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List of Nazi monuments in Canada

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Canada has several monuments and memorials that to varying degrees commemorate people and groups accused of collaboration with Nazi forces.

Monuments and memorials include or have previously included a mountain and two streets named after Philippe Pétain, a statue of Draža Mihailović in Ontario, and three monuments in Ontario and Alberta connected with the Waffen-SS.

The monuments to members of the 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician) have each been vandalized. Leaders of the Canadian Ukrainian community have rejected the Nazi links to the later three memorials.

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Collaboration with the Axis powers

Collaboration with the Axis powers

Within nations occupied by the Axis powers in World War II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by antisemitism, nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism and opportunism, collaborated with the Axis Powers. Collaborators committed some of the worst atrocities of the Holocaust.

Philippe Pétain

Philippe Pétain

Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Pétain, commonly known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun. From 1940 to 1944, during World War II, he served as head of the collaborationist regime of Vichy France. Pétain, who was 84 years old in 1940, remains the oldest person to become the head of state of France.

Draža Mihailović

Draža Mihailović

Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović was a Yugoslav Serb general during World War II. He was the leader of the Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army (Chetniks), a royalist and nationalist movement and guerrilla force established following the German invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941.

Waffen-SS

Waffen-SS

The Waffen-SS was the combat branch of the Nazi Party's Schutzstaffel (SS) organisation. Its formations included men from Nazi Germany, along with volunteers and conscripts from both occupied and unoccupied lands.

14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician)

14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician)

The 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS , known as the 14th SS-Volunteer Division "Galicia" prior to 1944, was a World War II German military formation made up predominantly of military volunteers with a Ukrainian ethnic background from the area of Galicia, later also with some Slovaks. Formed in 1943, it was largely destroyed in the battle of Brody, reformed, and saw action in Slovakia, Yugoslavia, and Austria before being renamed the first division of the Ukrainian National Army and surrendering to the Western Allies by 10 May 1945.

French

Mount Pétain

A mountain formerly known as Mount Pétain, but with no current official name, is located on the border of the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. It was named in 1918 to honor the First World War hero French Marshal Philippe Pétain,[1][2] The name was retained despite the later reversal in Pétain's reputation after his having been Head of State of Vichy France and being partly responsible for the murder of 76,000 Jews.[3][4]

The name was rescinded by the governments of the two provinces in which the mountain sits in 2019 and 2021 respectively. As of July 2022, neither of the government had decided on a new name.[5]

Streets

Streets in Canada named for Pétain include:

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Alberta

Alberta

Alberta is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is part of Western Canada and is one of the three prairie provinces. Alberta is bordered by British Columbia to the west, Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories (NWT) to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. It is one of the only two landlocked provinces in Canada. The eastern part of the province is occupied by the Great Plains, while the western part borders the Rocky Mountains. The province has a predominantly continental climate but experiences quick temperature changes due to air aridity. Seasonal temperature swings are less pronounced in western Alberta due to occasional Chinook winds.

British Columbia

British Columbia

British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. It has a diverse geography, with rugged landscapes that include rocky coastlines, sandy beaches, forests, lakes, mountains, inland deserts and grassy plains, and borders the province of Alberta to the east and the Yukon and Northwest Territories to the north. With an estimated population of 5.3 million as of 2022, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The capital of British Columbia is Victoria and its largest city is Vancouver. Vancouver is the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada; the 2021 census recorded 2.6 million people in Metro Vancouver.

Philippe Pétain

Philippe Pétain

Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Pétain, commonly known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun. From 1940 to 1944, during World War II, he served as head of the collaborationist regime of Vichy France. Pétain, who was 84 years old in 1940, remains the oldest person to become the head of state of France.

Vichy France

Vichy France

Vichy France, officially the French State, was the authoritarian French state headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. Officially independent, but with half of its territory occupied under harsh terms of the armistice, it adopted a policy of collaboration with Nazi Germany, which occupied the northern and western portions before occupying the remainder of Metropolitan France in November 1942. Though Paris was ostensibly its capital, the collaborationist Vichy government established itself in the resort town of Vichy in the unoccupied "Free Zone", where it remained responsible for the civil administration of France as well as its colonies.

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia is Latin for "New Scotland".

