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List of South American animals extinct in the Holocene

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way

This list of South American animals extinct in the Holocene features animals known to have become extinct in the last 12,000 years on the South American continent.

Many extinction dates are unknown due to a lack of relevant information.

Mammals

Possible

N.B.: These animals were identified "from Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene" deposits in Brazil[1][2] and Argentina,[3] but without direct Holocene datation.
Extinctions of unknown date
Common name/scientific name Range Image
Ahytherium aureum Bahia, Brazil
Glyptotherium sp. Florida and Texas to northeastern Brazil Glyptotheriumm.jpg
Holmesina majus Minas Gerais and Ceará, Brazil Skeleton of close relative H. occidentalis.
Lestodon armatus Southern Brazil Lestodon armatus Ghedo.JPG
Neochoerus sp. Middle Brazil Neochoerus pinckneyi paleoart by RunicPotato.jpg
Nothrotherium maquinense Eastern Brazil Nothrotherium.JPG
Pachyarmatherium brasiliense Eastern Brazil Pachyarmatherium.jpg
Pampatherium sp. Brazil Pampatherium-bpk.jpg
Panochthus tuberculatus Luján, Buenos Aires, Argentina PSM V13 D154 Panochthus tuberculatus.jpg
Xenorhinotherium bahiense North and east South America

Prehistoric

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Dire wolf
Aenocyon dirus
7320-6840 BCE[4] North America and western South America Canis dirus reconstruction.jpg
Antifer ultra c. 7950 BCE[5] Río de la Plata Basin and central Chile
Arctotherium tarijense 8470-8320 BCE[6] Argentina Reconstruction of older relative A. bonariense
Arctotherium wingei 14825-6840 BCE[7] Northeastern South America
Catonyx cuvieri 7830-7430 BCE[6] Eastern South America Catonyx life reconstruction.jpg
Cuvieronius hyodon 9790 BCE[8] Northern and central Andes Cuvieronius.jpg
Doedicurus clavicaudatus 4765-4445 BCE[9] South American Pampas Doedicurus BW.jpg
Equus neogeus 6660-4880 BCE[10] South America Amerhippus.jpg
Eremotherium laurillardi 7800-7740 BCE[11] Southern United States to Brazil PerezosoPanamericano 03.png
Eutatus seguini 6389-6060 BCE[12] Northern Argentina and Uruguay Eutatus seguini skull.JPG
Glossotherium sp. 6810-6650 BCE[10] South America Extm Glossotherium robustum rbh-hlmwh01913-12.jpg
Glyptodon sp.[A] 6660-4880 BCE[10] Eastern South America Glyptodon (Riha2000).jpg
Hippidion saldiasi 8059 BCE[14] Eastern South America Em - Hippidion sp. - 3.jpg
Hoplophorus euphractus 6660-4880 BCE[10] Eastern Brazil Hoplophorus euphractus tail.jpg
Macrauchenia patachonica 9381-9281 BCE[15] Southwestern South America Macrauchenia (trunkless).jpg
Giant ground sloth
Megatherium americanum
5270-4310 BCE[9] Temperate South America and the Andes Megatherium americanum by sphenaphinae.png
Morenelaphus brachyceros 8050-5845 BCE[16] Temperate South America
Darwin's ground sloth
Mylodon darwini
6689 BCE[17] Pampas and Patagonia Mylodon darwini cropped.png
Neosclerocalyptus paskoensis 5120 BCE[13] Southern South America Reconstruction of close relative N. ornatus
Notiomastodon platensis 4170-4050 BCE[18] South America Notiomastodon paleoreconstruction.png
Palaeolama major 6660-4880 BCE[10] North and east South America
Panthera onca mesembrina 9705-9545 BCE[6] Patagonia Panthera onca mesembrina Holotype skull.jpg
Propraopus sulcatus 6660-4880 BCE[10] Eastern South America
Scelidodon chiliensis 7160-6760 BCE[10] Western South America Scelidodon.JPG
Scelidotherium leptocephalum 5660-5540 BCE[19] Southern South America Scelidotherium leptocephalum side.jpg
South American saber-toothed cat
Smilodon populator
7330-7030 BCE[10] Eastern South America Smilodon pop2 15.jpg
Toxodon platensis 4650-1450 BCE[10] South America Toxodon NT small.jpg
Valgipes bucklandi 9110-9030 BCE[20] Intertropical region of Brazil[1] Valgipes bucklandi skull dorsal view.png

