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Light gun shooter

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Light gun shooter, also called light gun game or simply gun game, is a shooter video game genre in which the primary design element is to simulate a shooting gallery by having the player aiming and discharging a gun-shaped controller at a screen. Light gun shooters revolve around the protagonist shooting virtual targets, either antagonists or inanimate objects, and generally feature action or horror themes and some may employ a humorous, parodic treatment of these conventions. These games typically feature "on-rails" movement, which gives the player control only over aiming; the protagonist's other movements are determined by the game. Games featuring this device are sometimes termed "rail shooters", though this term is also applied to games of other genres in which "on-rails" movement is a feature. Some, particularly later, games give the player greater control over movement and in still others the protagonist does not move at all.

Light gun shooters typically employ "light gun" controllers, so named because they function through the use of light sensors. However, not all "light gun shooters" use optical light guns, but some may also use alternative pointing devices such as positional guns or motion controllers. Mechanical games using light guns had existed since the 1930s, though they operated differently from those used in video games. Throughout the 1970s mechanical games were replaced by electronic video games and in the 1980s popular light gun shooters such as Duck Hunt emerged. The genre was most popular in the 1990s, subsequent to the release of Virtua Cop, the formula of which was later improved upon by Time Crisis. The genre is less popular in the new millennium, as well as being hampered by compatibility issues, but retains a niche appeal for fans of "old school" gameplay.

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Shooter game

Shooter game

Shooter video games or shooters are a subgenre of action video games where the focus is almost entirely on the defeat of the character's enemies using the weapons given to the player. Usually these weapons are firearms or some other long-range weapons, and can be used in combination with other tools such as grenades for indirect offense, armor for additional defense, or accessories such as telescopic sights to modify the behavior of the weapons. A common resource found in many shooter games is ammunition, armor or health, or upgrades which augment the player character's weapons.

Light gun

Light gun

A light gun is a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games, typically shaped to resemble a pistol.

Electronic visual display

Electronic visual display

An electronic visual display, informally a screen, is a display device for presentation of images, text, or video transmitted electronically, without producing a permanent record. Electronic visual displays include television sets, computer monitors, and digital signage. By the above definition, an overhead projector could reasonably be considered an electronic visual display since it is a display device for the presentation of an images, plain text, or video transmitted electronically without producing a permanent record. They are also ubiquitous in mobile computing applications like tablet computers, smartphones, and information appliances.

Protagonist

Protagonist

A protagonist is the main character of a story. The protagonist makes key decisions that affect the plot, primarily influencing the story and propelling it forward, and is often the character who faces the most significant obstacles. If a story contains a subplot, or is a narrative made up of several stories, then each subplot may have its own protagonist.

Antagonist

Antagonist

An antagonist is a character in a story who is presented as the chief enemy of the protagonist.

Horror fiction

Horror fiction

Horror is a genre of fiction which is intended to frighten, or scare. Horror is often divided into the sub-genres of psychological horror and supernatural horror, which is in the realm of speculative fiction. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon, in 1984, defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length... which shocks, or even frightens the reader, or perhaps induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing". Horror intends to create an eerie and frightening atmosphere for the reader. Often the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for larger fears of a society.

Parody

Parody

A parody, also known as a spoof, a satire, a send-up, a take-off, a lampoon, a play on (something), or a caricature, is a creative work designed to imitate, comment on, and/or mock its subject by means of satiric or ironic imitation. Often its subject is an original work or some aspect of it, but a parody can also be about a real-life person, event, or movement. Literary scholar Professor Simon Dentith defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice". The literary theorist Linda Hutcheon said "parody ... is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text." Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, music, theater, television and film, animation, and gaming. Some parody is practiced in theater.

Photodetector

Photodetector

Photodetectors, also called photosensors, are sensors of light or other electromagnetic radiation. There is a wide variety of photodetectors which may be classified by mechanism of detection, such as photoelectric or photochemical effects, or by various performance metrics, such as spectral response. Semiconductor-based photodetectors typically photo detector have a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion region. Photodiodes and photo transistors are a few examples of photo detectors. Solar cells convert some of the light energy absorbed into electrical energy.