Mauricie

Mauricie

Mauricie is a traditional and current administrative region of Quebec. La Mauricie National Park is contained within the region, making it a prime tourist location. The region has a land area of 35,860.05 km² and a population of 266,112 residents as of the 2016 Census. Its largest cities are Trois-Rivières and Shawinigan.

Commission de toponymie du Québec

Commission de toponymie du Québec

The Commission de toponymie du Québec is the Government of Québec's public body responsible for cataloging, preserving, making official and publicize Québec's place names and their origins according to the province's toponymy rules. It also provides recommendations to the government with regard to toponymic changes.

Serbian

Draža Mihailović Monument in Hamilton, Ontario.
Draža Mihailović Monument in Hamilton, Ontario.

Draža Mihailović statue, Hamilton

There is a statue in Hamilton, Ontario of Draža Mihailović, a Yugoslav Serb general during World War II. He was the leader of the Chetniks, a royalist and Serbian nationalist movement and guerrilla force, who collaborated with the Nazis following the German invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941.[3]

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Hamilton, Ontario

Hamilton, Ontario

Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Hamilton has a population of 569,353, and its census metropolitan area, which includes Burlington and Grimsby, has a population of 785,184. The city is approximately 45 kilometres (28 mi) southwest of Toronto in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA).

Draža Mihailović

Draža Mihailović

Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović was a Yugoslav Serb general during World War II. He was the leader of the Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army (Chetniks), a royalist and nationalist movement and guerrilla force established following the German invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941.

Yugoslavs

Yugoslavs

Yugoslavs or Yugoslavians is an identity that was originally designed to refer to a united South Slavic people. It has been used in two connotations, the first in a sense of common shared ethnic descent, i.e. panethnic or supraethnic connotation for ethnic South Slavs, and the second as a term for all citizens of former Yugoslavia regardless of ethnicity. Cultural and political advocates of Yugoslav identity have historically ascribed the identity to be applicable to all people of South Slav heritage, including those of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia. Although Bulgarians are a South Slavic group, attempts at uniting Bulgaria into Yugoslavia were unsuccessful, and therefore Bulgarians were not included in the panethnic identification.

World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers. World War II was a total war that directly involved more than 100 million personnel from more than 30 countries.

Chetniks

Chetniks

The Chetniks, formally the Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, and also the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Ravna Gora Movement, was a Yugoslav royalist and Serbian nationalist movement and guerrilla force in Axis-occupied Yugoslavia. Although it was not a homogeneous movement, it was led by Draža Mihailović. While it was anti-Axis in its long-term goals and engaged in marginal resistance activities for limited periods, it also engaged in tactical or selective collaboration with the occupying forces for almost all of the war. The Chetnik movement adopted a policy of collaboration with regard to the Axis, and engaged in cooperation to one degree or another by establishing modus vivendi or operating as "legalised" auxiliary forces under Axis control. Over a period of time, and in different parts of the country, the movement was progressively drawn into collaboration agreements: first with the puppet Government of National Salvation in the German-occupied territory of Serbia, then with the Italians in occupied Dalmatia and Montenegro, with some of the Ustaše forces in northern Bosnia, and, after the Italian capitulation in September 1943, with the Germans directly.

Royalist

Royalist

A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim. In the abstract, this position is royalism. It is distinct from monarchism, which advocates a monarchical system of government, but not necessarily a particular monarch. Most often, the term royalist is applied to a supporter of a current regime or one that has been recently overthrown to form a republic.

Invasion of Yugoslavia

Invasion of Yugoslavia

The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II. The order for the invasion was put forward in "Führer Directive No. 25", which Adolf Hitler issued on 27 March 1941, following a Yugoslav coup d'état that overthrew the pro-Axis government.

