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Leader of the Conservative Party (UK)

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Leader of the Conservative and Unionist Party
PM Rishi Sunak (cropped 2).jpg
Incumbent
Rishi Sunak

since 24 October 2022
TypeParty leader
StatusChief executive officer
Inaugural holderRobert Peel (de facto)
Bonar Law (de jure)
Formation1834 (de facto)
1922 (de jure)

The leader of the Conservative Party (officially the leader of the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the highest position within the United Kingdom's Conservative Party. The current holder of the position is Rishi Sunak, who was elected to the position on 24 October, following his unopposed victory in the party's leadership election.[1]

From the party's formation in 1834 until 1922, the leader of the Conservative Party was not a formal position; instead, there was a party leader in each chamber of Parliament, and they were considered equal unless one took precedence over the other, such as when one was serving as prime minister. Following the passage of the Parliament Act of 1911, the reduction of power in the House of Lords suggested that the Conservative leader in the House of Commons would be preeminent, but this fact was not formalised until 1922.

Since 1922, a leader of the Conservative Party has been formally elected, even when the party is in opposition. Originally, the party leader was appointed opaquely by other high-ranking members of the party. This process was gradually democratised in the late 20th century; in 1965, the appointment was linked to a vote by party MPs, and in 1998, the process was opened to all party members to decide between the last two candidates selected by parliamentarians.[2][3] Under party rules, members can vote in the Conservative leadership even if they are not British citizens, do not live in the UK and do not have the right to vote in a UK general election.[4][5]

When the Conservative Party is in government, as it currently is, the leader would usually become the prime minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service, as well as appointing the cabinet. Concordantly, when the Party is in opposition, the leader of the Labour Party usually acts (as the second largest party) as the Leader of the Opposition, and chairs the shadow cabinet. As of October 2022, three of the party's leaders have been women: Margaret Thatcher, Theresa May, and Liz Truss, all of whom have served as prime minister. Rishi Sunak is the first British Asian party leader and prime minister.[6]

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Conservative Party (UK)

Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party and also known colloquially as the Tories, is one of the two main political parties in the United Kingdom, along with the Labour Party. It is the current governing party, having won the 2019 general election. It has been the primary governing party in Britain since 2010. The party is on the centre-right of the political spectrum, and encompasses various ideological factions including one-nation conservatives, Thatcherites, and traditionalist conservatives. The party currently has 356 Members of Parliament, 261 members of the House of Lords, 9 members of the London Assembly, 31 members of the Scottish Parliament, 16 members of the Welsh Parliament, 2 directly elected mayors, 30 police and crime commissioners, and around 6,770 local councillors. It holds the annual Conservative Party Conference.

October 2022 Conservative Party leadership election

October 2022 Conservative Party leadership election

The October 2022 Conservative Party leadership election was triggered by Liz Truss's announcement that she would resign as Leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, amid an economic and political crisis. Rishi Sunak was elected unopposed on 24 October and became prime minister on 25 October.

House of Lords

House of Lords

The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster in London, England.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster in London, England.

Government of the United Kingdom

Government of the United Kingdom

The Government of the United Kingdom, officially His Majesty's Government, is the central executive authority of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The government is led by the prime minister who selects all the other ministers. The country has had a Conservative-led government since 2010, with successive prime ministers being the then leader of the Conservative Party. The prime minister and their most senior ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet.

First Lord of the Treasury

First Lord of the Treasury

The first lord of the Treasury is the head of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is by convention also the prime minister. This office is not equivalent to the usual position of the "treasurer" in other governments; the closer equivalent of a treasurer in the United Kingdom is Chancellor of the Exchequer, who is the second lord of the Treasury.

Minister for the Civil Service

Minister for the Civil Service

In the Government of the United Kingdom, the minister for the Civil Service is responsible for regulations regarding His Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the United Kingdom in formulating and implementing policies. The position is invariably held by the prime minister of the United Kingdom.

Cabinet of the United Kingdom

Cabinet of the United Kingdom

The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the senior decision-making body of His Majesty's Government. A committee of the Privy Council, it is chaired by the prime minister and its members include secretaries of state and other senior ministers.

His Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition

His Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition

His Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition, commonly known as the Official Opposition in the United Kingdom, is the main political opposition to His Majesty's Government. This is usually the political party with the second-largest number of seats in the House of Commons, as the largest party will usually form the government. Since May 2010, the Official Opposition has been the Labour Party, led by Keir Starmer since 2020.

Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher , was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the first female British prime minister and the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century. As prime minister, she implemented economic policies that became known as Thatcherism. A Soviet journalist dubbed her the "Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style.

Liz Truss

Liz Truss

Mary Elizabeth Truss is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from September to October 2022. On her fiftieth day in office, she resigned amid a government crisis, making her the shortest-serving prime minister in the history of the United Kingdom. Truss previously held various Cabinet positions under prime ministers David Cameron, Theresa May and Boris Johnson, lastly as foreign secretary from 2021 to 2022. She has been Member of Parliament (MP) for South West Norfolk since 2010.

British Asian

British Asian

British Asians are British citizens of Asian descent. They constitute a significant and growing minority of the people living in the United Kingdom, with 6.9% of the population identifying as Asian/Asian British in the 2011 United Kingdom census. This represented a national demographic increase from a 4.4% share of UK population in 2001.