Machine

Machine

A machine is a physical system using power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. The term is commonly applied to artificial devices, such as those employing engines or motors, but also to natural biological macromolecules, such as molecular machines. Machines can be driven by animals and people, by natural forces such as wind and water, and by chemical, thermal, or electrical power, and include a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement. They can also include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement, often called mechanical systems.

Electronics

Electronics

The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons using electronic devices. Electronics uses active devices to control electron flow by amplification and rectification, which distinguishes it from classical electrical engineering, which only uses passive effects such as resistance, capacitance and inductance to control electric current flow.

Duck Hunt

Duck Hunt

Duck Hunt is a 1984 light gun shooter video game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game console and the Nintendo Vs. System arcade hardware. The game was first released in April 1984, in Japan for the Family Computer (Famicom) console and in North America as an arcade game. It was then released as a launch game for the NES in North America in October 1985, with it also releasing in Europe two years later.

Gameplay

Gameplay

Gameplay is the specific way in which players interact with a game, and in particular with video games. Gameplay is the pattern defined through the game rules, connection between player and the game, challenges and overcoming them, plot and player's connection with it. Video game gameplay is distinct from graphics and audio elements. In card games, the equivalent term is play.

Definition

"Light gun shooters", "light gun games" or "gun games" are games in which the protagonist shoots at targets, whether antagonists or objects, and which use a gun-shaped controller (termed a "light gun") with which the player aims. While light gun games may feature a first-person perspective, they are distinct from first-person shooters, which use more conventional input devices.[1] Light gun games which feature "on-rails" movement are sometimes termed "rail shooters",[2] though this term is also applied to other types of shooters featuring similar movement.[3] The light gun itself is so termed because it functions through the use of a light sensor: pulling the trigger allows it to detect light from the on-screen targets.[4]

Design

Duck Hunt. The game is viewed through the eyes of the protagonist; the player is using a light gun controller to target an on-screen duck.
Duck Hunt. The game is viewed through the eyes of the protagonist; the player is using a light gun controller to target an on-screen duck.

Targets in light gun shooters may be threatening antagonists such as criminals, terrorists or zombies,[5][6][7] or they may be inanimate objects such as apples or bottles.[8] Although these games may be played without a light gun, the use of more conventional input methods has been deemed inferior.[5] Light gun shooters typically feature generic action or horror themes,[6][9] though some later games employ more humorous, self-referential styles.[10][11]

Light gun shooters primarily revolve around shooting large numbers of enemies attacking in waves.[10] The protagonist may be required to defend themself by taking cover,[2] or by shooting incoming thrown weapons, such as axes or grenades.[6] The player may also compete against the clock, however, with some games also featuring boss battles. Games may also reward the player for accurate shooting, with extra points, power-ups or secrets.[6][10] Games which do not pit the player against antagonists instead feature elaborate challenges constructed mainly from inanimate objects, testing the player's speed and accuracy.[8] More conventional games may feature these types of challenges as minigames.[6]

Light gun shooters typically feature "on-rails" movement, which gives the player no control over the direction the protagonist moves in; the player only has control over aiming and shooting.[2][10] Some games, however, may allow the protagonist to take cover at the push of a button.[2] Other games may eschew on-rails movement altogether and allow the player to move the protagonist freely around the game's environment;[12] still others may feature a static environment.[1] Light gun shooters use a first person perspective for aiming, though some games may allow the player to switch to a third person perspective in order to maneuver the protagonist.[12]

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Terrorism

Terrorism

Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of criminal violence to provoke a state of terror or fear, mostly with the intention to achieve political or religious aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to intentional violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants. The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but became widely used internationally and gained worldwide attention in the 1970s during the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Basque conflict, and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the 2001 September 11 attacks in the United States.

