indicted for the cases of murder and frustrated murder. Case is pending in court by early 2020.[4]

Two others are confirmed non-work-related:

The motive of another case is reportedly inconclusive by mid-2018:

2018

NUJP recorded four of those listed. The cases of Denora and Llana are considered work-related by the PTFoMS; that of Sestoso is confirmed the same by another source.

  • Edmund Sestoso, anchorman of DYGB-fm Power 91 Dumaguete City, was riding a pedicab on Apr. 30 in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental when gunmen riding in tandem opened fire at him; was in critical condition until his death in a hospital on May 1; had reported local issues.[83][76] At least three witnesses identified the two suspects, including the gunman, said introduced themselves as NPA members, planned for the killing as Sestoso was alleged to be responsible for framing up another suspect, an NPA commander and uncle of the two, who had arrested in 2014 in Tanjay City. Murder charges were filed twice in 2018 against the three. The first, supported by various documentary evidences, was withdrawn by the victim's widow; the second was dismissed by the city prosecutor for lack of evidence. One of the suspects, Richard Bustamante Jr., died in a shooting incident in La Libertad in the same year; another was wounded. Police investigators sought a reopening of the case.[4]
  • Carlos Matas (volunteer broadcaster of DXCA-fm; retired soldier), died on the spot on May 12 in Labangan, Zamboanga del Sur when was ambushed by gunmen while riding on his way home to Pagadian City.[76] Later in the afternoon, an operation was conducted by joint law enforcement personnel, with three suspects, as well as a policeman, killed; another suspect was wounded. Personal motive was reportedly the reason. Three more suspects remain at large by early 2020.[4]
  • Dennis Denora, publisher-editor of weekly Trends and Times (Panabo City) and DNPRC president, was shot dead by motorcycle-riding assailants on June 7 in Panabo City, Davao del Norte in what was suspected to be a politically motivated murder. He used to write a column for People's Daily Forum and Peryodiko Davao prior to setting up his own publication.[36][76] Murder complaint and information were filed against a suspect and his unidentified companions. Case is pending in court by early 2020.[4]
  • Joey Llana, Home Radio Legazpi, declared dead two hours after being shot while on his way to work in Daraga, Albay on July 20.[76] In 2019, an information for murder was filed against a suspect. The case is raffled at the RTC Legazpi City. Case is pending in court by early 2020.[4]
  • Gabriel Alburo, announcer of DYJL-fm Like Radio Guihulngan, candidate for councilor at Guihulngan City, Negros Oriental; shot to death (Dec. 28) by two unidentified gunmen riding in tandem while on his way home from the La Libertad cockpit arena. It was reported that the victim had an argument with a betting rival because of their bets. Investigation is ongoing by early 2020.[4][l]

Non-work-related cases include:

  • Jessie M. Cano (DXSO): Shot dead while on his way to MSU Campus, Marawi City, Lanao del Sur on June 23. Several possible angles were seen, including Cano being an Army Reservist, making him a possible target of Islamic State sympathizers.[4]
  • Nelvie Yu, 29 (reporter at 101.7 Spirit FM Baler, Aurora): Found dead in their residence in Dingalan, Aurora on Aug. 4. Her husband was considered a person of interest as the victim allegedly had an argument with him on the night before.[4]

2019

NUJP recorded three of those listed.

  • John Michael Decano (part-time news correspondent, announcer of DWPY Pasalingaya FM in Sorsogon; beautician), found dead on Jan. 9 inside a parlor in Sorsogon City, Sorsogon. His death in what was appeared as robbery with homicide is not work-related.[4][h]
  • Eduardo Dizon, station manager and host at Brigada News FM Kidapawan station, was shot dead by motorcycle-riding gunmen while driving home on July 10 in Kidapawan City, Cotabato.[3][76] He is critical of the Kapa controversy in his commentaries over his program, later said as the motive for the killing. A suspect-turned-eyewitness identified a local Kapa leader, also local broadcaster, as the mastermind. In late 2019, three other suspects were indicted for the murder in the Kidapawan RTC. One of them, also local broadcaster, later surrendered. Case is pending in court by early 2020.[4]
  • Dindo Generoso, DYEM-fm Bai Radio, died in November in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental.[76] Charges were filed against suspect/s; case is pending in court by early 2020.[4]
  • Benjie Caballero, Radyo ni Juan, died in Tacurong City, Sultan Kudarat.[76][l]

Discover more about 2010s related topics

Desidario Camangyan

Desidario Camangyan

Desidario Camangyan, also called "Jessie", was a radio journalist for Sunrise FM in Mati City in the southern Philippines. He was slain onstage in Manay, Davao Oriental, Mindanao, while hosting a singing contest.