Selection process

Under the party's constitution,[2] leaders are elected by serving MPs and party members whose membership started at least three months prior to the closing of a ballot. Candidates must be serving MPs. A former leader who has resigned may not stand in the contest triggered by their departure.

Those who wish to stand must notify the 1922 Committee, a body representing backbench Conservative Party MPs, which has broad powers to set the rules of the leadership race (e.g. the minimum number of nominees candidates need).

The party's practice is for MPs to eliminate candidates through multiple rounds of voting until two remain, from whom the winner is then chosen by a ballot of party members.

The 1922 Committee's chairman acts as the returning officer for all stages of the leadership election process.

Overall leaders of the party (1834–1922)

Overall leader
(Birth–death)
Portrait Constituency / title Took office Left office Prime Minister (term)
Sir Robert Peel
(1788–1850)
Robert Peel by RR Scanlan detail.jpg Tamworth 18 December 1834[a] 29 June 1846 himself 1834–35
Melbourne 1835–41
himself 1841–46
Edward Smith-Stanley
14th Earl of Derby from 1851
(1799–1869)
Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby (cropped).jpg Baron Stanley
(1846–1851)
Earl of Derby
(1851–1868)
29 June 1846 27 February 1868 Russell 1846–52
himself 1852
Aberdeen 1852–55
Palmerston 1855–58
himself 1858–59
Palmerston 1859–65
Russell 1865–66
himself 1866–68
Benjamin Disraeli
1st Earl of Beaconsfield from 1876
(1804–1881)
Disraeli.jpg Buckinghamshire
(1868–1876)
Earl of Beaconsfield
(1876–1881)
27 February 1868 19 April 1881
(Died in office)
himself 1868
Gladstone 1868–74
himself 1874–80
Gladstone 1880–85
Vacant
Leader of the Lords – 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
Leader of the Commons – Stafford Northcote
19 April 1881 23 June 1885
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil
3rd Marquess of Salisbury
(1830–1903)
Robert-Gascoyne-Cecil-3rd-Marquess-of-Salisbury (cropped).jpg Marquess of Salisbury 23 June 1885 11 July 1902 himself 1885–86
Gladstone 1886
himself 1886–92
Gladstone 1892–94
Rosebery 1894–95
himself 1895–1902
Arthur Balfour
(1848–1930)
A.J. Balfour LCCN2014682753 (cropped).jpg Manchester East
(1902–1906)
City of London
(1906–1911)
11 July 1902 13 November 1911 himself 1902–05
C.-Bannerman 1905–08
Asquith 1908–16
Vacant
Leader in the House of Lords – 5th Marquess of Lansdowne
Leader in the House of Commons – Bonar Law
13 November 1911 10 December 1916[b]
Lloyd George 1916–22
Bonar Law
(1858–1923)
A. Bonar Law LCCN2014715818 (cropped).jpg Bootle
(1916–1918)
Glasgow Central
(1918–1921)
10 December 1916[b] 21 March 1921
Vacant
Leader in the House of Lords – 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Leader in the House of Commons – Austen Chamberlain
21 March 1921 23 October 1922 [b]

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The prime minister advises the sovereign on the exercise of much of the royal prerogative, chairs the Cabinet and selects its ministers. As modern prime ministers hold office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the House of Commons, they sit as members of Parliament.

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby

Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was a scion of one of Britain's oldest, wealthiest and most powerful families. He is one of only four British prime ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However, his ministries each lasted less than two years and totalled three years and 280 days. Derby introduced the state education system in Ireland, and reformed Parliament.

Earl of Derby

Earl of Derby

Earl of Derby is a title in the Peerage of England. The title was first adopted by Robert de Ferrers, 1st Earl of Derby, under a creation of 1139. It continued with the Ferrers family until the 6th Earl forfeited his property toward the end of the reign of Henry III and died in 1279. Most of the Ferrers property and the Derby title were then held by the family of Henry III. The title merged in the Crown upon Henry IV's accession to the throne in 1399.

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell,, known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a British Whig and Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1846 to 1852 and again from 1865 to 1866.

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen,, styled Lord Haddo from 1791 to 1801, was a British statesman, diplomat and landowner, successively a Tory, Conservative and Peelite politician and specialist in foreign affairs. He served as Prime Minister from 1852 until 1855 in a coalition between the Whigs and Peelites, with Radical and Irish support. The Aberdeen ministry was filled with powerful and talented politicians, whom Aberdeen was largely unable to control and direct. Despite his trying to avoid this happening, it took Britain into the Crimean War, and fell when its conduct became unpopular, after which Aberdeen retired from politics.

Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston

Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston

Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, was a British statesman who was twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. Palmerston dominated British foreign policy during the period 1830 to 1865, when Britain stood at the height of its imperial power. He held office almost continuously from 1807 until his death in 1865. He began his parliamentary career as a Tory, defected to the Whigs in 1830, and became the first prime minister from the newly formed Liberal Party in 1859. He was highly popular with the British public. David Brown argues that "an important part of Palmerston's appeal lay in his dynamism and vigour".

Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, was a British statesman and Conservative politician who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone, and his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy". He made the Conservatives the party most identified with the British Empire and military action to expand it, both of which were popular among British voters. He is the only British prime minister to have been of Jewish origin. He was also a novelist, publishing works of fiction even as prime minister.