Zombie

Zombie

A zombie is a mythological undead corporeal revenant created through the reanimation of a corpse. Zombies are most commonly found in horror and fantasy genre works. The term comes from Haitian folklore, in which a zombie is a dead body reanimated through various methods, most commonly magic like voodoo. Modern media depictions of the reanimation of the dead often do not involve magic but rather science fictional methods such as carriers, radiation, mental diseases, vectors, pathogens, parasites, scientific accidents, etc.

Horror fiction

Horror fiction

Horror is a genre of fiction which is intended to frighten, or scare. Horror is often divided into the sub-genres of psychological horror and supernatural horror, which is in the realm of speculative fiction. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon, in 1984, defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length... which shocks, or even frightens the reader, or perhaps induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing". Horror intends to create an eerie and frightening atmosphere for the reader. Often the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for larger fears of a society.

Grenade

Grenade

A grenade is an explosive weapon typically thrown by hand, but can also refer to a shell shot from the muzzle of a rifle or a grenade launcher. A modern hand grenade generally consists of an explosive charge ("filler"), a detonator mechanism, an internal striker to trigger the detonator, and a safety lever secured by a cotter pin. The user removes the safety pin before throwing, and once the grenade leaves the hand the safety lever gets released, allowing the striker to trigger a primer that ignites a fuze, which burns down to the detonator and explodes the main charge.

Score (game)

Score (game)

In games, score refers to an abstract quantity associated with a player or team. Score is usually measured in the abstract unit of points, and events in the game can raise or lower the score of different parties. Most games with score use it as a quantitative indicator of success in the game, and in competitive games, a goal is often made of attaining a better score than one's opponents in order to win.

Power-up

Power-up

In video games, a power-up is an object that adds temporary benefits or extra abilities to the player character as a game mechanic. This is in contrast to an item, which may or may not have a permanent benefit that can be used at any time chosen by the player. Although often collected directly through touch, power-ups can sometimes only be gained by collecting several related items, such as the floating letters of the word 'EXTEND' in Bubble Bobble. Well known examples of power-ups that have entered popular culture include the power pellets from Pac-Man and the Super Mushroom from Super Mario Bros., which ranked first in UGO Networks' Top 11 Video Game Powerups.

Minigame

Minigame

A minigame is a short game often contained within another video game. A minigame contains different gameplay elements, and is often smaller or more simplistic, than the game in which it is contained. Some video games consist entirely of minigames which tie into an overall theme, such Olympic Decathlon from 1980. Minigames are also used to represent a specific experience, such as hacking or lock picking or scanning an area, that ties into a larger game.

First-person (video games)

First-person (video games)

In video games, first person is any graphical perspective rendered from the viewpoint of the player's character, or a viewpoint from the cockpit or front seat of a vehicle driven by the character. The most popular type of first-person video game today is the first-person shooter (FPS), in which the graphical perspective is an integral component of the gameplay. Many other genres incorporate first-person perspectives, including other types of shooter games, adventure games, amateur flight simulations, racing games, role-playing video games, and vehicle simulations.

History

Mechanical and electro-mechanical precursors (1900s to early 1970s)

Popular GunCon light guns. The bright orange illustrates the toy-like appearance of most light guns, whereas the grey example appears more realistic.
Popular GunCon light guns. The bright orange illustrates the toy-like appearance of most light guns, whereas the grey example appears more realistic.