Manay, Davao Oriental

Manay, Davao Oriental

Manay, officially the Municipality of Manay, is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Davao Oriental, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 39,572 people. 

Joselito Agustin

Joselito Agustin

Joselito Agustin , also known as Aksyon Lito, was a Filipino journalist who worked for the DZJC radio station in Baccara, Ilocos Norte, on the island of Luzon, Philippines. He was an important journalist in the local community and often showed no fear of political flak and was killed.

National Union of Journalists of the Philippines

National Union of Journalists of the Philippines

The National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP) is a Filipino non-governmental trade association that represents the interests of Filipino journalists. Among its leadership are representatives from ABS-CBN, DZMM, GMA, the Philippine Daily Inquirer, The Philippine Star, CNN Philippines, Central Luzon Television, SunStar, and TV5 (Interaksyon). It has campaigned in support of journalists it sees as being under attack, such as Maria Ressa of Rappler and organizations such as ABS-CBN. It is often quoted in the Philippine and international media in relationship to press freedom issues in the country.

Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility

Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility

The Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility (CMFR) is a private, non-stock, non-profit foundation in the Philippines that has focused its endeavor on press freedom protection along with the establishment of a framework of responsibility for its practice. Its programs represent efforts to protect the press as well as to promote professional and ethical values in journalistic practice.

Committee to Protect Journalists

Committee to Protect Journalists

The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York, with correspondents around the world. CPJ promotes press freedom and defends the rights of journalists. The American Journalism Review has called the organization, "Journalism's Red Cross." Since late 1980s, the organization has been publishing an annual census of journalists killed or imprisoned in relation to their work.

DZJC

DZJC

DZJC Aksyon Radyo is a radio station in the Philippines owned and operated by Manila Broadcasting Company through its licensee Cebu Broadcasting Company. The station's studio and transmitter are located along J. P. Rizal St., Brgy. Sto. Tomas, Laoag.

Aksyon Radyo

Aksyon Radyo

Aksyon Radyo Victoria FM 88.3 Blue FM 93.1 Alberto VO5 Easy Rock 94.3

DWEB

DWEB

DWEB is a radio station owned and operated by Filipinas Broadcasting Network. The station's studio and transmitter are located at the Municipal Public Market, Brgy. San Antonio, Poblacion, Nabua.

Camarines Sur

Camarines Sur

Camarines Sur is a province in the Philippines located in the Bicol Region on Luzon. Its capital is Pili and the province borders Camarines Norte and Quezon to the northwest, and Albay to the south. To the east lies the island province of Catanduanes across the Maqueda Channel.

New People's Army

New People's Army

The New People's Army, abbreviated NPA or BHB, is the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), based primarily in the Philippine countryside. It acts as the CPP's principal organization, aiming to consolidate political power from what it sees as the present "bourgeois reactionary puppet government" and to aid in the "people's democratic revolution". Founded on March 29, 1969, by the collaboration of Jose Maria Sison and former members of the Hukbalahap led by Bernabe Buscayno, the NPA has since waged a guerrilla war based on the Maoist strategy of protracted people's war. The NPA is one of the key figures in the ongoing Communist rebellion in the Philippines, the longest ongoing conflict in the country.

Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism

Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism

The Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) is a non-profit media organization specializing in investigative journalism. It is based in Quezon City, Philippines. Established in 1989 by nine Filipino journalists, the organization funds investigative projects for both the print and broadcast media.

2020s

2020

2021

  • Renante Cortes, dyRB, murdered July 22
  • Orlando "Dondon" Dinoy; Newsline Philippines, Energy FM; died Oct. 30
  • Jesus Malabanan; Manila Standard, Manila Times, Bandera; murdered Dec. 8

2022

  • Jaynard Angeles, killed Jan. 12[h]
  • Jhannah Villegas; Sagad & Bugso, Radyo Ukay, Energy FM 106.7; murdered Apr. 15, 2022[l]
  • Federico Gempesaw, Radyo Natin 106.3 FM CDO, died June 29
  • Renato Blanco, Power 102.1 DYRY RFM Mabinay, murdered Sept. 18
  • Percival "Percy Lapid" Mabasa, DWBL 1242, murdered Oct. 3

Source: "List of journalists killed in the Philippines", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 29th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_journalists_killed_in_the_Philippines.

