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List of World Heritage Sites in Yemen

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Location of World Heritage Sites in Yemen. Red dots represent cultural sites, the green dot is a natural site.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) designates World Heritage Sites of outstanding universal value to cultural or natural heritage which have been nominated by countries which are signatories to the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.[1] Cultural heritage consists of monuments (such as architectural works, monumental sculptures, or inscriptions), groups of buildings, and sites (including archaeological sites). Natural features (consisting of physical and biological formations), geological and physiographical formations (including habitats of threatened species of animals and plants), and natural sites which are important from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty, are defined as natural heritage.[2] Yemen ratified the convention on 7 October 1980.[3]

As of 2023, Yemen has five sites on the list. The first site, the Old Walled City of Shibam, was listed in 1982. The most recent site listed was Landmarks of the Ancient Kingdom of Saba in Marib in 2023.[4] The Socotra Archipelago was listed in 2008, and it is the only natural site in Yemen, while the other four are cultural.[3] All four cultural sites are listed as endangered. The Historic Town of Zabid was listed in 2000 because of the deteriorating state of the historic buildings.[5] Shibam and the Old City of Sana'a were listed in 2015 and Marib in 2023 due to the threats posed by the Yemeni Civil War.[6] Yemen has nine sites on its tentative list. The country served as a member of the World Heritage Committee in the years 1985–1991.[3]

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UNESCO

UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace and security through international cooperation in education, arts, sciences and culture. It has 193 member states and 12 associate members, as well as partners in the non-governmental, intergovernmental and private sector. Headquartered at the World Heritage Centre in Paris, France, UNESCO has 53 regional field offices and 199 national commissions that facilitate its global mandate.

World Heritage Site

World Heritage Site

A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance. The sites are judged to contain "cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity".

Cultural heritage

Cultural heritage

Cultural heritage is the heritage of tangible and intangible heritage assets of a group or society that is inherited from past generations. Not all heritages of past generations are "heritage"; rather, heritage is a product of selection by society.

Natural heritage

Natural heritage

Natural heritage refers to the sum total of the elements of biodiversity, including flora and fauna, ecosystems and geological structures. It forms part of our natural resources.

Yemen

Yemen

Yemen, officially the Republic of Yemen, is a country in Western Asia. It is situated on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula, and borders Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the northeast and shares maritime borders with Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia. Yemen is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 555,000 square kilometres, with a coastline stretching about 2,000 kilometres. Its constitutionally stated capital, and largest city, is Sanaa. As of 2021, Yemen has an estimated population of 30.4 million.

Shibam

Shibam

Shibam Hadramawt is a town in Yemen. With about 7,000 inhabitants, it is the seat of the District of Shibam in the Governorate of Hadhramaut. Known for its mudbrick-made high-rise buildings, it is referred to as the "Chicago of the Desert", or "Manhattan of the Desert".

Marib Governorate

Marib Governorate

Marib is a governorate of Yemen. It is located 173 kilometers to the northeast of Yemen's capital, Sana'a. The population of Marib Governorate comprises 1.2% of the country's total population. The city of Marib is the capital of the governorate, and was established after the discovery of oil deposits in 1984. The total number of residents living in the governorate was 238,522 according to the 2004 census, and the rate of growth was 2.72%.

Socotra

Socotra

Socotra or Soqotra is an island of the Republic of Yemen in the Indian Ocean, under the de facto control of the UAE-backed Southern Transitional Council, a secessionist participant in Yemen’s ongoing civil war. Lying between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea and near major shipping routes, Socotra is the largest of the four islands in the Socotra archipelago. Since 2013, the archipelago has constituted the Socotra Governorate.

List of World Heritage in Danger

List of World Heritage in Danger

The List of World Heritage in Danger is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through the World Heritage Committee according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention, which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites. Entries in the list are threatened World Heritage Sites for the conservation of which major operations are required and for which "assistance has been requested". The list is intended to increase international awareness of the threats and to encourage counteractive measures. Threats to a site can be either proven imminent threats or potential dangers that could have adverse effects on a site.

Zabid

Zabid

Zabid is a town with an urban population of around 52,590 people on Yemen's western coastal plain. It is one of the oldest towns in Yemen, and has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993; though, in 2000, the site was placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Sanaa

Sanaa

Sanaa, also spelled Sana'a or Sana, is the capital and largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sanaa Governorate. The city is not part of the Governorate, but forms the separate administrative district of "ʾAmānat al-ʿĀṣima". Under the Yemeni constitution, Sanaa is the capital of the country, although the seat of the Yemeni government moved to Aden, the former capital of South Yemen in the aftermath of the Houthi occupation. Aden was declared as the temporary capital by President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi in March 2015.