Recent

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Red-bellied gracile opossum
Cryptonanus ignitus
1962[21] Jujuy, Argentina
Giant vampire bat
Desmodus draculae
1675-1755[22] Eastern South America
Falkland Islands wolf
Dusicyon australis
1876[23] Falkland Islands FalklandIslandFox2.jpg
Dusicyon avus 1454-1626[24] Argentina and Uruguay Dusicyon avus Wikipedia Juandertal (cropped).jpg
Candango mouse
Juscelinomys candango
1960[25] Brasilia, Brazil Jusceliomys candango.jpg
Chilihueque
Lama cf. guanicoe
17th century[26] Mocha Island, Chile Detalle Expedición de Hendrick Brouwer en Valdivia 1643.jpg
Fuegian dog
Lycalopex cf. culpaeus
20th century[27] Tierra del Fuego Fuegian dog (1863).jpg
Galápagos giant rat
Megaoryzomys curioi
1520-1950[28] Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Megaoryzomys curioi skull.JPG
Caribbean monk seal
Neomonachus tropicalis
17th century[29] Caribbean Sea, Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico Cms-newyorkzoologicalsociety1910.jpg
Darwin's Galápagos mouse
Nesoryzomys darwini
1930[30] Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
Indefatigable Galápagos mouse
Nesoryzomys indefessus
1934[31] Santa Cruz and Baltra, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
Vespucci's giant rat
Noronhomys vespuccii
1503[32] Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Zuniga's dark rice rat
Melanomys zunigae
1949[33] Lomas de Atocongo, near Lima, Peru
One-striped opossum
Monodelphis unistriata
1899[34] Southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina
Pacific degu
Octodon pacificus
1994[35] Mocha Island, Chile

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Brazil

Brazil

Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in South America and in Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3,300,000 sq mi) and with over 217 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the seventh most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populous city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states and the Federal District. It is the only country in the Americas to have Portuguese as an official language. It is one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world, and the most populous Roman Catholic-majority country.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Ahytherium

Ahytherium

Ahytherium is an extinct genus of megalonychid sloth that lived during the Pleistocene of what is now Brazil. It contains a single species, A. aureum.

Glyptotherium

Glyptotherium

Glyptotherium is a genus of glyptodont that lived from the Early Pliocene, about 4.9 million years ago, to the Early Holocene, around 7,000 years ago, in the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Honduras, El Salvador, Panama, Venezuela, and Brazil. The genus was first described in 1903 by American paleontologist Henry Fairfield Osborn with the type species being, G. texanum, based on fossils that had been found in the Pliocene Blancan Beds in Llano Estacado, Texas, USA. The genus has since been discovered in many more fossil sites. Another species, G. cylindricum, was named in 1912 by fossil hunter Barnum Brown on the basis of a partial carapace, teeth, and several additional fossils that had been unearthed from the Pleistocene deposits in Jalisco, Mexico.

Florida

Florida

Florida is a state in the Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico; Alabama to the northwest; Georgia to the north; the Bahamas and Atlantic Ocean to the east; and the Straits of Florida and Cuba to the south. It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Spanning 65,758 square miles (170,310 km2), Florida ranks 22nd in area among the 50 states, and with a population of over 21 million, it is the third-most populous. The state capital is Tallahassee and the most populous city is Jacksonville. The Miami metropolitan area, with a population of almost 6.2 million, is the most populous urban area in Florida and the ninth-most populous in the United States; other urban conurbations with over one million people are Tampa Bay, Orlando, and Jacksonville.