Gun games had existed in arcades before the emergence of electronic video games. Shooting gallery carnival games date back to the late 19th century.[13] Mechanical gun games first appeared in England's amusement arcades around the turn of the 20th century,[14] and before appearing in America by the 1920s.[4] The British "cinematic shooting gallery" game Life Targets (1912) was a mechanical interactive film game where players shot at a cinema screen displaying film footage of targets.[15] The first light guns appeared in the 1930s, with the Seeburg Ray-O-Lite. Games using this toy rifle were mechanical and the rifle fired beams of light at targets wired with sensors.[4] A later gun game from Seeburg Corporation, Shoot the Bear (1949), introduced the use of mechanical sound effects. By the 1960s, mechanical gun games had evolved into shooting electro-mechanical games.[16] A popular sophisticated example was Periscope (1965) by Namco and Sega,[17] with other examples including Captain Kid Rifle (1966) by Midway Manufacturing and Arctic Gun (1967) by Williams.[18] The use of a mounted gun dates back to a Midway mechanical game in the 1960s.[19]

Between the late 1960s and early 1970s, Sega produced gun games which resemble first-person light gun shooter video games, but were in fact electro-mechanical games that used rear image projection in a manner similar to a zoetrope to produce moving animations on a screen.[20] It was a fresh approach to gun games that Sega introduced with Duck Hunt, which began location testing in 1968 and released in January 1969. It had animated moving targets which disappear from the screen when shot, solid-state electronic sound effects, and a higher score for head shots.[21][22] It also printed out the player's score on a ticket, and the sound effects were volume controllable.[23]

2D and pseudo-3D light gun shooter video games (1970s to mid-1990s)

Throughout the 1970s, electro-mechanical arcade games were gradually replaced by electronic video games, following the release of Pong in 1972,[24] with 1978's Space Invaders dealing a yet more powerful blow to the popularity of electro-mechanical games.[25] In the 1970s, EM gun games evolved into light gun shooter video games.[19] Light guns used in electronic video games work in the opposite manner to their mechanical counterparts: the sensor is in the gun and pulling the trigger allows it to receive light from the on-screen targets.[4] Computer light pens had been used for practical purposes at MIT in the early 1960s.[26] The Magnavox Odyssey home video game console in 1972 had a light gun accessory,[27] in the production of which Nintendo was involved.[28] In the arcades, light gun shooter video games appeared in 1974, with Sega's Balloon Gun in August and Atari's Qwak! in November.[29] The use of a mounted gun in arcade video games date back to Taito's Attack (1976).[19] However, light gun video games were not able to achieve the same level of success as their earlier electro-mechanical predecessors until the mid-1980s.[30]

Light gun video games became popular in arcades with the Nintendo VS. System arcade releases of Duck Hunt (1984) and Hogan's Alley (1984),[30] with Duck Hunt also becoming popular on home consoles following its 1985 Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) release.[1] Light guns subsequently became popularly used for video games in the mid-1980s.[31][32] In the late 1980s, Taito's arcade hit Operation Wolf (1987) popularized military-themed light gun rail shooters.[33][19] Operation Wolf had scrolling backgrounds, which Taito's sequel Operation Thunderbolt (1988)[34] and Sega's Line of Fire (1989) took further with pseudo-3D backgrounds, the latter rendered using Sega Super Scaler arcade technology, with both featuring two-player co-op gameplay.[35] SNK's Beast Busters (1989) supported up to three players and was a modest success. Midway's arcade hit Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) combined Operation Wolf's scrolling with Operation Thunderbolt and Line of Fire's two-player co-op along with the use of the use of realistic digitized sprite graphics.

In 1992, Konami's Lethal Enforcers further popularized the use of realistic digitized sprite graphics in light gun shooters,[36] with digitized sprites remaining popular in the genre up until the mid-1990s.[37][38] Midway's Revolution X (1994) was a two-player co-op game with digitized graphics like their earlier hit Terminator 2. In 1995, Konami released Crypt Killer (Henry Explorers in Japan), which supported up to three players and was a modest success.