Earl of Beaconsfield

Earl of Beaconsfield

Earl of Beaconsfield, of Hughenden in the County of Buckingham, was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1876 for Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, a favourite of Queen Victoria. Victoria favoured Disraeli's Tory policies over those of his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone. Disraeli had also promoted the Royal Titles Act 1876 that had given Victoria the title of Empress of India. The subsidiary title of the earldom was Viscount Hughenden, of Hughenden in the County of Buckingham, also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

Buckinghamshire (UK Parliament constituency)

Buckinghamshire (UK Parliament constituency)

Buckinghamshire is a former United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885.

Marquess of Salisbury

Marquess of Salisbury

Marquess of Salisbury is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1789 for the 7th Earl of Salisbury. Most of the holders of the title have been prominent in British political life over the last two centuries, particularly the 3rd Marquess, who served three times as Prime Minister in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery

Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery

Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian, was a British Liberal Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from March 1894 to June 1895. Between the death of his father, in 1851, and the death of his grandfather, the 4th Earl of Rosebery, in 1868, he was known by the courtesy title of Lord Dalmeny.

Arthur Balfour

Arthur Balfour

Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour,, also known as Lord Balfour, was a British Conservative statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905. As foreign secretary in the Lloyd George ministry, he issued the Balfour Declaration of 1917 on behalf of the cabinet, which supported a "home for the Jewish people" in Palestine.

Leaders of the party (1922–present)

Leader
(Birth–death)
Portrait Constituency / title Took office Left office Prime Minister (term)
Bonar Law
(1858–1923)
A. Bonar Law LCCN2014715818 (cropped).jpg Glasgow Central 23 October 1922
(Party meeting)
28 May 1923 himself 1922–23
Stanley Baldwin
(1867–1947)
Stanley Baldwin ggbain.35233 (cropped).jpg Bewdley 28 May 1923
(Party meeting)
31 May 1937 himself 1923–24
MacDonald 1924
himself 1924–29
MacDonald 1929–35
himself 1935–37
Neville Chamberlain
(1869–1940)
Chamberlain Neville.jpg Birmingham Edgbaston 31 May 1937
(Party meeting)
9 October 1940 himself 1937–40
Winston Churchill
(1874–1965)
Sir Winston Churchill (cropped).jpg Epping
(1940–1945)
Woodford
(1945–1955)
9 October 1940
(Party meeting)
21 April 1955 himself 1940–45
Attlee 1945–51
himself 1951–55
Anthony Eden
(1897–1977)
Anthony Eden (retouched).jpg Warwick and Leamington 21 April 1955
(Party meeting)
22 January 1957 himself 1955–57
Harold Macmillan
(1894–1986)
Harold Macmillan (cropped).jpg Bromley 22 January 1957
(Party meeting)
11 November 1963 himself 1957–63
Alec Douglas-Home
(1903–1995)
Alec Douglas-Home (c1963) (cropped).jpg Earl of Home
(1963)
Kinross and Western Perthshire
(1963–1965)
11 November 1963
(Party meeting)
27 July 1965 himself 1963–64
Wilson 1964–70
Edward Heath
(1916–2005)
Edward Heath 4 Allan Warren (cropped).jpg Bexley
(1965–1974)
Sidcup
(1974–1975)
27 July 1965
(Elected)
11 February 1975
himself 1970–74
Wilson 1974–76
Margaret Thatcher
(1925–2013)
Margaret Thatcher cropped.jpg Finchley 11 February 1975
(Elected)
27 November 1990
Callaghan 1976–79
herself 1979–90
John Major
(b. 1943)
Major PM full (cropped).jpg Huntingdon 27 November 1990
(Opponents withdrew)
19 June 1997
himself 1990–97
Blair 1997–2007
William Hague
(b. 1961)
William Hague Foreign Secretary (2010).jpg Richmond (Yorks) 19 June 1997
(Elected)
13 September 2001
Iain Duncan Smith
(b. 1954)
Official portrait of Sir Iain Duncan Smith MP crop 2.jpg Chingford and Woodford Green 13 September 2001
(Elected)
6 November 2003
Michael Howard
(b. 1941)
Official portrait of Lord Howard of Lympne crop 2.jpg Folkestone and Hythe 6 November 2003
(Unopposed)
7 October 2005[7]
David Cameron
(b. 1966)
David Cameron official.jpg Witney 6 December 2005
(Elected)
11 July 2016
Brown 2007–10
himself 2010–16
Theresa May
(b. 1956)
Theresa May (2016) (cropped).jpg Maidenhead 11 July 2016
(Opponents withdrew)
7 June 2019
Acting: 7 June 2019 – 23 July 2019
herself 2016–19
Boris Johnson
(b. 1964)
Boris Johnson official portrait (cropped).jpg Uxbridge and South Ruislip 23 July 2019
(Elected)
5 September 2022 himself 2019–2022
Liz Truss
(b. 1975)
Liz Truss official portrait (cropped)2.jpg South West Norfolk 5 September 2022
(Elected)
24 October 2022 herself 2022
Rishi Sunak
(b. 1980)
Chancellor Rishi Sunak (cropped).jpg Richmond (Yorks) 24 October 2022
(Opponents withdrew)
Incumbent himself 2022–present