Ukrainian

The International Military Tribunal's verdict at the Nuremberg Trials declared the entire Waffen-SS a "criminal organization" guilty of war crimes.[8] Monuments to members of the Ukrainian Waffen-SS have been vandalized by activists at differing times as "Nazi monuments", as have monuments to members of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Canadian police apologized in 2020 for originally stating that the anti-Nazi vandalism of those monuments is motivated by hate.[9][10] Leaders of the Canadian Ukrainian community said the Ukrainian monuments are not related to Nazism.[11]

Roman Shukhevych statue, Edmonton

The Shukhevych statue vandalised (left) and normally (right)
The Shukhevych statue vandalised (left) and normally (right)

The bronze bust[12] of Nazi collaborator Roman Shukhevych was built in 1973 by Ukrainian World War II veterans on private land near the Ukrainian Youth Unity Complex in Edmonton, Alberta.[13][14][15] The statue was vandalised in 2019 when someone added the words "Nazi scum".[16] It was vandalised again in 2021 when someone added the words "Actual Nazi" in red paint.[13]

Memorial at St. Michael’s Cemetery, Edmonton

Vandalism of the memorial at St. Michael's Cemetery
Vandalism of the memorial at St. Michael's Cemetery

A memorial reading: For those who fought for Ukraine’s Freedom was constructed in 1976 by the former Ukrainian Waffen-SS[17] in St. Michael’s Cemetery in Edmonton was vandalized by painting "Nazi monument to 14th Waffen SS". According to Friends of Simon Wiesenthal Center, such a painting reflects the actual historical record of people commemorated by the monument. Jewish organizations requested the removal of the damaged memorial.[18] However, the Ukrainian Catholic Church called the vandalism "part of the decades long Russian disinformation campaign against Ukraine and Ukrainians to create a false Nazi image of Ukrainian freedom fighters."[19] The St. Michael’s monument is dedicated to "Fighters for the Freedom of Ukraine". One of it's plaque is an abbreviation for the First Division Division of the Ukrainian National Army.[20][21] On April 25, 1945, the Waffen-SS Galizien was officially reorganized as the First Division of the Ukrainian National Army, and swear a new oath of loyalty to the Ukrainian people.[22] Bernie Farber of the Canadian Jewish Congress writes that: "Removing this monument will require the Ukrainian-Canadian community to take a hard look at its own history."[23]

Memorial at St. Volodymyr Ukrainian Cemetery, Oakville

Monument to the Glory of the UPA (left) and cenotaph (right) at the St. Volodymyr Ukrainian Cemetery
Monument to the Glory of the UPA (left) and cenotaph (right) at the St. Volodymyr Ukrainian Cemetery
Monument to the Glory of the UPA (left) and cenotaph (right) at the St. Volodymyr Ukrainian Cemetery

The granite Ukrainian Insurgent Army memorial entitled Pamiatnyk Slavy UPA (English: Monument to the Glory of the UPA) was inaugurated on May 26, 1988 in the St. Volodymyr Ukrainian Cemetery in Oakville, Ontario.[24] The memorial commemorates a World War II battle fought by the 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician), a military branch of the Nazi Party Waffen-SS, against the Soviet Red Army.[25][26] The SS division's insignia was added to the memorial soon after inauguration.[24] The memorial was vandalised in mid-June 2022 when someone added the words "Nazi war monument".[27][28]

The memorial was also the subject of complaints from the Russian Embassy to Canada in 2017, although the criticism was dismissed by Canadian media as part of a "disinformation campaign" in the context of the Russian annexation of Crimea three years earlier.[25] Ihor Michalchyshyn, the CEO of the Ukrainian Canadian Congress accused Russia of obfuscation.[29]

Jewish B’nai Brith organization and the Canadian Polish Congress joined forces and called for the monument's removal by releasing a joint statement saying that the presence of monuments that whitewash the Holocaust and Nazi ideology is unacceptable in Canada.[30][31]

Oakville Mayor Rob Burton stated that he would remove the monument but he can’t, because municipalities have no right to regulate private cemeteries.[32]

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Roman Shukhevych statue (Edmonton)

Roman Shukhevych statue (Edmonton)

The Roman Shukhevych statue in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada is a controversial statue located near a Ukrainian youth centre of the Ukrainian nationalist Roman Shukhevych, a military leader of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), and one of the perpetrators of the Galicia-Volhynia massacres of approximately 100,000 Poles.

Roman Shukhevych

Roman Shukhevych

Roman-Taras Yosypovych Shukhevych, was a Ukrainian nationalist, one of the commanders of Nachtigall Battalion, a Hauptmann of the German Schutzmannschaft 201 auxiliary police battalion, a military leader of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), and one of the perpetrators of the Galicia-Volhynia massacres of approximately 100,000 Poles.