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Notes
  1. ^ a b c NUJP still includes in their list of those killed since 1986, especially as one of the 17 during the Aquino administration, the case of Florante de Castro[5] despite the fact that he was killed in 1984, as reported by CMFR.[6] Considering this, the October 2022 death of Percy Lapid should be counted by the NUJP as 196th and not 197th.[2]
  2. ^ a b Aside from official statistics, reports from various sources differ:
    • Citing an interview with a National Press Club (NPC) official in January 1989, there were about 35 reported cases during the Marcos administration.[11]
    • As reported in 1985 by The Washington Post: In a published open letter to Pres. Marcos in 1985, the NPC noted 22 cases since 1979 (by August 1985); ten in the past two months. Many of these were perpetrated by either soldiers or paramilitary units. Only five were said to had been solved, few suspects had been arrested, and one conviction reported.[12]
    • As reported in 1985 by Associated Press: NPC tallied six cases between 1975 and mid-1984. Since then, the military reported 13 such cases and a disappearance of the police reporter (by August 1985); seven of those deaths were possibly work-related; at least 3 were reportedly killed by the military although it is listed as suspect in several other cases, citing news reports; at least one, claimed to be a leftist rebel, reportedly killed in an encounter. The Tri-Media Association in Manila lists two others.[13]
  3. ^ Trial status:

    CMFR reported (by Nov. 2014):[25]
    Fourteen with conviction: Joaquin, 1987; Toling, 1991; Berbon, 1996; Mallari, 1998 (archived for other suspects); Palma, 1999; Ureta, 2001 (accomplice convicted of homicide, gunman cleared due to being dead); Damalerio, 2002; Endrinal, 2004; Esperat (case against masterminds archived), Cantoneros & Benaojan, 2005; Pace, 2006; Padrigao, 2008 (conviction for a suspect pled guilty to homicide; ongoing trial for another); Ortega, 2011 (ongoing trial for masterminds).
    Four with acquittal: Binoya & Mariano, 2004; Batul, 2006; Lintuan, 2007.
    Eight dismissed at the trial court: Manrique, 1988; Cayona & Ramos, 2001; Villarante, 2003; Manalo, 2004 (at the trial court and Ombudsman; accused gunman killed); Agustin, 2005 (case against alleged mastermind dismissed; archived for other suspects); Canete, 2006; Sison, 2008 (insufficient evidence against suspects).