Yemeni Civil War (2014–present)

Yemeni Civil War (2014–present)

The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing multilateral civil war that began in late 2014 mainly between the Rashad al-Alimi-led Yemeni government and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen.

World Heritage Sites

UNESCO lists sites under ten criteria; each entry must meet at least one of the criteria. Criteria i through vi are cultural, and vii through x are natural.[7]

  In danger In danger
World Heritage Sites
Site Image Location (governorate) Year listed UNESCO data Description
Old Walled City of Shibamdagger High mudbrick buildings Hadhramaut 1982 192; iii, iv, v (cultural) The 16th-century walled city of Shibam is located on the edge of a giant flood wadi between the mountains on an important caravan trade route. The characteristic feature of the city are several multi-storey mudbrick houses which represent one of the oldest examples of urban planning based on high-rise buildings. It is also the best example of the traditional architecture of the Hadhrami people between the 16th and 19th centuries. The city is threatened by floods due to gradual abandonment of traditional water management systems. Furthermore, installation of modern water supply with inadequate drainage and changes in livestock management have contributed to deteriorating condition of the city. The site has been listed as endangered since 2015 due to the threats posed by the Yemeni Civil War.[6][8]
Old City of Sana'adagger Walled city with traditional mudbrick houses decorated with white details Sanaa 1986 385; iv, v, vi (cultural) The city of Sana'a has been inhabited for more than 2500 years. It played an important role in the early years of Islam, with the Great Mosque being the first mosque constructed outside Mecca and Medina, and the city being one of the centres from which the faith has spread. The walled city comprises many traditional multi-storey houses built of rammed earth and burned brick, they are decorated by patterns made in brick and white gypsum. The city is threatened by new constructions and improper conservation practices. The site has been listed as endangered since 2015 due to the threats posed by the Yemeni Civil War.[6][9]
Historic Town of Zabiddagger Houses in traditional style, look from an elevated perspective Al Hudaydah 1993 611; iii (cultural) The coastal town of Zabid was the capital of Yemen from the 13th to 15th century. It was a fortified town, with four gates, watchtowers, a citadel, and wall fragments still remaining. It was an important centre of learning during the early Islamic period from the 7th century on, with a large number of mosques and madrasas. The architecture, in particular the Tihamah-style courtyard house, was influential in the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The town is threatened by the newer constructions in concrete and steel and by installation of overhead electrical cables. The site has been listed as endangered since 2000 because of the deteriorating state of the historic buildings.[5][10]
Socotra Archipelago A large tree in a rocky landscape Socotra 2008 1263; x (natural) The Socotra Archipelago comprises four islands and two rocky islets. Both land and marine area are exceptionally rich in biodiversity. The islands are home to many endemic plant species (Dracaena cinnabari pictured), as well as endemic reptile and land snail species. The islands support land and marine bird populations while the marine areas are home to coral reefs with numerous species of fish, crab, lobster, and shrimp.[11]
Landmarks of the Ancient Kingdom of Saba, Maribdagger Temple ruins with several standing columns Marib 2023 1700; iii, iv (cultural) Marib was the centre of the Sabaean Kingdom which was possibly the Kingdom of Sheba. The kingdom controlled much of the incense trade across the Arabian Peninsula and in turn played a major role in cultural exchange with the Mediterranean and East Africa. The monuments date from the 1st millennium BCE to the arrival of Islam around 630 CE and include the Barran Temple, the Awam Temple (pictured), the ancient city of Marib, Old Marib Dam, and the ancient city of Sirwah. The site was immediately listed as endangered due to the threats posed by the Yemeni Civil War.[12]

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Governorates of Yemen

Governorates of Yemen

Yemen is divided into twenty-one governorates (muhafazah) and one municipality (amanah):

Hadhramaut Governorate

Hadhramaut Governorate

Hadhramaut or Hadramawt or Hadramout is a governorate of Yemen. Lying within the large historical region of Hadhramaut, it is the country's largest governorate.

Mudbrick

Mudbrick

A mudbrick or mud-brick is an air-dried brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw. Mudbricks are known from 9000 BCE, though since 4000 BCE, bricks have also been fired, to increase their strength and durability.