Edmonton

Edmonton

Edmonton is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is situated on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, which is surrounded by Alberta's central region. The city anchors the north end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor".

Alberta

Alberta

Alberta is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is part of Western Canada and is one of the three prairie provinces. Alberta is bordered by British Columbia to the west, Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories (NWT) to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. It is one of the only two landlocked provinces in Canada. The eastern part of the province is occupied by the Great Plains, while the western part borders the Rocky Mountains. The province has a predominantly continental climate but experiences quick temperature changes due to air aridity. Seasonal temperature swings are less pronounced in western Alberta due to occasional Chinook winds.

14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician)

14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician)

The 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS , known as the 14th SS-Volunteer Division "Galicia" prior to 1944, was a World War II German military formation made up predominantly of military volunteers with a Ukrainian ethnic background from the area of Galicia, later also with some Slovaks. Formed in 1943, it was largely destroyed in the battle of Brody, reformed, and saw action in Slovakia, Yugoslavia, and Austria before being renamed the first division of the Ukrainian National Army and surrendering to the Western Allies by 10 May 1945.

Simon Wiesenthal Center

Simon Wiesenthal Center

The Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC) is a Jewish human rights organization established in 1977 by Rabbi Marvin Hier. The center is known for Holocaust research and remembrance, hunting Nazi war criminals, combating anti-Semitism, tolerance education, defending Israel, and its Museum of Tolerance.

Bernie Farber

Bernie Farber

Bernie M. Farber is a writer, commentator, and the former chief executive officer of the Canadian Jewish Congress and a social activist. He has testified before the Canadian courts as an expert witness on hate crime.

Canadian Jewish Congress

Canadian Jewish Congress

The Canadian Jewish Congress was, for more than ninety years, the main advocacy group for the Jewish community in Canada. Regarded by many as the "Parliament of Canadian Jewry," the Congress was at the forefront of the struggle for human rights, equality, immigration reform and civil rights in Canada.

Ukrainian Canadians

Ukrainian Canadians

Ukrainian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Ukrainian descent or Ukrainian-born people who immigrated to Canada. In 2016, there were an estimated 1,359,655 persons of full or partial Ukrainian origin residing in Canada, making them Canada's eleventh largest ethnic group and giving Canada the world's third-largest Ukrainian population behind Ukraine itself and Russia. Self-identified Ukrainians are the plurality in several rural areas of Western Canada. According to the 2011 census, of the 1,251,170 who identified as Ukrainian, only 144,260 could speak the Ukrainian language.

English language

English language

English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the island of Great Britain. English is genealogically West Germanic, closest related to the Low Saxon and Frisian languages; however, its vocabulary is also distinctively influenced by dialects of French and Latin, plus some grammar and a small amount of core vocabulary influenced by Old Norse. Speakers of English are called Anglophones.

St. Volodymyr Ukrainian Cemetery

St. Volodymyr Ukrainian Cemetery

St. Volodymyr Ukrainian Cemetery, marketed as West Oak Memorial Gardens, is a cemetery in Oakville, Ontario, established in 1984. According to the cemetery's website, it is operated by St. Volodymyr Cathedral.

Oakville, Ontario

Oakville, Ontario

Oakville is a town in Halton Region, Ontario, Canada. It is located on Lake Ontario between Toronto and Hamilton. At its 2021 census population of 213,759, it is Ontario's largest town. Oakville is part of the Greater Toronto Area, one of the most densely populated areas of Canada.

Source: "List of Nazi monuments in Canada", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 28th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nazi_monuments_in_Canada.

