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Liolaemus

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Liolaemus
Kaldari Liolaemus tenuis 01.jpg
Liolaemus tenuis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Iguania
Family: Liolaemidae
Genus: Liolaemus
Wiegmann, 1834 [1]
Subgenera

Liolaemus is a genus of iguanian lizards, containing many species, all of which are endemic to South America.[2]

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Genus

Genus

Genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms as well as viruses. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Panthera leo (lion) and Panthera onca (jaguar) are two species within the genus Panthera. Panthera is a genus within the family Felidae.

Lizard

Lizard

Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 7,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic since it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia although some lizards are more closely related to these two excluded groups than they are to other lizards. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3-meter-long Komodo dragon.

Species

Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.

Endemism

Endemism

Endemism is the state of a species being found in a single defined geographic location, such as an island, state, nation, country or other defined zone; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. For example, the Cape sugarbird is found exclusively in southwestern South Africa and is therefore said to be endemic to that particular part of the world.

South America

South America

South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere at the northern tip of the continent. It can also be described as the southern subregion of a single continent called America.

Description

Members of the genus Liolaemus form a dominant part of the lizard fauna of the southern part of the continent of South America, and vary considerably in size (45–100 millimetres or 1.8–3.9 inches snout–vent length) and weight (3–200 grams or 0.1–7.1 ounces).

Geographic range

Liolaemus species are found in the Andes and adjacent lowlands, from Peru to Tierra del Fuego,[3] at altitudes that can exceed 4,500 metres (14,800 ft).[4]

Liolaemus magellanicus and Liolaemus sarmientoi are the world's southernmost reptiles, living as far south as Isla Granda de Tierra del Fuego and the northern shores of the Strait of Magellan respectively.[5][6]

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Andes

Andes

The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. The range is 8,900 km (5,530 mi) long, 200 to 700 km wide, and has an average height of about 4,000 m (13,123 ft). The Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.

Peru

Peru

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon River. Peru has a population of 32 million, and its capital and largest city is Lima. At 1.28 million km2, Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in South America.

Tierra del Fuego

Tierra del Fuego

Tierra del Fuego is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The archipelago consists of the main island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, with an area of 48,100 km2 (18,572 sq mi), and a group of many islands, including Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez Islands. Tierra del Fuego is divided between Chile and Argentina, with the latter controlling the eastern half of the main island and the former the western half plus the islands south of Beagle Channel and the southernmost islands. The southernmost extent of the archipelago is just north of latitude 56°S.

Liolaemus magellanicus

Liolaemus magellanicus

Liolaemus magellanicus, Magellan's tree iguana, is a species of lizard in the family Iguanidae. It is found in Patagonia and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego in Chile and Argentina. It is the southernmost lizard of the World.

Liolaemus sarmientoi

Liolaemus sarmientoi

Liolaemus sarmientoi is a species of lizard in the family Liolaemidae. It is considered a medium sized example of the family, with an average snout–vent length of 76 to 77 mm, with males usually larger than females.

Diet

Most species of Liolaemus are omnivorous, but a few purely insectivorous and herbivorous species are known.

Species

There are more than 225 described species in the genus Liolaemus, but the true number of species may be about double this number.[4] Liolaemus is by far the largest genus of the liolaemid lizards, which are traditionally treated as subfamily Liolaeminae within the Iguanidae but more recently were proposed for upranking to full family Liolaemidae.

The following species are recognised:[7][8][9]

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Iguanidae

Iguanidae

The Iguanidae is a family of lizards composed of the iguanas, chuckwallas, and their prehistoric relatives, including the widespread green iguana.

Family (biology)

Family (biology)

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy. It is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as the "walnut family".

Liolaemus abaucan

Liolaemus abaucan

Liolaemus abaucan is a species of lizard in the family Liolaemidae. It is native to Argentina.

Liolaemus abdalai

Liolaemus abdalai

Liolaemus abdalai is a species of lizard in the family Liolaemidae. It is native to Argentina.

Liolaemus absconditus

Liolaemus absconditus

Liolaemus absconditus is a species of lizard in the family Liolaemidae. It is native to Argentina.

Liolaemus acostai

Liolaemus acostai

Liolaemus acostai is a species of lizard in the family Liolaemidae. It is native to Argentina.

Liolaemus albiceps

Liolaemus albiceps

Liolaemus albiceps is a species of lizard in the family Liolaemidae. It is native to Argentina.

Liolaemus alticolor

Liolaemus alticolor

Liolaemus alticolor, the brilliant tree iguana, is a species of lizard in the family Liolaemidae. It is native to Bolivia, Chile, and Peru.

Liolaemus andinus

Liolaemus andinus

Liolaemus andinus, the Andes tree iguana or Andean lizard, is a species of lizard in the family Liolaemidae. It is native to Argentina.

Liolaemus annectens

Liolaemus annectens

Liolaemus annectens is a species of lizard in the family Liolaemidae. It is native to Argentina and Peru.

George Albert Boulenger

George Albert Boulenger

George Albert Boulenger was a Belgian-British zoologist who described and gave scientific names to over 2,000 new animal species, chiefly fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Boulenger was also an active botanist during the last 30 years of his life, especially in the study of roses.

Liolaemus anomalus

Liolaemus anomalus

Liolaemus anomalus is a species of lizard in the family Liolaemidae. It is native to Argentina.

Pets

Some species of Liolaemus have been recently kept as pets, and as many of them originate from regions that experience cold conditions, they are named "snow swifts". More generally, the genus is known as "tree iguanas".

Source: "Liolaemus", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liolaemus.