Hadhrami people

Hadhrami people

The Hadhrami or Hadharem are an Arab ethnic group indigenous to the Hadhramaut region in South Arabia around Eastern Yemen, western Oman, and southern Saudi Arabia and their descendants in diaspora communities around the world. They speak Hadhrami Arabic, an Arabic dialect with heavy influence from the extinct South Semitic Hadramautic language.

List of World Heritage in Danger

List of World Heritage in Danger

The List of World Heritage in Danger is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through the World Heritage Committee according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention, which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites. Entries in the list are threatened World Heritage Sites for the conservation of which major operations are required and for which "assistance has been requested". The list is intended to increase international awareness of the threats and to encourage counteractive measures. Threats to a site can be either proven imminent threats or potential dangers that could have adverse effects on a site.

Sanaa

Sanaa

Sanaa, also spelled Sana'a or Sana, is the capital and largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sanaa Governorate. The city is not part of the Governorate, but forms the separate administrative district of "ʾAmānat al-ʿĀṣima". Under the Yemeni constitution, Sanaa is the capital of the country, although the seat of the Yemeni government moved to Aden, the former capital of South Yemen in the aftermath of the Houthi occupation. Aden was declared as the temporary capital by President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi in March 2015.

Great Mosque of Sanaa

Great Mosque of Sanaa

The Great Mosque of Sana'a is an ancient mosque in Sana'a, Yemen, and one of the oldest mosques in the world. The mosque is said to have been founded in the early Islamic period, suggested to be in 633. While the precise date of construction is unknown, the earliest recorded renovations occurred under Caliph al-Alid I in the early 8th century, implying a possible earlier date of construction. The mosque was reportedly built in part from spolia from the Himyarite-era Ghumdan Palace and from the Axumite Christian Church of al-Qalis that formerly occupied the site. The Great Mosque is the largest and most notable of over one hundred mosques in the Old City of Sana’a.

Mecca

Mecca

Mecca is the holiest city in Islam and the capital of Mecca Province in Saudi Arabia. It is 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah on the Red Sea, in a narrow valley 277 m (909 ft) above sea level. Its last recorded population was 1,578,722 in 2015. Its estimated metro population in 2020 is 2.042 million, making it the third-most populated city in Saudi Arabia after Riyadh and Jeddah. Pilgrims more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj pilgrimage, observed in the twelfth Hijri month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.

Medina

Medina

Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah, is the second-holiest city in Islam and the capital of Medina Province in Saudi Arabia. As of 2020, the estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, making it the fourth-most populous city in the country. Located at the core of the Medina Province in the western reaches of the country, the city is distributed over 589 km2 (227 sq mi), of which 293 km2 (113 sq mi) constitutes the city's urban area, while the rest is occupied by the Hejaz Mountains, empty valleys, agricultural spaces and older dormant volcanoes.

Rammed earth

Rammed earth

Rammed earth is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using compacted natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel. It is an ancient method that has been revived recently as a sustainable building method.

Gypsum

Gypsum

Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer and as the main constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard or sidewalk chalk, and drywall. Alabaster, a fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum, has been used for sculpture by many cultures including Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Ancient Rome, the Byzantine Empire, and the Nottingham alabasters of Medieval England. Gypsum also crystallizes as translucent crystals of selenite. It forms as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite.

Al Hudaydah Governorate

Al Hudaydah Governorate

Al Hudaydah is a governorate of Yemen. Its capital is Al Hudaydah. The governorate is also sometimes referred to as the Western Coast. With an estimated population of nearly 4 million, it is the third-most populous governorate in Yemen, after Taiz and Ibb.

Tentative list

In addition to sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, member states can maintain a list of tentative sites that they may consider for nomination. Nominations for the World Heritage List are only accepted if the site was previously listed on the tentative list.[13] As of 2023, Yemen has listed nine properties on its tentative list.[3]