Timeline

Rishi SunakLiz TrussBoris JohnsonTheresa MayDavid CameronMichael HowardIain Duncan SmithWilliam HagueJohn MajorMargaret ThatcherEdward HeathAlec Douglas-HomeHarold MacmillanAnthony EdenWinston ChurchillNeville ChamberlainStanley BaldwinBonar LawArthur BalfourRobert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of SalisburyBenjamin DisraeliEdward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of DerbyRobert Peel

Living former party leaders

There are eight living former party leaders. From oldest to youngest:

Leader Term of office Date of birth
Michael Howard 2003–2005 (1941-07-07) 7 July 1941 (age 81)
John Major 1990–1995 (1943-03-29) 29 March 1943 (age 79)
1995–1997
Iain Duncan Smith 2001–2003 (1954-04-09) 9 April 1954 (age 68)
Theresa May 2016–2019 (1956-10-01) 1 October 1956 (age 66)
William Hague 1997–2001 (1961-03-26) 26 March 1961 (age 61)
Boris Johnson 2019–2022 (1964-06-19) 19 June 1964 (age 58)
David Cameron 2005–2016 (1966-10-09) 9 October 1966 (age 56)
Liz Truss 2022 (1975-07-26) 26 July 1975 (age 47)

Discover more about Leaders of the party (1922–present) related topics

Bonar Law

Bonar Law

Andrew Bonar Law was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1922 to May 1923.

Glasgow Central (UK Parliament constituency)

Glasgow Central (UK Parliament constituency)

Glasgow Central is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. In its current form, the constituency was first used at the 2005 general election, but there was also a Glasgow Central constituency that existed from 1885 to 1997. The sitting MP is Alison Thewliss of the Scottish National Party (SNP), who was first elected in May 2015. This constituency was also the seat of the former Conservative Prime Minister Bonar Law, who was the shortest-serving UK Prime Minister of the twentieth century.

Bewdley (UK Parliament constituency)

Bewdley (UK Parliament constituency)

Bewdley was the name of a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1605 until 1950. Until 1885 it was a parliamentary borough in Worcestershire, represented by one Member of Parliament; the name was then transferred to a county constituency from 1885 until 1950. Its MPs included the former Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, who represented the seat from 1908 to 1937, and afterwards took the name of the constituency as part of his title when he was raised to the peerage.

Birmingham Edgbaston (UK Parliament constituency)

Birmingham Edgbaston (UK Parliament constituency)

Birmingham Edgbaston is a constituency, represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2017 by Preet Gill, a Labour and Co-operative MP.

Epping (UK Parliament constituency)

Epping (UK Parliament constituency)

Epping was a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament from 1885 to 1974. It elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election.

1945 United Kingdom general election

1945 United Kingdom general election

The 1945 United Kingdom general election was a national election held on 5 July 1945, but polling in some constituencies was delayed by some days, and the counting of votes was delayed until 26 July to provide time for overseas votes to be brought to Britain. The governing Conservative Party sought to maintain its position in Parliament but faced challenges from public opinion about the future of the United Kingdom in the post-war period. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill proposed to call for a general election in Parliament, which passed with a majority vote less than two months after the conclusion of the Second World War in Europe.

Clement Attlee

Clement Attlee

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955. He was Deputy Prime Minister during the wartime coalition government under Winston Churchill, and served twice as Leader of the Opposition from 1935 to 1940 and from 1951 to 1955. Attlee remains the longest serving Labour leader.

Anthony Eden

Anthony Eden

Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 until his resignation in 1957.

Harold Macmillan

Harold Macmillan

Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, was a British Conservative statesman and politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. Caricatured as "Supermac", he was known for his pragmatism, wit and unflappability.

Bromley (UK Parliament constituency)

Bromley (UK Parliament constituency)

Bromley is a former constituency for the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The most famous MP was Harold Macmillan, Prime Minister, 1957 to 1963.

Alec Douglas-Home

Alec Douglas-Home

Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, styled as Lord Dunglass between 1918 and 1951 and being The 14th Earl of Home from 1951 till 1963, was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister from October 1963 to October 1964. He is notable for being the last Prime Minister to hold office while being a member of the House of Lords, before renouncing his peerage and taking up a seat in the House of Commons for the remainder of his premiership. His reputation, however, rests more on his two spells as the UK's foreign secretary than on his brief premiership.

Earl of Home

Earl of Home

Earl of Home is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1605 for Alexander Home of that Ilk, 6th Lord Home. The Earl of Home holds, among others, the subsidiary titles of Lord Home, and Lord Dunglass (1605), in the Peerage of Scotland; and Baron Douglas, of Douglas in the County of Lanark (1875) in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Various Earls of Home have also claimed the title of Lord Hume of Berwick. The Earl is also Chief of the Name and Arms of Home and heir general to the House of Douglas. The title Lord Dunglass is the courtesy title of the eldest son of the Earl.

House of Lords and Commons leaders

Leaders in the House of Lords (1834–present)

Those asterisked were considered the overall leader of the party.