    PTFoMS, in their inventory of cases, had obtained eighteen cases with convictions, as well as two (Loreto–Kho case, 2013) with a suspect pleaded guilty, with some discovered especially the unreported ones, prior to the 2019 verdict on the deaths of 31 of 32 journalists in Maguindanao in 2009 (the case of Momay was dismissed by the court and is for reinvestigation), thus reporting 49 overall:[4]
    Fifteen work-related: Lingan (1990), Toling (1991), Palma (1999), Ureta (2001), Demalerio (2002), Endrinal & Hinolan (2004), Esperat & Benaojan (2005), Pace (2006), Roxas & Padrigao (2008), Camangyan & Belen (2010), Ortega (2011).
    Three non-work-related: Hernandez (1997), Orsolino (2006), Daguio.
  4. ^ Only 31 of 32 cases. That of victim Reynaldo Momay is for reinvestigation after it was dismissed.
  5. ^ Florante de Castro had been listed in media organizations' databases,[34] including CMFR[21] which, in 2006, discovered that de Castro was killed on Mar. 9, 1984 and not 1986, citing a 1984 issue of Malaya newspaper. Thus, de Castro was excluded then by CMFR from its official list of those killed in the line of duty since 1986.[6] Despite such fact, NUJP still includes de Castro in their list and remains until the present tally.[5]
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao In its 2005 report, Reporters Without Borders listed 42 cases whose actions of the police are said had been not good enough:[39]
    • 1986: Mabazza, Vicoy
    • 1987: Joaquin, Palo, Balani, Sagado
    • 1988: Miranda, Manrigue, Nava
    • 1989: Arcones, Talan
    • 1990: Catinding, Ladrigan
    • 1991: Toling
    • 1992: Hapalla, Martin, Vergara
    • 1993: Legaspi
    • 1996: Reyes
    • 1997: Mabazza
    • 1998: Bancarin, Bentulan
    • 2000: Yu, Jalapit
    • 2001: Yusop, Ureta, Cayona, Ramos
    • 2002: Hernandez, Damalerio (decided 2005), Alcantara
    • 2003: Villanueva, Pobeda, Gregorio, Villarante, Ramirez, Pala, Nadura
    • 2004: Endrinal, Mariano, Lumawag
    • 2005: Amoro
  7. ^ Some sources erroneously included the case of Noli Ebarle (Noel Esin),[34][52] Butuan City-based radio broadcaster abducted by a criminal syndicate on Aug. 31 (mistakenly recorded as date of death) and released on Sept. 3.[53] The RSF, at least, reported the same in its annual report.[48]
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Documented only by UNESCO.
  9. ^ All names of the 32 are from the CPJ data. Meanwhile, 30 are listed in the UNESCO data; not in their list are the names of Jepon Cadagdagon, Jolito Evardo, and Daniel Tiamson, but included there is a journalist whose name is Eugene Dohillo.
  10. ^ A body of Reynaldo Momay, reportedly among those 32 died, remains missing; only the rest were recovered.[78]
  11. ^ One of them, surrendered in Jan. 2020, is among those acquitted in the case.[4]
  12. ^ a b c d e Documented only by CPJ.
References
  1. ^ "52 journalists killed since the return to democracy in 1986". rsf.org. Reporters Sans Frontières. 2 May 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-22.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Jairo Bolledo (2022-07-23). "In Numbers: Filipino journalists killed since 1986". Rappler. Retrieved 2022-10-17.
  3. ^ a b c d The ASEAN Post Team (2019-08-13). "Journalists still dying in the Philippines". The ASEAN Post. Retrieved 2022-10-19.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "PTFoMS 2020: Reinforced, Reloaded. Accomplishment Report (Oct. 2016–Jan. 2020)". Presidential Task Force on Media Security. Office of the President of the Philippines. 2020. Retrieved 2022-10-31 – via Scribd.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em List (1986–2014) and information from National Union of Journalists of the Philippines:
    Nonoy Espina (2014-09-22). "Media Killings Continue in the Philippines". Human Rights Matter. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
    "List of Filipino journalists killed (1986–Jan. 6, 2012)". Mabuhay Online. Bulacan. 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
    "Bloody Milestone: NUJP Reminders 100 Dead Journalists". Davao Today. 2009-03-15. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
    Aquilino Pimentel Jr. (2007-02-08). "Press release". Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
    Katie O'Keefe (2005-09-01). "Under fire". Quill (via The Free Library). Retrieved 2022-10-21.

    Under the Arroyo administration:
    "Journalists killed under the Arroyo administration". GMA News.

    Similar list were mentioned in the sources:
    "Briefing paper for the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (PDF)" (PDF). Coalition to Stop Child Detention through Restorative Justice (Philippines). 2009. Retrieved 2022-10-25 – via IUPUI ScholarWorks.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Florante de Castro, killed 1984, not 1986". Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. 2006-12-11. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Maguindanao massacre, year 4 (Part 1 of 2): 23 journalists killed in 40 months of PNoy, worst case load since '86". Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. 2013-11-20. Retrieved 2022-10-19.
  8. ^ a b c d Philippine Daily Inquirer (2015-09-04). "Editorial: Still under attack". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2022-10-19.
  9. ^ "CPJ data (as of October 2022)". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 2022-10-17.
  10. ^ "UNESCO data (as of October 2022)". UNESCO. Retrieved 2022-10-17.
  11. ^ a b Donald L. Guimary (August 1989). "The Philippine Press after Marcos: Restored Freedoms and New Problems (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 2022-10-27 – via Education Resources Information Center.
  12. ^ a b c "Journalists Appeal to Marcos". The Washington Post. 1985-08-31. Retrieved 2022-10-27.
  13. ^ a b c d e David Briscoe (1985-08-06). "More Than a Dozen Journalists Killed in Philippines in a Year". Associated Press. Retrieved 2022-10-27.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Killings of journalists rose during Ramos' first year". UCA News. 1993-09-20. Retrieved 2022-10-19.

    Information are from Philippine Movement for Press Freedom.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "IFJ Report: A Dangerous Profession: Press freedom under fire in the Philippines (PDF)" (PDF). International Federation of Journalists. 2005. Retrieved 2022-10-25.