Tentative sites
Site Image Location (governorate) Year listed UNESCO criteria Description
Historic city of Saada Mudbrick house with decorated windows Saada 2002 i, iv, v (cultural) Saada was founded by Imam AI-Hadi Yaya in the 9th century and became the cradle of Zaydism, a powerful spiritual school of Muslim thought in Yemen. The city is surrounded by a wall with 52 watchtowers and 16 gates. In the city, there are multi-storey houses built of earth and brick, palaces, and 14 mosques from the 10th to 16th centuries. The Zaydite cemetery, located outside the walls, is the largest and oldest in Yemen.[14]
The Historic City of Thula Look from above at fortification steps and a city below 'Amran 2002 i, iii, iv (cultural) The city of Thula dates to the Himyarite Kingdom period. The walled city is well preserved, with stone houses with three to five floors built in a consistent style, narrow streets, a 12-th century mosque, and a 15-th century hammam. There is a fortress on the top of a cliff under which the city is located.[15]
The Madrasa Amiriya of Rada A mosque with a minaret in white Al Bayda 2002 i, iv (cultural) The mosque and madrasa date to 1504 and is a masterpiece of the Tahirid architecture of Yemen. The interiors and exteriors were decorated with paintings, stucco, and qadad. The monument was in poor condition until 1978 when several foreign missions began to understand its importance and uniqueness. Renovation took place, where new generation of artisans learned to work with traditional techniques.[16]
Jibla and its surroundings A town on a slope of a hill with houses and minarets Ibb 2002 ii, iv, v (cultural) Jibla was the highland capital of the Sulayhid dynasty in the 11th and 12th centuries. The city is located in a mountain setting with river gorges and well integrated into the environment, forming a cultural landscape with terraces and small hamlets. The houses in the city are decorated with stucco patterns and the doors are made of carved wood. The Queen Arwa Mosque dates to 1088.[17]
Jabal Haraz Mountains with terraces and a house on the slope Sanaa 2002 (mixed) The mountainous region of Jabal Haraz was a caravan stopping point during the Himyarite Kingdom and a stronghold during the Sulayhid dynasty in the 11th century. The cultural landscape comprises fortified villages on the mountain slopes and the terraces in these slopes that were used to grow alfalfa, millet, coffee, khat, and other crops. Settlements include Manakha and AI-Hajjara that both date to the 12th century.[18]
Jabal Bura Al Hudaydah 2002 (mixed) Jabal Bura is a mountain where the western side is covered by dense tropical vegetation and the eastern side comprises a cultural landscape of hamlets and terraces used for farming. There are five vegetation zones spanning over 2,000 m (6,600 ft), with bananas being grown at the bottom levels, coffee in the middle, and durum wheat at higher altitudes. The are is threatened because of logging and firewood harvesting, as well as because of construction of new roads in a fragile environment.[19]
Balhaf/Burum coastal area A crater filled with water in a desert Shabwah 2002 (mixed) The area comprises the oasis of Balhaf, Qana, a major port of the Incense trade route since the period of the ancient Hadhramaut Kingdom, a volcanic crater lake (pictured), a fishing port of Burum, and the surrounding landscape.[20]
The Hawf Area Al Mahrah 2002 vii, x (natural) The area in Hawf District, together with the Dhofar Governorate in the neighbouring Oman, is important in view of plant diversity. In contrast with the rest of the country that is mostly arid, Hawf is covered by trees and also home to several animal species. The area is threatened by expansion and intensification of agriculture.[21]
Sharma/Jethmun coastal area Two camels on a beach Hadhramaut 2002 (natural) Ash-Shihr is a small ancient city with remains of buildings that were built in a mixture of Yemeni, Arab, and Hindu styles. The area is popular with tourists. There are hot spring baths in the village of Bada.[22]

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Governorates of Yemen

Governorates of Yemen

Yemen is divided into twenty-one governorates (muhafazah) and one municipality (amanah):

'Amran Governorate

'Amran Governorate

ʽAmran is one of the governorates of Yemen.

Himyarite Kingdom

Himyarite Kingdom

The Himyarite Kingdom or Himyar, historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a polity in the southern highlands of Yemen, as well as the name of the region which it claimed. Until 110 BCE, it was integrated into the Qatabanian kingdom, afterwards being recognized as an independent kingdom. According to classical sources, their capital was the ancient city of Zafar, relatively near the modern-day city of Sana'a. Himyarite power eventually shifted to Sana'a as the population increased in the fifth century. After the establishment of their kingdom, it was ruled by kings from dhū-Raydān tribe. The kingdom was named Raydān.

Hammam

Hammam

A hammam or Turkish bath is a type of steam bath or a place of public bathing associated with the Islamic world. It is a prominent feature in the culture of the Muslim world and was inherited from the model of the Roman thermae. Muslim bathhouses or hammams were historically found across the Middle East, North Africa, al-Andalus, Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and in Southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule. A variation on the Muslim bathhouse, the Victorian Turkish bath, became popular as a form of therapy, a method of cleansing, and a place for relaxation during the Victorian era, rapidly spreading through the British Empire, the United States of America, and Western Europe.