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References
  1. ^ Avila, Luciano J.; Morando, Mariana; Sites, Jack W. Jr. (2008). "New species of the iguanian lizard genus Liolaemus (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemini) from Central Patagonia, Argentina" (PDF). Journal of Herpetology. 42 (1): 186–196. doi:10.1670/06-244r2.1. S2CID 41772239.
  2. ^ "Liolaemus Lizards". Daniel Pincheira-Donoso - Homepage. Retrieved 2017-10-21.
  3. ^ Schulte, J (January 2000). "Phylogenetic relationships in the iguanid lizard genus Liolaemus: multiple origins of viviparous reproduction and evidence for recurring Andean vicariance and dispersal". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 69 (1): 75–102. doi:10.1006/bijl.1999.0346.
  4. ^ a b Olave, Melisa; Martinez, Lorena E.; Avila, Luciano J.; Sites, Jack W. Jr.; Morando, Mariana (2011). "Evidence of hybridization in the Argentinean lizards Liolaemus gracilis and Liolaemus bibronii (Iguania: Liolaemini): an integrative approach based on genes and morphology" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 61 (2): 381–391. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.07.006. PMID 21798358. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-26. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
  5. ^ Duran, Fernando; Boretto, Jorgelina M.; Fernández, Jimena B.; Molina, Mora Ibáñez; Medina, Marlin S.; Ibargüengoytía, Nora R. (2019). "Impact of immunological state on eco-physiological variables in one of the southernmost lizards in the world". Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 91 (4): e20190055. doi:10.1590/0001-3765201920190055. PMID 31778459.
  6. ^ Jaksic, Fabian M. (2022). "Historical account and current ecological knowledge of the southernmost lizard in the world, Liolaemus magellanicus (Squamata: Liolaemidae)". Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 95 (7). doi:10.1186/s40693-022-00112-y.
  7. ^ Genus Liolaemus at The Reptile Database www.reptile-database.org.
  8. ^ Abdala, Cristian Simón; Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro J.; Semhan, Romina Valeria; Bulacios Arroyo, Ana Lucia; Valdes, Julián; Paz, Marcos Maximiliano; Gutiérrez Poblete, Roberto; Valladares Faundez, Pablo; Langstroth, Robert; Aparicio, James (2019-12-02). "Description and phylogeny of a new species of Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) endemic to the south of the Plurinational State of Bolivia". PLOS ONE. 14 (12): e0225815. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1425815A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0225815. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6886809. PMID 31790476.
  9. ^ Abdala, Cristian S.; Paz, Marcos M.; Semhan, Romina V.; García, Noelia; Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro J.; Farías, María E.; Valladares, Pablo; Poblete, Roberto Gutiérrez; Quipildor, Matías A.; Valdes, Julián; Langstroth, Robert (2021-02-17). "Increasing knowledge of the denizens of saline environments through integrative taxonomy: new Argentinian endemic taxa of Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) and their evolutionary relationships". Systematics and Biodiversity. 19 (2): 135–167. doi:10.1080/14772000.2020.1844818. ISSN 1477-2000. S2CID 231643832.
  10. ^ Avila LJ, Morando M, Perez CH, Sites JW Jr (2010). "A new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade (Reptilia: Iguania: Liolaemini) from Cordillera del Viento, northwestern Patagonia, Neuquén, Argentina" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2667: 28–42. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2667.1.2.
  11. ^ Breitman MF, Parra M, Perez CH, Sites JW (2011). "Two new species of lizards from the Liolaemus lineomaculatus section (Squamata: Iguania: Liolaemidae) from southern Patagonia" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3120: 1–28. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3120.1.1.
  12. ^ a b c Quinteros AS, Ruiz-Monachesi MR, Abdala CS (2020). "Solving the Liolaemus bibronii puzzle, an integrative taxonomy approach: redescription of L. bibronii and description of three new species (Iguania: Liolaemidae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 189 (1): 315–348. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz113.
  13. ^ Martinez LE, Avila LJ, Perez CH, Perez DR, Sites JW, Morando M (2011). "A new species of Liolaemus (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemini) endemic to the Auca Mahuida volcano, northwestern Patagonia, Argentina" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3010: 31–46. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3010.1.3.
  14. ^ Avila, Luciano Javier; Vrdoljak, Juan Esteban; Medina, Cintia Débora; Massini, Juan García; Perez, Cristian Hernán Fulvio; Sites, Jack W. Jr; Morando, Mariana (2021-01-07). "A new species of Liolaemus (Reptilia: Squamata) of the Liolaemus capillitas clade (Squamata, Liolaemini, Liolaemus elongatus - kriegi group) from Sierra de Velasco, La Rioja Province, Argentina". Zootaxa. 4903 (2): 194–216. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4903.2.2. ISSN 1175-5334. PMID 33757095. S2CID 232338760.
  15. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Mapuche", p. 167).
  16. ^ Abdala, Cristián S.; Baldo, Diego; Juárez, Ricardo A.; Espinoza, Robert E. (2016). "The First Parthenogenetic Pleurodont Iguanian: A New All-female Liolaemus (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from Western Argentina". Copeia. 104 (2): 487–497. doi:10.1643/CH-15-381. S2CID 89253721.
Further reading
  • Boulenger GA (1885). Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Second Edition. Volume II. Iguanidæ ... London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, printers). xiii + 497 pp. + Plates I-XXIV. (Genus "Liolæmus", p. 138).
  • Wiegmann AFA (1834). "Beiträge zur Zoologie, gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde. Siebente Abhandlung. Amphibien ". Nova Acta Physico-Medica, Academiae Caesare Leopoldino-Carolinae 17: 185-268 + Plates XIII-XXII. (Liolaemus, new genus, p. 227). (in German and Latin).
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