    This publication includes the list of journalists killed (1986–Mar. 2005), same as that by National Union of Journalists of the Philippines. Also cited were Bulatlat, Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility, and the defunct Philippine Movement for Press Freedom. Detailed in this publication: Damalerio (2002), Pobeda (2003), Endrinal & Binoya (2005); as well as Bancairin (1998), Palma (1999), & Amoro (2005).
  16. ^ a b c Ronalyn Olea (September 2003). "71 Journalists Killed Since 1986". Bulatlat. Retrieved 2022-10-19.
  17. ^ a b c d Andres Rebana (December 2003). "Media Killings Getting Out of Control". Bulatlat. Retrieved 2022-10-19.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Philippine Daily Inquirer (2014-06-11). "What Went Before: Media killings under Aquino administration". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2022-10-19.

    Information are from: Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility on 2014 cases; Committee to Protect Journalists on 2011 Ortega case.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g "Death and Impunity in Philippine Journalism". Asia Sentinel. 2012-01-19. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Alan Robles (2009-04-05). "Media massacre". Development and Cooperation (D+C). Retrieved 2022-10-19.

    Information are from National Union of Journalists of the Philippines.
  21. ^ a b "Tell us there's no impunity". The PCIJ Blog. Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. 2005-05-07. Retrieved 2022-10-31.

    List from Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility, now outdated. Two entries in this list were excluded later: de Castro (1986) and Villanueva (2005); ten were added in updated list.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Max Soliven (2005-05-17). "By The Way: A wishy-washy, weepy government gets no respect from killers". Philstar.com. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Women in media: Ten women killed for their work as journalists (1990-2014)". Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. 2015-04-30. Retrieved 2022-10-20.
  24. ^ a b 2009 Perez case:
    "Batangas Court Acquits Suspect in 2009 Broadcaster Killing". Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2022-10-20.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk List (1986–2014) from Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility:
    —"List of journalists/media workers killed in the line of duty in the Philippines since 1986 (as of November 2014)" CMFR. 2015. (Link 1) Retrieved 2022-10-25 – via FDocuments (India). (Link 2) Retrieved 2022-10-31 – via Dokumen (Indonesia).
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Maguindanao massacre, year 4 (Part 2 of 2): Media murders: Few suspects in jail, few cases in court, conviction rate low". Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. 2013-11-21. Retrieved 2022-10-20.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Joeberth Ocao (2017-07-15). "Messenger silenced". Cebu Journalism and Journalists. Innopub Media. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  28. ^ Phelim Kine (2016-10-14). "Philippines Launches Inquiry Into Journalist Killings". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2020-10-19.
  29. ^ a b c d 2010 Belen case:
    Carlos Conde (2015-02-09). "Dispatches: Jailing the Philippines' Elusive Journalist Killers". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2022-10-20.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Incidents of violence and harassment against journalists". Cebu Citizens-Press Council. Innopub Media. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  31. ^ a b c Merlinda A. Pedrosa (2010-07-18). "Negros Press Club, police to work on media safety". SunStar. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h Gregorio V. Bituin Jr. (2009-11-24). "Ang dyornalista bilang birador". Sanaysay ni Gorio (in Tagalog). Retrieved 2022-10-28. (Originally published as an article for the Diario Uno newspaper in 1998.)
  33. ^ a b c "The Marcos Regime and the Making of a Subservient Philippine Press (Part 2)". Human Rights Violations Victims' Memorial Commission. Government of the Philippines. 2021-10-13. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu "Filipino Jounalists Killed (1986–2005)". Media Museum. Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication. 2013. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  35. ^ a b c 2013 Solijon case:
    Richel Umel (2013-08-30). "Radioman shot dead in Iligan City". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2022-10-24.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Antonio Figueroa (2018-06-18). "Fast Backward: A brief history of Davao's media killings". Edge Davao. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Philippines press toll (Feb. 1986–Feb. 1990) (PDF)". Index on Censorship. February 1990. Retrieved 2022-10-22 – via SAGE Journals.
  38. ^ a b Karol Mabazza (2021-03-15). "The lost legacy". Karol Mabazza Blog.

    Citing the following sources:
    Reuters (1986-04-25). "2 Journalists Are Slain By Philippine Rebels". The New York Times. New York City.
    John Burgess (1986-04-26). "Manila Pledges To Punish Rebels". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.
    Ma. Ceres P. Doyo (2013-01-17). "Opinion: Don't ride with armed groups and marked prey". Inquirer.net.