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References
  1. ^ "Mount Petain". PeakFinder.com. Retrieved 2021-01-24.
  2. ^ "Mount Petain". Bivouac.com. Retrieved 2021-01-24.
  3. ^ a b c Golinkin, Lev. "Nazi collaborator monuments around the world". The Forward. Retrieved 2021-04-12.
  4. ^ "Mount Pétain". BC Geographical Names. Retrieved 2021-01-24.
  5. ^ "Canadian mountain no longer named for Nazi collaborator thanks to father and son". CBC Radio. July 5, 2022. Retrieved July 6, 2022.
  6. ^ "Halifax Area Railway Heritage Sites – Nova Scotia Railway Heritage Society".
  7. ^ "Rue Pétain - Shawinigan (Ville)". Commission de toponymie du Québec.
  8. ^ "Waffen-SS". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  9. ^ Carter, Adam (17 July 2020). "Police apologize for saying anti-Nazi vandalism was 'hate motivated'". Canada Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  10. ^ Pugliese, David (17 July 2020). "Graffiti on monument commemorating Nazi SS division being investigated as a hate crime by police". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  11. ^ Holt, Faygie (2021-08-16). "Canadian Jewish group renews campaign to remove World War II-era monuments". JNS.org. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  12. ^ "Canadian monument to controversial Ukrainian national hero ignites debate". RCI | English. 2018-08-13. Retrieved 2022-11-20.
  13. ^ a b "Alberta journalist charged with mischief in vandalism of controversial statue". CBC. 25 Oct 2022.
  14. ^ "Group resumes decades-old fight to remove statue of Ukrainian Nazi collaborator outside Edmonton cultural centre". edmontonjournal. Retrieved 2022-11-20.
  15. ^ "Ukrainian monuments vandalized, group calls for their removal over historical record". Edmonton. 2021-08-13. Retrieved 2022-11-20.
  16. ^ Noakes, Taylor (7 Nov 2022). "Canada Has a Nazi Monument Problem". jacobin.com. Retrieved 2022-11-20.
  17. ^ Rudling, Per A. "Multiculturalism, memory, and ritualization: Ukrainian nationalist monuments in Edmonton, Alberta". Nationalities Papers. 39 (5): 733–768. doi:10.1080/00905992.2011.599375. ISSN 0090-5992.
  18. ^ Lung, Raylene. "Jewish groups call for removal of vandalized Ukrainian WWII memorial". CBC News.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  19. ^ "Ukrainian monuments vandalized, group calls for their removal over historical record". Edmonton. 2021-08-13. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  20. ^ Kinney, Duncan (August 10, 2021). "Nazi collaborator monuments in Edmonton defaced with red paint and words "Actual Nazi" and "Nazi Monument"". The Progress Report. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  21. ^ Hajke Wolf-Dietrich The Ukrainian Division "Galicia" Toronto, 1970 p. 17
  22. ^ Rudling, Per Anders (July–September 2012). "'They Defended Ukraine': The 14. Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (Galizische Nr. 1) Revisited". Journal of Slavic Military Studies. 25 (3): 339–359. doi:10.1080/13518046.2012.705633. S2CID 144432759.
  23. ^ Farber, Bernie (2020-07-22). "Bernie Farber: Canada's monument to Nazi soldiers". National Post. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  24. ^ a b Rudling, Per Anders (3 July 2020). "Long-Distance Nationalism: Ukrainian Monuments and Historical Memory in Multicultural Canada". In Marschall, Sabine (ed.). Public Memory in the Context of Transnational Migration and Displacement (PDF). pp. 105–108. ISBN 978-3-030-41329-3.
  25. ^ a b Samphir, Harrison (26 July 2020). "Why is a monument commemorating a Nazi SS division still standing outside Toronto?". Canadian Dimension.
  26. ^ Golinkin, Lev (2020-07-21). "Canada's Nazi Monuments". ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  27. ^ Pugliese, David (17 July 2020). "Graffiti on monument commemorating Nazi SS division being investigated as a hate crime by police". ottawacitizen. Retrieved 2022-11-20.
  28. ^ "Canada police investigate vandalism of monument to Nazi troops as hate crime". the Guardian. 2020-07-17. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  29. ^ Smith, Marie-Danielle (2017-12-23). "Ukrainian-Canadian community urged to confront WWII past amid controversy over monuments". National Post. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  30. ^ "B'nai Brith Taking Action Against Nazi Glorification". Alberta Jewish News. 2020-07-28.
  31. ^ "Canadian Jewish and Polish Groups Join Forces to Demand Removal of SS Monument at Ontario Cemetery". Algemeiner.com. Retrieved 2022-11-22.
  32. ^ "'Disgusted': Oakville cemetery facing calls to remove what's being called a Nazi monument". InsideHalton.com. Retrieved 2022-11-25.

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