Holmesina

Holmesina

Holmesina is a genus of pampathere, an extinct group of armadillo-like creatures that were distantly related to extant armadillos. Like armadillos, and unlike the other extinct branch of megafaunal cingulates, the glyptodonts, the shell was made up of flexible plates which allowed the animal to move more easily. Holmesina species were herbivores that grazed on coarse vegetation; armadillos are mostly insectivorous or omnivorous.

Minas Gerais

Minas Gerais

Minas Gerais is a state in Southeastern Brazil. It ranks as the second most populous, the third by gross domestic product (GDP), and the fourth largest by area in the country. The state's capital and largest city, Belo Horizonte, is a major urban and finance center in Latin America, and the sixth largest municipality in Brazil and its metropolitan area is the third largest in Brazil with just over 5.8 million inhabitants, after those of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Nine Brazilian presidents were born in Minas Gerais, the most of any state. The state has 10.1% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for 8.7% of the Brazilian GDP.

Ceará

Ceará

Ceará is one of the 26 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast. It is the eighth-largest Brazilian State by population and the 17th by area. It is also one of the main tourist destinations in Brazil. The state capital is the city of Fortaleza, the country's fourth most populous city. The state has 4.3% of the Brazilian population and produces 2.1% of the Brazilian GDP.

Lestodon

Lestodon

Lestodon is an extinct genus of megafaunal ground sloth from South America during the Pliocene to Pleistocene periods. Its fossil remains have been found in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Brazil. Measuring approximately 4.6 metres (15 ft) from snout to tail tip, it is estimated to have weighed 3,600–4,100 kilograms. It was a herbivore and primarily fed on the grasses on the South American plains and is thought to perhaps have used its semi-bipedal stance to obtain foliage from trees. Lestodon is placed as member of the Mylodontidae as indicated by the lobed form of the last tooth in the dentition.

Neochoerus

Neochoerus

Neochoerus is an extinct genus of rodent closely related to the living capybara. Fossil remains of Neochoerus have been found through North America and South America in Boyacá, Colombia.

Nothrotherium

Nothrotherium

Nothrotherium is an extinct genus of medium-sized ground sloth from South America. It differs from Nothrotheriops in smaller size and differences in skull and hind leg bones, but both genera can be traced back to Hapalops, the genus which both evolved from in different ecological conditions.

Luján, Buenos Aires

Luján, Buenos Aires

Luján is a city in the Buenos Aires province of Argentina, located 68 kilometres north west of the city of Buenos Aires. The city was founded in 1755 and has a population of 106,899.

Birds

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Niceforo's pintail
Anas georgica niceforoi
1952[36] Central Colombia
Magdalena tinamou
Crypturellus erythropus saltuarius
1990s[36] Magdalena River Valley, Colombia
Darwin's ground finch
Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris
1835[36] Floreana and San Cristóbal, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Geospiza magnirostris.jpg
Antioquia brown-banded antpitta
Grallaria milleri gilesi
1878[36] Santa Helena, Antioquia Department, Colombia
Bogotá sunangel
Heliantelus zusii
1909[36] Northern Andes?
Alagoas foliage-gleaner
Philydor novaesi
2011[36] Alagoas and Pernambuco, Brazil
Colombian grebe
Podiceps andinus
1977[37] Bogotá wetlands, Colombia
San Cristóbal flycatcher
Pyrocephalus dubius
1987[38] San Cristóbal, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
Peruvian rail
Rallus semiplumbeus peruvianus
1886[36] Peruvian highlands and possibly Ecuador
Alejandro Selkirk Island firecrown
Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi
1908[36] Alejandro Selkirk Island?, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi.jpg


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Glaucous macaw
Anodorhynchus glaucus
2001[39] Border area of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay Anodorhynchus glaucus.jpg
Letitia's thorntail
Discosura letitiae
1852[36] Bolivia Discosura letitiae.jpg
Turquoise-throated puffleg
Eriocnemis godini
1850[40] Northern Ecuador Eriocnemis godini.jpg
Eskimo curlew
Numenius borealis
1939[41] Northwestern Canada and Alaska, and Southern Cone Numenius borealis.jpg
Sinú parakeet
Pyrrhura subandina
1949[42] Sinú Valley, Córdoba Department, Colombia


Extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Reintroduction Image
Spix's macaw
Cyanopsitta spixii
2000[43] Sao Francisco River, Bahia, Brazil 1257022253 death kinds zoo-8.jpg
Alagoas curassow
Mitu mitu
1988[44] Alagoas and Pernambuco, Brazil 2019[45] Mitu mitu 1838.jpg

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Magdalena tinamou

Magdalena tinamou

The Magdalena tinamou, Crypturellus erythropus saltuarius, is a member of one of the most ancient bird families, the tinamous. It is endemic to the Magdalena River Valley in Colombia, and has been considered possibly extinct, as there are no confirmed records since the type specimen was collected in 1943. The most recent review consider it likely that it is extant, as locals have reported sightings in the 1970s and 1980s, an individual was apparently held in captivity until the early 1990s, and a few patches of forest remain in its presumed range. Additionally, a record was made in late 2008.

Magdalena River Valley

Magdalena River Valley

The Magdalena River Valley is a valley in Colombia located within the Colombian Andes. The valley is specifically situated between the Central and Eastern Ranges and crossed by the river of the same name, the Magdalena River.

Floreana Island

Floreana Island

Floreana Island is an island of the Galápagos Islands. It was named after Juan José Flores, the first president of Ecuador, during whose administration the government of Ecuador took possession of the archipelago. It was previously called Charles Island, and Santa María after one of the caravels of Columbus.

Brown-banded antpitta

Brown-banded antpitta

The brown-banded antpitta is a species of bird in the family Grallariidae. It is endemic to Colombia.

Antioquia Department

Antioquia Department

Antioquia or "Antioch", is one of the 32 departments of Colombia, located in the central Northwestern part of Colombia with a narrow section that borders the Caribbean Sea. Most of its territory is mountainous with some valleys, much of which is part of the Andes mountain range. Antioquia has been part of many territorial divisions of former countries created within the present-day territory of Colombia. Prior to adoption of the Colombian Constitution of 1886, Antioquia State had its own sovereign government.

Bogotá sunangel

Bogotá sunangel

The Bogotá sunangel is a species of hummingbird that is only known from one specimen. The hummingbird is a bright purple with black flight feathers and a bright green chin and crown. This bird has only been found in Colombia and is assumed to live in cloud forest between 1200 and 3400 meters. Most of its potential habitat is degraded, though it is feasible that a population may still exist.

Alagoas foliage-gleaner

Alagoas foliage-gleaner

The Alagoas foliage-gleaner is an extinct passerine bird which was endemic to Brazil.

Alagoas

Alagoas

Alagoas is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region. It borders: Pernambuco ; Sergipe (S); Bahia (SW); and the Atlantic Ocean (E). Its capital is the city of Maceió. It has 1.6% of the Brazilian population and produces 0.8% of the Brazilian GDP. It is made up of 102 municipalities and its most populous cities are Maceió, Arapiraca, Palmeira dos Índios, Rio Largo, Penedo, União dos Palmares, São Miguel dos Campos, Santana do Ipanema, Delmiro Gouveia, Coruripe, Marechal Deodoro, and Campo Alegre.

Colombian grebe

Colombian grebe

The Colombian grebe, was a grebe found in the Bogotá wetlands on the Bogotá savanna in the Eastern Ranges of the Andes of Colombia. The species was still abundant in Lake Tota in 1945. The species has occasionally been considered a subspecies of black-necked grebe. It was flightless.

Bogotá

Bogotá

Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santa Fe de Bogotá during the Spanish Colonial period and between 1991 and 2000, is the capital city of Colombia, and one of the largest cities in the world. The city is administered as the Capital District, as well as the capital of, though not part of, the surrounding department of Cundinamarca. Bogotá is a territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative status as the departments of Colombia. It is the political, economic, administrative, and industrial center of the country.

Juan Fernández firecrown

Juan Fernández firecrown

The Juan Fernández firecrown is a Critically Endangered hummingbird in the "coquettes", tribe Lesbiini of subfamily Lesbiinae. It is endemic to Isla Róbinson Crusoe, one of the three-island Juan Fernández archipelago belonging to Chile.