Portrait Leader Term of office LOTO Other ministerial offices held as Leader of the House of Lords
Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox, and 1st Duke of Gordon.jpg The Duke of Richmond and Lennox 26 February
1870
21 August
1876
1870–1874 Lord President of the Council (21 February 1874 – 28 April 1880)
Benjamin Disraeli by Cornelius Jabez Hughes, 1878.jpg The Earl of Beaconsfield* 21 August
1876
19 April
1881
1880–1881 Prime Minister (20 February 1874 – 21 April 1880)
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal (12 August 1876 – 4 February 1878)
Robert-Gascoyne-Cecil-3rd-Marquess-of-Salisbury (cropped).jpg The Marquess of Salisbury* 9 May
1881
12 July
1902
1881–1885
1886
1892–1895
Prime Minister (23 June 1885 – 28 January 1886)
Foreign Secretary (24 June 1885 – 6 February 1886)
Prime Minister (25 July 1886 – 11 August 1892)
Foreign Secretary (14 January 1887 – 11 August 1892)
Prime Minister (25 June 1895 – 11 July 1902)
Foreign Secretary (29 June 1895 – 12 November 1900)
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal (12 November 1900 – 11 July 1902)
Spencer Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire.jpg The Duke of Devonshire 12 July
1902
10 October
1903
Lord President of the Council (29 June 1895 – 19 October 1903)
President of the Board of Education (3 March 1900 – 8 August 1902)
Marquess of Lansdowne.jpg The Marquess of Lansdowne 10 October
1903
10 December
1916
1905–1915 Foreign Secretary (12 November 1900 – 4 December 1905)
Minister without Portfolio (25 May 1915 – 10 December 1916)
George Curzon2.jpg The Earl Curzon of Kedleston
(1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston from 1921)
10 December
1916
20 March
1925
1924 President of the Air Board (15 May 1916 – 3 January 1917)
Lord President of the Council (10 December 1916 – 23 October 1919)
Foreign Secretary (23 October 1919 – 22 January 1924)
Lord President of the Council (3 November 1924 – 20 March 1925)
Lord salsbury.jpg The Marquess of Salisbury 27 April
1925
17 June
1931
1929–1931 Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal (6 November 1924 – 4 June 1929)
Hailsham1.JPG The Viscount Hailsham 17 June
1931
7 June
1935
1931 War Secretary (5 November 1931 – 7 June 1935)
7th Marquess of Londonderry.jpg The Marquess of Londonderry 7 June
1935
22 November
1935
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
1st Earl of Halifax 1947.jpg The Viscount Halifax 22 November
1935
21 February
1938
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal (22 November 1935 – 28 May 1937)
Lord President of the Council (22 May 1937 – 9 March 1938)
Stanhope7.JPG The Earl Stanhope 21 February
1938
14 May
1940
President of the Board of Education (28 May 1937 – 27 October 1938)
First Lord of the Admiralty (27 October 1938 – 3 September 1939)
Lord President of the Council (3 September 1939 – 10 May 1940)
Thomas Inskip MP.jpg The Viscount Caldecot 14 May
1940
3 October
1940
Dominions Secretary
1st Earl of Halifax 1947.jpg The Viscount Halifax 3 October
1940
22 December
1940
Foreign Secretary (21 February 1938 – 22 December 1940)
George Lloyd, 1st Baron Lloyd.png The Lord Lloyd 22 December
1940
8 February
1941
Colonial Secretary (12 May 1940 – 4 February 1941)
Walter Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne.png The Lord Moyne 8 February
1941
22 February
1942
Colonial Secretary
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury.jpg Viscount Cranborne
(5th Marquess of Salisbury from 1947)
21 February
1942
29 March
1957
1945–1951 Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal (21 February 1942 – 24 September 1943)
Colonial Secretary (21 February 1942 – 22 November 1942)
Dominions Secretary (24 September 1943 – 26 July 1945)
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal (28 October 1951 – 7 May 1952)
Commonwealth Relations Secretary (12 March 1952 – 24 November 1952)
Lord President of the Council (25 November 1952 – 29 March 1957)
Alec Douglas-Home (c1963).jpg The Earl of Home 29 March
1957
27 July
1960
Commonwealth Relations Secretary (7 April 1955 – 27 July 1960)
Lord President of the Council (until 17 September 1957, from 14 October 1959)
Quintin Hogg, Baron Hailsham Allan Warren.jpg The Viscount Hailsham 27 July
1960
20 October
1963
Lord President of the Council
– Minister for Science (14 October 1959 – 20 October 1963)
Peter Carington 1984.jpg The Lord Carrington 20 October
1963
20 June
1970
1964–1970 Minister without Portfolio (20 October 1963 – 16 October 1964)
George Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe.jpg The Earl Jellicoe 20 June
1970
23 May
1973
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
No image.svg The Lord Windlesham 23 May
1973
4 March
1974
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
Peter Carington 1984.jpg The Lord Carrington 4 March
1974
4 May
1979
1974–1979
Christopher Soames.jpg The Lord Soames 5 May
1979
14 September
1981
Lord President of the Council
No image.svg The Baroness Young 14 September
1981
11 June
1983
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (14 September 1981 – 7 April 1982)
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal (7 April 1982 – 11 June 1983)
No image.svg The Viscount Whitelaw 11 June
1983
10 January
1988
Lord President of the Council
No image.svg The Lord Belstead 10 January
1988
28 November
1990
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
No image.svg The Lord Waddington 28 November
1990
11 April
1992
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
Official portrait of Lord Wakeham crop 2.jpg The Lord Wakeham 11 April
1992
20 July
1994
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil 2013-crop.jpg Viscount Cranborne
(7th Marquess of Salisbury from 2003)
20 July
1994
3 December
1998
1997–1998 Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal (20 July 1994 – 2 May 1997)
Official portrait of Lord Strathclyde crop 2.jpg The Lord Strathclyde 3 December
1998
7 January
2013
1998–2010 Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (12 May 2010 – 7 January 2013)
Jonathan Hill 2015.jpg The Lord Hill of Oareford 7 January
2013
15 July
2014
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
Official portrait of Baroness Stowell of Beeston crop 2, 2019.jpg The Baroness Stowell of Beeston 15 July
2014
14 July
2016
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
Official portrait of Baroness Evans of Bowes Park crop 2.jpg The Baroness Evans of Bowes Park 14 July
2016
6 September
2022
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
Official portrait of Lord True crop 2.jpg The Lord True 6 September
2022
Incumbent Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal

Leaders in the House of Commons (1834–1922)

Those asterisked were considered the overall leader of the party.

Discover more about House of Lords and Commons leaders related topics

Leader of the House of Lords

Leader of the House of Lords

The leader of the House of Lords is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Lords. The post is also the leader of the majority party in the House of Lords who acts as the government party chairperson in the house. The role is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, usually one of the sinecure offices of Lord President of the Council, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal or Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Unless the Leader is also a departmental minister, being Leader constitutes the bulk of their government responsibilities, but it has never been an independent salaried office. The Office of the Leader of the House of Lords is a ministerial department.

Leader of the House of Commons

Leader of the House of Commons

The leader of the House of Commons is a minister of the Crown of the Government of the United Kingdom whose main role is organising government business in the House of Commons. The leader is generally a member or attendee of the cabinet of the United Kingdom.

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as prime minister of the United Kingdom. He is among the commanders who won and ended the Napoleonic Wars when the coalition defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby

Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was a scion of one of Britain's oldest, wealthiest and most powerful families. He is one of only four British prime ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However, his ministries each lasted less than two years and totalled three years and 280 days. Derby introduced the state education system in Ireland, and reformed Parliament.

Earl of Derby

Earl of Derby

Earl of Derby is a title in the Peerage of England. The title was first adopted by Robert de Ferrers, 1st Earl of Derby, under a creation of 1139. It continued with the Ferrers family until the 6th Earl forfeited his property toward the end of the reign of Henry III and died in 1279. Most of the Ferrers property and the Derby title were then held by the family of Henry III. The title merged in the Crown upon Henry IV's accession to the throne in 1399.

James Harris, 3rd Earl of Malmesbury

James Harris, 3rd Earl of Malmesbury

James Howard Harris, 3rd Earl of Malmesbury, GCB, PC, styled Viscount FitzHarris from 1820 to 1841, was a British statesman of the Victorian era.

Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, was a British statesman and Conservative politician who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone, and his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy". He made the Conservatives the party most identified with the British Empire and military action to expand it, both of which were popular among British voters. He is the only British prime minister to have been of Jewish origin. He was also a novelist, publishing works of fiction even as prime minister.

Hugh Cairns, 1st Earl Cairns

Hugh Cairns, 1st Earl Cairns

Hugh McCalmont Cairns, 1st Earl Cairns, was an Irish-born British statesman who served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain during the first two ministries of Benjamin Disraeli. He was one of the most prominent Conservative statesmen in the House of Lords during this period of Victorian politics. He served as the seventeenth Chancellor of the University of Dublin between 1867 and 1885.

Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom)

Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom)

The Leader of His Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition, more commonly referred to as the Leader of the Opposition, is the person who leads the Official Opposition in the United Kingdom.

Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond

Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond

Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox, and 1st Duke of Gordon,, styled Lord Settrington until 1819 and then Earl of March until 1860, was a British Conservative politician.

Lord President of the Council

Lord President of the Council

The lord president of the Council is the presiding officer of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom and the fourth of the Great Officers of State, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal. The Lord President usually attends and is responsible for chairing the meetings of the Privy Council, presenting business for the approval of the sovereign. In the modern era, the incumbent is by convention always a member of one of the Houses of Parliament, and the office is normally a Cabinet position.

Foreign Secretary

Foreign Secretary

The secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs, known as the foreign secretary, is a minister of the Crown of the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office. Seen as one of the most senior ministers in the government and a Great Office of State, the incumbent is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, fourth in the ministerial ranking.