Amiriya Madrasa

Amiriya Madrasa

Al-Amiriya is a 16th-century madrasa located in Rada, Yemen. It is under consideration for inscription as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was built in 1504 and is an example of the architecture of Tahirids, Yemen. The monument was in poor condition until 1978 when Iraqi-born archaeologist Selma Al-Radi saw it and enlisted financial help from foreign missions to restore it in a more than twenty-year effort which she led.

Al Bayda Governorate

Al Bayda Governorate

Al Bayda Governorate, also spelt Al-Baidhah or Beida, is one of the governorates (muhafazat) of Yemen. It is located near the centre of the country, around the town of Al Bayda. Its population, according to the 2004 Yemeni census, was 571,778.

Madrasa

Madrasa

Madrasa is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, secular or religious, whether for elementary education or higher learning. The word is variously transliterated Madrasah arifah, medresa, madrassa, madraza, medrese, etc. In countries outside the Arab world, the word usually refers to a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the religion of Islam, though this may not be the only subject studied.

Qadad

Qadad

Qadad or qudad is a waterproof plaster surface, made of a lime plaster treated with slaked lime and oils and fats. The technique is over a thousand years old, with the remains of this early plaster still seen on the standing sluices of the ancient Marib Dam.

Jibla, Yemen

Jibla, Yemen

Jiblah is a town in south-western Yemen, c. eight kilometres (5.0 mi) south, south-west of Ibb in the governorate of the same name. It is located at the elevation of around 2,200 metres, near Jabal At-Taʿkar. The town and its surroundings were added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List due to its purported universal cultural value. The historical Palace of Queen Arwa is located in the town.

Ibb Governorate

Ibb Governorate

Ibb is a governorate of Yemen. It is located in the inland south of the country with Ta'izz Governorate to the southwest, Ad Dali' Governorate to the southeast, Dhamar Governorate to the north, and short borders with Al Bayda' Governorate to the east and Al Hudaydah Governorate to the west. It has an area of 5,344 km² and a population estimated at around 1,665,000 in 2004, making it the most densely populated governorate in Yemen outside of San'a city.

Cultural landscape

Cultural landscape

Cultural landscape is a term used in the fields of geography, ecology, and heritage studies, to describe a symbiosis of human activity and environment. As defined by the World Heritage Committee, it is the "cultural properties [that] represent the combined works of nature and of man" and falls into three main categories:"a landscape designed and created intentionally by man" an "organically evolved landscape" which may be a "relict landscape" or a "continuing landscape" an "associative cultural landscape" which may be valued because of the "religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element."

Queen Arwa Mosque

Queen Arwa Mosque

The Mosque of Queen Arwa bint Ahmad Al-Sulayhi, or simply the Queen Arwa Mosque, is a historical mosque in Jibla, Yemen. It was built between 1056 and 1111 CE by Queen Arwa al-Sulayhi and her tomb had later become the site of pilgrimage. It retains its importance as one of the oldest ancient Yemeni mosques. It is also known as Hurrat-ul-Malikah Mosque, as the queen was often referred as Al-Malika Al-Hurra, which means "The Noble Queen".

Source: "List of World Heritage Sites in Yemen", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_Heritage_Sites_in_Yemen.

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See also
References
  1. ^ "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
  2. ^ "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 1 February 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d "Yemen". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 October 2005. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  4. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Landmarks of the Ancient Kingdom of Saba, Marib". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2023-01-25.
  5. ^ a b "Twenty-fourth session" (PDF). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  6. ^ a b c "Yemen's Old City of Sana'a and Old Walled City of Shibam added to List of World Heritage in Danger". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 1 September 2022. Retrieved 4 September 2022.
  7. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – The Criteria for Selection". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 12 June 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  8. ^ "Old Walled City of Shibam". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 3 August 2022. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  9. ^ "Old City of Sana'a". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2 August 2022. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  10. ^ "Historic Town of Zabid". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  11. ^ "Socotra Archipelago". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 14 August 2022. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  12. ^ "Landmarks of the Ancient Kingdom of Saba, Marib". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  13. ^ "Tentative Lists". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  14. ^ "Historic city of Saada" (in French). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  15. ^ "The Historic City of Thula" (in French). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  16. ^ "The Madrasa Amiriya of Rada" (in French). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  17. ^ "The Madrasa Amiriya of Rada" (in French). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  18. ^ "Jabal Haraz" (in French). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  19. ^ "Jabal Bura" (in French). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  20. ^ "Balhaf/Burum coastal area" (in French). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  21. ^ "The Hawf Area". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  22. ^ "Sharma/Jethmun coastal area" (in French). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2022.

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