Alejandro Selkirk Island

Alejandro Selkirk Island

Alejandro Selkirk Island, previously known as Más Afuera and renamed after the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk, is the largest and most westerly island in the Juan Fernández Archipelago of the Valparaíso Region of Chile. It is situated 180 km west of Robinson Crusoe Island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.

Reptiles

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Pinta Island tortoise
Chelonoidis abingdonii
2012[46] Pinta, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Lonesome George in profile.png
Floreana giant tortoise
Chelonoidis niger
c. 1850[47] Floreana, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Testudo elephantopus.jpg

Amphibians

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Maracay harlequin frog
Atelopus vogli
1957[48] Güey River, Aragua, Venezuela
Spiny-knee leaf frog
Phrynomedusa fimbriata
1898[49] Paranapiacaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Green and red venter harlequin toad
Atelopus pinangoi
1997[50] Mérida state, Venezuela
Aragua robber frog
Pristimantis anotis
1974[51] Henri Pittier National Park, Aragua, Venezuela
Chile Darwin's frog
Rhinoderma rufum
1981[52] Valparaíso and Biobío Regions, Chile

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Atelopus vogli

Atelopus vogli

Atelopus vogli is an extinct species of harlequin frog in the family Bufonidae. It was endemic to Venezuela. It is known from collections in two localities: its type locality, Las Peñas near Hacienda la Trinidad in Aragua, and Montalbán in Carabobo. It was first described as subspecies of Atelopus cruciger. The specific name vogli honours Cornelius Vogl, German priest who was a missionary in Venezuela in 1925–1959. Common name Vogl's harlequin toad has been coined for it.

Aragua

Aragua

Aragua State is one of the 23 states of Venezuela. It is located in the north-central region of Venezuela. It has plains and jungles and Caribbean beaches. The most popular are Cata and Choroni. It has Venezuela's first national park which is called Henri Pittier. The capital is Maracay, other important cities include Turmero and El Limón.

Phrynomedusa fimbriata

Phrynomedusa fimbriata

Phrynomedusa fimbriata, the spiny-knee leaf frog, is an extinct species of tree frog. It was endemic to Brazil, where the only known specimen was discovered near Paranapiacaba in the state of São Paulo. The type locality was given as "Alto da Serra". While the species might still exist, having only been found once in the 1898, no trace of any individuals have been discovered in successive expeditions.

Green and red venter harlequin toad

Green and red venter harlequin toad

The green and red venter harlequin toad is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, rivers, and intermittent rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Pristimantis anotis

Pristimantis anotis

Pristimantis anotis is a species of frog in the family Strabomantidae. It is endemic to Venezuela. Its natural habitats are tropical moist montane forests and rivers.

Henri Pittier National Park

Henri Pittier National Park

Henri Pittier National Park is the oldest national park in Venezuela, originally created in 1937 under the name of Rancho Grande by decree of President Eleazar López Contreras. In 1953 the park was renamed in honor of Henri Pittier, a distinguished Swiss geographer, botanist and ethnologist, who arrived in Venezuela in 1917, classified more than 30,000 plants in the country and devoted many years studying the flora and fauna in the park.

Chile Darwin's frog

Chile Darwin's frog

The Chile Darwin's frog, also called the northern Darwin's frog, is one of only two members of the family Rhinodermatidae. It is endemic to central Chile, although it might well be extinct.

Valparaíso Region

Valparaíso Region

The Valparaíso Region is one of Chile's 16 first order administrative divisions. With the country's second-highest population of 1,790,219 as of 2017, and fourth-smallest area of 16,396.1 km2 (6,331 sq mi), the region is Chile's second most densely populated after the Santiago Metropolitan Region to the southeast. The region also includes the remote Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean.

Biobío Region

Biobío Region

The Biobío Region, is one of Chile's sixteen regions. With a population of 1.5 million, thus being the third most populated region in Chile, it is divided into three provinces: Arauco, Biobío and Concepción. The latter contains its capital and largest city, Concepción, a major city and metro area in the country. Los Ángeles, capital of the Biobío Province, is another important city in the region.