Elections of Conservative leaders by party meeting

House of Commons

# Date of meeting Name of leader elected Category attending meeting Location of meeting Chair Proposer Seconder Refs
1 9 February 1848 The Marquess of Granby Protectionist commoners Residence of George Bankes [9]
[10]
2 1 February 1849 Benjamin Disraeli Residence of the Lord Stanley of Bickerstaffe [11]
The Marquess of Granby
John Charles Herries
3 13 November 1911 Bonar Law Unionist Members of Parliament Carlton Club, Pall Mall Henry Chaplin, senior Privy Councillor on the Unionist benches (appointed 1885) Walter Long Austen Chamberlain [12]
4 21 March 1921 Austen Chamberlain Unionist Members of Parliament Carlton Club, Pall Mall Lord Edmund Talbot, Conservative Chief Whip Captain Ernest George Pretyman Sir Edward Coates: "a back bencher and one of the rank and file" [13]
5 23 October 1922 Bonar Law Unionist peers, MPs, and candidates Hotel Cecil, The Strand The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, Leader of the House of Lords The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston Stanley Baldwin: "chosen ... to be the spokesman for the House of Commons" [14]
6 28 May 1923 Stanley Baldwin "Conservative Party" Hotel Cecil, The Strand The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, Leader of the House of Lords The Earl of Derby Captain Ernest George Pretyman: "a member of the House of Commons who [had] been a colleague in that House of Mr Bonar Law for something over 25 years" [15]
7 31 May 1937 Neville Chamberlain "peers and MPs who receive the Conservative whip, ... prospective candidates who have been adopted by constituency associations, and ... members of the executive committee of the National Union of Conservative and Unionist associations from England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland." Caxton Hall, Caxton Street The Viscount Halifax, Leader of the House of Lords The Earl of Derby Winston Churchill (Privy Councillor since 1907) [16]
8 9 October 1940 Winston Churchill "Peers and MPs who receive the Conservative whip, ... prospective candidates who have been adopted by constituency associations, and ... members of the Executive Committee of the National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations from England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland." London The Viscount Halifax, Leader of the House of Lords The Viscount Halifax Sir George Courthope: "one of the senior back benchers of the party" [17]
9 21 April 1955 Sir Anthony Eden "Conservative and National Liberal members of the two Houses of Parliament, Conservative and National Liberal parliamentary candidates and members of the executive committee of the National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations" Church House, Dean's Yard, Westminster The Marquess of Salisbury, Leader of the House of Lords The Marquess of Salisbury Rab Butler (Privy Councillor since 1939) [18]
10 22 January 1957 Harold Macmillan "Conservative and Unionist members of the House of Lords and the House of Commons, ... prospective parliamentary candidates and ... members of the executive committee of the National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations. National Liberal members of both Houses of Parliament and adopted prospective candidates were also present" The Marquess of Salisbury, Leader of the House of Lords The Marquess of Salisbury Rab Butler (Privy Councillor since 1939) [19]
11 11 November 1963 Sir Alec Douglas-Home "members of both Houses of Parliament taking the Conservative whip, prospective candidates who [had] been adopted by constituency associations, members of the executive of the mass party, and National Liberal MPs and adopted prospective candidates" Church House, Dean's Yard, Westminster The Lord Carrington, Leader of the House of Lords The Lord Carrington Geoffrey Lloyd: "the senior Conservative Privy Councillor in the Commons next in line to Sir Winston Churchill" (appointed 1943) [20]

House of Lords

# Date of meeting Name of leader elected Category attending meeting Location of meeting Chair Proposer Seconder Notes
1 9 March 1846 The Lord Stanley of Bickerstaffe Peers Residence of the Duke of Richmond The Earl of Eglinton [21]
2 15 February 1869 The Earl Cairns 23 peers The Earl of Malmesbury The Earl of Malmesbury [22]
3 26 February 1870 The Duke of Richmond Peers Carlton Club The Marquess of Salisbury The Earl of Derby [23]
4 9 May 1881 The Marquess of Salisbury Conservative members of the House of Lords Residence of the Marquess of Abergavenny The Marquess of Abergavenny The Duke of Richmond The Earl Cairns [24]

Discover more about Elections of Conservative leaders by party meeting related topics

Charles Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland

Charles Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland

Charles Cecil John Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland KG, styled Marquess of Granby before 1857, was an English Conservative politician.

George Bankes

George Bankes

George Bankes (1788–1856) was the last of the Cursitor Barons of the Exchequer, the office being abolished by Conservative ministry of the Earl of Derby in 1852. Without any legal experience at the bar, he was the last barrister to be appointed to the post considered to be a medieval anachronism.

Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, was a British statesman and Conservative politician who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He played a central role in the creation of the modern Conservative Party, defining its policies and its broad outreach. Disraeli is remembered for his influential voice in world affairs, his political battles with the Liberal Party leader William Ewart Gladstone, and his one-nation conservatism or "Tory democracy". He made the Conservatives the party most identified with the British Empire and military action to expand it, both of which were popular among British voters. He is the only British prime minister to have been of Jewish origin. He was also a novelist, publishing works of fiction even as prime minister.

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby

Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was a scion of one of Britain's oldest, wealthiest and most powerful families. He is one of only four British prime ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However, his ministries each lasted less than two years and totalled three years and 280 days. Derby introduced the state education system in Ireland, and reformed Parliament.

Bonar Law

Bonar Law

Andrew Bonar Law was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1922 to May 1923.

Carlton Club

Carlton Club

The Carlton Club is a private members' club in St James's, London. It was the original home of the Conservative Party before the creation of Conservative Central Office. Membership of the club is by nomination and election only.

Henry Chaplin, 1st Viscount Chaplin

Henry Chaplin, 1st Viscount Chaplin

Henry Chaplin, 1st Viscount Chaplin was a British landowner, racehorse owner and Conservative Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1868 until 1916 when he was raised to the peerage.

Austen Chamberlain

Austen Chamberlain

Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain was a British statesman, son of Joseph Chamberlain and older half-brother of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer (twice) and was briefly Conservative Party leader before serving as Foreign Secretary.