3D light gun shooters (mid-1990s to present)

Sega's Virtua Cop, released in arcades in 1994, broke new ground, popularized the use of 3D polygons in shooter games,[5] and led to a "Renaissance" in the popularity of arcade gun games. Like Lethal Enforcers, the game was inspired by the Clint Eastwood film Dirty Harry as well as a coffee advertisement in which a can of coffee grew larger in a gun's sights; in Virtua Cop the player had to shoot approaching targets as fast as possible.[39] The acclaimed Time Crisis by Namco, released for Japanese arcades in 1995 and was ported Sony's PlayStation console in 1996/1997, introduced innovations such as simulated recoil and a foot pedal which when pressed caused the protagonist to take cover. The game's light gun controller, the GunCon, was also acclaimed.[2][31] Namco also released Gun Bullet for Japanese arcades in 1994 and was ported as Point Blank for the PlayStation in 1998, a 2D sprite-based game featuring a unique minigame structure and quirky, humorous tone. The game was critically acclaimed and received two sequels, both for the arcades and the PlayStation console.[8][40]

In 1995, Atari Games released the successful Area 51 arcade light gun game, which featured red and blue HAPP 45. caliber pistol-like light guns and the use of full-motion video (FMV) pre-rendered graphics.[41] Some games attempted to incorporate elements of first-person shooter (FPS) or survival horror games through the use of less restricted character movement or exploration, with varying degrees of success.[6][12][42]

Between 1996 and 1997, 3D light gun shooters gained considerable popularity in arcades. Popular arcade light gun shooters at the time included Sega's Virtua Cop 2 (1995) and The House of the Dead (1997), Namco's Time Crisis, and Police Trainer (1996).[43] The most successful light gun horror game series is The House of the Dead (1997 debut), the popularity of which, along with Resident Evil, led to zombies becoming mainstream again in popular culture.[44][45][46] In 1998, Midway released their third successful light gun game called CarnEvil, which featured over-the-top black comedy humor, the use of the shotgun-like light gun which pumps to reload, and the use of blood and gore like Mortal Kombat.[47]

Light guns were suppressed for a time in the United States after the 1999 Columbine High School massacre and its attendant controversy over video games and gun crime.[31] Since the late 1980s, light gun controllers have been generally manufactured to look like toys by painting them in bright colours. In Japan, which lacks the gun crime found in the United States and in which civilians cannot legally own guns, more realistic light guns are widely available.[31] Light gun rail shooters began declining in the late 1990s as FPS games became more popular.[33] Light gun shooters became less popular in the 2000s, with new games in the genre seen as "old school",[1][6][48] such as Raw Thrills' Target: Terror (2004) and ICE/Play Mechanix's Johnny Nero Action Hero (2004).

The Time Crisis and House of the Dead franchises continued to receive acclaimed installments,[6][10] with the arcade machine for the latter's House of the Dead 4 Special (2006) featuring large screens enclosing the player, as well as swivelling, vibrating chairs.[49] Incredible Technologies/Play Mechanix released Big Buck Hunter (2000), which was highly successful and spawns a number of sequels and console ports. Sega also released Ghost Squad in 2004, another successful light gun shooter that uses unique machine guns with realistic recoil and has the additional trigger that actions things like surrender hostages or cutting the correct wire on the bomb; the game was updated as Ghost Squad: Evolution in 2007 and was ported to the Wii in 2007/2008 and was compatible with the Wii Zapper.

Others, however, unashamedly paid homage to 1990s arcade gameplay, even embracing a somewhat parodic style.[10][11] Light guns are not compatible with modern high-definition televisions, leading developers to experiment with hybrid controllers, particularly with the Wii Remote for the Wii,[1][42] as well as the PlayStation 3's GunCon 3 peripheral used with Time Crisis 4. Others have used the PlayStation Move motion control system.[42]

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Arcade game

Arcade game

An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are presented as primarily games of skill and include arcade video games, Pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games or merchandisers.

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Interactive film

Interactive film

An interactive film is a video game or other interactive media that has characteristics of a cinematic film. In the video game industry, the term refers to a movie game, a video game that presents its gameplay in a cinematic, scripted manner, often through the use of full-motion video of either animated or live-action footage.