Fish

Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Galápagos damsel
Azurina eupalama
1982-1983[53] Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Galapagos damsel.jpg
Titicaca orestias
Orestias cuvieri
unknown[54] Lake Titicaca LakeTiticacaOrestia-1835.gif
Greasefish
Rhizosomichthys totae
1958[55] Tota Lake, Colombia Rhizosomichthys totae.jpg

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Echinoderms

Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
24-rayed sunstar
Heliaster solaris
1983[56] Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

Insects

Holocene extinctions of unknown date
Common name/scientific name Range
Megadytes ducalis Brazil[57]
Rhantus orbignyi Argentina and Brazil[58]

Earthworms

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Rhinodrilus fafner 1912[59] Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Molluscs

Holocene extinctions of unknown date
Common name/scientific name Range Image
Littoridina gaudichaudii Ecuador[60] Littoridina gaudichaudii 2.png
Megalobulimus cardosoi Brazil[61]
Tomigerus gibberulus Brazil[62]
Tomigerus turbinatus Brazil[63] Tomigerus turbinatus shell.jpg


Extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Range
Aylacostoma chloroticum Paraná River[64]

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Littoridina gaudichaudii

Littoridina gaudichaudii

Littoridina gaudichaudii is a species of small freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Cochliopidae.

Megalobulimus cardosoi

Megalobulimus cardosoi

Megalobulimus cardosoi is an extinct species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial gastropod mollusk in the family Strophocheilidae. This species was endemic to Brazil.

Aylacostoma chloroticum

Aylacostoma chloroticum

Aylacostoma chloroticum is a species of freshwater snail, aquatic gastropod mollusc in the family Thiaridae. This species is found in Argentina and Paraguay. It was feared that the species had become extinct in the wild as a consequence of the building of the Yacyretá Dam on the Paraná River, but a single small wild population remains. A captive "safety" population is jointly managed by the National University of Misiones and Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum. Its relatives A. brunneum, A. guaraniticum and A. stigmaticum from the same region had a similar fate, but the first only survives in captivity and the last two are entirely extinct.

Paraná River

Paraná River

The Paraná River is a river in south-central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some 4,880 kilometres (3,030 mi). Among South American rivers, it is second in length only to the Amazon River. It merges with the Paraguay River and then farther downstream with the Uruguay River to form the Río de la Plata and empties into the Atlantic Ocean.

Source: "List of South American animals extinct in the Holocene", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_South_American_animals_extinct_in_the_Holocene.

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Notes
  1. ^ The species Glyptodon reticulatus is known from the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene of southeast Brazil and Buenos Aires province, Argentina;[3] G. clavipes from southeast Brazil,[2] and G. ornatus from Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia.[13]
References
  1. ^ a b da Silva, R. C., Berbert-Born, M., Bustamante, D. E. F., Santoro, T. N., Sedor, F., & dos Santos Avilla, L. (2019). Diversity and preservation of Pleistocene tetrapods from caves of southwestern Bahia, Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 90, 233-254.
  2. ^ a b Ghilardi, A. M., Fernandes, M. A., & Bichuette, M. E. (2011). Megafauna from the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits of the Upper Ribeira karst area, southeast Brazil. Quaternary International, 245(2), 369-378.
  3. ^ a b Fariña, R. A., Vizcaíno, S. F., & Bargo, M. S. (1998). Body mass estimations in Lujanian (late Pleistocene-early Holocene of South America) mammal megafauna. Mastozoología Neotropical, 5(2), 87-108.
  4. ^ Prevosti, F. J., Tonni, E. P., & Bidegain, J. C. (2009). Stratigraphic range of the large canids (Carnivora, Canidae) in South America, and its relevance to quaternary biostratigraphy. Quaternary International, 210(1-2), 76-81.
  5. ^ Labarca, R., & Alcaraz, M. A. (2011). Presencia de Antifer ultra Ameghino (= Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela)(Artiodactyla, Cervidae) en el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano de Chile central (30-35° S). Andean geology, 38(1), 156-170.
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