Edmund FitzAlan-Howard, 1st Viscount FitzAlan of Derwent

Edmund FitzAlan-Howard, 1st Viscount FitzAlan of Derwent

Edmund Bernard FitzAlan-Howard, 1st Viscount FitzAlan of Derwent, known as The Honourable Edmund Fitzalan-Howard between 1855 and 1856, Lord Edmund Fitzalan-Howard between 1856 and 1876, and Lord Edmund Talbot between 1876 and 1921, was a British Conservative politician and the last Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was the first Roman Catholic to be appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland since the 17th century, holding office when Ireland was partitioned into Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Chief Whip

Chief Whip

The Chief Whip is a political leader whose task is to enforce the whipping system, which aims to ensure that legislators who are members of a political party attend and vote on legislation as the party leadership prescribes.

E. G. Pretyman

E. G. Pretyman

Ernest George Pretyman,, known as E. G. Pretyman, was a British soldier and Conservative Party politician.

Carlton Club meeting

Carlton Club meeting

The Carlton Club meeting, on 19 October 1922, was a formal meeting of Members of Parliament who belonged to the Conservative Party, called to discuss whether the party should remain in government in coalition with a section of the Liberal Party under the leadership of Liberal Prime Minister David Lloyd George. The party leadership favoured continuing, but the party rebels led by Bonar Law and Stanley Baldwin argued that participation was damaging the party. The meeting voted decisively against the Coalition, which resulted in its collapse, the resignation of Austen Chamberlain as party leader, and the invitation of Law to form a Government. The Conservatives subsequently won the general election with an overall majority.

Source: "Leader of the Conservative Party (UK)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 27th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leader_of_the_Conservative_Party_(UK).

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See also
Notes
  1. ^ a b Date of the Tamworth Manifesto.
  2. ^ a b c Date on which Law became Leader of the House of Commons.
  3. ^ Granby resigned "either in the end of December [1851] or on one of the first days of January [1852]".[8]
  4. ^ Date on which Balfour failed to be elected in Manchester East.
References
  1. ^ "Rishi Sunak, UK's next PM, faces major economic problems". AP NEWS. 26 October 2022. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Constitution of the Conservative Party" (PDF). January 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 September 2021.
  3. ^ Alexandre-Collier, Agnès (1 November 2018). "Brexit reveals the fractures of the British Conservatives". Le Monde diplomatique (in French). Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  4. ^ Nevett, Joshua (12 August 2022). "Tory leadership election: Meet the overseas voters picking the next PM". BBC News.
  5. ^ Smith, Hannah (10 August 2022). "Who can vote in the Conservative leadership contest?".
  6. ^ "Rishi Sunak: A quick guide to the UK's new prime minister". BBC News. 24 October 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  7. ^ Johnston, Neil (5 September 2022). "Leadership elections: Conservative Party" (PDF). House of Commons Library (UK). Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  8. ^ Monypenny, William Flavelle; Buckle, George Earle (1914). The life of Benjamin Disraeli, earl of Beaconsfield, Volume III. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. 312–3.
  9. ^ "A Cabinet Council was held at half-past 2 o'clock." Times [London, England] 10 Feb. 1848: 4. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 25 July 2014.
  10. ^ Malmesbury, The Right Hon. [James Howard Harris,] the [3rd] Earl of (1885). Memoirs of an Ex-Minister. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. pp. 151–2.
  11. ^ Monypenny, William Flavelle; Buckle, George Earle (1914). The life of Benjamin Disraeli, earl of Beaconsfield, Volume III. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp. 138–9.
  12. ^ "The Unionist Leadership." Times [London, England] 14 Nov. 1911: 9. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 19 July 2014.
  13. ^ "Unionist M.P.s' New Leader." Times [London, England] 22 Mar. 1921: 12. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 19 July 2014.
  14. ^ "Unionists Elect Mr. Bonar Law." Times [London, England] 24 Oct. 1922: 18. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 25 July 2014.
  15. ^ "Conservative Leader." Times [London, England] 29 May 1923: 19. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 19 July 2014.
  16. ^ "The New Leader And The Old." Times [London, England] 1 June 1937: 17+. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 19 July 2014.
  17. ^ "Conservative Leader." Times [London, England] 10 Oct. 1940: 2. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 19 July 2014.
  18. ^ Our Political Correspondent. "Sir A. Eden as Leader." Times [London, England] 22 Apr. 1955: 12. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 19 July 2014.
  19. ^ "Mr. Macmillan states Party philosophy". The Times. London. 23 January 1957.
  20. ^ Our Political Correspondent. (12 November 1963). "Prime Minister is Ageless". The Times. London. p. 12.
  21. ^ Malmesbury, The Right Hon. [James Howard Harris,] the [3rd] Earl of (1885). Memoirs of an Ex-Minister. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. p. 124.
  22. ^ Malmesbury, The Right Hon. [James Howard Harris,] the [3rd] Earl of (1885). Memoirs of an Ex-Minister. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. p. 645.
  23. ^ "We are enabled to state that, in compliance with." Times [London, England] 28 Feb. 1870: 9. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 26 July 2014.
  24. ^ "Meeting Of The Conservative Peers." Times [London, England] 10 May 1881: 10. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 25 July 2014.

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