    All aforementioned were retrieved 2022-10-22.

    "G.R. No. 251693"
    Documents submitted for compliance (including Amended Information, dated Oct. 24, 1986) (PDF). Supreme Court of the Philippines. 2020-03-11.
    —Decision. 2020-09-28. (1) PDF file from The LawPhil Project. (2) Another link from Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.
    All aforementioned were retrieved 2022-10-31.

    Other sources:
    "Wilfredo Vicoy". The Baron. The Baron. Retrieved 2022-10-22.
    "Willie Vicoy Widely Mourned". The Correspondent. Hong Kong: Foreign Correspondents' Club. June 1986. Retrieved 2022-10-22 – via Issuu.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Philippines: An end to impunity; Justice for Marlene Esperat and the 51 other journalists killed since 1986 (PDF)" (PDF). Reporters Without Borders. Paris. 2005. Retrieved 2022-10-22.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Philippine Press Freedom Report, September 2006–July 2007 (PDF)" (PDF). Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. 2007. Retrieved 2022-10-22.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g "Journalists killed in 1990 (PDF)". Index on Censorship. February 1991. Retrieved 2022-10-28 – via SAGE Journals.

    List is from International Federation of Journalists.
  42. ^ a b c "Index (PDF)". Index on Censorship. September 1990. Retrieved 2022-10-28 – via SAGE Journals.

    Information are from International PEN.
  43. ^ a b Associated Press (July 1990). "Untitled (Summary of developments in the news industry, July 9–16)". Associated Press. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  44. ^ a b Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1991. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office. February 1992. p. 964. ISBN 0-16-037393-X. Retrieved 2022-10-28 – via Google Books.
  45. ^ 1991 Enciso case:
    "Soldiers kill Philippine newsman". United Press International. 1991-05-27. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
    "Senate Resolution No. 127, s. 1991". Senate of the Philippines, Legislative Digital Resources. Government of the Philippines. 1993-06-03. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  46. ^ a b "Index (PDF)". Index on Censorship. Jan–Feb 1994. Retrieved 2022-10-31 – via SAGE Journals.

    Information are from Philippine Press Freedom Advocate.
  47. ^ a b IPS correspondents (1996-05-08). "Asia-Media: Reporters Pay a Deadly Price For Doing Their Jobs". Inter Press Service. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h Reporters Without Borders (2002-05-03). "Reporters Without Borders Annual Report 2002 - Philippines". Refworld. UNHCR. Retrieved 2022-10-19.
  49. ^ a b 1998 Llasos and 2004 Misajon cases:
    Antonieta Lopez (2004-10-11). "Iloilo journalist's rob-slay suspect yields". Philstar.com. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  50. ^ a b c d e f Ronalyn Olea (2011-03-11). "Kin of 5 Slain Journalists File Raps Vs. Philippine Gov't Before UN Body". Bulatlat. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  51. ^ a b c Orlando Dinoy (2011-08-10). "Suspect in slaying of broadcaster still free; case archived". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2022-10-25.

    Information are from National Union of Journalists of the Philippines.
  52. ^ Ederic Eder (2003-09-12). "Stop Killing Journalists". ederic.net. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  53. ^ On an abduction case of a journalist in 2001:
    Lino de la Cruz (2001-09-04). "Criminal group abducts radioman to 'lecture'". Philstar.com. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
    Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility (2001-09-06). "Kidnapped broadcaster released after three days in captivity". IFEX. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  54. ^ a b 2004 Hinolan case:
    "Former Mayor Convicted for 2004 Killing of Broadcaster". Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. 2016-08-12. Retrieved 2022-10-20.
  55. ^ a b c d Reporters Without Borders (2003). "Reporters Without Borders Annual Report 2003 - Philippines". Refworld. UNHCR. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i E. San Juan Jr. (2008-09-22). "US Backed Arroyo Regime Terrorizes Media And Artists In The Philippines". countercurrents.org. Retrieved 2022-10-19.