Seeburg Corporation

Seeburg Corporation

Seeburg was an American design and manufacturing company of automated musical equipment, such as orchestrions, jukeboxes, and vending equipment. Prior to manufacturing their signature jukebox suite of products, Seeburg was considered to be one of the "big four" of the top coin-operated phonograph companies alongside AMI, Wurlitzer, and Rock-Ola. At the height of jukebox popularity, Seeburg machines were synonymous with the technology and a major quotidian brand of American teenage life. The company went out of business after being sold to Stern Electronics in 1982.

Periscope (arcade game)

Periscope (arcade game)

Periscope is an electro-mechanical arcade shooting submarine simulator. Two companies developed similar games with the name. The first, initially called Torpedo Launcher, was designed by Nakamura Manufacturing Co. and released in Japan in 1965, as the first arcade game Masaya Nakamura built. Sega Enterprises, Ltd. also built and released Persicope in Japan in 1966, as one of its first produced arcade games.

Namco

Namco

Namco Limited was a Japanese multinational video game and entertainment company, headquartered in Ōta, Tokyo. It held several international branches, including Namco America in Santa Clara, California, Namco Europe in London, Namco Taiwan in Kaohsiung, and Shanghai Namco in mainland China.

Sega

Sega

Sega Corporation is a Japanese multinational video game and entertainment company headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega Europe, are headquartered in Irvine, California and London, respectively. Its division for the development of both arcade games and home video games, Sega Games, has existed in its current state since 2020; from 2015 to that point, the two had made up separate entities known as Sega Games and Sega Interactive Co., Ltd. Sega is a subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings. From 1983 until 2001, Sega also developed video game consoles.

WMS Industries

WMS Industries

WMS Industries, Inc. was an American electronic gaming and amusement manufacturer in Enterprise, Nevada. It was merged into Scientific Games in 2016. WMS's predecessor was the Williams Manufacturing Company, founded in 1943 by Harry E. Williams. However, the company that became WMS Industries was formally founded in 1974 as Williams Electronics, Inc.

Zoetrope

Zoetrope

A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion. It was basically a cylindrical variation of the phénakisticope, suggested almost immediately after the stroboscopic discs were introduced in 1833. The definitive version, with easily replaceable picture strips, was introduced as a toy by Milton Bradley in 1866 and became very successful.

Animation

Animation

Animation is a method by which still figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery (CGI). Computer animation can be very detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth, or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two- and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets, or clay figures.

Projection screen

Projection screen

A projection screen is an installation consisting of a surface and a support structure used for displaying a projected image for the view of an audience. Projection screens may be permanently installed, as in a movie theater; painted on the wall; or portable with tripod or floor rising models as in a conference room or other non-dedicated viewing space. Another popular type of portable screens are inflatable screens for outdoor movie screening.

Score (game)

Score (game)

In games, score refers to an abstract quantity associated with a player or team. Score is usually measured in the abstract unit of points, and events in the game can raise or lower the score of different parties. Most games with score use it as a quantitative indicator of success in the game, and in competitive games, a goal is often made of attaining a better score than one's opponents in order to win.

Source: "Light gun shooter", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_gun_shooter.