    Information on Damalerio & Alcantara (2002), Gregorio (2003), and Binoya (2004) are from International Federation of Journalists; on Villanueva & Sanchez (2005) are from UNESCO.
  57. ^ a b c d e f ""No Justice Just Adds to the Pain": Killings, Disappearances, and Impunity in the Philippines". Human Rights Watch. 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2022-10-25. Out of hundreds of killings and enforced disappearances since 2001, there have been only seven successfully prosecuted cases, resulting in the conviction of 12 defendants.
  58. ^ a b c d e f Miriam Defensor Santiago. "Senate Resolution (PDF)" (PDF). Senate of the Philippines. Government of the Philippines. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  59. ^ a b 2005 Amoro case:
    "Philippine court jails gunman of slain journalist". Reuters. 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
    "Statement: Conviction welcomed in 2005 murder case". Committee to Protect Journalists. 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  60. ^ a b c d e f Committee to Protect Journalists (February 2004). "Attacks on the Press in 2003 - Philippines". Refworld. UNHCR. Retrieved 2022-10-19.
  61. ^ "Radio journalist killed in Davao City". 8 September 2003.
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Aubrey SC Makilan (November 2004). "'Grief and Rage in the Midst of Storm'". Bulatlat. Retrieved 2022-10-25.

    Information and list (2004) are from National Union of Journalists of the Philippines.
  63. ^ a b c d Agence France-Presse (2004-08-14). "Philippine journalists under fire". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  64. ^ 2004 Villanueva case:
    Sara Soliven de Guzman (2004-09-29). "Opinion: When you can be murdered on the bus for a cellphone, this isn't a strong Republic!". Philstar.com. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
    "Committee Report No. 92 (PDF)" (PDF). Senate of the Philippines. Government of the Philippines. 2006-08-28. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  65. ^ 2004 Misajon case:
    GMA News (2007-09-26). "Suspect in 2004 killing of GMA provincial news anchor falls". GMA News. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
    Erly C. Garcia. "Cops nab fourth suspect in newscaster's killing". The News Today. Iloilo City. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
    Nestor P. Burgos Jr. (2013-01-18). "3 convicted of robbing, killing TV news anchor". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  66. ^ "Gene Boyd Lumawag".
  67. ^ a b c d e f g "Philippine Press Freedom Report 2008 (PDF)". Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. 2009. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  68. ^ 2006 Melendrez case is mentioned:
    "Murder, She Wrought (PDF)" (PDF). PhilRights. Philippine Human Rights Information Center. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
  69. ^ "Ferdinand Lintuan".
  70. ^ "Duterte denies hand in Lintuan killing". gmanetwork.com. gmanetwork.com.
  71. ^ "Politician's bodyguard held as suspect in journalist's murder". archives.rsf.org/. archives.rsf.org/.
  72. ^ "Remembering the peace worker named Badrodin". mindandnews.com. Mind and News.
  73. ^ "Cops eye mistaken identity in killing of Cotabato radioman". gma.tv. GMA News.
  74. ^ "Group seeks thorough probe of radioman's slay". gmanews.tv. GMA News.
  75. ^ "Philippine journalists 'live in danger'". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC. 9 February 2009.
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u ABS-CBN News (2020-11-23). "19 journos killed in 4 years of Duterte admin - watchdog". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2022-10-19.

    Information are from National Union of Journalists of the Philippines.
  77. ^ a b Phelim Kine (2015-01-08). "Dispatches: A Deadly Start to 2015 for Philippine Journalists". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2022-10-20.
  78. ^ a b c d 2009 Maguindanao massacre case:
    "Ampatuan Massacre, Five Years On (PDF)" (PDF). International Federation of Journalists. 2015. Retrieved 2022-10-25.
    "Massacre in the Philippines: International Solidarity Mission Rapid Assessment, Dec. 2009". International Federation of Journalists. 2009. Retrieved 2022-10-31 – via Issuu.

    These publications include the list of journalists killed (1986–Jan. 2015), citing the National Union of Journalists of the Philippines.
  79. ^ Conde, Carlos H. (2010-06-16). "Radio Journalist Slain in Philippines". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  80. ^ 2011 Pascual case:
    Villamor Visaya Jr. (2012-10-13). "Media man's killer falls". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2022-10-28 – via PressReader.
  81. ^ 2012 Cauzo case:
    Ed Lingao (2013-11-21). "Maguindanao massacre, year 4 (Sidebar): A widow's story". Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. Retrieved 2022-10-20.
  82. ^ 2013 Tabanao case:
    "Radio anchor shot dead in Cebu City". Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility. 2013-09-19. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Vera Files fact check: Media groups err on figures on media killings; Roque claim on press freedom wrong". Vera Files. 2018-05-09. Retrieved 2022-10-19.

    Information are from the data provided by Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility, National Union of Journalists of the Philippines, and Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism.
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