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Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e Casamassina, Matt, Controller Concepts: Gun Games Archived 2011-07-13 at the Wayback Machine, IGN, Sept 26, 2005, Accessed Feb 27, 2009
  2. ^ a b c d e Ashcraft, p. 147
  3. ^ Hilary, Goldstein, Panzer Dragoon Orta Archived 2009-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, IGN, Jan 10, 2003, Accessed Mar 1, 2009
  4. ^ a b c d Ashcraft, p. 145
  5. ^ a b c Virtua Cop Archived 2012-02-20 at the Wayback Machine, IGN, July 7, 2004, Accessed Feb 27, 2009
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Jeff Haynes,Time Crisis 4 Review, IGN, Nov 19, 2007, Accessed Mar 29, 2008
  7. ^ Anderson, Lark, The House of the Dead 2 & 3 Return Review, GameSpot, Mar 29, 2008, Accessed Feb 27, 2009
  8. ^ a b c Fielder, Lauren, Point Blank Review, GameSpot, Dec 23, 1997, Accessed Feb 27, 2009
  9. ^ Davis, Ryan, Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles Review, GameSpot, Nov 15, 2007, Accessed Mar 1, 2009, Archived from the original on October 25, 2012 on the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Anderson, Lark, The House of the Dead: Overkill Review Archived 2009-02-12 at the Wayback Machine, GameSpot, Feb 14, 2009, Accessed Feb 27, 2009
  11. ^ a b Davis, Ryan, Ghost Squad Review, GameSpot, Nov 28, 2007, Accessed Mar 1, 2009, Archived from the original on October 10, 2012.
  12. ^ a b c Reed, Kristan, Resident Evil Dead Aim, EuroGamer, July 29, 2003, Accessed Feb 27, 2009
  13. ^ Voorhees, Gerald (2014). "Chapter 31: Shooting". In Perron, Bernard (ed.). The Routledge Companion to Video Game Studies. Taylor & Francis. pp. 251–258. ISBN 9781136290503.
  14. ^ Williams, Andrew (16 March 2017). History of Digital Games: Developments in Art, Design and Interaction. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-317-50381-1.
  15. ^ Cowan, Michael (2018). "Interactive media and imperial subjects: Excavating the cinematic shooting gallery". NECSUS. European Journal of Media Studies. 7 (1): 17–44. doi:10.25969/mediarep/3438.
  16. ^ "BAC Thinks Highly Of Arcades". Cash Box. Cash Box Pub. Co. 27 July 1968. p. 73.
  17. ^ Ashcraft, Brian, (2008) Arcade Mania! The Turbo Charged World of Japan's Game Centers, p. 133, Kodansha International
  18. ^ "Coin Machines Equipment Survey". Cash Box. Cash Box Pub. Co. 20 October 1973. p. 105.
  19. ^ a b c d Carroll, Martyn (April 2016). "Operation Wolf". Retro Gamer. No. 153. pp. 34–1.
  20. ^ D.S. Cohen, Killer Shark: The Undersea Horror Arcade Game from Jaws, About.com, archived from the original on 2017-07-03, retrieved 2011-05-03
  21. ^ "New Sega Gun To Bow at ATE: Sega Duck Shoot". Cash Box. Cash Box Pub. Co.: 34 4 January 1969.
  22. ^ Duck Hunt (1969) at the Killer List of Videogames
  23. ^ "1969 Sega Duck Hunt (Arcade Flyer)". pinrepair.com. Retrieved 2011-05-03.
  24. ^ Ashcraft, p. 134
  25. ^ Ashcraft, p. 136
  26. ^ A History of the Internet, Computer History Museum, Accessed Feb 26, 2009
  27. ^ The Ten Greatest Years in Gaming Archived 2008-04-19 at the Wayback Machine, Edge, June 27, 2006, Accessed Mar 1, 2009
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  30. ^ a b Adlum, Eddie (November 1985). "The Replay Years: Reflections from Eddie Adlum". RePlay. Vol. 11, no. 2. pp. 134-175 (170-1).
  31. ^ a b c d When Two Tribes Go to War: A History of Video Game Controversy Archived 2009-09-11 at the Wayback Machine, GameSpot, Accessed Feb 26, 2009
  32. ^ The 30 Defining Moments in Gaming Archived 2011-10-29 at the Wayback Machine, Edge, Aug 13, 2007, Accessed Feb 27, 2009
  33. ^ a b Lambie, Ryan (1 March 2015). "Operation Wolf: The Ultimate '80s Military Gun Game". Den of Geek. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  34. ^ Kelly, Nick (26 January 1989). "Arcades: Operation Thunderbold (arcade star)". Commodore User. No. 65 (February 1989). pp. 92–3.
  35. ^ "Line of Fire". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
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References

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